The Nation’s Largest African American Video Oral History Collection Mobile search icon Mobile close search icon
Advanced Biography Search
Mobile navigation icon Close mobile navigation icon

Charles J. Hamilton, Jr.

Lawyer Charles J. Hamilton, Jr. was born on October 16, 1947 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to Geraldine Alma Taylor and Charles Jordan Hamilton, Sr. He received his A.B. degree in government from Harvard College in 1969; and then received a Henry Russell Shaw Fellowship to study at the Doxiadis Institute in Athens, Greece. In 1975, Hamilton obtained his J.D. degree from Harvard Law School, where he served on the Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review. He also received his M.C.P. degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

From 1983 to 2000, he served as partner at the law firm of Battle Fowler, LLP before joining the law firm of Paul Hastings Janofsky & Walker, LLP following the firm’s merger with Battle Fowler. Hamilton specialized in real estate development and finance, government finance, corporate governance, media and non-profit organizations. In 2010, Hamilton became senior counsel in the New York office of the law firm of Windels Marx Lane & Mittendorf, LLP. Throughout his career, he represented the NAACP Legal Defense Fund; the National Urban League, Inc.; Equity Office Properties Trust; Millennium Partners, L.P.; McFarlane Partners, LLC; Fannie Mae in American Communities Fund; Bessemer Trust Company; and Casden Properties, Inc. He served as outside general counsel to Essence Communications, Inc. and the Freedom National Bank of New York, and special counsel to the Apollo Theater Foundation, Inc.; the Studio Museum in Harlem; the New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation; and the Palau Mission to the United Nations. Hamilton was also an impartial arbitrator to the New York City Transit Authority and special fiscal counsel to the New York City Board of Education. In addition, he served on the faculty of the Practicing Law Institute’s program in Commercial Real Estate Financing.

In 2010, Hamilton was named chair of the board of directors of the Harlem School of the Arts. He has served on the boards of the Environmental Defense Fund, the Hudson River Foundation, the National Visionary Leadership Project, the Phoenix House Foundation, Inc., Granite Broadcasting Corporation, the Harvard Club of New York City, and the Ethical Culture Fieldston School. Hamilton was also on the Harvard College Board of Overseers’ Visiting Committee to the College and the Public Policy Committee of the board of directors of The Advertising Council, Inc. Additionally, he was a trustee of the Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, the Harvard Law School Association of New York City, Inc., and the Interest on Lawyer Account Fund of the State of New York.

Hamilton has received numerous awards throughout his career, including being named one of New York’s Most Powerful Lawyers by New York magazine in 1999, the W.E.B. DuBois Medal for Academic Leadership from Harvard University in 2000, named one of America’s Top Black Lawyers by Black Enterprise in 2003, and the National Urban League, Inc. Collins Award in 2006.

Charles J. Hamilton, Jr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 27, 2019.

Accession Number

A2019.023

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/27/2019 |and| 6/19/2019

Last Name

Hamilton

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

J.

Occupation
Schools

Crescent Elementary School

Westinghouse Academy

Harvard University

Harvard Law School

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

First Name

Charles

Birth City, State, Country

Pittsburgh

HM ID

HAM06

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

St. Thomas

Favorite Quote

Let's Get Busy

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

10/16/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Favorite Food

Steak Salad

Short Description

Lawyer Charles J. Hamilton, Jr. (1947 - ) served as senior counsel at the law firm Windels Marx Lane & Mittendorf, LLP and as partner at the law firms of Battle Fowler, LLP and Paul Hastings Janofsky & Walker, LLP.

Employment

Pillsbury , Madison, & Sutro

Battle Fowler, LLP

Paul, Hastings, Janofsky & Walker, LLP

Windels Marx Lane & Mittendorf, LLP

Favorite Color

Green

Philip Hart

Civic leader and professor Philip Hart was born on June 12, 1944 in Denver, Colorado to Murlee Shaw Hart and Judson Hart. He received an athletic scholarship to attend Colorado College and transferred to the University of Colorado Boulder where he received his B.A. degree and graduated with honors as a student athlete in 1966, and was later inducted into the University’s Distinguished Alumni Gallery in 1995. He received his M.A. degree in social psychology and his Ph.D. degree in sociology from Michigan State University in 1974. There, Hart worked for the Greater Lansing Urban League and the Center for Urban Affairs.

In 1966, Hart joined the staff of the Office of Economic Opportunity in Washington, D.C. In 1971, he was recruited to lead the Joint Center for Inner City Change located in Boston's Roxbury neighborhood. Hart then served as superintendent of the Federation of Boston Community Schools. In 1974, Hart cofounded the College of Public and Community Service at the University of Massachusetts Boston. From 1974 to 2002, Hart served as a professor of sociology, department chairman and director of the William Monroe Trotter Institute for the Study of Black Culture.

In 1980, Hart along with business partner Marvin Gilmore, Jr. developed CrossTown Industrial Park in Roxbury with Fortune 500 technology company Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) as anchor tenant. In 1989, they repurposed an industrial building across from the DEC plant into a biotechnology facility with Boston University School of Medicine as anchor tenant and partner. This partnership led to the creation of BioSquare, Boston's premiere biotechnology business park. In 2016, Hart as a member of the Los Angeles Biosciences Coalition developed a plan to expand the biotechnology industry cluster in LA County similar to Hart's work in inner city Boston.

In addition, Hart wrote and produced children’s books and documentary films including the 1987 PBS documentary film Flyers: In Search of a Dream based on the history of his maternal great uncle, James Banning, who was one of the nation's first African American aviators. His children's book Flying Free: America's First Black Aviators was named a 1992 Notable Children's Trade Book in Social Studies. He also appeared in documentaries about early African American aviators Black Aviators: Flying Free and Black Wings. He authored, Early African American Aviators, and along with his wife, created and produced Dark Passages a documentary about the Atlantic slave trade. The Harts also wrote, produced and directed the three-hour nationally syndicated radio documentary Ray Charles: The Music Lives On.

In 1990, Hart and his wife moved to Los Angeles and joined West Angeles Church of God in Christ. In 1995, Hart joined the West Angeles Church building committee whose charge was to plan and construct the 5,000-seat West Angeles Cathedral in South Los Angeles. In 1996, he was named project manager for the Cathedral project which was dedicated in April 2001.

Hart and his wife, Tanya Hart, have one daughter, Ayanna Hart Beebe

Philip Hart was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 19, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.159

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/19/2017

Last Name

Hart

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

Gilpin Montessori School

East High School

Columbine Elementary School

McAuliffe International School

Colorado College

University of Colorado Boulder

Michigan State University

First Name

Philip

Birth City, State, Country

Denver

HM ID

HAR51

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Colorado

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard

Favorite Quote

God Is Good All The Time.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

7/12/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Barbecue (Ribs)

Short Description

Civil leader and professor Philip Hart (1944 - ) taught at the University of Massachusetts, Boston College of Public and Community Service and authored fourteen books.

Employment

U.S. Postal Service

Office of Economic Opportunity

University of Massachusetts Boston

Greater Lansing Urban League

Center for Urban Affairs

Joint Community-University Center for Inner City Change

Federation of Boston Community Schools

Favorite Color

Red And White

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Philip Hart describes his father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Philip Hart remembers the musicians who frequented Al Hart's Barbeque in Salina, Kansas

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Philip Hart remembers visiting his paternal relatives in Wildersville, Tennessee

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Philip Hart describes his father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Philip Hart describes his parents' education and professions

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Philip Hart describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Philip Hart talks about his parents' experiences at the University of Kansas in Lawrence, Kansas

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Philip Hart describes his parents' move to Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Philip Hart recalls his experiences in the integrated Denver Public Schools

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Philip Hart talks about segregation in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Philip Hart describes his father's career at the Denver Housing Authority

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Philip Hart remembers George L. Brown and Sonny Liston

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Philip Hart remembers his classmates at East High School in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Philip Hart describes his elementary school experiences in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Philip Hart describes his early interest in athletics

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Philip Hart remembers his teachers in the Denver Public Schools

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Philip Hart talks about his early athletic career

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Philip Hart describes his family life in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Philip Hart remembers his parents' discipline

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Philip Hart describes his basketball career at Colorado College in Colorado Springs, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Philip Hart recalls his position at the Office of Economic Opportunity

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Philip Hart describes his involvement in civil rights activities

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Philip Hart talks about his interracial relationships

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Philip Hart talks about his student activism at Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Philip Hart recalls his U.S. military deferment from the Vietnam War

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Philip Hart describes his graduate thesis on decision making

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Philip Hart describes his decision to move to Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Philip Hart talks about his role at the Federation of Boston Community Schools

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Philip Hart describes his early experiences as an administrator

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Philip Hart talks about his teaching career at the University of Massachusetts Boston

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Philip Hart remembers building a facility for the Digital Equipment Corporation in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Philip Hart recalls developing the BioSquare center in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Philip Hart talks about his article, 'Planning for a Racially Diverse America'

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Philip Hart talks about the redevelopment of urban communities of color

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Philip Hart describes his role in the biotechnology industry

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Philip Hart recalls his early research on African American aviators

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Philip Hart describes his research on the history of African American aviators

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Philip Hart talks about William J. Powell

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Philip Hart talks about the Bessie Coleman Aero Club and James Banning

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Philip Hart talks about his daughter

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Philip Hart describes his brothers' careers

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Philip Hart describes his plans for the future

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Philip Hart talks about the West Angeles Church of God in Christ in Los Angeles, California, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Philip Hart talks about the West Angeles Church of God in Christ in Los Angeles, California, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Philip Hart talks about his mother's career in the Denver Public Schools

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Philip Hart recalls his family's musical activities

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Philip Hart reflects upon his parents' legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Philip Hart reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Philip Hart reflects upon his life

Samuel Howard

Corporate executive Samuel Houston Howard was born on May 8, 1939 in Marietta, Oklahoma to Houston and Nellie Gaines Howard. Howard received his B.S. degree in business administration from Oklahoma State University in 1961, and his M.A. degree in economics from Stanford University in 1963.

From 1963 to 1967, Howard worked as a financial analyst with General Electric Company. In 1966 and 1967, he served as a White House Fellow and assistant to U.S. Ambassador Arthur Goldberg. From 1967 to 1968, Howard worked as director of educational computer services at Howard University and as a consultant to the U.S. Health, Education, and Welfare Department. He was then named vice president of finance, secretary and treasurer of TAW International Leasing Corporation, where he worked from 1968 until 1972. In 1972, he founded and served as chairman, president and CEO of Phoenix Holdings, Inc. and Phoenix Communications Group, Inc., which owned and operated broadcasting properties in Tennessee, Kansas and Mississippi.

Howard was hired as vice president of finance and business at Meharry Medical College in 1973. He then joined Hospital Affiliates International, Inc. as vice president of planning of the INA Health Care Group in 1977, and was promoted to vice president and treasurer in December of 1980. Howard was hired by Hospital Corporation of America (HCA) as vice president and treasurer in 1981, and was promoted to senior vice president of public affairs in October of 1985. He resigned from HCA in 1988 in order to chair Phoenix Holdings, Inc. fulltime. In 1993, Howard became chairman, president and CEO of Xantus Corporation, an investor owned company that owns and operates health maintenance organizations.

