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Robin Stone

Journalist Robin D. Stone was born in Detroit, Michigan in 1964. Her mother, Ora L. Hughes, worked for the U.S. Postal Service in Detroit. Her father, Lawrence R. Stone, was a building contractor. Stone graduated from Michigan State University with her B.A. degree in journalism in 1986. She is completing her M.A. degree in health arts and sciences at Goddard College in Vermont.

Stone first worked as a copy editor for The Oakland Press and the Detroit Free Press. She then served as layout-makeup/slot editor at The Boston Globe for one year, and then as a copy editor for The New York Times from 1990 to 1993. After briefly serving as special projects editor for Family Circle Magazine, Stone was named deputy living editor at The New York Times in 1994. As deputy living editor, she was integral in developing the prototype for the paper’s current Dining In/Dining Out section. In 1997, Stone joined Essence magazine, where she was first hired as a senior editor and eventually promoted to executive editor. Under her stewardship, the magazine earned awards from Folio, the National Association of Black Journalists, the New York Association of Black Journalists, and the Congressional Black Caucus, among other organizations. Stone became founding editor-in-chief of Essence.com in 2000, and, from 2005 to 2007, she served as deputy editor at Health magazine. After leaving Health in 2007, Stone worked as a freelance writer and editor, focusing primarily on issues related to health, parenting, and families. Her thesis work explores Black women, body image, weight, and self-care in the face of racism, sexism and other stressors.

Stone is the author of No Secrets, No Lies: How Black Families Can Heal from Sexual Abuse, which was published in 2004. She also edited and contributed the afterword to My Times in Black and White: Race and Power at the New York Times, the memoir by her late husband, Gerald M. Boyd, who was former managing editor of The New York Times. Stone’s writing has appeared in The New York Times, Essence magazine, Glamour magazine, The Boston Globe, and other publications.

From 2002 to 2003, Stone was a Kaiser Media Fellow, where she researched and reported on sexual abuse in Black families and other health issues. She has taught magazine editing and production at New York University, and advanced reporting at the City College of New York. She is a board member of Greenhope Services for Women, a residential drug treatment center for formerly incarcerated women, and a New York Alumnae member of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc. Stone served as vice-president/print for the National Association of Black Journalists (NABJ), and as president of NABJ's New York chapter. Her career and contributions to journalism garnered her an Outstanding Alumni Award from her alma mater, Michigan State University, in 2004.

Stone and her fiance, Rodney Pope, live in New York, New York. She has a teenage son, Zachary Boyd.

Robin Stone was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 6, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.220

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/6/2014 |and| 08/11/2016

Last Name

Stone

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Deneane

Occupation
Schools

Goddard College

Michigan State University

Renaissance High School

Luddington Magnet Middle School

Edgar A. Guest Elementary

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Robin

Birth City, State, Country

Detroit

HM ID

STO07

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Michigan

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

11/19/1964

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chilean Seabass Over spinach

Short Description

Journalist Robin Stone (1964 - ) served as an editor for The Boston Globe, The New York Times, Health magazine and Essence magazine. She was founding editor-in-chief of Essence.com and the author of No Secrets, No Lies: How Black Families Can Heal from Sexual Abuse.

Employment

HealthJones LLC

Health Magazine

Essence Communications, Inc.

Essence Magazine

New York Times

Family Counseling

Favorite Color

Green and Coral

Debbye Turner Bell

Broadcast journalist and veterinarian Debrah Lynn Turner Bell was born on September 19, 1965 in Honolulu, Hawaii to Gussie Turner and Frederick C. Turner, Jr. Raised in Jonesboro, Arkansas, Turner Bell graduated from Jonesboro High School in 1983. She went on to attend Arkansas State University, where she received her B.S. degree in agriculture in 1986. In 1991, Turner Bell obtained her Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree from the University of Missouri-Columbia.

In 1989, Turner Bell won the Miss Missouri pageant title. Later the same year, she became the first delegate from the State of Missouri to win the Miss America crown. After winning the title of Miss America, Turner Bell became the national spokesperson for Ralston Purina’s Caring for Pets Program. In 1995, she was hired as a host of the Public Broadcasting Service animal show, “The Gentle Doctor”, and as co-host of KSDK’s entertainment magazine show, “Show Me St. Louis”, where she was nominated for multiple Emmy Awards. From 2001 to 2003, Turner Bell worked as an on-air contributor to CBS networks’ “The Early Show”, and from 2003 until 2012, she served as a staff correspondent for CBS News. In 2013, she was hired as an anchor for Arise News.

Turner Bell has hosted “48 Hours on WE” and appeared on Animal Planet's “Cats 101” and “Dogs 101” series. She has also hosted the Miss Missouri, Miss Florida, and Miss Georgia pageants, and was a Miss America Pageant judge in 1997 and 2011. Turner Bell has appeared as a guest on numerous television programs including “The Late Show with David Letterman”, “Oprah”, and the “Today” show. In addition, she has served as a motivational speaker for over twenty years.

Turner Bell’s honors include the University of Missouri - Columbia, Black Alumni Organization's Distinguished Alumni Award; the Outstanding Young Alumnus Award from the College of Agriculture, Arkansas State University; Outstanding Alumnus Award from the University of Missouri-Columbia; and the First Place award for Outstanding Reporting from the New York Association of Black Journalists. In 1998, she was named a Distinguished Alumna of Arkansas State University, where she established the Debbye Turner Scholarship and the Gussie Turner Memorial Scholarship. Turner Bell received an Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, and was inducted into the Arkansas Black Hall of Fame in October of 1994.

She has served on local, state and national boards, including the Children’s Miracle Network, the National Council on Youth Leadership, the Missouri Division of Youth Services, the Mathews-Dickey Boys Club, and the National Advisory Child Health and Human Development Council as part of the National Institutes of Health. She served as director of the Consortium of Doctors from 1994 to 1995.

Turner Bell lives in the New York City area with her husband and daughter.

Debbye Turner Bell was interviewed by “The HistoryMakers” on August 12, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.229

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/12/2014

Last Name

Turner Bell

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Lynn

Schools

University of Missouri

Arkansas State University

Jonesboro High School

Douglas MacArthur Junior High School

East Elementary School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Debrah

Birth City, State, Country

Honolulu

HM ID

BEL07

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Hawaii

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

I Can Do All Things Through Christ Who Strengthens Me.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

9/19/1965

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pepperoni pizza and thanksgiving dinner

Short Description

Broadcast journalist and veterinarian Debbye Turner Bell (1965 - ) is a motivational speaker and anchor for Arise News. In 1989, she became the first delegate from the State of Missouri to win the title of Miss America.

Employment

Arise News

CBS News

Self Employed

DOGS 101/CATS 101 Television Shows

48 Hours on WE

CBS Networks' "The Early Show"

"ShowMe St. Louis"

PBS "The Gentle Doctor"

Ralston Purina's Caring for Pets Program

Miss America 1990

Dillard's Department Store

Safeway Food Store

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Debbye Turner Bell's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Debbye Turner Bell lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Debbye Turner Bell describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Debbye Turner Bell describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Debbye Turner Bell talks about her mother's effort to find her biological father

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Debbye Turner Bell talks about her great aunt, Gussie Lee Jones Turner's, domestic work in Kennett, Missouri

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Debbye Turner Bell describes her paternal family ancestry

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Debbye Turner Bell talks about her paternal great-grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Debbye Turner Bell describes spending time at her paternal great-grandparents' farm in South Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Debbye Turner Bell talks about the history of Juneteenth and her great-great grandparents' freedom

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Debbye Turner Bell talks briefly about the farmland her uncle inherited from her great-grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Debbye Turner Bell describes her father

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Debbye Turner Bell describes how her parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Debbye Turner Bell describes growing up with a parent in the military and her father's teaching appointment at Arkansas State University

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Debbye Turner Bell remembers staying with her aunt while her father was serving in the U.S. military during the Vietnam War

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Debbye Turner Bell talks about her father's experience in the Vietnam War

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Debbye Turner Bell talks about her parents' divorce and co-parenting

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Debbye Turner Bell describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Debbye Turner Bell describes home life, including her mother's taking in of mental health patients and Thursday night Bible study group

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Debbye Turner Bell talks about competing for her mother's attention as a girl

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Debbye Turner Bell describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood neighborhood in Jonesboro, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Debbye Turner Bell talks about developing a relationship with her older sister after the death of their mother in 1990

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Debbye Turner Bell describes her childhood personality

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Debbye Turner Bell explains the unconventional spelling of her name

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Debbye Turner Bell describes wanting to be a veterinarian and volunteering in a veterinary clinic

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Debbye Turner Bell describes her houseful of pets

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Debbye Turner Bell describes her grade school years in Jonesboro, Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Debbye Turner Bell describes growing up in a predominantly white neighborhood in Jonesboro, Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Debbye Turner Bell remembers discussing race and current events at home

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Debbye Turner Bell talks about her racially integrated friend group

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Debbye Turner Bell describes her experiences in both St. Paul A.M.E. Church and Carter Temple CME Church in Jonesboro, Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Debbye Turner Bell talks about her acceptance of Christianity and learning to read the Bible

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Debbye Turner Bell describes how she first got involved in pageants

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Debbye Turner Bell describes her experience in the Southern pageant circuit

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Debbye Turner Bell describes entering the Miss Arkansas pageant three times and placing first runner-up twice

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Debbye Turner Bell talks about Vanessa Williams winning the Miss America title in 1984

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Debbye Turner Bell remembers the statement she made about her racial identity at her first press conference as Miss America

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Debbye Turner Bell remembers an article written about her by HistoryMaker Lynn Norment for Ebony magazine

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Debbye Turner Bell talks about being the first brown-skinned African American winner of the Miss America pageant

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Debbye Turner Bell describes attempting to address a controversial statement she made at the Miss America press conference

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Debbye Turner Bell talks about differences between Miss America and Miss USA and describes how she financed pageant competitions

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Debbye Turner Bell talks about body type and typecasting in beauty pageants

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Debbye Turner Bell describes the Miss America pageant scholarship prizes

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Debbye Turner Bell describes differences in the contemporary Miss America pageant

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Debbye Turner Bell talks about controversy in the Miss America and Miss USA pageants

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Debbye Turner Bell describes winning the Miss America title in 1990, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Debbye Turner Bell describes winning the Miss America title in 1990, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Debbye Turner Bell describes Miss America's yearlong responsibilities

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Debbye Turner Bell remembers appearing on the David Letterman Show

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Debbye Turner Bell talks about her platform as Miss America and finishing her degree in veterinary medicine after giving up the title

