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Jerome Taylor

Psychologist and Africana studies professor Jerome Taylor was born on January 26, 1940 in Waukegan, Illinois to Willie Mae Taylor and George Washington. Taylor earned his B.A. degree from the University of Denver in 1961, and his Ph.D. degree in clinical psychology from Indiana University Bloomington in 1965.

Upon graduation, Taylor received and completed a postdoctoral fellowship in child and adolescent psychology at the Menninger Clinic of Topeka, Kansas. He then served as director of the county’s Mental Health Unit from 1968 to 1969. In 1969, Taylor moved to the University of Pittsburgh, where he was named director of the Clinical Psychology Center. He went on to serve as chair of the Graduate Program in Social Psychology, and as associate professor and chair of the Department of Africana Studies at the University of Pittsburgh. In psychology, he has chaired more than twenty-five dissertation committees of African American students, a record at the University of Pittsburgh.

Taylor served as a consulting editor for the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, and has published articles in a number of scholarly journals. He has also presented his research and development activities at numerous institutions of higher learning, including Howard University, Hampton University, Florida A & M University, Princeton University, Yale University, and Oxford University.

Originally conceived in 1970, Taylor founded the Institute for the Black Family at the University of Pittsburgh and the Center for Family Excellence, Inc. in 1988, which serves Allegheny County, and went on to serve as its executive director, president and founder. The Center for Family Excellence, Inc. has received the Alfred W. Wishart Jr. Award, and its violence prevention program has been rated as the best in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

Taylor’s awards include the University of Pittsburgh Chancellor’s Distinguished Public Service Award; University of Pittsburgh Black Alumni Pioneer in Civil Rights Award; the Distinguished Research Award from the International Association of Black Psychologists; the Kujichagulia Award from the Sankofa Institute of Pittsburgh; and the Norman Dixon Award for Outstanding Black Faculty Member. Taylor is a member of the Association of Black Psychologists and the National Institute of Black Child Development.

Jerome Taylor was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 10, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.168

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/10/2014

Last Name

Taylor

Maker Category
Schools

University of Denver

Indiana University

First Name

Jerome

Birth City, State, Country

Waukegan

HM ID

TAY15

State

Illinois

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Pennsylvania

Birth Date

1/26/1940

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Pittsburgh

Country

USA

Short Description

Psychologist and africana studies professor Jerome Taylor (1940 - ) served as director of the Clinical Psychology Center, chair of the Graduate Program in Social Psychology, and associate professor and chair of the Department of Africana Studies at the University of Pittsburgh. Taylor also established and served as executive director, president and founder of The Center for Family Excellence, Inc.

Employment

Menninger Clinic

University of Pittsburgh

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology

Institute for the Black Family

Center for Family Excellence, Inc.

Harold Pates

Educator and cultural activist Harold Pates was born October 31, 1931, in Macon, Mississippi. His great aunt, raised in slavery, lost two fingers to her master for attempting to read. Pates’ parents, Amanda Beasley Pates and Squire Pates were graduates of Bolivar Training School in Mound Bayou, Mississsippi. Migrating to Chicago, Illinois, Pates attended Forestville Elementary School and DuSable High School graduating in 1948. Taught music by DuSable’s Captain Walter Dyett, Pates played with Eddie Harris, Richard Davis, John Gilmore, Jimmy Ellis and other future greats. Pates graduated from Wilson Junior College in 1952 and DePaul University with his B.A. degree in English in 1954. He earned his M.A. degree from DePaul in 1956 and received his PhD degree from the University of Chicago in 1976.

Pates taught at Fuller Elementary School and Forestville Elementary School, and was assistant principal of DuSable Upper Grade Center from 1964 to 1968. He served as a counselor at DuSable Upper Grade Center and High School and as a guidance counselor for the Hyde Park Evening School. As teacher and administrator, Pates joined Lawrence Landry, Lu and Jorja Palmer, Rev. C.T. Vivian, Lorenzo Martin, Bobby E. Wright, and others in agitating for African American concerns in the Chicago Public Schools. In 1968, he joined Loop College where he became director of the Admissions Department. Pates also taught at Loyola University, George Williams College, Northeastern Illinois University, and Concordia College. He also helped plan the first Upward Bound Program. Appointed dean of career programs at Malcolm X College in 1981, Pates moved on to Kennedy-King College as a dean in 1983. In 1986, Pates was named president of Kennedy-King College, serving until 1997. At Kennedy-King, he provided access for cultural and civic organizations and events at an unprecedented level.

Active in efforts to generate an African version of the history and culture of Africa and to infuse the black experience into the educational system, Pates was a founder of the Chicago Communiversity and the Association of African Educators with Anderson Thompson in the late 1960s. He was a founding member of the Kemetic Institute, the Association of Black Psychologists, the National Association of Black School Educators, the Black United Front, the Chicago Task Force for Black Political Empowerment, the Association for the Study of Classical African Civilizations, and the Harold Washington Institute. Recipient of numerous awards, ranging from the Chancellors Award for outstanding Leadership to the Muntu Dance Theatre’s Alyo Award, Pates currently serves on the board of the Black United Fund of Illinois and the advisory board of the Jacob H. Carruthers Center for Inner City Studies of Northeastern Illinois University. He is founding director of the All African World Virtual University. Fit, playing full court basketball into his 70s, Pates, now retired, enjoys golf and playing jazz on the cornet.

A widower, Pates has a grown daughter and son.

Accession Number

A2005.263

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/12/2005 |and| 7/10/2006

12/12/2005

7/10/2006

Last Name

Pates

Maker Category
Schools

Du Sable Leadership Academy

University of Chicago

DePaul University

Kennedy–King College

Forrestville Elementary School

Speakers Bureau

Yes

First Name

Harold

Birth City, State, Country

Macon

HM ID

PAT04

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Palm Springs, California

Favorite Quote

Ain't Nobody Right But God.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Interview Description
Birth Date

10/31/1931

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Pie (Sweet Potato)

Short Description

Cultural activist, college president, and teacher Harold Pates (1931 - ) is the former president of Kennedy-King College in Chicago. He has worked with numerous organizations dedicated to infusing the African American experience into the educational system, and is founding director of the All African World Virtual University.

Employment

Fuller Elementary School

Wisconsin Steel Mill

Forestville Elementary School

DuSable High School

Loop College

Malcolm X College

Kennedy-King College

Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Harold Pates' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Harold Pates lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Harold Pates describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Harold Pates describes his mother's family history in the A.M.E. church

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Harold Pates recalls working conditions in his maternal family's community in the South

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Harold Pates recalls traveling to Mississippi as a boy

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Harold Pates explains why his parents sent him south for the summers

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Harold Pates describes his mother's personality, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Harold Pates describes his mother's personality, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Harold Pates describes his father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Harold Pates relates his paternal family's stories from the era of slavery

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Harold Pates recalls spending summers in Macon, Mississippi as a boy

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Harold Pates describes confrontations with whites in Mississippi, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Harold Pates recalls confrontations with whites in Mississippi, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Harold Pates describes his father's community in Mound Bayou, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Harold Pates recalls his father's move from Mississippi to Chicago

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Harold Pates recalls his father's work for the post office

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Harold Pates describes his siblings

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Harold Pates describes his sister's career as an opera singer

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Harold Pates describes his earliest childhood memory, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Harold Pates describes his earliest childhood memory, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Harold Pates describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Harold Pates remembers learning to drive at the age of twelve

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Harold Pates recalls Chicago's Bronzeville neighborhood during his childhood

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Harold Pates recalls performers who lived in and visited Chicago's Bronzeville neighborhood

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Harold Pates recalls his activities as a child in Chicago's Bronzeville neighborhood

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Harold Pates describes being a paperboy in Chicago's white neighborhoods

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Harold Pates recalls running policy as a child in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Harold Pates describes influential figures in Chicago's Bronzeville neighborhood

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Harold Pates recalls famous musicians from Chicago's Bronzeville neighborhood

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Harold Pates describes the geography of his childhood neighborhood on Chicago's South Side

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Harold Pates describes his father's civil rights activism

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Harold Pates talks about systemic racial oppression

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Harold Pates recalls segregation in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Harold Pates describes racial tension in Chicago's South Side neighborhoods

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Harold Pates recalls Chicago's political machine in Bronzeville

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Harold Pates recalls institutions in Chicago's Bronzeville neighborhood

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Harold Pates describes businesses in Chicago's Bronzeville neighborhood

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Harold Pates recalls a teacher at Chicago's Forrestville Elementary School

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Harold Pates describes his grade school experiences in Chicago

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Harold Pates describes his extracurricular activities during grade school

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Harold Pates recalls his childhood neighbor William Cousins, Jr.