Howard has been a member, board director or committee member of numerous organizations, including Southeast Community Capital; Nashville Electric Service; National Association of Corporate Directors; Nashville Chamber of Commerce; Federation of American Health Systems; Financial Executives Institute; National Easter Seal Society; National Urban League; Leadership Nashville Foundation; Project Reflect, Inc.; National Conference of Christians & Jews, Inc. (NCCJ); and United Way, among others. Howard was founder and director of 100 Black Men of Middle Tennessee, chairman of the board of the Urban League of Middle Tennessee, and trustee of Fisk University. He served on the Governor’s TennCare Roundtable in 1995 and the Boy Scouts Inner City Task Force Committee in 1988.

Howard was inducted into the Oklahoma State University School of Business Hall of Fame in 1983, and received the 1980 and 1984 Federation of American Hospitals President's Achievement Award. In 1994, he received the Nashville NAACP Branch Image Award for Lifetime Achievement and the NCCJ Human Relations Award. Howard received the Outstanding CEO Award among the 100 largest privately-held businesses in Nashville in 1997 and the Nashville Business Journal's 1995 Small Business Executive of the Year Award. He was honored as Nashvillian of the Year in 1998 by the Easter Seal Society of Tennessee and as Philanthropist of the Year in 1997 by the National Society of Fundraising Executives. In 2010, Howard received the White House Fellows John W. Gardner Legacy of Leadership Award.

Howard is the author of The Flight of the Phoenix: Thoughts on Work and Life, published in 2007.

Samuel H. Howard was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 24, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.031

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/24/2014

Last Name

Howard

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Houston

Occupation
Schools

Oklahoma State University

Stanford University

Douglass School

First Name

Samuel

Birth City, State, Country

Marietta

HM ID

HOW06

Favorite Season

None

State

Oklahoma

Favorite Vacation Destination

Virgin Islands

Favorite Quote

There Is No Traffic On The Extra Mile.$A Good Name Is Better To Be Chosen Than All The Riches Of The World.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Tennessee

Birth Date

5/8/1939

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Brentwood

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Corporate executive Samuel Howard (1939 - ) was the founder of Phoenix Holdings, Inc. and Phoenix Communications Group, Inc., and the author of 'The Flight of the Phoenix: Thoughts on Work and Life.'

Employment

General Electric Company

United States Government

Howard University

U.S. Health, Education, and Welfare Department

TAW International Leasing Corporation

Phoenix Holdings, Inc.

Phoenix Communications Group

Meharry Medical College

Hospital Affiliates International, Inc.

Hospital Corporation of America

Xantus Corporation

Favorite Color

Black and Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:640,16:896,21:1152,26:1600,34:2304,48:2880,58:9234,136:14330,195:16719,226:18982,280:35742,434:36326,444:37494,473:52030,702:54736,762:74111,1055:75851,1104:77156,1119:77852,1129:80636,1179:85405,1265:85673,1271:94718,1462:110684,1682:125627,1916:128585,1956:131804,1974:132634,1983:133132,1990:136307,2020:138265,2115:167964,2546:169950,2562:171340,2603$0,0:11556,127:34502,447:41270,544:41702,552:42134,559:43790,578:44222,585:46310,651:46670,700:48254,741:50414,784:54020,792:55444,914:82340,1111:102272,1290:102706,1299:107552,1360:111030,1395:111606,1404:113948,1413:119545,1473:124914,1608:125278,1613:138733,1763:139703,1776:147903,1884:150476,1980:154010,2030:160130,2242:164560,2284:165012,2289:174500,2503:177944,2546:178846,2563:183835,2620:184119,2625:192326,2750:193732,2779:199123,2842:199549,2849:200117,2859:216620,3039
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Samuel Howard's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Samuel Howard lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Samuel Howard describes his mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Samuel Howard remembers his mother's Christian faith

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Samuel Howard talks about the African American community in Oklahoma

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Samuel Howard describes his mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Samuel Howard describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Samuel Howard remembers his home life in Lawton, Oklahoma

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Samuel Howard describes his early experiences of religion

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Samuel Howard lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Samuel Howard describes his neighborhood in Lawton, Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Samuel Howard remembers segregation in Lawton, Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Samuel Howard describes the black business district in Lawton, Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Samuel Howard describes his employment during high school

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Samuel Howard remembers his teachers at the Douglass School in Lawton, Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Samuel Howard remembers his start at Oklahoma State University in Stillwater, Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Samuel Howard remembers paying for his education at Oklahoma State University

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Samuel Howard remembers his experiences at Oklahoma State University

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Samuel Howard talks about race relations in Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Samuel Howard remembers his activities at Oklahoma State University

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Samuel Howard talks about his success at Oklahoma State University in Stillwater, Oklahoma

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Samuel Howard recalls his graduate studies at Stanford University in Stanford, California

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Samuel Howard remembers his courtship with his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Samuel Howard talks about the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Samuel Howard remembers his computer training at General Electric

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Samuel Howard describes the White House Fellows program

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Samuel Howard remembers being selected for the White House Fellows program

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Samuel Howard talks about his wife's money management

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Samuel Howard recalls his experiences as a White House Fellow, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Samuel Howard recalls his experiences as a White House Fellow, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Samuel Howard talks about President Lyndon Baines Johnson

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Samuel Howard reflects upon his experiences as a White House Fellow

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Samuel Howard recalls his work as director of computer services at Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Samuel Howard remembers his work with TAW International Leasing, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Samuel Howard talks about his radio station investments, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Samuel Howard talks about his radio station investments, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Samuel Howard recalls his work at Meharry Medical College and the Insurance Company of North America

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Samuel Howard remembers filing Chapter 11 bankruptcy

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Samuel Howard recalls serving as vice president and treasurer of the Hospital Corporation of America

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Samuel Howard remembers founding a Medicaid HMO in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Samuel Howard remembers the allegations against his Medicaid HMO

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Samuel Howard recalls his exoneration from criminal charges

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Samuel Howard talks about his financial losses

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Samuel Howard describes his recent business ventures

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Samuel Howard describes his proposed changes to the Medicare system

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Samuel Howard talks about his community engagement in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Samuel Howard talks about his work with the Urban League of Middle Tennessee

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Samuel Howard describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Samuel Howard talks about his employees

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Samuel Howard describes his children

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Samuel Howard talks about the separation between his family life and business

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Samuel Howard describes his service with the 100 Black Men of Middle Tennessee, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Samuel Howard talks about his wife

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Samuel Howard talks about his and his siblings' independence

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Samuel Howard reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Samuel Howard describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

5$2

DATitle
Samuel Howard remembers his computer training at General Electric
Samuel Howard recalls his exoneration from criminal charges
Transcript
Now you went to work with General Electric as a financial analyst.$$That's right.$$Okay, and--$$But I was in that--what, the best thing that GE offered was the Financial Management Program--BTC, business training course. All executives who were in finance had to go through that course, that means I was really picked; I mean, that's where I really learned accounting and everything else. And I learned computers. I learned how to program a computer and I, I used to do that at General Electric company. And so I--you rotate through the job, through various jobs and one of my jobs I rotated was through the Financial Management Program--I mean the computer program (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Computer program. So, what, what were you--now this is the time when computers are the big mainframes?$$It's big main frames, the Philco 2000 [Transac S-2000] (laughter).$$Philco, that's (unclear)--yeah, we had a big Philco refrigerator--$$That's--(laughter).$$--and a TV. So they had a Philco 2000 computer?$$Yeah, yeah.$$Now how, how large was it? Just for the sake of--?$$I mean it's, god--this, this room here would not hold it, (laughter) it would be this whole office suite (laughter). It was big; and you, you deal, deal with these cards, you had, you know, these 80 column cards that you wrote your--all your program into, the FORTRAN language [Formula Translation] and this thing; and you, you drop those cards, they get out of order, you're up a creek (laughter). Oh, those, those were the days, you dropped a card, you're a mess. But I, I, I did learn a lot about computers. I learned conceptually what computers do. They're all really is one and zero, one and zero, one and zero--that's all it is: one, zero; and I, and (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) (Unclear) I was going to say, yeah.$$Yeah. So conceptually I picked that up and so that I began to learn how to program FORTRAN; and, and I worked on--GE really taught me a lot of stuff in terms of finance, that's what I, that's what I learned from them.$$Okay, so you learned FORTRAN and this is--so this is training--GE is providing you training that Stanford [Stanford University, Stanford, California] (unclear) provide. Yeah (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) That's right, that's right. GE was probably looking forward to me becoming an auditor and going up the financial room, and I was on track to be a officer in GE if I had just kept working. But they--what happened with GE was there was another opportunity that came up; and they, they suggested that I take that route, and that was the White House Fellows program.$I was in Calif- in Topeka, Kansas with my brother-in-law [Marvin Wilson]. And my brother-in-law, I told him what was going on with me and TennCare and HMO [health maintenance organization] and I showed him some clippings in the paper about my name and how I absconded with money. And my brother-in-law had a lawyer, friend of his, who was a criminal lawyer, African American, Joe Johnson [ph.], another Johnson (laughter).$$Another, right.$$But what he did was, he came in and read all that stuff, he said, "Sam [HistoryMaker Samuel Howard], this is really serious," 'cause I didn't think it was that serious 'cause I said I didn't do anything, you know, if you th- if you're innocent you don't--a person that's innocent doesn't really go around looking for any bad stones. And he told me that I had better go call his--"You need to get, get you and a lawyer and fight this." And so he got on the phone and he called guy named Bob Ritchie [Robert W. Ritchie], who is a Knoxville [Tennessee] criminal attorney that's a good friend of his. And Mr. Ritchie told me that when I landed to return from Topeka to Nashville, pick up two boxes of stuff on the papers and come to Knoxville--that's where he was. And I then engaged them to fight the case, and it took about $2 million. But the point is that when we got through with it, it was--they couldn't find anything. But I think it was more racially based in Nashville, Tennessee--that's what I think happened.$$If you hadn't had $2 million to fight it, what would've happened? You would've been in jail?$$I could have been--I'd of had to compromise in some fashion I'm sure. But I was fortunate enough to have that kind of cash because I had the radio stations. I sold them. I had some other things--and what, what I also had at the time was a very good reputation in the business community. I never went underground; I was visible. I was chairman of the chamber of commerce [Nashville Area Chamber of Commerce] at one point. I mean I was visible. And so most of the people they just say, "Sam, we don't believe them anyway." Especially my people who I'd worked with at Hospital Affiliates [Hospital Affiliates International, Inc.], HCA [Hospital Corporation of America], Tommy Frist [Thomas F. Frist, Jr.], all of them said that you all are wrong. And there was a--all the fellas were doing were lying, they tried to--they lied, and, and that's what that book ['The Flight of the Phoenix: Thoughts on Life and Work, Samuel H. Howard] is about. The last chapters of that book was about all of the trouble that went through--I went through. And then the last chapter is when I said: "It is finished." That's when they came to me and says we wanna settle and we wanna pay you. But I could not get all of the--my money back, my legal expenses and you can't write it off. You cannot write off your criminal expenses (unclear).$$So you take a beating?$$You take a beating.$$Okay.$$Yes. But I, I, I learned a lot, but it's, it's, it's tough. But I still have my reputation.