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Debbye Turner Bell talks about her first job out of veterinary school as the spokesperson for Ralston Purina's Caring for Pets program

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Debbye Turner Bell explains how she got started in broadcast television anchoring 'Show Me St. Louis,' an entertainment show in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Debbye Turner Bell describes meeting her husband and getting married, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Debbye Turner Bell describes meeting her husband and getting married, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Debbye Turner Bell explains how she got to CBS Networks' 'The Early Show' as an on-air contributor and resident veterinarian

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Debbye Turner Bell explains why she left the CBS network in 2012

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Debbye Turner Bell explains how she was hired as an anchor for the global cable network, Arise News

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Debbye Turner Bell describes the mission of global cable network, Arise News

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Debbye Turner Bell considers her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 13 - Debbye Turner Bell talks about parenting

Tape: 5 Story: 14 - Debbye Turner Bell considers her regrets

Tape: 5 Story: 15 - Debbye Turner Bell shares her advice for the up-and-coming generation

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Debbye Turner Bell describes her experience as an anchor-reporter on 'Show Me St. Louis'

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Debbye Turner Bell describes learning to be a broadcast journalist at 'Show Me St. Louis'

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Debbye Turner Bell describes her experience on CBS', 'The Early Show' and talks about the advantages and disadvantage of its number three time slot

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Debbye Turner Bell talks about traveling as a reporter for Arise News

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Debbye Turner Bell describes lessons from her career in broadcast journalism

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Debbye Turner Bell narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

9$2

DATitle
Debbye Turner Bell describes her experience in the Southern pageant circuit
Debbye Turner Bell remembers the statement she made about her racial identity at her first press conference as Miss America
Transcript
So the journey of being in these pageants as a smart young women who didn't necessarily buy into the pageantry of it, what was your journey? How did you experience going from contest to contest?$$What you first have to understand is not only was I in a pageant, The Miss America System, I was in the Miss America System in the South. And pageants to this day are a big, you know, bouffant business. And there were girls who were born, bred, and burped to be Miss Somebody, so I entered the system with, you know, no preconceived notions of a it would be like and no investment really in whether or not it affected my life. It was just something fun to do, win some scholarship money. And I entered with these girls who had been raised for this. And so first it served as a challenge because now in some ways, I'm in a foreign land. So now, I've got to learn a new language and a new way of being. You know, I didn't wear makeup, I barely wore dresses and I wasn't really a tom girl, just wasn't bothered with those things. So it was a challenge for me just to sort of figure out the game and to beat the others who had been playing it for a long time. So at first that's sort of what it was, it was just a game to me. And it took I believe three tries for me to win a local. I went to the Miss Arkansas pageant for the first time, again, this is a big hairy deal. And most girls on their first time don't do anything. I made the top ten and that got people's attention. And I remember one of the pageant people saying, "You really have potential. If you would actually apply yourself, you could do very well." So that was the first time it ever entered my mind that maybe I could excel at this, maybe I could be Miss America. So I set about to win another local to take me back to Miss Arkansas. It took a couple tries, went back to Miss Arkansas the second time and I got first runner-up, which again, big deal for a second try. And then I was told, if you can just win a state pageant, you will be Miss America. And that was when I set as my sight to be Miss America, it was no longer just about the scholarship. I'd learned more about the system; who this organization is; who Miss America is, what she does. I was like, oh that would be kind of cool.$I will tell you though, my aspiration to be Miss America was not connected to Vanessa [Williams] in any way, I was already involved in pageants by the time she won and I already had my own reasons for wanting to be there and wanting to win. So much so, that when I won, the first thing that Miss America does as Miss America, is goes into her first official press conference. There were dozens if not more than a hundred members of the press from around the world in the pressroom. And I remember after I walked the runway and waved and, you know, all the girls surround the winner and, you know, was congratulated and hugged by all my fellow contestants. The head of the Miss America Pageant at that time, Leonard Horn said, "I'm gonna walk you to your press conference. They're gonna ask you all kinds of things. We don't limit what you can talk about. You can say whatever you want to say; you can talk about whatever you want to talk about, but as an attorney"--because he was---"let me just caution you, what you say can and will be held against you." And I was so high on just winning Miss America, "Okay." And I, you know, I walk in, the flashbulbs go off. And it's important to understand, a part of competing for Miss America is preparing for a private, job-style interview. The most rigorous questioning I've ever endured. And so I knew how to answer questions. That's a part of what helped me win the pageant. So I didn't feel any intimidation, I felt like I was fully prepared for this because that's part of the competition. They want to know can you handle this. I was not prepared for the very first question. Second question, the first one was how did--what were you thinking when you walked down the runway? Second question. "How does it feel to be a representative for little black girls out there as the new Miss America?" I'd never thought of myself in that way. I was just this veterinary kid who wanted to pay for her education, from Arkansas. And while I was very aware of my ethnicity growing up, it didn't define me and I was caught of guard and I gave a poor answer. I said, "Being black is not everything that I am, it's just a part of who I am." And I went down, "I'm a veterinarian--or I'm a veterinary student, I play the drums, I was raised by a single--"I mean I went down this list of the things that define me and again I said it, "It's just part of who I am." And the next question came. As you might imagine, that didn't go over well with many members of the African American community, because what I didn't get in my youth at that time, was the significance of the achievement coming after Vanessa. We had a shot, didn't go so well, I was the next shot. And I only saw it as it related to me, not as the significance in society. And I spent a lot of my year explaining that statement.

Derek McGinty

Broadcast journalist Derek McGinty was born on August 17, 1959 in Washington, D.C. He attended Woodrow Wilson High School in Washington, and graduated in 1977. McGinty went on to receive his B.A. degree in journalism from American University in Washington, D.C. in 1981.

McGinty was hired first as a desk assistant for ABC Radio News in the Washington bureau, and then became a reporter for United Press International's Washington Metro desk. From 1984 to 1991, McGinty worked as an anchor/reporter for WHUR-FM, where he went on to co-host “The Daily Drum,” a news and interview program covering local politics. He then hosted the radio talk show called “The Derek McGinty Show” from 1991 to 1998 on WAMU in Washington, D.C. His guests included former Washington, D.C. Mayor Marion Barry, former Secretary of State James Baker, former House Speaker Newt Gingrich, jazz musician Wynton Marsalis, rapper Ice-T and author Robert Ludlum, among others. McGinty also served as an anchor for News Channel 8 in Washington, D.C. in 1994. In addition, he worked as a correspondent for the PBS series "State of the Union," as a moderator for "Straight Talk with Derek McGinty" on Washington, D.C.'s WETA-TV, and as a correspondent for the CBS News program "Coast to Coast." He has also served as host of WETA's public affairs program "Here & Now," guest host of NPR's All Things Considered, and host of Discovery Channel's weekly online talk show, "Live! With Derek McGinty."

In 1998, McGinty left WAMU and was hired as a correspondent on the CBS News program “Public Eye with Bryant Gumbel.” He then served as a correspondent for “Real Sports” on HBO from 1999 to 2003, and worked as a reporter and anchor for WJLA from 1999 to 2001. From 2001 to 2003, he was co-anchor of ABC's “World News Now,” and anchor of “World News This Morning.” In 2003, McGinty joined WUSA, where he serves as the weekday anchor for WUSA 9 News at 7pm and weeknight co-anchor for WUSA 9 News at 5pm, 6pm and 11pm. He was also the host of “Eye on Washington.” McGinty has written articles that have appeared in The New York Times; The Washington Post; The New York Daily News; and Washingtonian Magazine.

In 1994, “The Derek McGinty Show” received the Gold Award for Public Affairs Programming from the Corporation of Public Broadcasting, the highest programming honor in public radio.

Derek McGinty was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 19, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.097

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/19/2014

Last Name

McGinty

Maker Category
Marital Status

Single

Schools

American University

Woodrow Wilson High School

Keene Elementary School

Rabaut Junior High School

Archbishop Carroll High School

First Name

Derek

Birth City, State, Country

Washington

HM ID

MCG07

Favorite Season

Summer

State

District of Columbia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Ski Resorts

Favorite Quote

Such is life.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

8/17/1959

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Hamburgers

Short Description

Broadcast journalist Derek McGinty (1959 - ) was an anchor on WUSA 9 News from 2003, and was the host of the award-winning “The Derek McGinty Show” from 1991 to 1998.

Employment

WUSA-TV 9

ABC News

ABC World News This Morning

HBO

WJLA TV

CBS News

WAMU Radio

WHUR-FM Radio

WTOP TV

ABC Radio News

Favorite Color

Red and Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Derek McGinty's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Derek McGinty lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Derek McGinty talks about his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Derek McGinty talks about his mother's educational background and career

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Derek McGinty talks about his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Derek McGinty talks about his father's career

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Derek McGinty reflects upon his father's dream of being a playwright

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Derek McGinty describes the plays his father wrote

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Derek McGinty describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Derek McGinty describes his father's features and personality

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Derek McGinty describes his mother's personality

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Derek McGinty talks about his mother's Howard University music students that included Roberta Flack and Donny Hathaway

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Derek McGinty talks about his sister

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Derek McGinty talks about his brother

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Derek McGinty describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Derek McGinty describes his childhood neighborhood in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Derek McGinty describes the sights, smells, and sounds of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Derek McGinty recalls the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Derek McGinty talks about his experiences in elementary and middle school

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Derek McGinty describes his childhood interests and activities

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Derek McGinty describes his interest in fashion and style as a teenager in the 1960s and 1970s

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Derek McGinty remembers his childhood teachers and mentors

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Derek McGinty describes how transferring schools affected him as a teenager

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Derek McGinty talks about how meeting news anchor James Vance influenced his decision to become a journalist

Tape: 2 Story: 14 - Derek McGinty talks about his high school experiences and mentors

Tape: 2 Story: 15 - Derek McGinty describes how his parents' influenced his decision to attend American University

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Derek McGinty describes his experiences at American University, including pledging Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc.