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Harold Pates describes his favorite activities at Chicago's DuSable High School

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Harold Pates describes politically radical community groups in Chicago

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Harold Pates recalls hearing W.E.B. Du Bois and Paul Robeson speak, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Harold Pates recalls hearing W.E.B. Du Bois and Paul Robeson speak, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Harold Pates describes the social atmosphere of Chicago's DuSable High School

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Harold Pates recalls musicians who studied at Chicago's DuSable High School

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Harold Pates remembers working as a musician as a teenager

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Harold Pates recalls graduating from Chicago's DuSable High School

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Harold Pates describes working for Wisconsin Steel, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Harold Pates describes working for Wisconsin Steel, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Harold Pates describes his initial setbacks at Chicago's Wilson Junior College

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Harold Pates reflects on his father's support for his education

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Harold Pates describes his experiences at Chicago's DePaul University

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Harold Pates explains how his DePaul University degree helped him to find a job

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Harold Pates describes his academic pursuits at DePaul University

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Harold Pates recalls befriending Italian Americans at DePaul University

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Harold Pates describes his impressions of DePaul University

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Harold Pates describes his own and his brother's careers during the 1950s

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Harold Pates recalls his first position as a teacher in Chicago

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Harold Pates describes teaching at an all-girls school

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Harold Pates describes the lessons he learned early in his teaching career

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Harold Pates recalls his fellow teachers at Chicago's Fuller Elementary School

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Harold Pates recalls his concern over expulsions at Fuller Elementary School

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Harold Pates describes discrimination against black teachers in Chicago Public Schools

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Harold Pates recalls students from Chicago's Forrestville Elementary School

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Harold Pates recalls how he enjoyed teaching at Forrestville Elementary School

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Harold Pates recalls his decision to leave Forrestville Elementary School

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Harold Pates describes his disagreements with the principal of Forrestville Elementary School

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Harold Pates recalls becoming a teacher at Chicago's DuSable Upper Grade Center

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Harold Pates recalls tension between the students and teachers at DuSable Upper Grade Center

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Harold Pates describes a violent incident with a student at DuSable Upper Grade Center

Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Harold Pates recalls the overcrowding of Chicago's black schools

Tape: 11 Story: 6 - Harold Pates explains how the Willis Wagons controversy mobilized black leadership

Tape: 12 Story: 1 - Slating of Harold Pates' interview, session 2

Tape: 12 Story: 2 - Harold Pates recalls racial discrimination in Chicago's trade schools

Tape: 12 Story: 3 - Harold Pates recalls biases in the hiring of principals in Chicago Public Schools

Tape: 12 Story: 4 - Harold Pates describes working for Galeta Kaar at DuSable Upper Grade Center

Tape: 12 Story: 5 - Harold Pates talks about Reverend Dr. C.T. Vivian

Tape: 12 Story: 6 - Harold Pates recalls joining Loyola University Chicago's Upward Bound program

Tape: 12 Story: 7 - Harold Pates describes his career ambitions during the late 1960s

Tape: 12 Story: 8 - Harold Pates recalls Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination

Tape: 13 Story: 1 - Harold Pates describes tensions around integration in Chicago during the 1950s and 1960s

Tape: 13 Story: 2 - Harold Pates describes the reaction of Chicago's black community to Dr. King's death

Tape: 13 Story: 3 - Harold Pates recalls incidents that led to the Selma to Montgomery marches

Tape: 13 Story: 4 - Harold Pates recalls his experience in the 1965 Selma to Montgomery march

Tape: 13 Story: 5 - Harold Pates recalls becoming director of admissions at Chicago's Loop College

Tape: 13 Story: 6 - Harold Pates remembers black organizations in Chicago in the late 1960s

Tape: 14 Story: 1 - Harold Pates describes the influence of the University of Chicago in Chicago's Woodlawn neighborhood

Tape: 14 Story: 2 - Harold Pates recalls the rise of the Blackstone Rangers

Tape: 14 Story: 3 - Harold Pates recalls mediating between gangs in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 14 Story: 4 - Harold Pates recalls the growth of African American studies programs

Tape: 14 Story: 5 - Harold Pates recalls his involvement in the National Association for College Admission Counseling

Tape: 14 Story: 6 - Harold Pates recalls the founding of Chicago's Communiversity

Tape: 14 Story: 7 - Harold Pates recalls the rise of the Black Power movement in the late 1960s

Tape: 15 Story: 1 - Harold Pates reflects on the importance of black institutions

Tape: 15 Story: 2 - Harold Pates talks about the educational philosophy of Chicago's Communiversity

Tape: 15 Story: 3 - Harold Pates describes problems with the Eurocentric version of history

Tape: 15 Story: 4 - Harold Pates describes the structure of Chicago's Communiversity

Tape: 15 Story: 5 - Harold Pates recalls a quarrel with Sol Tax at the University of Chicago

Tape: 15 Story: 6 - Harold Pates reflects upon the mission of the Communiversity

Tape: 16 Story: 1 - Harold Pates describes his administrative tenure at Chicago's Loop College

Tape: 16 Story: 2 - Harold Pates recalls fellow faculty members at Chicago's Loop College

Tape: 16 Story: 3 - Harold Pates recalls becoming a dean of Chicago's Malcolm X College

Tape: 16 Story: 4 - Harold Pates recalls being appointed president of Chicago's Kennedy-King College

Tape: 16 Story: 5 - Harold Pates describes the politics of Kennedy-King College

Tape: 16 Story: 6 - Harold Pates recalls a negative news story about Kennedy-King College

Tape: 16 Story: 7 - Harold Pates recalls community engagement at Kennedy-King College

Tape: 17 Story: 1 - Harold Pates describes his policies as Kennedy-King College president

Tape: 17 Story: 2 - Harold Pates describes programs he introduced at Kennedy-King College

Tape: 17 Story: 3 - Harold Pates talks about plans for a new facility for Kennedy-King College

Tape: 17 Story: 4 - Harold Pates describes life after his retirement from Kennedy-King College

Tape: 17 Story: 5 - Harold Pates talks about a controversy at Kennedy-King College

Tape: 17 Story: 6 - Harold Pates reflects upon his life

Tape: 18 Story: 1 - Harold Pates describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 1

Tape: 18 Story: 2 - Harold Pates describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 2

Tape: 18 Story: 3 - Harold Pates considers contemporary leaders in the African American community

Tape: 18 Story: 4 - Harold Pates reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 18 Story: 5 - Harold Pates reflects upon his family life

Tape: 18 Story: 6 - Harold Pates talks about the importance of rejecting materialism

Tape: 18 Story: 7 - Harold Pates reflects upon the role of music in his life

Tape: 19 Story: 1 - Harold Pates describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 19 Story: 2 - Harold Pates narrates his photographs