Richard Hope

Educator and sociologist Richard Oliver Hope was born on April 1, 1939 in Atlanta, Georgia. He graduated from Pearl High School in Nashville, Tennessee and received his B.A. degree from Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia in 1961. Hope went on to receive his M.A. degree and his Ph.D. degree in sociology from the Maxwell School at Syracuse University in 1964 and 1969, respectively.

Upon graduation, Hope was hired as an assistant professor of sociology at Brooklyn College, where he worked until 1972. He also became a research associate at the metropolitan applied research center in New York. From 1972 to 1974, Hope served as the first director of research and evaluation for the Defense Race Relations Institute (now DEOMI), where he was responsible for the creation, administration, and development of human relations research for early curriculum materials, and analyses of worldwide intergroup relations in the U.S. military. In 1974, Hope was hired as full professor and chair of sociology, as well as director of the National Science Foundation Project at Morgan State University. In 1982, he became chair of sociology and the coordinator of the Liberal Arts Workshop for the Lilly Foundation in Indiana. At that time, he created the Center for International Studies and served as its first director. In 1988, Hope accepted a position at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where he served as executive director of the Quality Education Project in conjunction with the Carnegie Corporation. In 1990, Hope was hired at Princeton University as full professor of sociology and senior vice president of the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation (WWNFF). While at the WWNFF, Hope developed the Public Policy Partnership Program in South Africa and the Pickering Foreign Affairs Fellowship Program. He also directed the Public Policy and International Affairs Fellowships, the Mellon-Mays Undergraduate Fellows Dissertation and Travel/Research Grants, and the Career Enhancement Fellowship. Hope was then named president of the 1971 DEOMI Foundation, Inc.

Hope has served on several public policy boards. He was a member of the board of directors of the National Urban League and Princeton University’s Center on African American Studies. Hope has also been elected to the Council on Foreign Relations and has served as an advisory panel member of The Brookings Institution.

Hope published numerous articles and books, including Racial Strife in the United States Military: Toward the Elimination of Discrimination, African-Americans and the Doctoral Experience: Implications for Policy, and Educating a New Majority: Transforming America's Educational System for Diversity. He has been the recipient for many awards for his work as well. Hope is the recipient of the Mellon-Mays Achievement Award for Leadership, the Gandhi-King-Ikeda International Peace Award, and the Martin Luther King, Jr. Award for Leadership in the Advancement of Minorities in International and Diplomatic Service.

Hope and his wife, Alice Anderson, live in Chicago, Illinois. They have two children: Leah and Richard, Jr.

Richard Hope was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 18, 2014 and July 16, 2017.

Accession Number

A2014.016

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/18/2014 |and| 07/16/2017

Last Name

Hope

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Oliver

Occupation
Schools

Pearl-Cohn Entertainment Magnet High School

Morehouse College

Syracuse University

First Name

Richard

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

HOP04

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Palm Springs

Favorite Quote

I have a dream

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

4/1/1939

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Short Description

Educator and sociologist Richard Hope (1939 - ) , president of the 1971 DEOMI Foundation, Inc., has served as a professor of sociology at Princeton University and senior vice president of the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation.

Employment

Brooklyn College

Metropolitan Applied Research Center

Defense Race Relations Institute (DEOMI)

Morgan State University

Lilly Foundation

Center for International Studies

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Princeton University

1971 DEOMI Foundation, Inc.

Favorite Color

Blue

Charles Collins

Community leader, association branch chief executive and Harvard trained lawyer Charles Collins was born on November 22, 1947 to Daniel Collins and DeReath Curtis James in the Fillmore community of San Francisco, California. After graduating from Tamalpais High School in 1965, Collins pursued higher education at Williams College, where he earned his B.A. degree with honors in 1969. Four years later, Collins earned his M.S. degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and subsequently his J.D. degree from Harvard Law School in 1976.

Upon completing his education, Collins began his professional career working with the law firm of Steinhart and Falconer, and then the law firm of Berkeley and Rhodes. An active member of the San Francisco and California communities, Collins led a comprehensive study for the City and County of San Francisco in 1979 and subsequently became the deputy secretary of the Business, Transportation and Housing Agency for the State of California in 1980. Collins has also served in leadership capacities as president and chairman of WDG Ventures, Inc., a real estate development firm in San Francisco; president and chief executive officer of the Family Service Agency of San Francisco; and president and chief executive officer of the YMCA of San Francisco. In his work with the YMCA, Collins has supported its mission to strengthen the foundations of communities through youth development, healthy living and social responsibility.

Collins has received much recognition for his work in community development, including the 2003 Bicentennial Award from Williams College. In 2005, Collins was named the senior vice chairman of the National Urban League. For his dedication to the organization, the National Urban League established the Charles Collins Award in his honor. Collins was the author of The African Americans, a collection of photographs recognizing the accomplishments of African Americans in various capacities. He was also the senior editor of A Day in the Life of Africa.

Collins is married to Paula Robinson Collins. They have two daughters, Sara DeReath Collins and Julia Elizabeth Collins.

Collins was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 10, 2011.

Accession Number

A2011.010

Sex

Male

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

3/10/2011 |and| 11/9/2012

Last Name

Collins

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

Old Mill Elementary School

Edna Maguire Elementary School

Tamalpais High School

Williams College

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Flexible

First Name

Charles

Birth City, State, Country

San Francisco

HM ID

COL20

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Youth, but all ages

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

No

Favorite Season

Spring

State

California

Favorite Vacation Destination

Mediterranean

Favorite Quote

Must Be A Responsible Adult Guiding Youth.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

11/22/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/San Francisco

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fish

Short Description

Association branch chief executive and community leader Charles Collins (1947 - ) was a Harvard trained lawyer known for his dedication to the San Francisco community, primarily in his position as president and chief executive officer of the YMCA of San Francisco.

Employment

YMCA of San Francisco

Family Service Agency of San Francisco

WDG Ventures Inc.

San Francisco Art Institute

National Urban League (NUL)

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art

Berkley and Rhodes

State of California Business, Transportation and Housing Agency

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:960,13:1604,21:8780,202:19403,357:23273,385:27967,424:28451,429:33039,459:33434,465:33829,471:34145,476:35488,505:37384,535:37700,540:39280,566:39596,608:40860,627:41176,632:42677,662:47733,708:49629,739:50103,746:51604,772:52078,779:53895,800:54369,807:54843,814:60267,878:64030,961:76281,1153:76613,1158:77609,1172:78688,1190:79269,1199:80514,1226:87055,1281:87805,1292:89230,1322:90580,1349:91180,1358:93430,1405:94330,1418:95380,1435:97255,1470:104048,1544:104516,1551:105764,1567:106076,1572:106544,1579:107246,1590:111928,1628:112616,1643:112960,1649:113304,1654:115282,1685:121256,1746:123500,1779:124316,1792:126458,1822:126866,1828:130420,1837:131320,1847:132120,1857:136388,1918:137108,1933:137900,1948:138692,1961:138980,1966:142780,2001:144940,2031:145390,2037:145840,2043:149988,2110:152640,2165:152952,2170:153420,2177:153732,2182:160526,2256:161818,2280:162502,2291:163414,2304:164098,2322:164706,2331:165542,2347:166378,2362:167062,2372:167518,2379:168354,2402:168734,2411:178210,2545:178684,2555:182615,2583:183460,2598:183720,2603:183980,2608:184305,2614:185020,2626:188140,2700:190155,2744:190415,2749:192430,2785:192755,2792:193405,2803:194705,2828:195030,2834:196070,2862:200635,2883:201085,2890:201460,2896:203035,2916:204610,2955:205810,2971:206335,2979:206785,2987:207310,2996:208960,3028:209410,3034:211885,3110:212185,3115:217330,3167:218422,3181:219332,3196:223550,3261:224980,3294:230907,3379:232256,3413:232611,3419:233250,3429:233818,3439:237213,3458:237781,3471:240692,3540:240976,3545:241473,3554:242183,3565:243390,3585:244029,3600:244313,3605:247366,3680:254912,3778:255327,3784:255742,3790:257153,3816:258066,3839:258564,3846:259394,3861:259975,3869:260722,3888:261552,3906:267023,3957:267607,3966:268191,3976:268848,3988:269432,3999:270308,4014:270746,4022:273082,4072:274396,4092:284470,4205:284730,4221:284990,4226:290060,4344:295455,4494:309680,4704:309960,4709:310310,4715:310590,4720:313174,4733:317762,4854:318280,4863:318576,4868:319760,4892:320130,4898:321388,4925:326325,4963:326665,4968:327515,4979:329130,5004:329470,5009:329810,5014:332030,5027$0,0:7542,202:7977,208:19973,427:26042,504:27446,532:29630,575:30020,581:30488,591:38910,706:39230,714:60580,1080:68500,1209:81175,1382:81475,1387:82525,1412:83125,1421:87850,1529:90850,1589:94640,1601:97940,1656:103115,1755:111256,1868:114337,1922:114890,1930:115206,1935:119314,2010:120262,2146:123738,2217:131377,2315:136560,2405:136986,2412:138832,2522:145932,2651:146571,2661:160274,2838:161429,2858:162584,2875:164432,2908:171524,2969:177385,3046:179356,3082:180086,3094:180597,3102:183152,3169:195078,3392:198042,3440:202526,3533:203818,3555:207086,3619:213338,3699:213978,3714:216026,3755:217818,3806:218074,3811:218330,3816:218586,3852:220826,3910:223514,3942:224090,3953:224922,3976:230060,4001:232580,4064:235520,4121:237130,4156:244175,4234:244491,4239:245913,4263:253339,4438:269721,4699:272206,4750:275440,4759:276352,4777:279772,4839:281520,4867:281976,4875:284788,4921:285244,4929:285928,4939:286460,4947:295480,5048:296088,5058:296392,5063:296772,5069:301180,5172:312873,5326:314861,5362:319831,5468:336744,5741:337079,5747:337682,5757:338151,5766:342070,5771:343045,5786:346045,5856:349195,5929:353020,6015:356040,6022
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Charles Collins' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Charles Collins discusses his maternal lineage and the history of their family business

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Charles Collins discusses his maternal family history, his grandparents, and his maternal great grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Charles Collins discusses his family's relationship with Howard Thurman and his mother's, Dereath James Collins, upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Charles Collins describes his paternal family and his father's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Charles Collins talks about his father's education, how his parents met, and his early childhood in San Francisco, California

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Charles Collins discusses his developmentally challenged brother, Craig Collins, and their upbringing in the Fillmore District of San Francisco, California

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Charles Collins discusses the sociopolitical aspects of San Francisco, California during the 1940s and 1950s

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Charles Collins describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood, and his family's leisure activities

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Charles Collins discusses his early education and his family's move to Mill Valley, California

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Charles Collins describes his experience living in Washington, D.C. in the 1950s

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Charles Collins describes his experiences living in Washington, D.C., segregation, and his parents' civil rights involvement

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Charles Collins talks about the shift in his perspective after returning from Washington, D.C. and his summer experience in Finland.