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Derek McGinty describes his stand on freedom of speech at American University

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Derek McGinty describes his father's focus on honesty and integrity as part of a core value system

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Derek McGinty talks about being an African American student at American University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Derek McGinty talks about his internships and employment while a student at American University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Derek McGinty talks about his admiration for Bryant Gumbel and the influence of his teachers at American University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Derek McGinty talks about his internship at ABC News while a student at American University

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Derek McGinty talks about being hired as a news writer

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Derek McGinty describes his hiring as a news reporter at United Press International

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Derek McGinty describes his first on-air job at WHUR

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Derek McGinty talks about how "The Derek McGinty Show" started

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Derek McGinty describes the continued segregation in radio

Tape: 3 Story: 13 - Derek McGinty talks about his most memorable shows

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Derek McGinty talks about his favorite "The Derek McGinty Show" shows

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Derek McGinty talks about leaving "The Derek McGinty Show"

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Derek McGinty describes his experiences covering HBO "Real Sports" stories, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Derek McGinty describes his experiences covering HBO "Real Sports" stories, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Derek McGinty talks about co-anchoring for ABC World News Now

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Derek McGinty talks about his current position at WUSA Channel Nine News in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Derek McGinty describes his most memorable moments and stories at WUSA Channel Nine News

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Derek McGinty reflects upon the death of President Ronald Reagan and the Boston bombing as some of his biggest news stories

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Derek McGinty credits his persistence as a key to his success

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Derek McGinty reflects upon his building a career in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Derek McGinty shares his philosophy on journalism

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Derek McGinty describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Derek McGinty reflects upon his career

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Derek McGinty compares television and radio

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Derek McGinty talks about what he would have done differently in life

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Derek McGinty describes his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Derek McGinty talks about his civic involvement

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Derek McGinty talks about his loved ones and family

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Derek McGinty shares insight into his experiences with difficult radio and television guests

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Derek McGinty shares how he wants to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

11$5

DATitle
Derek McGinty talks about how "The Derek McGinty Show" started
Derek McGinty talks about co-anchoring for ABC World News Now
Transcript
Then they put me anchoring "The Daily Drum" [WHUR-FM]. So I anchored "The Daily Drum" for a couple of years. Then--that was a great gig I mean a tremendous learning experience for me--I get a call from a friend of mine, a guy name Richard Paul, who had gone to school with me at AU [American University] and he says, WAMU [FM] is looking for a talk show host, you ought to apply. Here we go again. But this was a whole different thing, so I--I almost didn't send in the tape, right. I waited a week or two, you know, it's gonna be a pain to get it together, I don't know, but then I said, no, you have to do this. So I got it together, got it in there and they called me in for an interview and then they said, you have to audition. So the audition was I had to do the show for three hours, one Friday night. I said, okay. So I went and did it. It was the hardest thing I've ever done. Three hours on the air. I had never done anything like that. It was really difficult and, you know, taking phone calls for that long. I had done a little bit of that at the Daily Drum, we had a little 20 minute show, but nothing like three hours, that's a whole different creature. But I made it through, and I remember at the end of it, I thought to myself, man I don't even want this job, it's too hard, you know, and you know long story short, they called me up a few months later after lots of controversy to say that they really liked me, but they were going to hire this other guy. And I said, okay. I was just glad to really be considered, you know, I came in second, maybe this could lead to something else you know whatever. They said, we're ninety something percent sure that we're going to sign him but if we don't we'll call you back. That was like a Friday. Tuesday, he called me back. We couldn't sign him up, we had--are you still interested? I'm thinking part of me say, oh, I'm the second choice, the other part of me says, who cares, you know. So I take the job. And that job, of course, you know, lead to everything that I'd been able, to a great deal, of what I've been able to accomplished, because I was good at that job, you know. And my father had always said, you know, you're a natural conversationalist, you're a natural interviewer, you should-- this is what you should be doing. And I think he was right, I mean, I think, you know, I was able to really get people to talk and I enjoyed the heck out of it and I had a good time with it, and you know, they moved it, it was night time at the time. When I first got there, it was eight to eleven week nights and then it became--they changed it from noon to two, which was a great thing, because being on eight to eleven was tough on the social life. It became noon to two and you know sort of the sky was the limit. They syndicated it. I mean it was a great gig. It really was the best job I've ever had.$$Well what was the name of it in the beginning?$$It was called, I think it was--they made it the Derek McGinty Show when I first came on board, because it had been the Mike Cuspard Show, when I first came on board and then Mike left to go to some big job up in Boston or whatever, and then it became the Derek McGinty Show. So it was always the Derek McGinty Show, as far as I can recall.$$Okay, so this starts in 1991?$$Yes. And went to '98' (1998). And over that time, I mean, it was a great ride, it was great ride. I didn't even know how good I had it working at that station.$World News Now, overnight?$$Yes, I left ABC in 2000--March, 2001, to go to New York and do the overnight show, World News Now. Frankly, this is one of those kind of jobs where I was almost hoping it didn't come through. (laughing) Because I was thinking, man, working overnights, moving to New York, I don't know if I want to do that, you know. But it came through, I kind of had to take it, cause you know, this kind of opportunities don't come, so I took it. Moved to New York and it was as difficult and as painful as I thought it would be. But it was all worth it.$$Now, this is, you know, the overnight show, I used to watch it because I stay up late at night. I used to see it is more discussion, but it's not like the early morning discussion. What was--was there a format?$$Well, yeah, there was a format. I mean, we did the news, we had fun, you know. I mean as somebody said, we do the news like nobody's watching it, you know, which was kind of true, but we did have a couple of million people watching it, you know, we had fun with it. And we had a lot of room to have fun because you know it was at two o'clock in the morning, so we could do--and no one would ever leave that job if--'cause it was so much fun to do, the people were great. No one would ever leave if the hours were decent, you know, but you can only do that job for a couple of years before you go, oh, I gotta get out of here, you know. But it was a great--it was a fun job, you know. But moving to New York was hard. New York's a big old lonely town, as I found it to be. I'm working overnights, you know, I'm trying to figure out how to get sleep, you know. I'm living in this new apartment. I used to have a house, now I have an apartment you know I'm living in. And I don't know that many people. It was hard, it was a hard transition, you know.$$Who was your co-anchor?$$I had two. I had Alison Stewart and then I had Liz Cho. Liz Cho and I became--Alison and I were fine, I mean, you know, but Liz and I became good friends, you know, and I still call her every once and a while, she's an anchor in New York at the ABC [WABC-TV News Channel 7] station up there now. Liz was--Liz was beautiful. I mean, she was gorgeous and while we were doing it, she got to be one of the People's [People Magazine] "50 Most Beautiful People," you know. She was--that just kind of tells you. And so, I kept saying, I don't know why I didn't get in there. But as pretty as she was, that's how nice she was, you know. We just had a great time together, we were really good friends. I really liked her, you know, as a person, you know and so. "The Lizard," as I used to call her. Like I said she's still in New York anchoring at Channel Seven. I need to give her a call, see how she's doing.$$Okay. Yeah, it's interesting, a little back and forth--$$Yeah, we had a good time. That was a great job, but like I said, man, you just (simultaneous)--$$--And the news coverage was actually good.$$--But it was just the hours, you know, working overnights, that's--whew, it's tough, it's tough.$$So you were there like for how long?$$I was there for two years.$$Two years, okay.$$And then Channel Nine [WUSA-TV, Washington, D.C.] called and wanted me to do their seven o'clock news and so I said, yes, although I still had a year left on my contract at ABC. So I had to get them to let me out of the contract, which they did, which tells me they weren't that interested in keeping me. But, cause if they had really wanted me, they would have said, no. But they did, they were very nice about it, they let me out of my contract so I could come to Washington [D.C.] and do this and where I've been ever since.$$Well it seems as though the philosophy of World News Now is to bring in somebody new every couple of years anyway--$$Yes.$$--I don't know.$$I think you're right. They do cycle anchors through there because you either, you know, become a correspondent or you're kind of out of there. So, that's kind of what happens cause there's no more anchoring job that you're gonna get right at the network, you're either on--there's only two shows, the morning show and the night and the evening news and those jobs are taken, right, so if you want to be in anchor, you kind of got to leave the network, you know. And so that's what happens, you do that so for a couple of years and then you go on off and do something else. So, you're right, they do seem to do that.$$It seems that the roles seem to be cast appeal to the younger audience than the regular news.$$What, on World News Now?$$Yeah.$$I don't know about now. I haven't seen it, you know, since I left practically, but--$$Over the years you see like there are younger people sitting there (simultaneous)--$$--Yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah.$$--Seem to know more contemporary stuff than (simultaneous)--$$Yeah, yeah, yeah, it's a hipper--it considers itself more of a hipper show, and that might be what you're talking about. So, yeah, I would say that's true.$$--Right, right.

A. Peter Bailey

Journalist and author A. Peter Bailey was born on February 24, 1938 in Columbus, Georgia to Upson and Alga Bailey. He was raised in Tuskegee, Alabama, and attended Tuskegee Institute High School, but graduated from Nuremberg American High School in Germany in 1955. Bailey served in the U.S. Army from 1956 to 1959, and went on to attend Howard University until 1961.

In 1962, Bailey moved to Harlem, New York City; and, in 1964, became a founding member of Malcolm X’s Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU), where he was editor of the OAAU newsletter, Blacklash. From 1968 to 1975, he worked as associate editor for Ebony magazine. From 1975 to 1981, Bailey served as associate director of the Black Theatre Alliance (BTA), where he also edited the BTA Newsletter. He has also contributed articles to numerous publications including Essence, Black Enterprise, Jet, The New York Times, the Negro Digest, Black World, The Black Collegian, and the New York Daily News. He also writes a bi-monthly column for the Trice-Edney Wire Service.

Bailey has lectured on Malcolm X at thirty-five colleges and universities, and taught as an adjunct professor at Hunter College, Virginia Commonwealth University and the University of the District of Columbia. In addition, he has written the play, Malcolm, Martin, Medgar, which has been presented at several staged readings. He is the author of Witnessing Brother Malcolm X, The Master Teacher: A Memoir; Harlem: Precious Memories, Great Expectations; co-author of Revelations: The Autobiography of Alvin Ailey with Alvin Ailey; and co-author of Seventh Child: A Family Memoir of Malcolm X with Rodnell P. Collins.

Bailey served as president of the New York Association of Black Journalists from 1983 to 1985, and was a member of the Tony Awards Nominating Committee in the 1975-76 Broadway season. He also served on the board of the Bethune-DuBois Institute, and is a member of the Association for the Study of African American Life and History. Bailey has received several awards, including Lifetime Achievement awards from the National Newspaper Publishers Association and the New York Association of Black Journalists.

A. Peter Bailey was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 18, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.088

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/18/2014

Last Name

Bailey

Maker Category
Marital Status

Single

Middle Name

Peter

Schools

St. Joseph Catholic School

Tuskegee Institute High School

Nurnberg American High School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Alfonzo

Birth City, State, Country

Columbus

HM ID

BAI10

State

Georgia

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

2/24/1938

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Short Description

Journalist and author A. Peter Bailey (1938 - ) was a founding member of the Organization of Afro-American Unity and served as a longtime editor for Ebony magazine. He authored Witnessing Brother Malcolm X, The Master Teacher: A Memoir and Harlem: Precious Memories, Great Expectations; and co-author of Revelations: The Autobiography of Alvin Ailey and Seventh Child: A Family Memoir of Malcolm X.