DASession

1$2

DATape

4$16

DAStory

5$4

DATitle
Harold Pates describes being a paperboy in Chicago's white neighborhoods
Harold Pates recalls being appointed president of Chicago's Kennedy-King College
Transcript
I remember the first time I ever got afraid of a policeman. I told you I was twelve years old, I was tall. I started delivering papers in the white neighborhood; the paper branch was in the alley between Cottage Grove [Avenue] and Drexel [Avenue]. We would, I would go from 46th [Street] and Evans [Avenue], down 47th Street into this alley. There was a drugstore on the corner of 47th and Cottage Grove, it was called Orenstein's [ph.], there was also a newspaper stand right in front of it. One day I had my paper bag, 4:30 in the morning, I'm going to the paper branch. I walk down 47th Street, a white woman was coming in front of me, she saw me and ran across to the south side of 47th Street. It was a policeman standing at the newsstand, and this is one of these pivotal experiences too. I saw this lady, I knew that this lady was afraid of me, it was very clear, she went across the street and walked to the newsstand. There was a policeman at the newsstand, and I saw her doing like this, the policeman took out after me running. And I saw that, I started to run but I didn't because you know how white policemen dealt with black people at that time was no myth. I mean it was very real, I started to run but I didn't, I continued to walk, and I tried to act like I didn't know that he was coming behind me. He came up to me, right when I got in front of the Vee show, he pulled his gun out, put it up to my head and he said, "What are you doing over here?" He said, "Turn around," where my back would be to him, he put the gun up against my head, and he said, "What are you doing over here?" And I went to turn around to talk to him; he said, "If you turn around, I'll blow your head off." So I just stood there, but I said, "You see this paper bag, I'm about to go to the paper branch," but it occurred to me I can't see this man's face. If he killed me nobody will know who he is, but I wouldn't have been able to tell it anyway, you know. So I'm standing there and he's--then he cocked the gun and I thought, Crowe [Larry Crowe], I really thought I was gone then, as a young boy you know. So finally I said, "See the paper bag, see the paper bag, I'm going right back here, the paper branch is right here." So then he, I guess he took the latch off the gun and then he turned around and went on away. And there was a florist shop and when I got back in the paper branch, I thought about that because I never told any of the fellows. See back at that time, there was only one white boy working in the branch, his name was Tommy North, N-O-R-T-H, and he lived in the white community. All the rest of us who delivered papers in the white community were black. My brother [Henry Pates] delivered the papers over in five hotels which are now, which have--many of them have been replaced by 50th on the Lake [50th on the Lake Motel, Chicago, Illinois]. There was also an [U.S.] Army barracks over there that was called the [U.S.] Fifth Army, now that's important. Because in the '60s [1960s], the Fifth Army came out in the '60s [1960s] after Martin Luther King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] was killed and posted a .50 caliber machine gun right there on--this is what I saw with my eyes. Right there on Stony Island [Avenue] and 63rd Street, I guess they decided they were gonna shoot down 63rd Street. Because young people were setting 63rd Street on fire, you understand? And they didn't know what to do, so the Army--I came out that night to see, but I was, you know. This is not when I was young; this is when Martin Luther King got killed.$My presidency, I think I became president either in '86 [1986] or '87 [1987], I don't remember the exact date. And that was a very interesting experience, the presidency of Kennedy-King [Kennedy-King College, Chicago, Illinois] because my orientation for the presidency was to make sure that the pres- that the school reflected of the community and its values. And that it took the community to a higher level with respect to the offerings and with respect to, to--it operating as a resource for community development.$$Before I get, I just want to ask you did you, were you surprised when you became, when you were appointed, I mean did, you went after the job I'm sure. But, but were you, I mean how, how was the lay of the land? I mean were you assured of (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Well--$$--of being, of becoming the president at that time? Did you have, was it a done deal or what?$$Well you know no, it wasn't a done deal. It was very interesting because you see there was, within the college, the faculty council had decided on another person. I'm coming in out of the community with a community support, but also with the, with the support of the student government, who was both a part of the school and a part of the community at the same time. Well, my coming into the presidency, when the selection committee, it just so happens that members of the selection committee, the president of the selection committee--now this just so happens, the president, the chairman of the selection committee was a fellow named Mayo [ph.]; I can't remember his first name, simply because we were in third grade together in elementary school [Forrestville Elementary School, Chicago, Illinois], and when he discovered that they were searching and that they were looking at me as the president, he came to see me. He said, "[HistoryMaker] Harold Pates," he said, "do you realize that, do you realize how far we go back?" And I begin to talk, I said, "Look, I remember when we were in elementary school." We started talking about--. He says, "With your credentials," because everybody knew me in the City of Chicago [Illinois], you know, "you got to be the president over here." He says, "You got to be the president." Well, I don't know what went on in the selection committee, but the student government chairman came out one day and told me while I was in the counseling office he says, "Now Dr. Pates are you ready to be president?" I said, "Oh?" He said, "Are you ready?" I said, "Of course," and that's the way that happened.

Robert Green

Renowned educator and author Robert Green was born on November 23, 1933 in Detroit, Michigan. He attended Detroit public schools, and while at student at Sherrard Intermediate School, he was a member of the band and earned extra money by delivering telegraphs. He earned his high school diploma from Northern High School in 1952, where he was a member of the football and track teams.

In 1954, Green was drafted in the army and stationed at Letterman Army Hospital in San Francisco. While working at the hospital at night he attended San Francisco State College and earned his bachelor's of arts degree in general psychology in 1958. He went on to earn his master's in educational psychology from San Francisco in 1960. While working on his Ph.D. at Michigan State University, he was a researcher on a project examining desegregation in Prince Edward county Virginia, a school district that closed its public schools when ordered to desegregate. Green earned his Ph.D. in 1963.

Green joined the staff of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) as its National Education Director in 1965. In this position he worked closely with Dr. Martin Luther King until he left the organization in 1967. From 1968 through 1973, Green was the Director of the Center for Urban Affairs at Michigan State University. In 1973, he was named the Dean of the College of Urban Development, a position he held until 1982. From 1983 until 1985, Green was the President of the University of the District of Columbia. He would eventually return to MSU, where he currently works as an administrator and professor.

Green is the author of several books that focus primarily on the impact that poverty and racial discrimination has on American's urban populations. His writings include The Urban Challenge, Poverty and Race and Metropolitan Desegregation and Expectations: How Teacher Expectations Can Increase Student Achievement. Green has served as an expert witness in more than twenty school desegregation cases. He and wife Lettie have been married for nearly fifty years and have three grown sons.

Accession Number

A2004.095

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/14/2004 |and| 9/30/2004 |and| 10/1/2004

7/14/2004

9/30/2004

10/1/2004

Last Name

Green

Maker Category
Schools

Northern High School

Sherrard Intermediate School

Michigan State University

San Francisco State University

First Name

Robert

Birth City, State, Country

Detroit

HM ID

GRE07

Favorite Season

Thanksgiving

State

Michigan

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Favorite Quote

Take It A Day At A Time.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Nevada

Interview Description
Birth Date

11/23/1933

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Las Vegas

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Cake (Pound), Vanilla Ice Cream

Short Description

Academic administrator Robert Green (1933 - ) served as the director of the Center for Urban Affairs at Michigan State University, and later became the dean of the College of Urban Development. Green is also the former president of the University of the District of Columbia.

Employment

Letterman Army Hospital

Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)

Michigan State University Center for Urban Affairs

Michigan State University

University of the District of Columbia

Favorite Color

Blue, Gray

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Robert Green's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Robert Green lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Robert Green describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Robert Green describes his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Robert Green talks about his father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Robert Green talks about his father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Robert Green talks about lynchings in the South and his father's decision to move to Detroit, Michigan, pt.1

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Robert Green talks about lynching in the South and his father's decision to move to Detroit, Michigan, pt.2

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Robert Green describes his father's military service in France during World War I

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Robert Green describes the threats African American soldiers faced when they returned from World War I and II

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Robert Green explains his parents' move to Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Robert Green remembers violence against African Americans integrating neighborhoods of Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Robert Green talks about the impact of fear on African Americans and Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s greatest contribution

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Robert Green describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Robert Green describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Robert Green talks about his siblings and his childhood personality

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Robert Green describes his experience traveling in the South with his father as a child during the 1930s and '40s

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Robert Green recalls how his childhood prepared him for his civil rights work with Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Robert Green talks about Dwyer Elementary School and being sent to Moore School for Boys in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Robert Green reflects upon his childhood anger and describes his upbringing in the Church of God in Christ

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Robert Green talks about Sherrard Intermediate School and Northern High School in Detroit, Michigan and his relationship to his brothers

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Robert Green remembers his siblings' and his involvement in sports

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Robert Green describes how his views on religion have changed over the years and his father's church

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Robert Green talks about playing football in high school, and wrestling at San Francisco State University in San Francisco, California

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Robert Green talks about his father's focus on education and its impact on his family

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Robert Green describes his siblings' mentorship

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Robert Green recalls attending San Francisco State University in San Francisco, California while serving in the U.S. Army

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Robert Green talks about mentors at San Francisco State University in San Francisco, California

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Robert Green talks about racial discrimination he experienced while trying to obtain a school psychologist position

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Robert Green remembers meeting his wife at San Francisco State University in San Francisco, California

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Robert Green remembers being the first black Yellow Cab driver in San Francisco, California

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Robert Green talks about his wife Lettie Green's role in apprehending the Marcus baby kidnapper in San Francisco, California in 1955

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Robert Green remembers his civil rights work in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Robert Green talks about housing discrimination in East Lansing, Michigan and desegregating Big Ten Athletic Association officials

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Robert Green talks about Carlton Goodlett's influence on him in San Francisco, California

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Robert Green remembers meeting Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., pt.1

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Robert Green remembers meeting Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., pt.2

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Robert Green recalls the Meredith March Against Fear in 1966

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Robert Green remembers Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s response to a threat of assassination

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Robert Green recalls the Federal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI) harassment of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Robert Green remembers the assassinations of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Robert F. Kennedy

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Robert Green reflects upon the psychological impact of racism on civil rights leaders, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Robert Green talks about civil rights activist C.T. Vivian

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Robert Green reflects upon the psychological impact of racism on civil rights leaders, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Robert Green describes how he was affected psychologically by the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Robert Green talks about the psychological protection afforded some civil rights activists by religious faith and a strong sense of self, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Robert Green talks about the psychological protection afforded some civil rights activists by religious faith and a strong sense of self, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Robert Green describes his directorship of the Center for Urban Affairs at Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Robert Green recalls his career as a university administrator in Washington, D.C. and Cuyahoga County, Ohio