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Charles Collins discusses his parents' political party affiliation, and his junior high school experience and his father's work

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Charles Collins describes his high school experience in Mill Valley, California and his classmates

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Charles Collins discusses his teen years and the musical influences in his home

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Charles Collins describes his college application process and experience attending Williams College in Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Charles Collins talks about his father's trade business in West Africa, and the challenges of importing and exporting and West African Politics

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Charles Collins describes his first impressions and experiences at Williams College

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Charles Collins talks about his art history education, African American Art and his relationship with Romare Bearden

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Charles Collins describes Williams College's political and social environment

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Charles Collins discusses his experience in the later years of the Civil Rights Movement and his extracurricular activities at Williams College

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Charles Collins talks about his post graduation plans, receiving the Thomas J. Watson Fellowship and meeting his wife Paula Robinson

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Charles Collins discusses researching migration and city planning in South America and Rio de Janeiro, and the death of Whitney Young

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Charles Collins discusses cinematic depictions of Brazil and the impact of rapid urbanization in Rio de Janeiro

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Charles Collins talks about his educational influences, time spent in Athens, Greece and transitioning to Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Charles Collins discusses his time attending Harvard Law School, his classmates and professors

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Charles Collins talks about working with Steinhart and Falconer, and Berkeley and Rhodes

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Charles Collins gives his thoughts on the People's Temple suicide, urban renewal and displacement, and draws connections between these phenomena

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Slating of Charles Collins' interview, session 2

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Charles Collins remembers Jim Jones and the massacre in Georgetown, Guyana

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Charles Collins describes his position at the law firm of Berkley and Rhodes

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Charles Collins talks about the study he conducted for the San Francisco Planning Department

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Charles Collins describes his role at the State of California Business, Transportation and Housing Agency

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Charles Collins recalls his accomplishments at the State of California Business, Transportation and Housing Agency

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Charles Collins describes his reasons for starting Western Development Group

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Charles Collins talks about Western Development Group's construction projects, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Charles Collins talks about Western Development Group's construction projects, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Charles Collins describes San Francisco's Fillmore District, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Charles Collins describes San Francisco's Fillmore District, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Charles Collins remembers the 1989 earthquake

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Charles Collins talks about his book, 'The African Americans'

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Charles Collins remembers John Hope Franklin

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Charles Collins describes the process of selecting photographs for 'The African Americans'

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Charles Collins describes Venus Williams' photograph in 'The African Americans'

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Charles Collins talks about individual photographs in 'The African Americans'

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Charles Collins remembers acquiring a photograph of Arthur Ashe

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Charles Collins talks about the initial idea for the book 'A Day in the Life of Africa'

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Charles Collins describes the shooting process for 'A Day in the Life of Africa'

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Charles Collins talks about one of the photographs in 'A Day in the Life of Africa'

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Charles Collins recalls the reception of 'A Day in the Life of Africa'

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Charles Collins describes how he came to work for the Family Service Agency of San Francisco

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Charles Collins remembers his accomplishments at the Family Service Agency of San Francisco

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Charles Collins describes how he became the president and CEO of the YMCA of San Francisco

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Charles Collins recalls the state of the YMCA of San Francisco upon his arrival

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Charles Collins talks about the YMCA of San Francisco's programs

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Charles Collins talks about his work with the YMCA Sri Lanka

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Charles Collins talks about the importance of youth programming at the YMCA of San Francisco

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Charles Collins describes the growth of the YMCA of San Francisco

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Charles Collins talks about publicity for the YMCA of San Francisco

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Charles Collins describes the National Urban League's Charles Collins Award

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Charles Collins lists his organizational involvement

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Charles Collins talks about his interest in art

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Charles Collins talks about his future plans for the YMCA of San Francisco

Tape: 10 Story: 8 - Charles Collins describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 10 Story: 9 - Charles Collins reflects upon his life

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Charles Collins reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Charles Collins talks about his family, pt. 1

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Charles Collins talks about his family, pt. 2

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Charles Collins describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

2$2

DATape

9$8

DAStory

1$3

DATitle
Charles Collins describes the shooting process for 'A Day in the Life of Africa'
Charles Collins talks about his book, 'The African Americans'
Transcript
Yes, we were talking about the--'A Day in the Life of Africa' [David Elliot Cohen and Lee Liberman], how, you know, one of my questions is another quan- a quantity question. Ho- how many photographers were employed on this?$$We had close to 100 photographers.$$And I guess you had to sit down and decide like where are they gonna go in Africa, right?$$You have to have an outline for such a big project and the outline was both geographic and thematic. The thing about this book ultimately that made it important and the impetus for this book was the then looming AIDS [acquired immunodeficiency syndrome] crisis in Africa. Time magazine had put on its front cover, you know, the scourge of AIDS, and the decimation of the continent of Africa because AIDS had not been really focused on as a huge public health hazard. And this is an epidemic, a pandemic, and you--you, you have to--sometimes you just have to get up and do something about things. And our response and the impetus for this was that, you know, David [David Cohen] and Lee [Lee Liberman], you know, really felt that, you know, that something had to happen. We had to shine light on this continent and really let people know how important it is, you know, that Africa is not expendable. And it's certainly not expendable from the point of view of its people. And so all of the proceeds from the 'A Day in the Life of Africa' went to support AIDS education on the continent. So that was the cause, that was the reason, you know, for doing this. That we needed to shine a bright light on Africa that people would care more, that they would see the face of Africa through many, many lenses and understand how, how much we all share in its outcome. And so, you know, how you tell that story is, you know, to slice it and dice it. North, south, east, west, central, different cultures, religious, you know, themes, and, and how do you--how do you then pull that together. You bring in the best photographers in the world and you essentially ask them to go to their sweet spot. These are photojournalists, they know how to get into tough spots, they know how to get out of it. So they can go into places that would be remote or could be perilous or hazardous. But, but their, their skills, you know, their social and professional skills, and their artistic vision would be able to render something really important. They could find the moment and really define it. And so we all met in Paris [France]--there was a huge amount of planning, but we all met in Paris for a couple of days and we briefed all the photographers, gave them their equipment. Their equipment was all digital, and that was new then, you know, digital technology and photog- and photography were just beginning to fuse. And so that was just a tremendous opportunity for a lot of these photographers that had been basically, you know, taking their pictures on film to learn digital photography. And it was then gonna be a project that we could do electronically. We worked with Apple Computer [Apple Computer, Inc.; Apple Inc.] also. And so we could fuse all this technology now in the new way of storytelling. The storytelling, itself, is, is still you know rooted, you know, in humans, but we would use new technology, you know, to get the output. So we all met in Paris, we briefed them and then we sent them, you know, on planes, you know, to go to all of these different places in Africa. We had to have lots of connections. We had to have a whole command center. We had to make sure that any situations that got tight, you know, we could work through. We informed all of the embassies, all of the--all of the nations from which all of these photographers came to make sure that all of their visas and all of their, their basic needs could be met on the spot. So there was an entire logistical and support unit, you know, in case somebody got into trouble. So the photographers fanned out and they had about two days to get into their situation, two days to figure out, you know, what they were gonna do and then on the 28th of February in 2012 [sic. 2002], you know, they took those pictures.$$So, so they arrived four days ahead of time?$$They were--they were there probably, you know, yeah in some cases, you know, two to three days ahead of time just to get themselves on the ground and to get their logistics straight and how they were gonna go and what they were gonna photograph. And then they went in and they took these pictures on that day.$$Okay. This--that must've been really expensive. (Unclear)--(simultaneous)--$$It was an expensive project. It was a very expensive project because then we had to get them all back from, from where they were back to Paris. They had to deposit all their film and then we had to get them back to where they came from. So that, you know, that was just wonderful, you know, to think about, you know, getting a chance to see, you know, these, these just incredible people who wanted to co- make this contribution.$I don't know if it's time to ask you about the development of the book or not. But the book came out in nine--1993, 'The African Americans' [Charles Collins and David Cohen].$$Yeah.$$Did--when did you start working on 'The African Americans'? (Unclear)--(simultaneous)--$$That's--you know, that's--this is one of the happiest chapters of my life, you know, me doing these books. My neighbor, David Cohen, who lived literally next door to me, and his wife were very good friends of ours. And David had just completed, you know, a great set of books and he and his wife and their kids were setting off to go to Bali [Indonesia]. And we were talking over the fence and they said, "Well why don't you come over to Bali and visit us." I'd never been to Indonesia and Paula [Collin's wife, Paula Robinson Collins] hadn't either, and so we thought well what a great invitation, we--we're gonna go to Bali. And so there we were, you know, we got on the plane, went to Hong Kong and then we ended up in Indonesia and--on this beautiful island of Bali where we stayed for a couple of weeks. And in that type of space it's again amazing how creative your mind can be, when it's calm and what I always say sort of flat and horizontal and you get a chance to see new patterns. And so David and I were out playing golf in an impossibly horrible rain storm, we were the only people on the golf course. We just started thinking about, you know, books and you know, what would the shape of a book that we would do together be. And so I said, you know, "Let's do a book that really celebrates the significant achievements and contributions that black people--that African Americans have made not only to the American landscape, but to the world." And so we just committed right then and there, we said when we get back we're gonna do this book, and we did.$$Okay, okay. Now there have been other such books way back, I mean not exactly like yours but, but similar in some ways. There--(simultaneous)--$$'Songs of My People' ['Songs of My People: African Americans: A Self-Portrait,' Eric Easter and Dudley M. Brooks].$$Yeah, 'Songs of My People.' Way back Langston Hughes and Milton Meltzer actually produced 'A Pictorial History of the Negro in America'--$$That's right.$$--which a, you know, dealt with more, I think, historical pictures but then had a--had contemporary pictures done in black and white. A couple others, I think Ebony had a set, 'Black America' ['Ebony Pictorial History of Black America'], you know, with black and white pictures. Now were you--had you seen those and--$$Sure, I grew up with that type of literature. I grew up in a household where everything, you know, that was published about black people was sitting there in the bookshelves or on the table or beside the chair. So the idea of this type of ongoing celebration, a real storytelling was important to me. But one of the reasons why this book became important to me was that it was also at the beginning of the hip hop generation. And you know, young people were redefining themselves and, and brushing up against culture in really different ways and voicing who they are and what they saw and what they were concerned about, very powerfully. And my daughters [Sara Collins and Julia Collins] are of that generation. And I wanted, at the same time as they were developing their own voice and their own culture which is absolutely important for every generation to do, is to again self define and look at their own creativity and their own way that they're going to express themselves. I wanted them also to know where they came from and who they are, and to make sure that they are grounded in pride and not working from a deficit. So no matter how hard that you work, you know, as a parent to make sure that your kids feel good about themselves and they know about themselves, that they know that they're not unique, that they know that they're not really all that special, but they come from a long line of people that have been forging the story of America. You know, this was a time to create a new book that would tell the story, you know, in new terms, and that was what 'The African Americans' was all about.$$Okay, okay. So it's an idea that we've been working with for a long time, but this is a refreshment of that idea for another generation?$$I think that it's very much like HistoryMakers. You know, if you don't tell your story, somebody else is gonna tell it or they're gonna interpret it or misinterpret it, or at least you have the opportunity to have an interpretation. And in this case, I wanted 'The African Americans' not only to have the historical roots and references, you know, that we have been a part of the foundation of this country, that this country would not be the America that it is if it hadn't been for the blood, sweat, tears, labor, effort, intelligence, genius and vision of all of its people, including African Americans. And so as, as you in this great project, you know, called The HistoryMakers are allowing people to tell their story, I wanted to put it in--in a book form. I--I would've loved to have done it and there were many offers in fact for us to begin to tell the stories in other ways, but in a sense, you know, I'm really ultimately not a storyteller, I'm ultimately not a book maker, I happen to have done a couple of these things, but it takes that persistence to be able to really map it out and, and to see the future, you know, through story telling. But this was my stab at it and I wanted it not only to be grounded in the historical matter, but I also wanted to tell contemporary stories so that people could see the new heroes and sheroes are being made every single day in all these different walks of life throughout our country, throughout the landscape in all these different dimensions. That, you know, it's not over, that the best can lie ahead of us, but we need to be able to ground ourselves in the past and then also to see our way into the future.