Employment

Ebony Magazine

The Black Theatre Alliance

Virginia Union University

Bethune-DuBois Institute

Derek Dingle

Publishing executive Derek T. Dingle was born on November 2, 1961 in New York City. He graduated from Norfolk State University with a B.A. in journalism and also completed the Magazine Management Program at New York University.

Dingle joined Black Enterprise magazine in 1983 as an assistant editor and was promoted six months later to associate editor. After he completed the New York University magazine management program in 1985, he was made a senior editor. In 1987, Dingle was promoted once again to managing editor, a position he held until 1990. He then joined the staff of Money magazine, where he wrote articles about mutual fund investment and served as senior writer and a member of the planning team for Money Special on Small Business. In 1991, Dingle co-founded Milestone Media Inc., the nation's largest black-owned comic book company, with childhood friends Denys Cowan, Dwayne McDuffue, Michael Davis and Christopher Priest. After resigning from Money magazine in 1992, he was named Milestone’s president and CEO. One Milestone character, Static Shock, was developed into an animated series that ran from 2000 to 2005 on the WB Network and the Cartoon Network. In December of 1999, Dingle returned to Black Enterprise magazine as editor-at-large. Within a year, he was promoted to vice president and executive editor, serving until July of 2008. That year, Dingle was appointed as the senior vice president and editor-in-chief of Black Enterprise magazine, where he was responsible for the strategic planning and editorial direction of the magazine. In 2014, Dingle was named a Chief Content Officer of Black Enterprise. In this capacity, he oversaw content development and strategy for the "Black Enterprise Entrepreneurs Conference Expo," as well as other custom events, including the Black Enterprise/Walmart 20/20 Vision Forum on Supplier Diversity, the Black Enterprise/Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Education Symposium Series, the American black Film Festival, and the Baltimore African American Film Festival. In addition, Dingle had executive oversight of both Black Enterprise television shows: "Black Enterprise Business Report" and "Our World with Black Enterprise."

Dingle authored countless Black Enterprise magazine cover stories and editorials and appeared as a business expert on numerous television networks and radio programs, including CNN, CNBC, NBC's "Weekend Today," and National Public Radio. An award-winning editor, Dingle is the author of three books: Black Enterprise Titans of the B.E. 100s: Black CEOs Who Redefined and Conquered American Business (1999), Black Enterprise Lessons from the Top: Success Strategies from America’s Leading Black CEOs (2007), and First in the Field: Jackie Robinson, Baseball Hero (1998), which received a 1999 International Reading Association Award. Dingle serves as a general member of the National Association of Black Journalists (NABJ) and the American Society of Magazine Editors (ASME). He also serves as a member of the board of directors for Norfolk State University's School of Communications, and on the advisory board for the New York Urban League’s Manhattan Chapter.

Dingle lives in Guttenberg, New Jersey.

Derek T. Dingle was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 20, 2014 and on December 14, 2016.

Accession Number

A2014.091

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/20/2014 |and| 12/14/2016

Last Name

Dingle

Maker Category
Marital Status

Single

Middle Name

Terrence

Schools

Norfolk State University

New York University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Derek

Birth City, State, Country

Brooklyn

HM ID

DIN04

Favorite Season

Fall

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

mediterranean

Favorite Quote

Unbelievable.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

11/2/1961

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Hamburger

Short Description

Magazine publishing chief executive and publishing executive Derek Dingle (1961 - ) co-founded and then served as president and CEO of Milestone Media Inc., the nation’s largest African American-owned comic book company, in 1992. In 2008, Dingle was appointed as the senior vice president and editor-in-chief of Black Enterprise magazine.

Employment

Black Enterprise

Money Magazine

Milestone Media

Favorite Color

Blue

Cheryl Smith

Journalist and publisher Cheryl Lynn Smith was born on June 20, 1958 in Newark, New Jersey to Joseph Smith and Earline Gadson. Smith attended public elementary schools in Newark and East Orange, New Jersey, and graduated from East Orange High School in 1976. She received her B.S. degree in journalism from Florida A&M University in 1980, and her M.S. degree in human relations and business from Amberton University in Dallas, Texas in 1986.

In 1980, Smith was hired as editor for Capital Outlook News in Tallahassee, Florida. From 1981 to 1984, she worked as a production coordinator for TV Watch in Dallas, Texas and JC Penney Life Insurance Company in Richardson, Texas. In 1987, Smith was hired at The Dallas Weekly, where she served as a staff writer, executive editor, editor-in-chief and columnist. Smith also worked for five years for Dallas County Commissioner John Wiley Price. From 1997 to 2000, she served as executive editor of Future Speak, a weekly newspaper produced by Dallas area high school and college students for the Dallas Examiner newspaper.

Smith worked as a producer and talk show host at KKDA-AM from 1990 until 2012, and as a show host of PAX-TV’s “The Ester Davis Show” from 2010 to 2012. She was also the host of Blog Talk Radio’s “Cheryl’s World,” and cable television’s “On the Dotted Line.” In 2011, Smith founded I Messenger Enterprises, where she serves as publisher and editor of I Messenger, The Garland Journal and Texas Metro News. In addition, she was an associate professor at Paul Quinn College from 1999 to 2010, and an adjunct professor at the University of North Texas from 2002 to 2009.

Smith has served as the president of the Dallas-Fort Worth Association of Black Journalists and the Dallas-Fort Worth Florida A&M University National Alumni Association. She was a two-term National Association of Black Journalists regional director, and has served as president of the Dallas-Metroplex Council of Black Alumni Associations. In 1994, she became the first African American and female to chair the North Texas Health Facilities Corporation. Smith has also served on the boards of the Dallas Alumnae Chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Irving Cares and the Leslie K. Bedford Foundation. In 1995, she established the Don’t Believe the Hype Foundation.

Smith has won numerous awards, including the Messenger Award from National Newspaper Publishers Association, the Journalism Excellence Award from The Dallas Examiner, the Outstanding Journalist Award from Elite News, the Barry Bingham Sr. Award from the National Conference of Editorial Writers, as well as multiple awards from the Texas Publishers Association, the NNPA, the NAACP, Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, and the Dallas-Fort Worth Association of Black Communicators. The National Civil Rights Museum awarded her the “Invisible Giant” Award, and in 2005, the Omicron Mu Omega Chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. presented her with the “Image Award.” In 2009, Smith was honored by the Journalism Educator’s Association. She also received the Outstanding Alumni Award from the Dallas-Metroplex Council of Black Alumni Associations and Woman of the Year award from the Women Empowering Women Foundation.

Since 1992, Smith has been raising her nephew and three nieces: Andre, Alayna, Annya and Ayanna.  

Cheryl Smith was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 7, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.096

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/7/2014

Last Name

Smith

Maker Category
Marital Status

Single

Occupation
Schools

Chancellor Ave

Whitney E. Houston Acad

G. Washington Carver Institute

East Orange Campus High School

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

Amberton University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Cheryl

Birth City, State, Country

Newark

HM ID

SMI30

State

New Jersey

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

6/20/1958

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Dallas

Country

United States

Short Description

Journalist and publisher Cheryl Smith (1958 - ) was the publisher of I Messenger, The Garland Journal and Texas Metro News. She also worked for The Dallas Weekly for over twenty-five years as a staff writer, executive editor, editor-in-chief and columnist.

Employment

IMessenger

Dallas Weekly

KKDA-AM

Ester Davis Show

University of North Texas

Paul Quinn College

Sidmel Estes

Media consultant and executive television producer Sidmel Estes was born on November 27, 1954 in Marysville, California, to Emellen Estes and Sidney Estes. Estes attended elementary and high school at public schools in Atlanta. She earned her B.S.J. degree in 1976, and her M.S.J. degree in 1977, both from Northwestern University’s Medill School of Journalism in Chicago, Illinois.

In 1979, Estes returned to Atlanta and was hired at WAGA-TV/Fox 5, where she served as the executive producer of numerous programs. She was the co-creator and executive producer of Good Day Atlanta, which became the number one show in its market, and won seven Emmy Awards under her direction. In 2006 Estes left WAGA-TV in order to found and serve as CEO of BreakThrough Inc., a media consulting firm whose clients include the Frederick Douglass Family Foundation, the McCormick Tribune Fellows Foundation, the Tupac Amaru Shakur Foundation and the Atlanta Center for Creative Inquiry. She has also taught as an adjunct professor at Emory University and Clark Atlanta University.

In 1991, Estes was elected the first woman president of the National Association of Black Journalists (NABJ). Under her leadership NABJ increased its membership to over 2,000 journalists and was included in Ebony’s list of Top 100 Black Organizations. In 1994, she was a leader and co-creator of the first Unity Conference, an alliance of journalists of color, and was instrumental in the release of their report Kerner Plus 25: A Call For Action, which outlined steps the media industry should take to improve racial diversity.

During her prolific career in television and journalism, Estes has been recognized numerous times. Atlanta’s Mayor Andrew Young proclaimed “Sidmel Estes-Sumpter Day” on November 18, 1988 after she was named Media Woman of the Year by the Atlanta Chapter of the National Association of Media Women. She was featured in Ebony’s 100 Most Influential Black Americans in 1993, and in More Magazine’s book 50 Over 50. Estes was honored with the Silver Circle Award from the Television Academy and has won several Emmy Awards. She received Northwestern University’s Alumni Service Award after being elected as president of the Northwestern Black Alumni Association in 2004.

Estes married B. Garnett Sumpter in 1983, and they had two children, Joshua and Sidney.

Sidmel Estes was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 17, 2014.

Sidmel Estes passed away on October 6, 2015.

Accession Number

A2014.065

Sex

Female

Interview Date

2/17/2014

Last Name

Estes-Sumpter

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

Karen

Schools

M. Agnes Jones Elementary

Northside High School

Northwestern University

Frank L. Stanton Elementary School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Sidmel

Birth City, State, Country

Marysville

HM ID

EST02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

California

Favorite Vacation Destination

New Orleans, Louisiana; Miami, Florida; Beaufort, South Carolina

Favorite Quote

Everybody Needs A Breakthrough

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

11/27/1954

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Honey Baked Ham

Death Date

10/6/2015

Short Description

Media consultant and television producer Sidmel Estes (1954 - 2015 ) was the founder and CEO of BreakThrough Inc. and the first woman president of the National Association of Black Journalists. She worked as an executive producer at WAGA-TV, where she created Good Day Atlanta.

Employment

BreakThrough, Inc.