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Robert Green describes his recent work with public school districts, his current projects and the best civil rights book

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Robert Green reflects upon what people don't know about the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Robert Green talks about the meaning of militancy and the American culture of violence

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Robert Green talks about the memory of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and King's unrealized potential

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Robert Green describes his concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Robert Green talks about the Association of Black Psychologists' founders and goals

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Robert Green explains the need for African American professional organizations, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Robert Green explains the need for African American professional organizations, pt.2

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Robert Green reflects upon his life

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Robert Green reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Robert Green talks about serving as board chairman of Piney Woods School in Piney Woods, Mississippi

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Robert Green talks about his parents and tells the story of his mother meeting Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Robert Green talks about his family and his friendship with the King family

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Robert Green describes how he would like to remembered

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Robert Green narrates his photographs, pt.1

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Robert Green narrates his photographs, pt.2

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Robert Green narrates his photographs, pt.3

DASession

2$2

DATape

2$5

DAStory

8$1

DATitle
Robert Green describes his experience traveling in the South with his father as a child during the 1930s and '40s
Robert Green remembers Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s response to a threat of assassination
Transcript
My dad [Thomas J. Green] was a Pentecostal minister, so when I used to travel south with him to the annual Church of God in Christ convention, so I saw discrimination firsthand in the South. My mother [Alberta Vinson Green] would try to prevent having to seek food by cooking enough food to last us the trip from Detroit [Michigan] to Memphis, Tennessee to the annual Church of God in Christ meetings. Sometimes, she'd run out of food. And that's when I can recall my dad going to the back of restaurants, knocking on the kitchen door because in those days, most of the cooks were black. They were black. And they--when we would knock on the door, they would see us. They knew what the--the issue was food. And sometimes they would, they would talk to the owner. He would allow us to eat in the kitchen. Sometime they would not--we'd have to take the food out, and eat in the car. And sometimes, they wouldn't let the cooks give you any food at all. And that was kind of rare because that was before the protest movement so, and blacks--that status was well-defined. Growing up, I remember sometimes going with my dad into the black community, seeing the sheriff, and the sheriff always knew when you were out of town--ad out-of-towner. My dad, he knew the southern ways. My dad knew how to smile and my dad knew how to say "Sir." And so, we were trying to find the colored community, and the sheriff would direct us there. And we would sometimes go there and get food--occasionally, maybe spend the night. In those days, when you were traveling and blacks saw that you're travelers, they took good care of you. I remember that. I remember my dad being, always keeping money in his pocket, cash--because that was a route that a lot of the black ministers took. And the sheriffs knew you were coming. And I can recall one very specific, one very specific occasion in Tennessee--my dad being stopped by the sheriff. And my dad was probably traveling through town maybe ten, fifteen miles per hour. And he was--said, "Boy, you know you're speeding." And my dad would say, "Yes, sir". My dad said, "How much do you need?" He said, "What can you give me?" And my dad would give him five or ten dollars, and they'd let him go. So, that was a pattern. So, I saw this kind of activity growing up, which led me to begin early on, long before I had a Ph.D. and studied psychology, human behavior, to understand the corrupt aspect of America and how that, at the basic level--a local sheriff, shaking down a black minister from the North for five or ten dollars--how basic that is to the later corruption that we saw in America. I won't talk about Enron [Corporation].$You were talking about all the--what you learned about American race working with [Reverend] Dr. [Martin Luther] King [Jr.]. But I know there are a couple--there's one incident that I heard about where you were in a car with Dr. King, and Bernard Lee, and I think, [HistoryMaker] Andrew Young?$$James Belk. That was in--$$[HistoryMaker Reverend] James Bevel?$$Belk--$$Belk.$$James Belk owned the gas station.$$Right. Well, tell that story from the beginning.$$We were in a car--and was it Grenada [Mississippi] or Natchez [Mississippi]?$$What year is it, too? Let's give us a perspective?$$That was the year I returned to Michigan State [University, East Lansing, Michigan] or that was in '66 [1966]--$$Okay.$$--fall, and I was (unclear)--so I mean fall of '66 [1966]. We were--it was the opening of school, and we were there to assist parents in staying strong under the segregation of those schools. And I believe it was Natchez--it was Natchez or Grenada. I've got it in my notes--Natchez. And we pulled up to a Texaco station. Dr. King--in the front of the car was Coretta [Scott] King's cousin, Obie [ph.] was driving--not Obie--well, anyway, Coretta King's cousin was driving. And Dr. King was on the right side, front seat. In the back was Andrew Young, myself, and Bernard Lee who had travelled with Dr. King. And we always tried to get Dr. King to sit in the back of the car in the middle where he'd have more protection. And he would never, never do that. And so, we pull up to the light, and--it was Grenada. James Belk, owner of the gas station, saw Dr. King. He was pumping gas. He stopped pumping gas. He walked up to the car, pulled out his pistol, and put it up to Dr. King's temple. Why Bernard, why the driver, Obie--Obie was his name--didn't take off--I don't know--but everybody froze. He said, "Martin Luther King, Jr., you so and so, and so and so, I'm going to blow your f-ing brains out." Dr. King very calmly turned to him and said, "Brother, I love you." And that pistol came down. Well, of course, we all were at--probably had heart attacks in all four chambers, and we were pretty put out. See, it was-"Dr. King, we told you, you should ride in the back, you should ride in the back of the car. Look what happened." He very calmly turned to us and said, "Look, [President] John Fitzgerald [Kennedy] had the [U.S.] Army, the [U.S.] Navy, the [U.S.] Air Force, the [U.S.] Coast Guard, and the Secret Service, and they assassinated him. When they're ready for me and my time comes, I'm gone." I remember that incident. That was his response. The other thing that I remember was a meeting of the [Mississippi] Freedom Democratic Party [MFDP] in Chicago [Illinois] where Dr. King spoke. We were on our way to Washington, D.C. where he gave the keynote address at the American Psychological Association's [APA] meeting. He had been invited by [Dr.] Kenneth [B.] Clark and Tom Petty who would speak there, and I was traveling with him. And, matter of fact, my wife [Lettie Clement Green] was with us during that time. And there was a lot of shouting at Dr. King by so-called liberals, liberal blacks, and radical blacks, and liberal whites that non-violence is not going to work and why are you pressing non-violence on us? We need to, you know, be more militant in our stance against segregation. Some, some even talked about taking up arms against segregation in America, which came to have nothing to do with. And the next day--I mean, they shouted him down and it was, he was visibly annoyed by it, not shaking fearful. In the plane the next day on our way to Washington, D.C., he said, and I heard him say this to Andy Young and myself, "There's really only one place I really feel comfortable speaking today. And we said where?" He said, "In the black church in the South," and that's where he was assassinated while getting ready to go speak at a black church in the South. He was going to speak at the Church of God in Christ [Mason] Temple in Memphis [Tennessee]. That's where he was shot. So, King had--he was never afraid, but there was a growing awareness that he could be a target for assassination and we all worried about it.

Asa Hilliard, III

A professor of educational psychology, Asa Hilliard, III, was born in Galveston, Texas, on August 22, 1933. After completing high school, Hilliard attended the University of Denver, earning his B.A. degree in 1955; his M.A. degree in counseling in 1961; and his Ed.D. degree in educational psychology in 1963.

After earning his bachelor’s in psychology, Hilliard began teaching in the Denver Public School system, where he remained until 1960; that year, he began as a teaching fellow at the University of Denver, where he remained until he earned his Ph.D. Joining the faculty at San Francisco State University in 1963, Hilliard spent the next eighteen years there. While at San Francisco State, Hilliard first became department chairman, then went on to spend his final eight years as dean of education. Hilliard also served as a consultant to the Peace Corps and as superintendent of schools in Monrovia, Liberia, for two years. Departing from San Francisco State, Hilliard became a professor at Georgia State University; he served as the Fuller E. Callaway Professor of Urban Education, serving in both the Department of Educational Policy Studies and the Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education.

Hilliard was a founding member of the Association for the Study of Classical African Civilizations and served as vice president. He served as an expert witness in court testimony on several federal cases regarding test validity and bias, and was the co-developer of an educational television series, Free Your Mind, Return to the Source: African Origins. Hilliard wrote hundreds of articles on a wide variety of topics, including ancient African history, teaching strategies, and public policy. Hilliard was the recipient of the Outstanding Scholarship Award from the Association of Black Psychologists; a Knight Commander of the Human Order of the African Redemption; and the Distinguished Leadership Award from the Association of Teachers of Education.

Hilliard and his wife, Patsy Jo, raised four children.

Asa Hilliard, III, passed away on Sunday, August 12, 2007, at the age of seventy-three.