William Akins

Academic administrator and educator during integration, William Charles Akins was born in 1932 in Austin, Texas. He attended segregated Blackshear Elementary School. He next went to Kealing Junior High School and then Anderson High School where he met W.B. Campbell who inspired him to become a principal. He graduated from Huston-Tillotson University with his B.A. degree in history in 1954 and received his M.A. degree from Prairie View A&M University in 1956. Akins also received his administrative certification from Southwest Texas State University.

In 1959, Akins began teaching at Anderson High School, his alma mater, also known as Old Anderson. Three years after beginning, he was recognized as Anderson’s Teacher of the Year. In 1964, Akins was selected to be the first African American teacher at Johnson High School, a recently desegregated school. In 1971, he returned to Anderson High School to serve as Assistant Principal where he served until it was closed due to busing desegregation laws. He was then transferred to Lanier High School before becoming the first principal of the new L.C. Anderson High School in 1973. Akins worked through conflicts to set the school on its feet. After leaving L.C. Anderson High School he assumed several central administration roles for the Austin Independent School District including Assistant Superintendent for Business Affairs and Associate Superintendent for Development and Community Partnerships.

Akins received an Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from Huston-Tillotson University in 1982. For his commitment to the Austin school district, in 1998, the district Board of Trustees voted to name Austin’s newest high school after Akins. The following year the groundbreaking ceremony for the W. Charles Akins High School was held and the school opened to more than 2,700 students.

Akins passed away on March 29, 2017 at age 84.

Accession Number

A2010.025

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/13/2010

Last Name

Akins

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Charles

Schools

Huston-Tillotson University

Theodore Kealing Junior High School

Blackshear Elementary Fine Arts Academy

L.C. Anderson High School

Prairie View A&M University

Texas State University

First Name

William

Birth City, State, Country

Austin

HM ID

AKI01

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

California, Washington, D.C.

Favorite Quote

It Is Always Good.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

11/9/1932

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Austin

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Stew, Chocolate

Death Date

3/29/2017

Short Description

Academic administrator William Akins (1932 - 2017 ) was the founding principal of the integrated L.C. Anderson High School, and an administrator in the Austin Independent School District. In 2000, Akins High School was named in his honor.

Employment

Booker T. Washington High School

L.C. Anderson High School

Albert Sidney Johnston High School

Sidney Lanier High School

Austin Independent School District

KLRN-TV

Favorite Color

Brown, Gold

Timing Pairs
0,0:1116,16:1488,21:3441,69:3813,74:11900,240:13664,352:14084,358:19292,445:19796,452:43780,787:46755,839:56820,984:57700,1001:59548,1023:62885,1078:67170,1143:67835,1152:68975,1165:75340,1379:86699,1515:102360,1756:110208,1834:110512,1839:123824,2046:152636,2439:168420,2693:187756,2890:208985,3171:209840,3181:230802,3415:247122,3629:250250,3653:252554,3706:276710,4128:277006,4133:278560,4160:285710,4226:288430,4290:297525,4467:299820,4505:301690,4538:312958,4681:315730,4717$0,0:2914,52:3666,60:5922,92:7050,103:8366,121:12300,150:14770,185:16650,196:19748,204:23654,259:24038,266:27130,279:28138,294:29062,307:29482,313:50246,595:54895,714:57028,757:59161,893:61450,905:91190,1269:91910,1326:92990,1343:98700,1376:102255,1499:106812,1572:118230,1709:120626,1741:126697,1813:128830,1833:129838,1849:130426,1857:130846,1863:132358,1889:133030,1899:138920,1961:139232,1983:139544,1988:140714,2000:141806,2019:151790,2224:152336,2232:152960,2241:153896,2257:160269,2308:160962,2318:161655,2330:162040,2336:166352,2419:170030,2444:172725,2519:173418,2532:174650,2570:174958,2582:177653,2623:180348,2705:180733,2711:182504,2733:192260,2858:192900,2871:193300,2877:197540,2963:198020,2970:206056,3062:209750,3092:211612,3114:212788,3131:215728,3218:229720,3451:238206,3538:239865,3577:246580,3741:248397,3781:254370,3813:256470,3845:257970,3874:259020,3889:261945,3975:274829,4113:279679,4199:285200,4213:290470,4276:291770,4300:301870,4386:302302,4424:312238,4589:312994,4647:326304,4802:326640,4807:330716,4858:331395,4867:332074,4876:332753,4884:350183,5072:351728,5091:353273,5107:354097,5116:358766,5173:359606,5185:360614,5201:363470,5264:363806,5269:365318,5361:375222,5443:375632,5449:375960,5454:376452,5461:380868,5518:381284,5523:382428,5537:388876,5652:402532,5808:403362,5820:408508,5917:408840,5926:415397,6053:417223,6086:423280,6125:424800,6154:425920,6172:430160,6276:430480,6281:431280,6300:434800,6381:439445,6409:439785,6414:444885,6522:445990,6536:449390,6600:450070,6614:450410,6619:450920,6626:453385,6660:456020,6719:457635,6761:464150,6790
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of William Akins' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - William Akins lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - William Akins describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - William Akins remembers his mother's career

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Williams Akins talks about his maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Williams Akins describes his maternal relatives' complexions

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - William Akins describes his father's career

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Williams Akins talks about his parents' religious activities

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - William Akins remembers his paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - William Akins describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - William Akins describes the sights, sounds and smells of their childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - William Akins talks about his early education

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - William Akins describes his community in East Austin, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - William Akins remembers his neighbors' occupations

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - William Akins describes his experiences during the Great Depression

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - William Akins recalls visiting his mother's white employers

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - William Akins remembers Theodore Kealing Junior High School in Austin, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - William Akins describes his paternal grandmother's home

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - William Akins talks about his early influences

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - William Akins remembers L.C. Anderson High School in Austin, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - William Akins recalls his aspiration to become a school principal

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - William Akins recalls his decision to attend Tillotson College in Austin, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - William Akins describes his freshman year at Tillotson College

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - William Akins remembers his professors at Tillotson College in Austin, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - William Akins remembers the establishment of Huston Tillotson College in Austin, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - William Akins recalls meeting his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - William Akins describes his experiences on segregated trains

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - William Akins recalls his graduation from Huston Tillotson College

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - William Akins remembers his search for a teaching position

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - William Akins describes how he joined the faculty of Booker T. Washington High School in Marlin, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - William Akins describes his graduate education

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - William Akins recalls the mentorship of Hobart L. Gaines

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - William Akins remembers integrating the faculty of Albert Sidney Johnston High School in Austin, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - William Akins talks about his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - William Akins remembers President Lyndon Baines Johnson

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - William Akins remembers the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - William Akins remembers the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - William Akins talks about the closure of L.C. Anderson High School in Austin, Texas

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - William Akins recalls his appointment as the principal of the new L.C. Anderson High School

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - William Akins recalls the struggle to integrate L.C. Anderson High School

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - William Akins describes the violence between students at L.C. Anderson High School

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - William Akins describes his accomplishments as the principal of L.C. Anderson High School

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - William Akins describes his role at the Austin Integrated School District

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - William Akins talks about his honorary doctorate from Huston Tillotson University

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - William Akins describes his community service

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - William Akins remembers the founding of Akins High School in Austin, Texas

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - William Akins reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - William Akins talks about his experiences as a high school football official

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - William Akins reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - William Akins talks about his family

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - William Akins shares a message to future generations

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - William Akins narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