WAGA-TV (Television station: Atlanta,Ga.)

KUAM-TV

Chicago Daily News

Chicago Defender

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
0,0:2472,63:4322,171:7504,263:8096,272:10094,331:13202,397:18900,507:24560,525:25120,535:26800,568:28200,594:35200,773:35620,780:47830,955:51637,1034:52123,1041:71198,1305:74206,1343:74582,1348:75522,1364:81350,1470:82572,1493:83324,1505:89305,1533:90835,1566:98995,1707:99420,1713:99845,1735:111584,1878:112128,1889:119054,1969:123464,2055:128868,2104:155647,2604:169159,2755:170761,2774:171473,2784:176036,2856:193107,3150:194186,3169:198253,3228:198585,3233:204618,3342:204942,3347:205509,3356:216670,3538$0,0:3655,40:4985,57:5745,66:10210,128:12585,170:15435,210:20090,302:23450,317:24890,349:25210,354:25610,360:26010,366:26890,379:27290,385:27850,394:31918,438:32450,446:36174,510:36478,515:40681,562:42175,587:46491,683:46823,688:49894,766:50724,777:51139,783:51637,790:53214,837:55206,875:55953,887:56368,893:57032,902:57613,910:58360,921:62842,1001:63257,1007:74434,1107:75666,1120:76226,1125:79987,1171:80532,1177:92668,1286:93124,1291:94834,1308:96202,1320:96772,1326:98368,1343:98824,1348:107149,1388:108227,1405:108920,1415:109921,1430:113732,1534:117956,1630:118436,1636:118820,1641:120548,1676:120932,1681:134190,1793:134890,1808:136780,1842:137200,1849:137550,1855:138670,1875:139020,1881:140210,1899:140770,1910:141120,1916:142100,1935:149765,2023:151140,2033:165786,2250:166220,2258:171410,2352:173020,2359:174220,2374:179300,2429:179840,2436:180740,2446:181100,2451:183170,2473:185310,2484:185884,2492:188918,2563:189738,2577:190476,2588:196516,2642:196804,2647:209444,2885:209888,2892:210184,2897:236375,3210:237007,3219:237876,3232:238271,3238:238587,3243:239061,3252:239456,3258:240483,3274:241510,3291:241905,3297:242221,3302:243090,3311:243564,3318:243880,3323:244512,3332:245065,3340:245460,3346:259574,3498:264782,3619:266042,3637:267470,3659:271760,3670:272360,3676:287305,3822:287660,3828:288015,3834:291472,3859:293344,3898:293890,3911:295762,3953:298336,3998:299194,4010:300286,4026:305545,4062:306070,4070:309140,4167:310500,4190:312180,4216:313540,4237:317140,4375:317620,4381:321140,4534:321860,4544:323700,4576:335460,4707:339970,4780
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Sidmel Estes' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Sidmel Estes lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Sidmel Estes describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Sidmel Estes remembers her maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Sidmel Estes talks about the Collier Heights neighborhood of Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Sidmel Estes describes her mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Sidmel Estes remembers her first experience of racial discrimination

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Sidmel Estes describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Sidmel Estes lists her siblings, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Sidmel Estes describes her likeness to her father

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Sidmel Estes lists her siblings, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Sidmel Estes talks about her siblings' professions

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Sidmel Estes describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Sidmel Estes talks about her early education

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Sidmel Estes remembers the advice of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Sidmel Estes talks about the community organized busing in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Sidmel Estes recalls her decision to become a journalist

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Sidmel Estes describes the community on Auburn Avenue in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Sidmel Estes remembers the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Sidmel Estes recalls her decision to attend Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Sidmel Estes remembers the student activism at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Sidmel Estes talks about her internship at the Chicago Defender

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Sidmel Estes remembers prominent black journalists from the start of her career

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Sidmel Estes recalls her experiences as an intern at the Chicago Defender

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Sidmel Estes remembers her internship at the Chicago Daily News

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Sidmel Estes describes her experiences at the Medill School of Journalism in Evanston, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Sidmel Estes remembers becoming a television reporter in Guam

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Sidmel Estes describes her experiences at KUAM-TV in Guam

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Sidmel Estes remembers joining WAGA-TV in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Sidmel Estes talks about the Atlanta Missing and Murdered Children cases, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Sidmel Estes talks about the Atlanta Missing and Murdered Children cases, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Sidmel Estes talks about the changes in Atlanta, Georgia during the 1980s

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Sidmel Estes describes her reaction to the Janet Cooke scandal

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Sidmel Estes remembers meeting her former husband

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Sidmel Estes talks about her involvement in the National Association of Black Journalists

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Sidmel Estes talks about her civic engagement in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Sidmel Estes recalls the major events of the late 1980s in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Sidmel Estes talks about the FOX takeover of WAGA-TV

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Sidmel Estes remembers developing the 'Good Day Atlanta' morning news show

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Sidmel Estes remembers her election as president of the National Association of Black Journalists

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Sidmel Estes describes her tenure as president of the National Association of Black Journalists

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Sidmel Estes talks about FOX's management of WAGA-TV in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Sidmel Estes talks about Paula Walker Madison

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Sidmel Estes remembers founding BreakThrough Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Sidmel Estes describes her book projects

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Sidmel Estes talks about the future of journalism

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Sidmel Estes describes the services offered at BreakThrough, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Sidmel Estes talks about her teaching activities

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Sidmel Estes describes the documentary 'Kerner Plus 40: Change or Challenge'

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Sidmel Estes describes her hopes and concerns for African American journalists

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Sidmel Estes remembers her proposal to buy Ebony and Jet

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Sidmel Estes talks about the UNITY: Journalists of Color organization

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Sidmel Estes describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Sidmel Estes reflects upon her life

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Sidmel Estes reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Sidmel Estes talks about her family

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Sidmel Estes describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Sidmel Estes narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Sidmel Estes narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$5

DAStory

4$1

DATitle
Sidmel Estes remembers the advice of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Sidmel Estes describes her tenure as president of the National Association of Black Journalists
Transcript
Now, you had an incident when y- when you were in, I guess the third grade [at M. Agnes Jones Elementary School, Atlanta, Georgia], when you were eight?$$Um-hm.$$You took ballet--$$Um-hm.$$--with Yoki King [Yolanda King], you were telling us.$$Right.$$There's an historic moment that you experienced here. Tell us what happened.$$Well, like I said, Yoki and I were both sort of the little chunky girls in ballet, because they like you to be (gesture) this thin, being a ballerina. But to Atlanta Ballet's credit, they were trying to reach out to the community. So, they would send their top teachers. And I will never forget, a woman named Madame Hildegarde [Hildegarde Bennett Tornow] would always come to Spelman College [Atlanta, Georgia] to teach. And so, we were taking ballet. Like I said, we did 'The Nutcracker' [Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky] every Christmas. But these little skinny girls decided to make fun of me, and they pulled a chair out from up under me. And fortunately, we were practicing in the gym, so it was a wooden floor, not a concrete floor. So, I wasn't seriously hurt, but my feelings were hurt more. So, Yoki and I after class were outside waiting on our ride. And here drives up Dr. King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] in a, I will never forget it, a black, big black car. And when he--I sat in the back seat, and I was just crying, crying. He said, "Child, what's wrong with you?" And I told him what had happened. And to this day, I will never forget. He said, "Child, if that's the worst thing that's going to ever happen to you, you are a blessed child." And I never forgot that. And I had--my tears went away then, because I just sat there and I would think about it: that wasn't really that bad, especially some of the things that I have faced later on in life. But he was being prophetic to me then, at eight years old, that I was going to go through stuff in life, and I had to get used to it.$$Hm, okay. So, what kind of car did he have? Do you remember?$$It was a Buick. I remember the big, black Buick.$$Now, this is 1962, I guess, right, when you were eight?$$Yeah, something like '61 [1961], '62 [1962].$$Did he have a new car, or it was an old, older car?$$It was sort of used, it wasn't brand new. It wasn't fancy. It wasn't huge. You know, it was a regular old car.$$Okay, okay. And do you remember the color? I'm just, I'm just thinking--$$Black.$$Black, okay. I'm thinking it was black in my head, but I don't--$$Um-hm, um-hm. Yeah, black on black. I will never forget that (laughter).$$Well, that's something. So, that's, that is--now he's picking her up himself from--$$Yeah, and that was the only time I ever remember him picking her up. And very rarely did he make our recitals. Because we're now talking, you know, the height of the Civil Rights Movement. So, he was never there.$$Yeah, things really got--$$Yeah, '62 [1962], '63 [1963] (simultaneous).$$--(simultaneous) involved. Yeah, '63 [1963], Birmingham [Alabama], '64 [1964] was, you know, leading into Selma [Selma to Montgomery March] and all that.$$He was never home, never home.$$Yeah, the March on Washington was the next year.$$Right, right.$$So, he was very busy. And, did your parents [Emellen Mitchell Estes and Sidney Estes] know him, I mean, know Dr. King?$$They knew him cursorily, they were not close to him. But they trusted him enough to pick up their daughter and get me home. And then we did, you know, vice versa. So, I guess it's a mutual trust society going on there.$Well, tell us. What was your agenda as president of the National Association of Black Journalists, what--in 1991? What--where were you going to take the organization?$$Well, people tease me. The night I was inaugurated and they announced that I had won and tears were just streaming down my face, I stood up and I told the industry, I said, "You have never dealt with a black woman from the South before." And I meant that, you know, because sometimes they would take advantage of NABJ, a lot of these big news organizations. So, my agenda--$$In what way? What do you mean?$$Well, people who were supposed to get promoted weren't getting promoted.$$Okay.$$Our numbers were not very high at the time (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Not organizationally, but as individual black people working in the--$$Right, in the newsroom.$$The members of NABJ.$$Now, remember I had from two to three thousand members across the country. It started out at two thousand. By the time I finished, it was up to three thousand. But one thing I did do, we had what we call the Pierre summit. And it was at The Pierre hotel in New York City [New York, New York]. And it was me and every president of journalists of color organizations. There was four of us. And I'm the only woman. But we sat down with the CEOs of every major media company and told them what we had--from Knight Ridder, to the president of the Newspaper Association of America [News Media Alliance], to you know, the Tribune Company [Tribune Media Company], to the Gannett Company [Gannett Company, Inc.], to The New York Times, Washington Post [The Washington Post]. These guys came to that meeting. And for two very long days, and very difficult days, we sat down and we told them why we have a problem in the industry--how the stories aren't being told properly--because your people don't know how to go into these communities. So, that was a major accomplishment. I also think that we did have a significant number of people who entered the business. I even have people now who run up and tell me, kind of embarrasses me, and say, "I remember you when I was in college, and you came to speak. And you inspired me so much." I was like, "Thank you." And now, they're in--they're working journalists, or they're on the air, and doing things like this. So, that was number one, was jobs. Number two was justice in terms of telling the story like it is. And number three was fair representation of the community, because that was not being shown. Merv Aubespin [Mervin Aubespin] used to say that, "Unless people see themselves in the newspaper, they can't use it." And most newspapers, you don't see yourself, you don't see your neighbors, you don't see people of achievement out there. So, people aren't going to buy the papers. And they wonder why there's a problem. So, and we were very, very successful. People were scared, as they put it, of Sidmel [HistoryMaker Sidmel Estes].$$Okay, okay. So, did you get, you know, compliance generally from--I mean were they, did things change any?$$Yeah, it changed. And it--and we did have--even though it was a different administration--we did have the power of the law. You know, the fairness doctrine was still very strong. Equal opportunity and equal hiring was still very strong. People were actually talking about racial issues in the community. And so, that's what I think made the big difference from then, and as--instead of right now.$$Okay. So, anything else from your tenure? Did--as president?$$Well, we created the Ethel Payne scholarship [Ethel Payne Fellowship], which is a scholarship where journalists can go to Africa and spend time there and follow stories from there. And that was a big accomplishment. We su- supported and strengthened the Ida B. Wells Award, which is still being given out to- today. We also put the organization--not only in terms of the number of members, but the--our financial position was tremendous. We were giving out scholarship money right and left. I remember we did one at The Kennedy Center [The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, Washington, D.C.], where we gave out scholarships. So, the fact that--and we started both broadcast short courses during my administration--one at FAMU [Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, Tallahassee, Florida] and the other one at North Carolina A and T [North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, North Carolina]. And those two programs just celebrated their twentieth anniversary. I'm very proud of that.$$Okay, okay. So, you were president from '91 [1991] until--$$Ninety-three [1993].$$Okay.$$And then I was the immediate past president. I was on their board longer than (laughter) than I ever knew.