Accession Number

A2003.098

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/6/2003 |and| 6/20/2005

5/6/2003

6/20/2005

Last Name

Hilliard

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

G.

Schools

Booker T. Washington Elementary School

Whittier ECE-8 School

Cole Junior High School

University of Denver

First Name

Asa

Birth City, State, Country

Galveston

HM ID

HIL04

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Texas, Ghana

Favorite Quote

Study To Show Yourself Approved Unto God A Workman That Need Not Be Ashamed, Rightly Dividing The Word Of Truth.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Interview Description
Birth Date

8/22/1933

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Barbecue

Death Date

8/12/2007

Short Description

Educational psychology professor Asa Hilliard, III (1933 - 2007 ) was the Fuller E. Calloway Professor of Educational Psychology at Georgia State University and author of The Maroon Within Us.

Employment

Baker Junior High School

San Francisco State University

Georgia State University

Favorite Color

Blue

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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Asa Hilliard interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Asa Hilliard's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Asa Hilliard recalls his family history during and after slavery

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Asa Hilliard remembers stories of his grandfather's youth

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Asa Hilliard tells some of his father's stories

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Asa Hilliard talks about his extended family

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Asa Hilliard gives more details about his father's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Asa Hilliard discusses his mother's life

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Asa Hilliard explains his family's involvement in civil rights activism

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Asa Hilliard discusses his parents' relationship

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Asa Hilliard reflects on his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Asa Hilliard details his early education

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Asa Hilliard talks about living in Denver, Colorado as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Asa Hilliard remembers his interests in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Asa Hilliard discusses his high school teachers and experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Asa Hilliard talks about his plans after high school

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Asa Hillliard talks about his decision to study psychology

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Asa Hilliard discusses his extracurricular activities during his undergraduate education

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Asa Hilliard remembers graduate school mentors

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Asa Hilliard explains his political influences

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Asa Hilliard tells of his military service, high school teaching job and graduate school studies

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Asa Hilliard talks about his decision to work at San Francisco State University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Asa Hilliard reflects on desegregation activity in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Asa Hilliard recalls conflict over black students' demands at SFSC in the late 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Asa Hilliard talks about his experience in Liberia with the Peace Corps

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Slating of Asa Hilliard, III's interview, session 2

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about his high education in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Asa Hilliard, III remembers his teachers at Manual Training School in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Asa Hilliard, III describes Denver, Colorado

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Asa Hilliard, III remembers his teenage activities

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about his early interest in African dance

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Asa Hilliard, III describes his early experiences of social activism

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Asa Hilliard, III recalls his start at the University of Denver in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Asa Hilliard, III remembers his experiences at the University of Denver

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about the faculty at the University of Denver, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about the faculty at the University of Denver, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Asa Hilliard, III recalls being hired at San Francisco State College in San Francisco, California

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about his experiences of challenging racist theories

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about psychological theories of race

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about the book, 'Stolen Legacy' by George G. M. James

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Asa Hilliard, III remembers his introduction to African American history

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Asa Hilliard, III recalls joining a Peace Corps training project in Liberia

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about his experiences in Liberia, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Asa Hilliard, III recalls the work of Horace G. Dawson and Lula Cole Dawson

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about his experiences in Liberia, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Asa Hilliard, III reflects upon the contributions of the Peace Corps in Liberia

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Asa Hilliard, III recalls his return to San Francisco State College in San Francisco, California

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about the growth of mental health centers in the San Francisco Bay Area

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about his career at San Francisco State University

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Asa Hilliard, III recalls joining the faculty at Georgia State University in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Asa Hilliard, III recalls joining the faculty at Georgia State University in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Asa Hilliard, III remembers the creation of the Nile Valley Conference

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Asa Hilliard, III recalls the inaugural issue of The Journal of African Civilizations

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about the field of Egyptology, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about the King Tutankhamun exhibit

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Asa Hilliard, III describes the scholars of Egyptology

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Asa Hilliard, III remembers his first trip to Egypt, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about the Nubian ethnolinguistic group in Egypt

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Asa Hilliard, III remembers his first trip to Egypt, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Asa Hilliard, III describes his experiences in Daboud, Egypt

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Asa Hilliard, III recalls the creation of the African-American Baseline Essays

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Asa Hilliard, III describes the impact of the African-American Baseline Essays

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about the field of Egyptology, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about the critics of Afrocentrism

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Asa Hilliard, III describes his published works

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Asa Hilliard, III reflects upon the importance of learning and preserving cultural history

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about Afrocentrism

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Asa Hilliard, III describes his book, 'The Maroon Within Us'

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Asa Hilliard, III describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Asa Hilliard, III reflects upon his life

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Asa Hilliard, III reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Asa Hilliard, III describes his family

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about his parents' support

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Asa Hilliard, III describes his non-academic employment

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Asa Hilliard, III reflects upon his upbringing

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Asa Hilliard, III describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

1$3

DATitle
Asa Hilliard explains his family's involvement in civil rights activism
Asa Hilliard remembers graduate school mentors
Transcript
Were any of your relatives involved in organizations--?$$Yeah. NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People]. My dad [Asa Grant Hilliard, II] was involved in that. My uncles were involved and I believe my aunts were as well. Plus they started organizations. My dad began the--he was one of the founders of the [Texas] State Teachers Association for black teachers. Now he also was one of the founders--the primary founder for the nation-for the statewide student council association. Because he thought that the young people oughta' began to get their feet wet. So that they would be prepared to move on into some of these other organizations. He did work with the Urban League in Texas. And then they did just a lot of work without organizations. Without formal organizations. As--like the whole thing I was telling you about the board of trustees for the university [Texas Southern University, Houston, Texas]. But other things as well. My aunts were--they were sit--they were refusing to get up and move on bus long before Rosa Parks did that. My--one of my aunts had a threat to fight on the bus. Told the bus driver she wasn't moving anywhere, you know. And I found out a lot of women did that in other parts of the country. But yeah, they were--They were some organizations and some independent efforts that were proactive as far as civil rights kind of things.$$Okay. You were saying off-camera that your father would be considered a race man.$$Yeah.$$You were explaining that. Can you explain--?$$(Simultaneously) That was a word they used when I was a child. A race man was one who gave a large part of their time to challenging white supremacy and segregation. I had one uncle who never went to school. Well, take it back he went to fourth grade and he became the richest one in the family. He was a millionaire, you know. And used to buy us clothes every time we went--when my dad became principal [of Emmett Scott High School] in Tyler [Texas] and had to move with no money. 'Cause he was always broke. It was that uncle that went and bought him a house and then bought him a car. So he could go in without being ashamed as the principal of the high school, wouldn't have to live in poverty. So that particular uncle was a strong civil rights person. And single-handedly became a lead politician in Houston [Texas]. The mayor's, the mayor's son, I guess it was, came to the funeral and said that his dad told him that, who was also mayor, that, if you intend to do anything politically in Houston, the first person you see is Sid Hilliard. And so he said, "I did." And he said, I got, you know, overwhelmingly elected, because he was able to mobilize that kind of support for him. He was a very strong political person. And he would be called--he called himself a race man. My Uncle Robie who taught at Prairie View [Agricultural and Mechanical University, Prairie View, Texas] and also at Texas Southern [University] called himself a race man. Because they were keenly interested in injustice and, and fighters for justice. That's how they saw their function.$Had pretty good grades in undergraduate school [University of Denver, Denver, Colorado]. Not great. But, I had professors that I bonded with that became important to me later in graduate school [University of Denver].$$Now who are-were some of them and did they (unclear)?$$The--one of the key people for me was a guy named Phil Purdue. Who was a teacher educator. And he just had a personal liking for me. And I didn't remember him as being a great teacher but I guess he was for--not so much for what was taught in class, but the other things. He was the one who taught me how important it was to be in professional organizations. He said that, "You will never function effectively in education unless you participate deeply in professional organizations." So he and his wife became very close friends. His son became one of my first students when I taught both in student teaching and when I taught for my first year as a teacher in high school--South High School in Denver. His--so he was very important to me. Bernard Spilka, who was a psychologist was important in kind of a role model way. He took his class--our class to his house one time. And all I saw was books for days. And he knew what was in everyone of them. And I used to sit in his class and just wait for him to drop book titles and then I would immediately go over to the university and get those titles. You know, so I became very informed in certain areas of psychology in particular. Largely, because of his model and his teaching, you know. And I still regard him as one of the really great inspirations for me. And then the third was Frances Brush who probably more than any other did everything he could to facilitate my growth and also was a model for me. He was a philosophy professor. And later in graduate school, because of the work that I'd done in trying to understand what he was doing in philosophy, he remembered me and invited me to be one of the teachers in the honors program in philosophy for the university. And it was three years of pure heaven. You know, as far as working with him and understanding his philosophy and working with these high performing students and the challenges of having to do the reading and do the thinking and all of that, that went with that made it--made him one of the really important people. So that would be Spilka, Purdue and Frances Brush that were probably the central people in my academic career through graduate school.