8$5

DATitle
William Akins remembers L.C. Anderson High School in Austin, Texas
William Akins recalls the struggle to integrate L.C. Anderson High School
Transcript
So you go on to high school?$$Yes.$$And which high school?$$Anderson High School [L.C. Anderson High School, Austin, Texas].$$Is this the Old Anderson?$$Old Anderson, located on Pennsylvania Avenue. That's the high school. As a matter of fact, Kealing [Theodore Kealing Junior High School; Theodore Kealing Middle School, Austin, Texas] was right--a block from Anderson then. The new Kealing is still located in the same place. I was in the school district as one of the administrators when we rebuilt Kealing, and we put it back where it was. But the old Anderson building burned down, and there was a new Anderson building after I graduated, and it was built at 900 Thompson [Street]. And I don't want to get a little ahead of myself, but I became a teacher there at the new--at that time, the new Anderson High School. But going back to the old Anderson High School, I was in the band and we had great bands and we had strong teachers. Let me tell you about one particular teacher that had followed me, I'll say that (laughter). Mrs. L.E. Frazier [Lucille Frazier], outstanding English teacher, we were all afraid of her. She was small in stature, but good nonetheless. A strong disciplinarian, no question about it. She was at Blackshear [Blackshear Elementary School; Blackshear Elementary Fine Arts Academy, Austin, Texas] when I was there, and I'll say, mean, mean (laughter). And lo and behold, when I got to Anderson, there she was again (laughter). A good teacher, though. We had to really write well and try to speak well and, you know, do your assignments. She, along with Mr. Timmons [Raymond Timmons], who was a geometry teacher--which I was pretty good in geometry, wasn't very good in math--and Mr. Isaac Chapman [ph.], and some of those. Mr. W.E. Pigford was the coach, the football coach when I was high school. I couldn't play football, but I loved it. I played it every opportunity I could get, sandlot. But he was a fine gentleman. He became principal later on, but he, while I was in high school he was coach. Mr. W.B. Campbell was our principal, who we admired dearly. He had been in World War I [WWI], and he was a captain in World War I. And, you know, reading all the stories, we couldn't imagine an African American being a captain in World War I, but he was. And big stately man, a great disciplinarian. He, too, had gone to the University of Michigan [Ann Arbor, Michigan] to get his master's [degree]. And so, we admired Mr. Campbell. Walking down the hall, "Boy, get in the class." Miss Frazier and all those teachers were just--and then we had a science teacher that we loved dearly, and I want us to talk about him. (Laughter) His name was M.L. Pickard. Mr. Pickard was so enthusiastic about his work; he had humor all the time. I recall when he would write a formula in chemistry on the chalkboard, and he would not erase it with the eraser. He'd be so enthusiastic to go to the next point, he would like wave it with his sleeve and just keep on going. And we didn't think anything of it right then. But later on we said, "Hey, Mr. Pickard--." But we loved him because he had a little humor, he was an excellent teacher, and he made us good students. "Do your work." He didn't have to be the firm disciplinarian. Because of his subject matter, you became disciplined and you handled yourself and now--some teachers have this innate ability to make you feel good, and you like to go to class. He was such a teacher, M.L. Pickard. Anyway, I remember Mr. Pickard. All of them were good. Mr. C.P. Johnson was the social studies teacher that I admired and I wanted to be like. The first time I'd ever heard that there was a Morehouse College [Atlanta, Georgia] was in his class. I didn't know, I wasn't well read. I'd read newspapers and read our assignments, but I didn't know about Morehouse. I mean, in Austin [Texas], read the newspapers. He was a Morehouse man. He talked about it and got us all inspired about Morehouse. And then I began to think in terms of college, going to a university or going to a college when you get out of school. And they gave us kind of a thirst I think for learning. "Elevate your horizons. Be somebody. Go to school." And that's what I kind of I wanted to--I wanted to do that. When he said Anderson was a good school, I always thought it was a good school then. And even after I got out of there and came back to teach there, it still was a good school. And so, many of our students were inspired to move onward and upward, and to do your very best so you can become a professional and really be a credit, not only to your parents, to your family and to your community. So, I wanted to do that.$I want you to talk more about being a principal, an African American principal, in a school that has a majority of white children.$$Um-hm.$$What were some of the things that you had to face?$$The initial problem, in my judgment, was trying to get the kids to accept each other. Initially, the first two or three years, we had racial conflicts, pretty extensive fights. I wouldn't call it a war zone, but Austin [Texas] had trouble at all the schools when we initially integrated, before Anderson [L.C. Anderson High School, Austin, Texas] was built. They had tremendous fights at Reagan High School [John H. Reagan High School, Austin, Texas], where the kids were trying to accept each other. They didn't know each other, that's why. And McCallum High School [A.N. McCallum High School, Austin, Texas]--and we had a few at Lanier [Sidney Lanier High School, Austin, Texas] where I was an assistant. Well, at Anderson High School, when it opened, the kids who were brought there didn't go--old Anderson had been closed since '71 [1971]. The new Anderson at 8403 Mesa [Drive] was opened in '73 [1973], so it wasn't too much time in between there. So the youngsters who formerly attended old Anderson, 900 Thompson [Street], who living in the Booker T. Washington projects [Booker T. Washington Terraces, Austin, Texas], they were bussed into northwest Austin each day. That created hostility from the very beginning, because they didn't want to be bussed. First of all, they didn't want the school to be closed, and then they didn't want to be bussed there. Then some of the youngsters who were at--the white youngsters who were there--many of them had been students at McCallum and many of them had been students at Lanier. And I suspect their parents felt like they were probably safe from so much of this movement. But that wasn't so, because these kids were being bussed in every day from the Booker T. Washington units over on Thompson Street. Well, they were not. They were coming from disadvantaged situations, and their backgrounds were not as the backgrounds of those middle-class and upper middle-class youngsters. And so, there was a clash. And so one of the great challenges we had was to get the faculty together with me and the community to see if we couldn't, through our human relations efforts, to bring those kids together so they could know each other and to appreciate each other and respect each other. And that took a while, but I was very fortunate to have a lot of help. We had some parents from East Austin [Austin, Texas], and some of the ministers came in to assist me. And the district [Austin Independent School District] had mandated that we would all have human relations committees, parent committees, student committees, community committees. And all of that together, I think helped us to get through the first two or three years, which we had some difficulty. Okay, then the other thing was--and I think the school district, they were very nice to me, because they allowed me to help select my faculty, and that was really a joy. I was able to bring in some people who I had known and who had respected me, I thought (laughter.) And they did. So, I brought in some of my friends with whom I had taught at other places. For example, I brought in Mr. Charlie Weiser [ph.], who I had known as a fellow teacher down at Johnston [Albert Sidney Johnston High School, Austin, Texas]. The secretary from Johnston, she was nice to me. She came to be my secretary. They sent in another young man that I had not known, but he came in as another assistant principal. And then I was able to get a counselor that I had known. I brought in two counselors that I had known. I brought in some teachers that I had known. I had about seven or eight African American teachers on my faculty with me, with the other hundred or so from the other schools. And so, I had a faculty that was really supportive. Initially some of them were not, of course, and they were not accustomed to having an African American as their supervisor. I understood that, and so we had to work with that. We had to let them know that I wanted to be fair, and I wanted to be objective and open. And I wanted them to respect me, as I was going to sure respect them. And over time, my faculty was very supportive, and I appreciated them. As a matter of fact, I have friends even today that we still communicate and visit. So, that worked out fine finally. Now, some of the parents were a little hesitant, of course; you would imagine that they would be. We had some rather affluent parents in the area, and then we had some that were not so affluent, but who wanted to be, and who wanted to carry themselves as if they were. I could see through some of that. Many of them were critical of my administration, of course. It, it, would be shown in various ways. Discipline--my tendency is to be relatively mild mannered, but I've always been a pretty good disciplinarian. We had, we had school, but the fights occurred. And the building was three stories, and supervision was somewhat difficult, but we tried to man it so that we could be in position to stop the fights before they would occur and to be a deterrent. They wanted to work with the student leaders to get together and--, "Let's have little Coke [Coca-Cola] parties together. Let's talk about our problems during the day, and let's see how we can reach some common ground." And so, finally we did that. Our band program came together, our cheerleaders came together, and our football team came together. And so, we had all the ingredients to have a top school. Why wouldn't we? We had some affluence, a great amount of affluence. We had very bright students, and we had some students who wanted to be in a setting and wanted to improve themselves. And we had some students who did not have strong backgrounds, but they had come to Anderson and they too wanted to deport themselves better. And so, our quest was to get them together. We sought as a theme the pursuit of excellence, from the very beginning. And with the ingredients that's there, we should be the top school in the district. There was no question about it; we should have been, and I think we were. And even today, Anderson is still among the very top schools in the district, because that clientele has not changed appreciatively. We have fewer African American students now than we had then. And I stayed there right at ten years. I would have made my tenth year, but they moved me to central office. But I had some good years. I had some trying times, of course, I wouldn't deny that. But I grew as a person and as an administrator, and even as a teacher. And I worked with the community, and it worked out.

Dr. William Finlayson

Obstetrician and gynecologist Dr. William Edward Finlayson was born on September 1, 1924 in Manatee, Florida. Finlayson served as a 1st Lieutenant in the United States Army from 1943 through 1946 and served in the Army Reserves from 1946 to 1953. He received his B.S. degree from Morehouse College in 1948 and his M.D. from Meharry Medical College in 1953. Finlayson completed his residency at the University of Minnesota in 1958.

After his residency ended, Finlayson established his own private practice in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1958. He continued to practice medicine for nearly the next forty years (from 1958 to 1997). Finlayson also held two fellowships: one at the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist in 1963 and the other at the American College of Surgeons in 1964. He also taught at the Medical College of Wisconsin and the University of Wisconsin Medical School.

In 1971, Finlayson founded the first black-owned bank in Milwaukee: North Milwaukee State Bank. He also serves on the board of directors and is the bank’s chairman. In founding the bank, Finlayson’s mission was not profit based. Rather, he intended to add stature and viability to underserved communities by offering full-service banking to individuals and businesses. North Milwaukee State Bank’s mission is to facilitate community development and economic growth, personal and business advancement, home ownership growth, and financial education.

Finlayson is a member of the Milwaukee Medical Society and a house delegate to the Wisconsin Medical Society. He is a past president of the Milwaukee Gynecological Society and serves on the board of directors of the Southeastern Wisconsin Health System Agency. Finlayson is also a former president of his local YMCA board. He is a member of the Urban League and a lifetime member of the NAACP.

Finlayson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 18, 2008.

Accession Number

A2008.135

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/18/2008

Last Name

Finlayson

Maker Category
Schools

Jones High School

Campbell Street High School

Booker T. Washington High School

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

Morehouse College

Meharry Medical College

University of Minnesota Medical School

First Name

William

Birth City, State, Country

Manatee

HM ID

FIN02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Wisconsin

Birth Date

9/1/1924

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Milwaukee

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Steak

Short Description

Bank chairman and obstetrician and gynecologist Dr. William Finlayson (1924 - ) established his own private practice in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1958, going on to found the first black-owned bank in Milwaukee, North Milwaukee State Bank.

Employment

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad

Wheaton Franciscan St. Joseph Campus

Mt. Sinai Hospital

Medical College of Wisconsin

University of School of Medicine and Public Health

North Milwaukee State Banks

Favorite Color

Brown

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. William Finlayson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. William Finlayson lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. William Finlayson describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. William Finlayson talks about his parents' marriage, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. William Finlayson describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. William Finlayson talks about his parents' marriage, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. William Finlayson describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. William Finlayson describes the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. William Finlayson describes his neighborhood in Orlando, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. William Finlayson describes the sights and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. William Finlayson talks about his early involvement in the Baptist church

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. William Finlayson recalls his early education

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Dr. William Finlayson remembers moving to Daytona Beach, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Dr. William Finlayson recalls his acquaintance with Mary McLeod Bethune

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. William Finlayson remembers Eleanor Roosevelt's relationship with the black community

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. William Finlayson talks about his early experiences of segregation

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. William Finlayson recalls his early academic success

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. William Finlayson remembers Booker T. Washington High School in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. William Finlayson recalls his enrollment at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes in Tallahassee, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. William Finlayson remembers enlisting in the U.S. Army

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. William Finlayson recalls teaching literacy classes in the U.S. Army

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. William Finlayson recalls serving in Hawaii as a U.S. Army officer

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. William Finlayson describes his experiences at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. William Finlayson remembers studying accounting under Jesse B. Blayton Sr.