Sheila Brooks

Broadcast journalist and entrepreneur Sheila Dean Brooks, Ph.D. was born on June 24, 1956 in Kansas City, Missouri to Gussie Mae Dean Smith and Stanley Benjamin Smith. She received her B.A. degree in communications from the University of Washington in Seattle in 1978. Brooks paid for her final two years of college while serving in the Advanced Placement Program of the United States Navy Reserves from 1976 to 1978. She went on to receive both her M.A. degree in political science in 2003, and her Ph.D. degree in communication, culture and media studies in 2015, from Howard University.

In 1978, Brooks joined KCTS-TV in Seattle, Washington as a reporter and producer, where she worked until 1981. From 1981 to 1983, she worked for KREM-TV in Spokane, Washington, as a reporter and anchor. Brooks was then hired as a news director and anchor for KAMU-TV/FM in College Station, Texas, working until 1985, when she accepted a management trainee position at the Dallas Morning News in Dallas, Texas. She moved to Washington, D.C. in 1988, and worked as a senior producer at Vanita Productions in Baltimore, Maryland. From 1989 to 1990, Brooks served as executive producer for special projects and the documentary unit at WTTG-TV Channel 5 in Washington, D.C. She founded SRB Communications in 1990, a full-service advertising and marketing agency specializing in multicultural markets, serving as founder, president and CEO.

Brooks has served as a board trustee on the Federal City Council in Washington, D.C., on the boards of ColorComm and Morgan State University’s Global School of Journalism and Communication. She also served as chair of The Presidents’ RoundTable, a board member of the Greater Baltimore Committee and on the boards the Capital Region Minority Supplier Development Council and the Center for Women’s Business Research.

Brooks has won more than 150 entrepreneurial, marketing and journalism awards. She was inducted into the National Academy of Television Arts and Science Silver Circle, an Emmy Award Hall of Fame by the National Capital/Chesapeake Bay Chapter of the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences. She was the first National Association of Black Journalists’ member to receive the President’s Award three times.

Her other honors include the 2016 Top MBE Award, 2015 Advocate of the Year Award, and 2012 and 1995 Supplier of the Year Awards from the Capital Region Minority Supplier Development Council; the 2014 Women in Business Champion from the D.C. Chamber of Commerce; the 2011 Pat Tobin Entrepreneurial Award from the National Association of Black Journalists; the 2011 Shining Star Award from the National Organization of Black Elected Legislative Women; the 2011 Entrepreneurial Trailblazer Award from Howard University’s School of Communications; the 2009 Black Rose Entrepreneur Award from New York State Black Women Enterprises; the 2005 Enterprising Women of the Year Award from Enterprising Women Magazine; and the 2002 and 1998 Women in Business Advocate of the Year Award from the U.S. Small Business Administration, among others.

Dr. Sheila Brooks was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 30, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.043

Sex

Female

Interview Date

1/30/2014 |and| 11/2/2017

Last Name

Brooks

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Dean

Schools

University of Washington

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Sheila

Birth City, State, Country

Kansas City

HM ID

BRO58

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

Missouri

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Stop selling what you have, sell what your client wants.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

6/24/1956

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Broadcast journalist and entrepreneur Sheila Brooks (1956 - ) was the founder, president and CEO of SRB Communications. She received 47 national Telly Awards; a national Gracie Award; three Emmy Awards; and the inaugural Pat Tobin Entrepreneurial Award from the National Association of Black Journalists.

Employment

SRB Communications

KCTS-TV

KREM-TV

KAMU-TV/FM

Dallas Morning News

Vanita Productions

WTTG-TV

Favorite Color

Purple

Michel du Cille

Photojournalist Michel du Cille was born in 1956 in Kingston, Jamaica. His initial interest in photography is credited to his father, a pastor-minister, who worked as a newspaper reporter both in Jamaica and in the United States. Du Cille began his career in photojournalism while in high school working at The Gainesville (GA) Times. In 1985, he received his B.S. degree in journalism from Indiana University. Du Cille also received his M.S. degree in journalism from Ohio University in 1994.

While studying at Indiana University, du Cille was a photographer and picture editor at the Indiana Daily Student. He then worked as an intern at The Louisville Courier Journal/Times in 1979 and at The Miami Herald in 1980. Du Cille joined The Miami Herald's photography staff in 1981. In 1988, he was hired as a picture editor for The Washington Post. In 2005, du Cille became associate editor, and was named assistant managing editor of photography in 2007. Then, in 2009, when The Washington Post newsroom was re-organized and combined with washingtonpost.com, du Cille's title went from assistant managing editor of photography to director of photography. In 2012, he again became an associate editor for photography.

Du Cille has won three Pulitzer Prizes. He shared the 1986 Pulitzer Prize for Spot News Photography with fellow Miami Herald staff photographer, Carol Guzy, for their coverage of the November 1985 eruption of Colombia's Nevado del Ruiz volcano. Du Cille won the 1988 Feature Photography Pulitzer for a photo essay on crack cocaine addicts in a Miami housing project. In 2008, he shared the Pulitzer Prize for Public Service with Washington Post reporters, Dana Priest and Anne Hull, for exposing mistreatment of wounded veterans at Walter Reed Army Medical Center. In addition, du Cille led a team of editors that assembled the photographs shot by Nikki Kahn, Carol Guzy, and Ricky Carioti into the essay that won the 2011 Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News photography for their coverage of the Haitian earthquake and its aftermath.

Du Cille has been active in the National Press Photographers Association (NPPF) in various committee and leadership roles, including serving as the executive committee board representative in 2000, as well as on the organization's finance committee in the early 2000s. Du Cille served on the Pulitzer Prize jury in the photography categories, and as a University of Missouri School of Journalism Pictures of the Year International judge.

Du Cille passed away on December 11, 2014 at the age of 58. He was married to Washington Post photojournalist Nikki Khan, also a Pulitzer Prize winner.

Michel du Cille was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 27, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.006

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/27/2014

Last Name

duCille

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Everard

Occupation
Schools

Gainesville High School

Indiana University

Ohio University

Valdosta State University

Indiana University Southeast

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Michel

Birth City, State, Country

Kingston

HM ID

DUC01

Favorite Season

Christmas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

I’m Just A Regular Guy.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

1/24/1956

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

Jamaica

Favorite Food

Jamaican Food

Death Date

12/11/2014

Short Description

Photojournalist Michel du Cille (1956 - 2014 ) was the director of photography at The Washington Post and a three-time Pulitzer Prize winner.

Employment

Gainesville Times

Indiana Daily Student

Louisville Courier-Journal

Miami Herald

The Washington Post

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:7695,135:8424,169:8991,177:14871,237:16048,251:19579,314:20542,324:22040,366:23110,383:24822,404:30512,471:42443,667:42831,672:43316,679:43801,685:47293,743:48554,759:49136,766:49912,776:50785,788:62060,882:62660,892:63635,910:70110,972:71210,983:74791,1017:76089,1052:76620,1064:76856,1069:77564,1084:77800,1089:81300,1105:84250,1114:89906,1156:92228,1184:92744,1194:93346,1202:96442,1242:96872,1248:104404,1311:104874,1317:116301,1437:116636,1444:127438,1496:129532,1520:131170,1615:133260,1671$0,0:801,12:7298,142:8099,158:9523,174:13085,188:13550,195:17642,266:18386,277:19781,297:20246,303:20618,308:21176,316:22757,332:26291,393:26942,402:29732,521:30383,529:30755,540:31127,545:31499,550:36300,561:36648,566:36996,571:37953,585:39519,605:40737,630:63562,869:64346,878:65032,887:67090,914:69638,950:75243,992:77455,1032:77771,1040:78087,1045:79035,1068:79351,1073:82037,1124:82353,1129:87640,1167:87960,1172:93800,1282:94200,1288:94760,1298:97000,1343:97720,1356:99320,1377:99800,1384:100520,1396:100920,1402:118556,1573:119424,1581:122874,1603:123666,1613:131234,1752:131586,1758:132378,1768:133698,1790:138364,1830:141276,1861:159098,2080:159945,2094:160561,2103:164820,2164:165320,2169:167580,2209
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Michel du Cille's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Michel du Cille lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Michel du Cille describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Michel du Cille talks about his mother's Syrian and Indian ancestry

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Michel du Cille remembers his mother's chronic illness

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Michel du Cille describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Michel du Cille describes his father's career

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Michel du Cille remembers his family's immigration to the United States

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Michel du Cille talks about his parents' elopement

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Michel du Cille describes his likeness to his parents

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Michel du Cille lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Michel du Cille describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Michel du Cille describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Michel du Cille talks about his interest in Rastafarianism