Adjoa Aiyetoro

Lawyer and civic activist Adjoa Aiyetoro received an A.B. degree from Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts, in 1967, and two years later graduated from George Warren Brown School of Social Work with an M.S.W. degree. In 1978, she graduated cum laude from St. Louis University School of Law and was admitted to the Missouri Bar that year.

Aiyetoro worked as a community mental health specialist from 1970 to 1977. After obtaining her law degree, she served as staff attorney with the Civil Rights Division of the Department of Justice (1978-1982) and then as an attorney with the National Prison Project of the American Civil Liberties Union Foundation (1982-1993). As director of the National Conference of Black Lawyers (NCBL) from 1993 to 1997, she intensified its advocacy efforts and strengthened the organization's fiscal position. Her legal activism within the NCBL has included criminal justice issues, the environmental justice movement, the D.C. statehood movement, and reparations for Africans and African descendants.

A leader in the reparations movement - which seeks acknowledgment that the transatlantic slave trade, slavery and colonialism were crimes against humanity - Aiyetoro is chief legal consultant to the National Coalition of Blacks for Reparations in America (N'COBRA) and co-chairperson of the Reparations Coordinating Committee. She has also represented the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom's UFORJE (United for Racial Justice: Truth, Reparations, Restoration and Reconciliation) campaign. In 2001, she was selected by the African and African Descendants Caucus to contribute to an international presentation and declaration and program of action concerning reparations.

As a visiting professor and scholar in residence at the University of California, Santa Barbara, Aiyetoro focused on chattel slavery and its legacy and taught a seminar on reparations. She is an adjunct professor at Washington College of Law, American University, where she teaches a course on litigating reparations for African Americans. Aiyetoro has served on the board of the National Alliance Against Racist and Political Repression (NAARPR) and the Steering Committee of the National Association of Black Social Workers. She is a popular speaker at international conferences and on national and local television and radio programs. She has testified before Congress and other legislative bodies concerning issues of race, class and gender injustices within the United States.

Accession Number

A2003.165

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/23/2003

Last Name

Aiyetoro

Maker Category
Schools

Gundlach Elem.

Beaumont High School

Clark University

Washington University in St Louis

Saint Louis University

First Name

Adjoa

Birth City, State, Country

St. Louis

HM ID

AIY01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Missouri

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Interview Description
Birth Date

4/1/1946

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Ice Cream (Thai)

Short Description

Lawyer and civic activist Adjoa Aiyetoro (1946 - ) was a leader in the reparations movement, and the chief legal consultant to National Coalition of Blacks for Reparations in America. Aiyetoro also worked as the director of the National Conference of Black Lawyers on issues ranging from criminal justice to environmental justice.

Employment

United States Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division

American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)

National Conference of Black Lawyers

National Coalition of Blacks for Reparations in America

University of California, Santa Barbara

American University Washington College of Law

St.Louis Community Mental Health Department, Malcom Bliss Hospital

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Adjoa Aiyetoro's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Adjoa Aiyetoro lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes her maternal family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes her maternal family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes her father

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Adjoa Aiyetoro talks about how her parents met and her sibling

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes growing up in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes her childhood interests and activities

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes her family's civic and political involvement

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes being raised in the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes her religious views as a youth

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes her father's response to her opposing religious views

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes her grade school experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes the deep roots of her mother's family in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Adjoa Aiyetoro talks about her favorite subjects in school

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Adjoa Aiyetoro comments on not studying black history in school

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes her father's experiences with discrimination

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes the type of student she was in grade school

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes her experiences attending Gundlach School in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes her experiences attending Beaumont High School in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes watching Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech on television with her father

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes how attending Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts increased her race consciousness

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes the cultural experiences she missed because she attended a predominately white university

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Adjoa Aiyetoro talks about her black classmates at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes her social life as a student at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes how attending Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts shaped her identity

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Adjoa Aiyetoro talks about the teachers and students who influenced her as a student at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes her student activism at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes attending the George Warren Brown School of Social Work at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes her activism in the early 1970s in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes intertwining her mental health social worker and her activism

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes how the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. affected her community in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes working with the Community Mental Health Department in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Adjoa Aiyetoro talks about mental illness and the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes the conditions in the Pruitt-Igoe housing projects in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Adjoa Aiyetoro talks about enrolling at St. Louis University School of Law

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes her experiences attending St. Louis University School of Law

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes how she acquired her African name

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes her involvement in the National Conference of Black Lawyers

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Adjoa Aiyetoro comments on the term "radical"

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes her involvement with the National Alliance Against Racist and Political Repression

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes representing Geronimo Pratt

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Adjoa Aiyetoro comments on the data surrounding criminal punishment in the United States

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Adjoa Aiyetoro talks about working for the Civil Rights Division for the U.S. Department of Justice, and the American Civil Liberties Union

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Adjoa Aiyetoro recalls consulting with Tupac Shakur regarding his treatment in prison

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes representing Minnesota Judge Lajune Lange, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes representing Minnesota Judge Lajune Lange, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Adjoa Aiyetoro talks about the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes her role as the Director of Administration for the Congressional Black Caucus and serving as a university visiting professor

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes the nineteenth century Reparations Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes General William T. Sherman's Special Field Order No. 15

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes the Freedman's Bureau Act

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes the system of slavery

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Adjoa Aiyetoro talks about the legal foundations of the Reparations Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Adjoa Aiyetoro explains how the vestiges of slavery contribute to contemporary issues surrounding race and class

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Adjoa Aiyetoro talks about the people and groups who support reparations

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes how the legacy of slavery and the failure of Reconstruction shaped an oppressive American system, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes how the legacy of slavery and the failure of Reconstruction shaped an oppressive American system, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes the intricacies of reparations

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Adjoa Aiyetoro talks about the H.R. 40 Reparations Bill, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Adjoa Aiyetoro talks about the H.R. 40 Reparations Bill, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Adjoa Aiyetoro talks about the Durban 400 Conference, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Adjoa Aiyetoro talks about the Durban 400 Conference, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes the United States' withdrawal from the Durbin 400 Conference

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Adjoa Aiyetoro shares her hopes and concerns for the black community

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Adjoa Aiyetoro reflects upon her legacy, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Adjoa Aiyetoro reflects upon her legacy, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Adjoa Aiyetoro comments on oral history

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Adjoa Aiyetoro describes what she would have changed in her life

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Adjoa Aiyetoro talks about how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Adjoa Aiyetoro narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