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. William Finlayson remembers Benjamin Mays

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. William Finlayson describes his experiences at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. William Finlayson remembers working on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. William Finlayson recalls the importance of historically black medical schools

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. William Finlayson talks about his mentors at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. William Finlayson recalls meeting his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. William Finlayson remembers the University of Minnesota Medical School in Minneapolis, Minnesota

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. William Finlayson describes his obstetric board examinations

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. William Finlayson recalls his start as a gynecologist

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. William Finlayson describes the changes in birthing practices

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. William Finlayson talks about the gynecological health problems in the black community

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. William Finlayson remembers the HIV/AIDS epidemic

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. William Finlayson talks about the health problems in the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. William Finlayson recalls his experiences of discrimination as a physician

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. William Finlayson remembers the housing discrimination in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. William Finlayson recalls the founding of the North Milwaukee State Bank

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. William Finlayson talks about the North Milwaukee State Bank

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. William Finlayson reflects upon his life

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. William Finlayson describes his involvement with the W.E.B. Du Bois Club

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. William Finlayson talks about the financial crisis of 2008

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. William Finlayson talks about 'The Souls of Black Folk' by W.E.B. Du Bois

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. William Finlayson describes his visit to Ghana with Reverend Leon Sullivan

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. William Finlayson describes the participants in the W.E.B. Du Bois Club

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. William Finlayson talks about his organizational affiliations

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. William Finlayson reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. William Finlayson shares his advice to aspiring doctors and bankers

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. William Finlayson describes how he would like to be remembered

The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr.

Justice Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. was born on June 14, 1924, in New Orleans, Louisiana. A veteran of World War II, Ortique earned his B.A. degree in sociology from Dillard University in 1947 and his M.A. degree from Indiana University in 1949. Ortique then earned his J.D. degree from Southern University Law School in 1956.

Ortique began his own private law practice in 1956, working on any type of case but focusing primarily on estate cases. His practice became one of the largest estate practices in the State of Louisiana. As the President of the Community Relations Council, Ortique served as “chief negotiator” for the peaceful desegregation of lunch counters, hotels and other public facilities in New Orleans. He served as the president of the National Bar Association from 1965 to 1967 and President Lyndon Johnson named Ortique to the Federal Hospital Council in 1966. In 1970, in the wake of killings by national guardsmen at Kent State University and Jackson State University, President Richard Nixon asked Ortique to serve on the President’s Commission on Campus Unrest. In 1974, President Nixon appointed Ortique to serve on the newly created Legal Services Corporation, a private, non-profit corporation established by the U.S. Congress to seek to ensure equal access to the criminal justice system by providing civil legal assistance to those who were unable to afford it. That same year, the Louisiana Supreme Court appointed Ortique as a judge pro tempore of Orleans Parish Civil District Court. In 1979, the citizens of New Orleans elected him Judge of the Orleans Parish Civil District Court. Ortique was later elected Chief Judge of the Orleans Parish Civil District Court by his fellow jurists.

Over the years, his work with the Louisiana State Bar Association’s Legal Aid Committee provided a model for pro bono legal work. Ortique was elected to sit on the bench of the Louisiana Supreme Court in 1992. He retired from that position in 1994. In addition, Ortique served as the president of the New Orleans Urban League and was named an alternate to the United Nations General Assembly by President Clinton in 1999. Ortique passed away on June 22, 2008 at the age of 84.

Accession Number

A2008.059

Sex

Male

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

3/24/2008

Last Name

Ortique

Maker Category
Middle Name

Oliver

Schools

Albert Wicker High School

Gaudet High School

Xavier University of Louisiana

Dillard University

Indiana University

Southern University Law Center

Archival Photo 2
First Name

Revius

Birth City, State, Country

New Orleans

HM ID

ORT01

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Louisiana

Birth Date

6/14/1924

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New Orleans

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken (Baked, Stewed)

Death Date

6/22/2008

Short Description

State supreme court judge The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. (1924 - 2008 ) was a former National Bar Association president. He was also the first African American justice appointed to the Louisiana Supreme Court.

Employment

Louisiana Supreme Court

Orleans Parish Civil District Court

Private Practice

Favorite Color

Black, Brown

Timing Pairs
0,0:941,12:2009,31:2721,39:6904,100:7616,108:8684,153:19000,281:19935,294:25798,328:28703,380:41876,523:44038,546:46388,579:48174,604:51440,609:67970,836$0,0:1842,9:2582,19:4580,91:5468,108:5912,115:6430,123:6948,131:23698,375:24514,383:26554,411:27268,420:27880,428:37442,504:48954,634:62950,768
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. narrates his photographs, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Revius O. Ortique, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Revius O. Ortique, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. describes his mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. describes his mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. describes his father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. describes his parents' personalities

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. recalls his neighborhood in New Orleans, Louisiana, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. recalls his neighborhood in New Orleans, Louisiana, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. recalls his neighborhood in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. describes New Orleans' Creole community

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. recalls his early oratorical skills

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. remembers Albert Wicker High School in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. recalls graduating from Gaudet High School in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. recalls becoming a U.S. Army officer

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. describes his U.S. Army service

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. remembers his marriage

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. remembers Indiana University in Bloomington

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. remembers Southern University Law School

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. recalls the African American attorneys in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. describes his civil law practice

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. remembers the Crown Zellerbach Corporation

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. recalls Thurgood Marshall's U.S. Supreme Court appointment

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. recalls his federal commission and board service

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. recalls joining the Louisiana Supreme Court

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. recalls serving on the Louisiana Supreme Court

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. recalls his appointment to the United Nations General Assembly

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. describes his hope and concern for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. shares his support for Barack Obama

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. talks about his daughter

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$5

DAStory

1$2

DATitle
The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. recalls serving on the Louisiana Supreme Court
The Honorable Revius Oliver Ortique, Jr. recalls his appointment to the United Nations General Assembly
Transcript
You retired from the Louisiana Supreme Court in 1994. What was it like being on the, the Louisiana Supreme Court? Was that a- are there any highlights from that experience you want to share with us?$$That was, that was a highlight for me because I was the first African American appointed to that job, but also, it gave me an opportunity to convince others throughout the state that we could do our job and do it quite well and that they could be pleased with the job that we did, and we were satisfied that we convinced many persons connected with the Louisiana Supreme Court that we could do the job that would be asked of us if we got the appointment. When we did get the appointment, we were able to demonstrate exactly what we had been saying all along, and that was that, give us a chance and we'll make it.$$Okay.$$And we did.$In 1999, President Clinton [President William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton] a- named you as an alternate to the United Nations General Assembly, right--correct?$$Correct (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) And--yeah, now how was that experience? I mean, what--tell us about that.$$Well that, of course, was a, a very high appointment for, for anyone, black or white, but for an, an African American to be--having been asked to take on that responsibility was really unusual and, and made you feel that you were really first servant in a first class position, which you were. I never had any regrets and fortunately, I didn't appear to have made any mistakes, and, and the, the, the community was--the legal community was very satisfied with the way that we handled that job.

Nancy Wilson

Nancy Wilson was born on February 20, 1937 in Chillicothe, Ohio, to Olden Wilson, an iron foundry worker, and Lillian Ryan. Wilson attended Burnside Heights Elementary School and developed her singing skills by participating in church choirs. She attended West High School in Columbus, Ohio where she won a talent contest and was rewarded with a role as a host for a local television show. She then went on to attend Ohio’s Central State University where she pursued her B.A. degree in education.

In 1956, Wilson auditioned and won a spot as a vocalist for Rusty Bryant’s Carolyn Club Band. Afterwards, she moved to New York where she began working as a secretary at the New York Institute of Technology. While in New York, Wilson became friends with jazz saxophonist “Cannonball” Adderley who introduced her to her manager John Levy. With Levy’s help, she landed a record deal with Capitol Records and released her songs “Guess Who I Saw Today” and “Sometimes I’m Happy.” After touring and performing at the Coconut Grove in Los Angeles, California and the Sahara Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada, Wilson’s album Tell Me The Truth was released, and the following year, she won a Grammy Award for her album How Glad I Am. Wilson was the host of the Nancy Wilson Show from 1967 to 1968 and has appeared on several television shows and films throughout her career including I Spy and The Cosby Show.

After Wilson won her second Grammy Award with her album the Nancy Wilson Show, she went on to record overseas in Japan. In 1983, she was declared the winner of the annual Tokyo Song Festival. During the 1980s, Wilson released several albums including The Two of Us, Forbidden Lover and her fifty-second released album A Lady With A Song. Wilson was honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 1991 and in 1992, she was presented with the Whitney Young Jr. Award by the National Urban League. In 1994, after winning the Turner Broadcasting Trumpet Award for Outstanding Achievement, her album Love, Nancy was released. In the late 1990s, she became involved with MCG Jazz, a youth education program and a non-profit, minority-directed, arts and learning organization located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Wilson was inducted into the Big Band and Jazz Hall of Fame in 1999 and from 1996 to 2005, she was the host of the Washington, D.C based radio program, The Jazz Profiles. In 2007, Wilson celebrated her seventieth birthday with an all-star event hosted by Arsenio Hall.

Wilson passed away on December 13, 2018.

Nancy Wilson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 15, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.328

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/15/2007

Last Name

Wilson

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

West High School

Central State University

First Name

Nancy

Birth City, State, Country

Chillicothe

HM ID

WIL44

Favorite Season

None

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

2/20/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Death Date

12/13/2018

Short Description

Singer Nancy Wilson (1937 - 2018) was a multi Grammy Award winning singer who recorded more than fifty albums, including 'How Glad I Am,' 'The Two of Us' and, 'Love, Nancy.'

Employment

Capitol Records

Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
0,0:9882,218:10272,224:18785,298:19085,303:21778,331:22186,338:25722,401:25994,406:27354,420:35943,800:36267,805:42394,904:42682,909:49090,1047:49666,1057:50242,1068:55630,1106:56466,1120:66407,1254:72105,1349:73799,1379:74261,1387:75570,1418:85778,1555:103360,1813:118294,1998:123905,2035:124280,2042:125630,2075:136280,2273$0,0:312,8:1794,45:2496,57:3276,71:4134,85:5148,97:5772,111:8580,165:11856,217:14664,275:17160,322:17940,336:18564,345:24030,354:25110,374:27918,432:29142,526:54658,889:55026,894:57142,924:67265,1107:71151,1171:71419,1176:71754,1182:72022,1187:75687,1223:76576,1229:86146,1350:92454,1466:98382,1581:99446,1598:119181,1835:119449,1840:121392,1913:121995,1937:123335,1963:124139,1984:129494,2032:130223,2042:143704,2223:144016,2228:144328,2233:144640,2238:145342,2248:147136,2280:147448,2285:150958,2365:152908,2391:158164,2404:158468,2409:158848,2415:159380,2424:159684,2429:161280,2464:161660,2470:164660,2499:165072,2504:166980,2509:198000,2879:198650,2890
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Nancy Wilson's interview, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Nancy Wilson describes her early childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Nancy Wilson remembers her early interest in singing

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Nancy Wilson describes her family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Nancy Wilson talks about her upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Nancy Wilson describes her early education

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Nancy Wilson talks about her paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Nancy Wilson describes her early interest in cooking

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Nancy Wilson describes her family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Nancy Wilson talks about her brother

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Nancy Wilson lists her half-siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Slating of Nancy Wilson's interview, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Nancy Wilson remembers the community of Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Nancy Wilson remembers her first car