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Michel du Cille remembers the popular culture of Jamaica

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Michel du Cille describes his schooling in Jamaica

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Michel du Cille remembers his early exposure to photography

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Michel du Cille recalls the start of his photography training

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Michel du Cille describes his experiences of school integration

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Michel du Cille describes his favorite subjects in school

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Michel du Cille remembers his brothers' schooling

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Michel du Cille talks about his photographic influences

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Michel du Cille remembers his early photography assignments

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Michel du Cille recalls his conflicts with the principal at Gainesville High School

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Michel du Cille recalls his rejection from the University of Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Michel du Cille remembers transferring to Indiana University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Michel du Cille describes his experiences at the Indiana University School of Journalism in Bloomington, Indiana

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Michel du Cille remembers developing his photography portfolio

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Michel du Cille talks about his internship at the Miami Herald

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Michel du Cille remembers his early cameras

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Michel du Cille remembers joining the staff of the Miami Herald

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Michel du Cille talks about the Miami Herald's coverage of the riots in 1980

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Michel du Cille talks about the African American leadership in Miami, Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Michel du Cille talks about the Pulitzer Prize winning black photographers

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Michel du Cille remembers photographing the eruption of Nevado del Ruiz

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Michel du Cille remembers winning a Pulitzer Prize in Spot News Photography

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Michel du Cille talks about his Pulitzer Prize in Feature Photography

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Michel du Cille talks about the prevalence of crack cocaine use

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Michel du Cille remembers joining The Washington Post

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Michel du Cille recalls his recognition from the National Association of Black Journalists

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Michel du Cille talks about the risks of photojournalism

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Michel du Cille remembers integrating a restaurant in South Africa

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Michel du Cille talks about the conflict between the African National Congress and the Inkatha Freedom Party

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Michel du Cille remembers his master's degree from the E.W. Scripps School of Journalism

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Michel du Cille describes his master's degree thesis

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Michel du Cille talks about the use of photography in The Washington Post

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Michel du Cille describes his career at The Washington Post

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Michel du Cille talks about his second marriage

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Michel du Cille talks about the photography department at The Washington Post

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Michel du Cille reflects upon the difference between writers and photojournalists

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Michel du Cille describes his plans for the future

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Michel du Cille describes his involvement with the National Press Photographers Foundation

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Michel du Cille talks about the opportunities for aspiring photojournalists

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Michel du Cille describes his philosophy of photography

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Michel du Cille talks about his favorite photographers

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Michel du Cille describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Michel du Cille reflects upon his life

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Michel du Cille talks about his children

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Michel du Cille reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Michel du Cille describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

2$1

DATitle
Michel du Cille recalls the start of his photography training
Michel du Cille remembers winning a Pulitzer Prize in Spot News Photography
Transcript
Did he shoot anything for The Gleaner?$$No, he didn't, which, which was part--the part that I missed at that age. I didn't really--so when my dad [Frank du Cille, Sr.] started working for the newspaper in Georgia [The Times], I, again, started to go into the photo department. 'Cause my dad would take me to the newspaper with him, and I would go and ask a lot of questions of the photographer for the staff, and ask him to let me come with him on assignments. And he really did teach me a lot. And, and to this day, I can't remember that guy's name, but he was a very patient man. I remember him telling me one day, 'cause I--he was going to a shoot and he, he said that I could come with him, but I wasn't dressed properly. And he, he took me home to change before we went to the assignment because he wanted me to look presentable (laughter). But the photographer for the paper did teach me a lot of stuff. And then I took--I took a photo course from the local recreation center, and it happened to be the same guy teaching the photo course that was my math teacher at the high school. And he insisted that we learn not from 35mm or 2 1/4, but from 4x5. First we have to build the pinhole camera, then we had to learn to use the large format 4x5 camera, which is a Speed Graphic. He had--he had a Speed Graphic that he taught us to use--taught us to, to, to--he said he felt that composition--you have to learn composition with a large negative. (Pause) And--but I--I--that was my first photo course.$$So this is at, at Gainesville (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) In Gainesville [Georgia]--$$--High School [Gainesville High School]?$$In Gainesville. Yes.$So you were talking off camera maybe about the pictures and the photos and that you shot of the volcano [Nevado del Ruiz]--I mean eruption--$$Yeah. So, I, I called into the office to say that I really wanted to go to this assignment. It was my turn to go. I felt that I was ready to go. And I could tell that my boss wasn't 100 percent, you know, in tune with that. But then they came up with the idea of let's send Michel [HistoryMaker Michel du Cille] and Carol [Carol Guzy]. Let's send the two of those together because they would work well together. They knew that we had a good friendship and that we would, you know, work well together. And so, so Carol and I actually went--we, we, along with two other news organizations, chartered a, a, a jet to fly from Miami [Florida] to Colombia. And we, we didn't land in Bogota [Colombia]. We landed in--at the airstrip that was only like, you know, maybe about eight or nine, ten kilometers from the eruption. So what we did was we kept the jet on the runway and told the guys to stay there so that we could come back and bring film to them so that they could fly back with the film. I mean, back then the only other option would have been to use the AP [Associated Press] to send on the drum, you know. And back then I think color was just beginning for the--to be going over the wire, but it wasn't great. So we really wanted that color film to get back. And we were shooting--we were--we were photographing with slides. We were use--shooting Ektachrome and Fujichrome, so it had to be, you know processed special process. So it was a brilliant move for us to keep the jet on the runway, and, and say, "Okay you're, you're bring it back to Miami." And that's how we were able to get good, brilliant color pictures in the paper [Miami Herald]. You know, and of course they ran the young girl underwater on the front page. And I think later on, you know, that the helicopter picture--I can show them to you on my--on my laptop. But, you know, Carol and I worked very well together, and so to our surprise, our story won the Pulitzer Prize [Pulitzer Prize in Spot News Photography] in 1986 from work that was done in November of '85 [1985].

Darryl W. Dennard

Broadcast journalist Darryl W. Dennard was born on September 18, 1957 in Harlem, New York to Eleanor Adamson and Glenn W. Dennard. He graduated from De Witt Clinton High School. Dennard was a member of Fordham University’s Upward Bound program and participated in its Bridge program by taking classes at Fordham University. He then went on to attend the State University of New York College at Buffalo and graduated with his B.A. degree in broadcasting in 1981. While at Buffalo State, he was a member of the Black Liberation Front student organization, where he was an executive board member, founding the college’s Minority Resource Center.

In 1980, Dennard was hired as a production assistant at the NBC affiliate WGRZ-TV in Buffalo, New York. He was promoted to a news reporter in 1983, and worked at WGRZ-TV until 1987. Dennard then became co-host of the “Ebony-Jet Showcase” from 1987 to 1991, and was hired as associate editor of Ebony Man magazine. He then served as co-host of the “Black Enterprise Report” and as host and producer of the “Minority Business Report.” Dennard also worked as an anchor of “Good Day Chicago” in the 1990s, and has hosted many other programs, including “Know Your Heritage.” He has worked on WVAZ-FM's “Steve Harvey Show,” WCGI-FM's “Morning Riot,” WGCI-AM's “John Hannah Morning Show,” and WVAZ’s “Tom Joyner Morning Show.” In addition, he has interviewed many celebrities and notable figures, including President Barack Obama, Michael Jackson and Oprah Winfrey.

Dennard served as Vice President of First Trace Communications, a strategic, cause related public relations firm, and Founder and CEO of Double D Productions, Inc., a full service audio/video production company, which produced the 1999 documentary “Heading West: A History of African Americans on Chicago's West Side,” and the more recent documentary, “Culture of Calm: A Calming Presence,” which chronicles the Chicago Public School’s mentoring efforts directed towards “At Risk” youth in the wake of the Derion Albert beating death.

Dennard’s professional affiliations include the National Association of Market Developers, Black Public Relations Society, the 100 Black Men of Chicago, the Young Brothers for Christ Youth Ministry at Apostolic Church of God, and the Radio and Television Broadcasting and Theatre Departments at Kennedy King College.

Most important to him are his wife Darlene, and their two children, Autumn, a graduate of Howard University and Darryl Jr, a fine arts graduate at The Cooper Union in New York City. Dennard also has a son-in-law, Brian, and two grandchildren, Ari and Milo.

Darryl Dennard was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 23, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.020

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/23/2014

Last Name

Dennard

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

W.

Schools

DeWitt Clinton High School

State University of New York at Buffalo

Ps 59 The Community School Of Technology

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Darryl

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

DEN02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

Now Faith Is The Substance Of Things Hoped For And Evidence Of Things Not Seen.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

9/18/1957

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken

Short Description

Broadcast journalist Darryl W. Dennard (1957 - ) , founder of Double D Productions, Inc., has hosted and anchored nationally recognized television and radio programs, including “Ebony-Jet Showcase,” “Black Enterprise Report,” “Minority Business Report,” “Good Day Chicago,” the “Steve Harvey Show,” “Morning Riot,” and the “John Hannah Morning Show."

Employment

WGRZ TV

Ebony-Jet Showcase

Ebony Man Magazine

Black Enterprise Magazine

Minority Business Report

Good Day Chicago

Know Your Heritage

WVAZ-FM

WCGI Radio

First Trace Communications

Double D Productions, Inc.