8$4

DATitle
Adjoa Aiyetoro describes representing Geronimo Pratt
Adjoa Aiyetoro describes the nineteenth century Reparations Movement
Transcript
And you worked on the case of Geronimo Pratt, too?$$Um-hum. Um-hum. Right. I did, I did a--my primary work around Geronimo was I represented him in two appearances before the parole board. There was a decision made by his defense committee that they really wanted to begin making the parole issue a real issue. And, really presenting him as a, you know, in a way that makes it such that denying him parole raises the real contradiction in the criminal punishment system, around black, around political prisoners, black political prisoners, but also around blacks in general. It was a difficult position for Geronimo because Geronimo always felt, which he shows that he was correct, that he needed to get out of prison not through parole but through some form of exoneration. And, he felt at some point that actually attempting to get parole would be selling out him and his family. Because, it would be in some way, even if he never said it, it would be in some way a way of conceding that perhaps he was in fact a traditional prisoner that had done something wrong, whether or not he ever admitted it or not. So, that what we had to do in representing him on parole was to make sure that we didn't crossing that line. That not cross that line to say--for example, one of the things we did very strongly in both parole appearances, both in the papers that we submitted as well as in our presentation in defense of him, or in support of him, was that it was fundamentally unfair for them to require him to show remorse for crime that he had consistently said, he did not do. That he is sorry that the crime happened. He has no remorse because remorse means that he must have done it. So, that we had to do that kind of thin line because we did not want--in keeping with not only--first of all because he is as our client had a strong view that he did not want ever to have anything out there that, that would even appear as if that he was saying that he did this awful crime, which he didn't do. But, second of all, it was important from the perspective of his supporters that we, we did not want to--you know some times in activism and in radicalism, as I would call it, when you're dealing with fundamental changes, sometimes you make compromises that basically comprise your principal. You don't mean to. Sometimes you do, but many times you don't. But, you don't understand, many times we don't understand that by making this statement, you know, we may have been, we may be buying into an argument that we really are fundamentally opposed to. And, that's something we had to work very hard on in presenting the case for Geronimo and parole. We had to work very hard, because we did not at all--I mean, I read every record, I mean, I prepared myself to represent him. I read every page of his record. And, when I finished that, even though on--before I did that I had believed in his innocence. I was involved with the group, the Alliance as well as the NCBL that always supported him. Yet, it was not until I read every page of his record that I was conv--I was convinced in the bottom of my soul that this man could not have done this crime. It wasn't that he didn't do it, he didn't do it. But, he could not have done it, which was to me a different way of looking at it. Not only didn't he do it, but he could not have done it. You could not have a man that cared as much for human beings, that saved people's lives in Vietnam, that had been--had won all these medals for valor in Vietnam, that had the kind of compassion that he had for human beings. Not just black human being, but for human beings, and he could not have committed that crime. And, so in presenting him and representing him, I had to also convey that. That he couldn't admit to it because not only didn't he do it, he could not have done it, you know. So, that was, you know, fortunately for Geronimo, he did not get out on parole. He got out through, almost an exoneration. I mean, they, they had enough evidence to show that he had not gotten a fair trial. Johnnie Cochran came in on the case. He had represented him some, from very early on. He came in on the case and was able to get the--get him out and the government didn't have enough evidence to retry him.$$Okay.$How old is the struggle for reparations?$$Whoa (laughter).$$(Unclear). I wonder, did it start right after the Civil War?$$Well, if you really wanna count, David Walker's Appeal in 1929, 19--18, oh God, 1829, 1830, it started. I mean, he made the call for reparations in his appeal. I mean, he said that, you know, white folks needed to declare to the world that, you know, the inhumanities and brutalities in which they had treated black people, which is the acknowledgement aspect of reparations. And, that they had a responsibility to lift us up as he said, out of our brute state, which is the form of reparations. If you lift us up, it meant (unclear) and all of that to do that, I mean. So, if you, if you, if you look at that as the, a demand for reparations and I'm sure there were others in his community of like-minded people that believed the same. I would say, that the demand for reparations predated the end of slavery. We also know that after slavery in the 1890s, an organization was formed that called for a pension for black people who were an--ex--ex-enslaved black people, or African people or their descendants and that was the Ex-slave Mutual Bounty Pension Associ--and Pension Association. Its leaders were Callie House and Isaiah Dickerson, is two national leaders. And, they lobbied and got around 600 thousand or so people to sign on and support legislation. It was a senate bill for seven one eight that had been introduced--I'm blanking on the senator's name that introduced it--for a pension. And, they went the way of, they were pre-Marcus Garvey as I say. They were accused of mail fraud. There was a ten-year investigation. Nothing they could come--the government could come up with except looking at this poster where they solicited twenty five cents for people to support their work. And, they decided to use that as a charge for mail fraud, itself for fraudulent charge. Callie House spent about two years or so in prison. When she got out of prison, she didn't stop her demand for reparation. She raised money to fund a lawsuit that was filed here in Washington, D.C. seeking reparations.$$This was in 1800?$$This was--no, this was in the early 1900 by now, you know. 'Cause the organization was formed in like the first documents I saw were like 1896. So, let's say it might have been formed a couple of years earlier. But, the first documents I saw were dated 1896. So, that's kind of the precursor. So, the demand is as long as, as at least, I would say, from the 1830s. That began the demand with David Walker for some form of reparation.

Na'im Akbar

Publisher, psychologist, psychology professor, and public speaker Na'im Akbar was born on April 26, 1944, in Tallahassee, Florida. Originally given the name Luther Benjamin Weems, Jr., Akbar changed his name in 1971, after joining the Nation of Islam. Akbar attended the Florida A & M University Laboratory School from grades K-12, graduating in 1961. Akbar attended the University of Michigan for the completion of his B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. degrees in psychology.

Prior to attending the University of Michigan, Akbar lived within a completely African American social environment. His freshman year of college marked the first time that he had real contact with whites. At the University of Michigan, Akbar was active with the Black Action Movement (BAM) strike that closed down classes for three weeks during the late 1960s. After receiving his Ph.D., Akbar accepted a position in the psychology department at Morehouse College in Atlanta. There, he instituted Morehouse's first Black psychology course and eventually developed probably the first Black psychology program at a Historically Black College or University. Within two years, he became chair of the department.

Akbar left Morehouse after five years to work with the Nation of Islam's headquarters in Chicago to start their Office of Human Development. After two years, Akbar joined the faculty of Norfolk State University, again instituting courses in black psychology. In 1979, Akbar accepted a faculty position at Florida State University. In 1971, Akbar became active with the Association of Black Psychologists, the largest Black mental health professional organization in the world. He has served on the association's board for numerous terms and was elected its president in 1987. The association has bestowed all of its most prestigious awards on Akbar due to his professional contributions.

Akbar continues to teach a specialized course on the psychology of the African American at Florida State University. In the late 1980s, he formed his own publishing company, Mind Productions, and private consulting company, Na'im Akbar Consultants, to bring his teaching to a wider audience.

Accession Number

A2002.048

Sex

Male

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date
4/22/2002
Last Name

Akbar

Maker Category
Schools
FAMU Developmental Research School
University of Michigan
Hampton University
Speakers Bureau

No

Archival Photo 2
First Name

Na'im

Birth City, State, Country

Tallahassee

HM ID

AKB01

Favorite Season

Fall

Speaker Bureau Notes

The state of his health prevented him from participating.

Sponsor

Knight Foundation

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Accra, Ghana

Favorite Quote

This too shall pass.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Interview Description
Birth Date

4/26/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Tallahassee

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Cauliflower, Okra

Short Description

Psychology professor and publisher Na'im Akbar (1944 - ) pioneered the African-centered approach to psychology and founded one of the first Black psychology programs in the United States at Morehouse College.

Employment
Miner, Barnhill & Galland
Norfolk State University
Florida State University
Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Gold

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Na'im Akbar Interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Na'im Akbar's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Na'im Akbar's parents' names

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Na'im Akbar shares memories of his maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Na'im Akbar shares memories of his maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Na'im Akbar shares memories his paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Na'im Akbar shares memories of his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Na'im Akbar talks about his father

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Na'im Akbar discusses his parents' first meeting

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Na'im Akbar discusses his aunt

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Na'im Akbar shares his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Na'im Akbar remembers his childhood household

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Na'im Akbar as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Na'im Akbar shares memories of Tallahassee, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Na'im Akbar discusses his neighborhood's mentors and role models

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Na'im Akbar remembers his childhood paper route

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Na'im Akbar discusses the influences of his childhood community

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Na'im Akbar discusses the role of schools in his community

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Na'im Akbar remembers an childhood emphasis on education

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Na'im Akbar remembers his childhood teachers and coaches

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Na'm Akbar discusses additional father figures

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Na'im Akbar as a student

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Na'im Akbar discusses his elementary and high school extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Na'im Akbar discusses skills gained through childhood activities

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Na'im Akbar discusses the 1956 Tallahassee Bus Boycott

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Na'im Akbar explains the early history of Tallahassee's black neighhorhoods, Frenchtown and Smokey Hollow

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Na'im Akbar explains his understanding of the 1956 Tallahassee Bus Boycott as a teenager

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Na'im Akbar remembers reactions of Tallahassee's black community to demonstrations

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Na'im Akbar reflects on his community's fear of retaliation

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Na'im Akbar describes his fear of the white response to the demonstrations

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Na'im Akbar remembers lessons of needing to staying in one's place

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Na'im Akbar reflects on his admission to the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Na'im Akbar reflects on competing with whites in an academic environment

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Na'im Akbar discusses the race relations at Michigan universites in early 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Na'im Akbar comments on the resistance to legitimize Black Studies

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Na'im Akbar discusses his decision to major in psychology

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Na'im Akbar remembers his research mentors at the University of Michigan

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Na'im Akbar discusses his mentor, Dr. Howard Wolowitz

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Na'im Akbar reflects on the 1960s and its influence on his research

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Na'im Akbar confronts his own feelings of racial inferiority

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Na'im Akbar discusses his dissertation

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Na'im Akbar joins the Association of Black Psychologists

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Na'im Akbar talks about his birth name

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Na'im Akbar remembers his first academic job search

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Na'im Akbar discusses his experiences at Morehouse College

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Na'im Akbar's introduction to the Nation of Islam

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Na'im Akbar joins the Nation of Islam

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Na'im Akbar describes the reactions of the Morehouse College community to his joining the Nation of Islam

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Na'im Akbar explains the correlation between the Nation of Islam's teaching and Black Psychology

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Na'im Akbar describes the development of African Psychology

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Na'im Akbar moves to Chicago, Illinois to work for the Nation of Islam

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Na'im Akbar discusses working with the Nation of Islam in Chicago

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Na'im Akbar meets and marries his wife

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Na'im Akbar joins the faculty at Norfolk State University

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Na'im Akbar joins the faculty at Florida State University

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Na'im Akbar's exposure in the media

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Na'im Akbar discusses academia's response to Black Psychology

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Na'im Akbar discusses the Association of Black Psychologists

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Na'im Akbar describes the need for continued growth of Black Psychology

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Na'im Akbar discusses the black community's view of Black Psychology

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Na'im Akbar describes the practical use of Black psychologists

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Na'im Akbar discusses cultural differences among blacks and whites

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Na'im Akbar discusses the Black Church and Black Psychologists

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Na'im Akbar discusses the difference between Eurocentric and Afrocentric Psychology

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Na'im Akbar's hopes and concerns for the black community

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Na'im Akbar describes his legacy and how he wants to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar and Father on Toledo, Ohio Beach (1958)

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar (Luther Weems, Jr) as High School Senior (1961)

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar wih Dr. Art Mathis and Nigerian Psychologist at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria (1973)

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar with Rev. Herbert Alexander (1987)

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar (Luther Weems, Jr) at Eight Years Old on Easter Sunday (1952)

Tape: 7 Story: 11 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar and Daughter, Shaakira, at Elmina Slave Castle in Ghana, West Africa (1995)

Tape: 7 Story: 12 - Photo -- Shaakira Akbar with Maternal Grandparents in Ghana, West Africa (1995)

Tape: 7 Story: 13 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar with Mother, Bessie; Father, Luther; and Aunt, Eunice (1965)

Tape: 7 Story: 14 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar with Wife, Renee, and Children, Shaakira, Tareeq, and Mutaqee (circa 1987)

Tape: 7 Story: 15 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar with Minister Louis Farrakhan in Accra, Ghana (1995)

Tape: 7 Story: 16 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar with Drs. John Henrik Clarke and Asa Hilliard at the University of Louisville (circa 1998)

Tape: 7 Story: 17 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar (Luther X) (1973)

Tape: 7 Story: 18 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar at the Temple of Edfu, Upper Egypt (circa 1985)

Tape: 7 Story: 19 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar with Sons, Tareeq and Mutaqee, at Cape Coast Slave Castle, Ghana (1996)

Tape: 7 Story: 20 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar with Tony Brown and Drs. A. Hilliard, M. Asante, M. Karenga, L. James Myers, F. Cress Welsing (1995)

Tape: 7 Story: 21 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar "Instooled" as Development Chief in Abono Village, Ghana (1995)

Tape: 7 Story: 22 - Newspaper Photo -- Na'im Akbar with Dick Gregory, Tyrone Brooks and Dr. Ralph Abernathy in Selma, AL (1976)

Tape: 7 Story: 23 - Newspaper Photo -- Na'im Akbar with Khalilah Ali in Chicago, IL

Tape: 7 Story: 24 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar Speaking at the Million Man March in Washington, D.C. (10/16/1995)

Tape: 7 Story: 25 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar Pouring Libation at Inauguration of Tougaloo College President, Dr. Adib Shakir (5/13/1989)

Tape: 7 Story: 26 - Photo -- Na'im Akbar (Luther Weems, Jr.) on Senior Prom with Joan Bailey (1961)

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$6

DAStory

6$1

DATitle
Na'im Akbar describes the development of African Psychology
Na'im Akbar discusses working with the Nation of Islam in Chicago
Transcript
Was there any written books or anything, you can pull from to see, the way you were about to go and move psychology?$$No, we were invent -- we were inventing it as we went along. I wanted to come back to mention to you again this, these people who, who became really kind of key in terms of this whole scholarly development that became, what we call African Psychology. One of those people was my, my very good friend who I met, Phil McGee, who became my kind of connection with the Stanford [University, Stanford, California] group. And Stanford was where Cedric Clark was, who I mentioned to you. And their graduate student was Wade Nobles. Now, Wade Nobles was finishing a graduate degree in psychology at Stanford University. Through my connection with Phil, the four of us became kind of the Africanist group in the Association of Black Psychologists. So each year at their conventions, you know, we would do a major kind of presentation and dealing with this whole kind of redefinition of black people as basically African people. And to begin to somehow talk about psychology within the context of us continuing an African way of life as opposed to being deviations from a European way of life. And Cedric and I were very much directly influenced by the Nation [of Islam] in our thinking. And both Phil and Wade, who never joined the Nation, were also very much influenced by those kinds of ideas. In fact, Wade's wife became an active member of Nation for a period of time. And so all of that became very much a part of the way that we began to sort of like develop this whole kind of paradigm of what became kind of Africentric psychology. Interestingly, Dr. Molefi Asante some years later did the first book on Afrocentricity and he mentioned at the very beginning of the book that like, you know, this whole kind of notion of beginning to think of black scholarship from an African context with that whole paradigm shift where we began to see the world from our center, whether it's economics, whether it's art, whether it's theater, whether it's literature, whether it's psychology, whatever it is, to think of it from our center. He sort of like, he, he referenced the black psychologists, the African psychologists as having, you know, sort of started that paradigm. And he had reference to the work that, you know, the four of us had done. We did a paper back in, in -- it was actually published in first issue of the 'Journal of Black Psychology.' It was called "Voodoo or IQ: An Introduction to African Psychology." And we really kind of laid out -- the four of us, Phil McGee, Wade Nobles, Cedric Clark and myself, laid out the perimeters of this like paradigm of beginning to think of the world, you know, from this kind of Africentric, you know, point of view, and the, the work we began to do. So Wade coming in experimental psychology, he began to get research grants to study the black family. And to study the black family, not as a deviant European family, but as an African family. So he began to look at notions like the extended family system. He began to look at things about the role of spirituality in the black family. And he began to look at how, when that family was working well, people performed better in schools, staying away from socially deviant kinds of behaviors. So he began to like empirically demonstrate that when black people acted consistent with being African, we didn't -- we (unclear), we had more successful lives. You know, I began to sort of write much more in terms of the whole kind of importance of us understanding who we were as a means of finding mental health, you know.$Tell me about your experiences in Chicago [Illinois] when you go there to become, to work directly within the Nation of Islam?$$The first year was really exciting. I mean I -- because all these people came, Sonia Sanchez was in the Nation [of Islam]. She came there. Minister [Louis] Farrakhan was moved out to Chicago, so he was working there. So I was able to begin to interact with all of the major leadership of the Nation of Islam, Muhammad Ali was, you know, very active at the Nation at that point. Khalilah Ali, who he was still married to at the time, was very active around -- so all these people who had been sort of icons, like for the black community as a whole and certainly for the Nation, became my colleagues. We were all kind of working together. What happened, however, like shortly after the first year I was in Chicago, it really became fairly clear that the real agenda that Imam Wallace Muhammad had was to really kind of transform the Nation primarily into an Orthodox religious movement. And to really kind of de -- de-culturalize its, its impact. So, the move he began was to get rid of the businesses, really the schools themselves began to -- he closed the schools down in most parts of the country and eventually kind of phased out the schools altogether. And basically to convert the Nation from being like a, kind of like a social, cultural movement to being exclusively a religious movement. And, and this was very different from what we'd expected. However, during the beginning of that year, like, you know, we began to do some of the things that I indicated in terms of writing those pamphlets and things like that. And by the end of two years, it was much that the Nation was going in another direction altogether, you know. So those of us who had moved to Chicago, one, one very brilliant man who was a lawyer out of Richmond [Virginia], his name was Sa'ad -- well his name Gerard X. Green he became Sa'ad El-Amin, who subsequently became a city councilman and major prosecutor and a judge out of Richmond when he went back. But he'd moved to Chicago, two or three accountants from PriceWaterhouse out of New York [New York] had moved to Chicago. So we brought together this kind of brain trust of people who were kind of like parts of various [Black] Muslim communities around the country, parts of the Nation who (unclear) like, the (unclear) all centered there in Chicago. But it didn't go the direction, you know, that we had anticipated. But it was be -- it, it, it introduced me to a national network of people, number one. And it began to give exposure to the ideas that I'd been working with on a national basis as well because my articles were in the national newspaper of 'Muhammad Speaks.' I did the -- I, I published the first little pamphlets, the first one being, I think, 'The Community of Self' and then which I subsequently revised. And then a couple of others that I did as well which became like these little readable pamphlets that people could use to begin to develop and understand their psychology as black people. So that was the start of the work that, you know, subsequently I, I expanded much later on. So I spent those two years there. After finding out that the Nation was really not going to go that kind of way, really going much more to a religious movement, then I went to back to work at Norfolk State [University, Norfolk, Virginia].