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Darryl Dennard's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Darryl Dennard lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Darryl Dennard describes his maternal family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Darryl Dennard describes his maternal family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Darryl Dennard describes spending nights at family members' homes in the South Bronx

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Darryl Dennard talks about his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Darryl Dennard describes his mother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Darryl Dennard talks about working at Pioneer Supermarket as a stock boy

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Darryl Dennard talks about his paternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Darryl Dennard describes his father and paternal grandmother

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Darryl Dennard talks about the first and second waves of The Great Migration

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Darryl Dennard describes his father's creative interests and jazz collection

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Darryl Dennard talks about how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Darryl Dennard describes his likeness to his parents

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Darryl Dennard talks about his younger sisters

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Darryl Dennard describes his extended family

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Darryl Dennard describes growing up in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Darryl Dennard describes his childhood interests and involvement with Upward Bound and College Bound

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Darryl Dennard talks about his experience in Upward Bound and College Bound

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Darryl Dennard reflects on the critical time to motivate young black boys to do well in school

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Darryl Dennard talks about his childhood jobs and hustles

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Darryl Dennard describes his New York City public school education

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Darryl Dennard recalls being exposed to Broadway and opera with the Upward Bound and College Bound programs

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Darryl Dennard describes running track in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Darryl Dennard describes taking an English class at Fordham University in the Bronx, New York while in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Darryl Dennard describes his experience at State University of New York College at Buffalo

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Darryl Dennard describes his transition to college at State University of New York College at Buffalo in Buffalo, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Darryl Dennard talks about black news commentators Max Robinson, Bob Teague and Gil Noble

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Darryl Dennard talks about his summers while growing up

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Darryl Dennard describes why he chose to attend a college outside of New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Darryl Dennard describes the communications program at Buffalo State and his focus learning the broadcast speech standards

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Darryl Dennard remembers his first day at the State University of New York College at Buffalo, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Darryl Dennard remembers his first day at the State University of New York College at Buffalo, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Darryl Dennard talks about Buffalo State's Black Student Union, named Black Liberation Front

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Darryl Dennard describes his college mentors and working for the U.S. Customs Service

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Darryl Dennard describes falling in love and adopting a religion, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Darryl Dennard describes falling in love and adopting a religion, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Darryl Dennard describes falling in love and adopting a religion, pt. 3

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Darryl Dennard describes his internship at WGRZ in Buffalo, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Darryl Dennard describes memories from his time at WGRZ

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Darryl Dennard describes his offer to host the 'Ebony/Jet Showcase'

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Darryl Dennard describes being interviewed by HistoryMaker John H. Johnson

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Darryl Dennard talks about African Americans in broadcasting

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Darryl Dennard talks about the changes in black broadcasting

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Darryl Dennard reflects on the lack of blacks in the media industry compared to the 1970s and 1980s

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Darryl Dennard talks about partiality in journalism

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Darryl Dennard talks about his time working for the 'Ebony/Jet Showcase'

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Darryl Dennard describes interviewing Michael Jackson

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Darryl Dennard talks about interviewing Oprah Winfrey

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Darryl Dennard remembers interviewing Sammy Davis at Johnson Publishing Company headquarters

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Darryl Dennard talks about the 'Ebony/Jet Showcase' and his interviewing style

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Darryl Dennard describes his journalistic philosophy

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Darryl Dennard describes his interview style

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Darryl Dennard talks about working with Deborah Crable

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Darryl Dennard talks about his family's adjustment to living in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Darryl Dennard talks about positions he held between 1991 and 1993

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Darryl Dennard talks about 'Minority Business Report'

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Darryl Dennard talks about the significance of black manufacturing companies versus vendors

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Darryl Dennard talks about 'Minority Business Report' and the significance in diverse business ownership

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Darryl Dennard talks about his work with Kennedy-King College in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Darryl Dennard talks about his production company, Double D Productions

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Darryl Dennard talks about his film, 'Heading West'

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Darryl Dennard talks about black migration to Chicago, Illinois and his film, 'Heading West'

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Darryl Dennard talks about various programs he has hosted and produced

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Darryl Dennard talks about his current projects and mentorship

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Darryl Dennard talks about youth violence

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Darryl Dennard talks about etiquette and polite society

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Darryl Dennard talks about the current state of video production

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Darryl Dennard describes his disinterest in using social media

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Darryl Dennard talks about the media organizations he's involved in and HistoryMakers Pluria Marshall, Sr. and Jr.

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Darryl Dennard talks about his wife, daughter, and grandchildren

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Darryl Dennard talks about his relationship with his in-laws

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Darryl Dennard talks about his son

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Darryl Dennard considers what he might have done differently

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Darryl Dennard considers his legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Darryl Dennard describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$5

DAStory

2$2

DATitle
Darryl Dennard describes his father's creative interests and jazz collection
Darryl Dennard describes being interviewed by HistoryMaker John H. Johnson
Transcript
Okay, now, now was your--was your father [Glenn Dennard]--did he finish school--$$I think--yeah, he graduated high school.$$Okay.$$And he used to paint and, and enjoyed music. And I remember him taking me, hanging out with him, and we--took me to the Apollo Theater [Harlem, New York City, New York] one time. And as he was at the Apollo Theater, he was backstage, you know, getting high with some of the performers. And--$$You said, said he's friends with Sonny Rollins.$$Sonny Rollins, yes--Sonny Rollins. If I mentioned the name, he, he knew my father, yes.$$And your father was an art--an artist. He was painting--$$He was painting.$$Yeah.$$He was--he was a painter.$$What kind of--(simultaneous)--$$Artist?$$--did he do? Okay.$$Abstract, things like that, you know.$$Right--(simultaneous)--$$He--and he loved music, you know. And then he also loved like informing us on history. So he would get us black history books at the time, black history coloring books that had just came out. He got me a book about Greek and Roman mythology that was a coloring book where I learned about Achilles and how Achilles was dumped in the pool. And the mother dumped him in there, and his skin in a sense became indestructible except for that one area where she held him up by his heel. And then, of course, you know that he was shot there in that heel and ended up dying, you know, so; and books of poetry; and he would also get my sister and I--my sisters [Glenda Dennard and Toya Dennard] and I--he would buy us records. And we would literally listen to--in addition to taking us to the movies--my mother [Eleanor Adamson Dennard] and father taking us to the movies--he would also have us listening to records. And then he would have us listening to jazz records. So on a Sunday, as we were still living in Manhattan [New York City, New York] at the time, and I wish we could have stayed there because if they could have bought that that would have been incredible. But we were right around 96th Street and near Amsterdam Avenue. And I remember we would walk over to Central Park, and he would have a photographer come and take pictures of us. And during that Sunday--I remember on Sundays my mother would be cooking. And they were very, very young at the time, 'cause they had us as teenagers. And I remember two songs in particular that were always played on the console stereo. And one was Dinah Washington, 'What a Difference a Day Makes.' And the other one was, was 'Song for My Father,' by Horace Silver. [Musical beats] and so, you know, I was always filled with jazz, and he had an incredible jazz collection. And--but you know, I just remember, you know, he was tied into that kind of hustle aspect of New York City. And as I got older, I would kind of hang out with him. And my cousin actually ended up spending more time with him on the hustle side. 'Cause, you know, he kind of aware--made me aware of the streets of New York and how to navigate the streets. I knew how to navigate them to a certain extent, but he also showed me how to kind of make money. And we did things legitimately, but you know, he's like hey, this is how you do this; this is--you know, we're gonna go over here; and you can open up the doors in front of Lincoln Center [for the Performing Arts, New York City, New York], and people will give you money for helping open up the door.$$Okay, okay, 'cause always--with so many people I guess it's always something to do--(simultaneous)--$$Well, it was always--$$--if you--$$--something to do--$$Okay.$$--and New York was our playground. And I think I mentioned to you before. Since my grandmother [Lucille Adamson] on my mother's side had eight children, my cousins were my surrogate brothers, so I would spend time with my cousins--my male cousins--during the summer, and they would spend time with me. And you know, we would go over there and spend maybe two weeks spent--we called it spending the night. And I would just spend two or three weeks with them, maybe even longer sometimes, maybe almost an entire month just spending time with my cousins. And then during the year, of course, on weekends get ready to go over my cousins' house and hang out with them and stuff like that. And they always had kind of different jobs, and so I would learn how to hustle the streets with them.$And, and so I remember flying into Chicago [Illinois]. I hadn't been to Chicago before. And I flew into Chicago and met with [HM John H.] Johnson, and we had an interview. It lasted all of maybe twenty minutes to a half an hour. You know, and Mr. Johnson asked me questions like, well, you know, tell me a little bit about yourself, where you're from, things of that nature. And you know, I told him who I was, and you know, they had probably already sized me up way before then--spoke maybe two or three, five minutes to, to [HM] Linda [Johnson Rice]. And I think you know, the job was paying like sixty thousand dollars or something, which would've put--three times what I was making in Buffalo [New York], plus it was--it's national job, and, and everybody knew of Johnson Publishing Company. And so, low and behold, I was gettin' ready to leave, and Mr. Johnson and Linda stepped aside for-[Osbert] Ozzie [Bruno] wasn't even--I don't even know if he was there at the time, and Ozzie is a good friend of mine. They stepped aside for maybe five minutes or so, and I waited outside their offices. And then Mr. Johnson came back and he said--said well, Darryl--and he would speak forthrightly to you--he goes you man--you know goes, "What do you think about becoming the host of my television show?" And here I am, you know, in Buffalo. And you know, so I went, "Well, Mr. Johnson, you know, could you give me a little bit of time, you know, to think about it." And he cut right into me. He said, "Think about it? What you talkin' about thinking about for? Now I'm offering you a job to leave Buffalo, New York, and you're tellin' me you gotta think about it." I said, "You know, you're right, Mr. Johnson. Yes, sir, I'll take it," (laughter). Literally, that's what he--he said, what you gotta think about leavin' Buffalo, New York for? I said, you're right, Mr. Johnson. Please forgive me. I'm sorry. I will take the job. He says okay, good, now Linda take care of that. That's exactly the way it happened, man. And I remember in my soul how I felt. 'Cause I was gonna go back home to my wife [Darlene Dennard], and we had already had my--you know, our daughter [Autumn Dennard]. And my daughter is like--it's '80 [1980], so she's about four or five years old at the time, 'cause she was born in '82 [1982], so this is '87 [1987], you know, five years old. And, and so what happened was that I told my wife I--you know, I'm driving back, and I don't think I called her or anything because there's not like cellular phones and stuff. And I remember driving back--driving out to the airport--out to O'Hare [International Airport, Chicago, Illinois], inside the express lanes, which was kind of weird for me because you know how the express lanes are divided in the middle. And then you had traffic heading one direction, and traffic heading in the opposite direction, and we were heading on the outbound traffic in the afternoon. And you know, I went back home, and my wife met me at the airport, and I said get your bags ready. We're moving to Chicago. And Mr. Johnson actually increased my salary by ten thousand dollars when he offered me the job. He didn't let me know. I accepted at, at that base salary, but he said no, pay him more.$$So this is--this is really exciting, so.$$It was a very exciting time for me. You know, I ended up--I had a beautiful going away party with all of my church members. I went to Bethesda Full Gospel Tabernacle in Buffalo, New York. And the current pastor is Bishop Michael Badger, but Michael was a contemporary of mine. And at that time the pastor was Reverend Billy White, and he's a white guy that was the pastor of this interdenominational Pentecostal church--phenomenal church in Buffalo right on Main [Street] and Utica [Street]. And, and so everybody was just like overjoyed, 'cause they would watch me on TV of course, but you know, I was very much into the ministry and so was my wife, and my buddy, Ron, and my buddy Byron--Byron Brown and Ronald Brown--no relations. But they ended up throwing me a nice little going away party. And Byron Brown became the first black mayor of Buffalo, who just got elected to his third term. And, and so we left. My wife and I we left; we packed our bags and, and came to Chicago in 1987.