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Nancy Wilson talks about her interest in reading

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Nancy Wilson remembers her first television show, 'Skyline Melodies'

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Nancy Wilson remembers joining Rusty Bryant's band

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Nancy Wilson recalls her decision to pursue a solo musical career

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Nancy Wilson recalls her introduction to the music industry in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Nancy Wilson describes her foray into acting

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Nancy Wilson remembers the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Nancy Wilson remembers the challenges faced by female vocalists

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Nancy Wilson remembers meeting Kenneth Dennis

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Nancy Wilson remembers her marriage to Kenneth Dennis

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Nancy Wilson remembers performing in New York City's nightclubs

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Nancy Wilson recalls recording live at the Cocoanut Grove in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Nancy Wilson remembers Frank Silvera

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Nancy Wilson talks about her divorce

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Nancy Wilson talks about her early albums

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Nancy Wilson remembers recording with Cannonball Adderley

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Nancy Wilson describes her working relationship with John Levy

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Nancy Wilson describes the influence of radio on her success

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Nancy Wilson remembers her early exposure to music

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Nancy Wilson remembers her baptism

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Nancy Wilson describes her marriage to Wiley Burton

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Nancy Wilson describes her grandchildren

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Nancy Wilson describes the changes in the music industry

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Nancy Wilson describes her experiences in the music industry

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Nancy Wilson remembers the racial discrimination in the music industry

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Nancy Wilson talks about the Grammy Awards

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Nancy Wilson talks about her star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Nancy Wilson talks about her most popular songs

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Nancy Wilson talks about her favorite vocalists

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Nancy Wilson reflects upon the reviews of her performances

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Nancy Wilson describes her civic engagement

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Nancy Wilson remembers Lou Rawls

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Nancy Wilson talks about the hip hop genre

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Nancy Wilson describes her hopes for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Nancy Wilson reflects upon her life

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Nancy Wilson describes the Manchester Craftsmen's Guild

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Nancy Wilson describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Nancy Wilson reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Nancy Wilson talks about her song, 'How Glad I Am'

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Nancy Wilson describes her plans for the future

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Nancy Wilson describes her duets

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

5$1

DATitle
Nancy Wilson remembers her first television show, 'Skyline Melodies'
Nancy Wilson remembers the challenges faced by female vocalists
Transcript
Somebody told me you won a contest (laughter) (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) (Laughter) I keep reading this in my bio. And I keep trying to--we have changed it, and I've sent out, we've sent out different a bio, but every time I see it, it keeps saying that I won this contest. I represented my high school. Columbus, Ohio was having auditions, and each high school sent a representative to be in this contest. And there were--it was East [East High School, Columbus, Ohio], West [West High School, Columbus, Ohio], South [South High School, Columbus, Ohio], North [North High School; Columbus North International High School, Columbus, Ohio], Central [Central High School, Columbus, Ohio], Linden-McKinley [Linden-McKinley High School; Linden-McKinley STEM Academy, Columbus, Ohio], maybe nine high schools. And I was sent to represent West High School. So I went to do my audition, and it's the last time I recall playing the piano for myself. And it was a song that I had written, which I do not remember the name of it, and I am not a writer of material. However, it must have been quite good because I was asked not to participate in the contest. Now, that sounds really arrogant, but it's the truth. "Would you mind not participating in this contest? Why don't we just give you a TV show?" Hey, fine, what do I need to do on this television show? So I was on twice a week on a show called 'Skyline Melody' [sic. 'Skyline Melodies'] and the audience would call in or write in requests for their birthdays, specific songs they wanted to hear. And all I had was this little backdrop, and Hugh Thompson [ph.] was the keyboard player. He was the pianist and he was not--oh, I'm a talker. I would sing whatever the song was, and "This song goes out to such--. And Hugh, what about So and So, and what do you think?" And he'd say, "Uh-huh. Yeah." Okay, here we go. So I was carrying fifteen minutes alone, especially verbally, but he was a brilliant pianist. And he had at one time been with Dinah Washington, and when I went to Cleveland [Ohio] and was working alone--this was after the Rusty Bryant stint--he was at the Key Club [Golden Key Club, Cleveland, Ohio] with me. He was my accompanist there, playing beautifully, but not a talker, however.$Where I felt [HistoryMaker] John Levy was so special, is that he was a musician, and that he was coming to the business from the, from the artist's point of view as opposed to money and management and all those other things. He was the bass player for George Shearing. And George Shearing blew up so big and John was so busy handling George's business that he had to tell George that "I cannot do all of this for you and still be your manager." You know so George was the one who really convinced and talked with John, and said, "You should open your own office." Next thing John Levy knew, he was managing Cannonball Adderley, he was managing Dakota Staton. He had, I don't know if he had Jonah Jones for a while--he had huge people. He was managing, when I got to New York [New York], The Three Sounds. He was managing [HistoryMaker] Ramsey Lewis when I got to New York. And the girl singer part was over. Now we talked with David Cavanaugh, and David was one of the sweetest men in the world. He was my producer at Capitol [Capitol Records], and he and John Levy had this great rapport. And I think they were the first pers- people to kind of mention to me that there were four sexes, and I always--they were male, female, homosexuals and girl singers. Now, I'm offended. "Wait a minute, how do we get to be in a whole separate other class than--what makes us so different?" He said, "Maybe we're not including you there yet, but the bottom line is people look at girl singers--." And girl singers are having a rough time of it. Girl singers could be in the old tradition of the world, word diva. We didn't call them divas, it was the B word as opposed to diva. When you talked about divas, you were be talking about Maria Callas, or during my time coming up, you were talking about Dinah [Dinah Washington]. You were talking sometimes about Ella [Ella Fitzgerald]. Ella would be sweet and nice as she could be on stage, but she would tear into those musicians after actually a perfect show. There had to be something wrong it. Now, Sarah [Sarah Vaughan] was one of the guys. Sarah used to enjoy the musicians, and she played and sang, and hung. Sarah--girl singers were a whole other breed, and they also drew attention from some of the wrong men, and that also was a part of it. A lot of management, a lot of record companies, did not want to deal with the men that kind of came along with the girl singer. And there were a lot that added nothing to the girl singer. They were actually detrimental to their well-being. There was a lot of abuse. I did not like what I saw, and consequently, I really talked with David and John Levy a lot about that, and was fortunate enough to be surrounded by musicians who I've never seen abuse anybody. I knew that any number of the singers--I mean you don't marry five times if you're happy. You know, you just don't.

John W. Mack

Civic leader John Wesley Mack was born on January 6, 1937, in Kingstree, South Carolina, to Abram Mack, a Methodist minister, and Ruth Wynita, a school teacher. Shortly after he was born, Mack’s family moved to Darlington, South Carolina. Mack attended North Carolina A&T State University, where he earned his B.S. degree in applied sociology in 1958. As a student, Mack was the head of the college’s NAACP student chapter. The following year, Mack was married to Harriett Johnson, an elementary school teacher he met through his college roommate; the couple went on to have three children together.

In 1960, Mack co-founded and became vice-chairman of the Commission on Appeal for Human Rights, an organization that incorporated members of Atlanta University, Morehouse, and Spelman Colleges, including such noted figures as Marion Wright Edelman, Julian Bond, and Reverend Otis Marsh. That same year, the students held sit-ins at Rich’s Department Store. During this time, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested. 1960 was also the year that Mack obtained his M.A. degree in social work from Clark Atlanta University.

Shortly afterward, Mack and his family moved to Oxnard, California, as part of a social work fellowship established for him at Camarillo Hospital by his mentor Whitney Young. In 1964, upon completing his work at the Camarillo Hospital, Mack moved to Flint, Michigan, where a year later he became Executive Director of the Flint Urban League. It was in Flint that Mack focused on fair housing and voter registration issues.

In 1969, Mack became President of the Los Angeles Urban League, where he would serve until his retirement in 2005; the longest tenure of anyone in this position. With Mack as president, the Los Angeles Urban League became one of the country’s most successful non-profit organizations, generating an annual budget of $25 million while promoting issues of employment, education and economic development.

In 1977, Mack became co-founder and co-chair of the Los Angeles Black Leadership Coalition on Education, and in the early 1980s, he was appointed vice president of the United Way Corporation of Council Executives. In the late 1990s, Mack served as a Fellow in Residence at Harvard University, where he led a study group entitled “The Future of Urban America: Finding Solutions Through Strategic Partnership and Policy Advocacy.” In 2005, Mack was appointed President of the Board of Police Commissioners of the Los Angeles Police Department by Mayor Antonio R. Villaraigosa; he held this position for two consecutive years before being elected to the office of Vice President in 2007. Over the years Mack has been awarded by numerous different institutions, including Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund Black Women of Achievement, Operation Hope, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and the California Afro American Museum.

Mack passed away on June 21, 2018.

Accession Number

A2007.139

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/15/2007 |and| 11/18/2013

Last Name

Mack

Maker Category
Middle Name

W.

Schools

Mayo High School for Math, Science, and Technology

North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University

Whitney M. Young, Jr. School of Social Work

First Name

John

Birth City, State, Country

Kingstree

HM ID

MAC02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Palm Desert, California, Maui, Hawaii, Aruba

Favorite Quote

Marathon Runner For Justice And Equality.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

1/6/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Soul Food

Death Date

6/21/2018

Short Description

Civic leader, nonprofit chief executive, and city government appointee John W. Mack (1937 - 2018 ) was a former president of the Los Angeles Urban League; co-founder of the Committee on Appeal for Human Rights; co-founder of the Los Angeles Black Leadership Coalition on Education; and an executive member of the Board of Police Commissioners of the Los Angeles Police Department.

Employment

Camarillo State Mental Hospital

Urban League of Flint

Los Angeles Urban League

Los Angeles Board of Police Commissioners

Favorite Color

Earth Tones

Timing Pairs
0,0:1959,29:14848,106:16384,125:16864,131:18770,138:19500,144:26880,187:28635,240:60830,638:67172,765:68030,787:74577,826:78894,855:82614,919:83265,928:96025,1066:112722,1276:113640,1286:121185,1347:133868,1629:137744,1704:153997,1945:154508,1953:157866,2018:159399,2039:159764,2045:162757,2100:164801,2137:165166,2143:178089,2370:178623,2377:179157,2384:187830,2496:188730,2513:201630,2800:201970,2805:202990,2829:208576,2873:214838,2957:221940,3034:229770,3219$0,0:13590,142:14050,148:15246,171:15890,176:16534,184:18098,208:18834,218:19662,228:29596,342:30208,349:31534,364:39960,432:40264,437:40720,445:41176,453:41632,460:52038,570:54252,607:56794,647:73650,807:77860,816:89730,978:90420,990:100840,1099:111810,1252:117830,1367:118776,1389:119120,1394:119808,1404:120238,1410:124320,1419:124688,1424:125700,1437:126344,1445:127540,1461:136175,1584:146636,1728:148044,1749:150684,1793:154692,1830:155412,1843:157670,1867:158055,1873:158440,1879:163780,1927:167672,1952:169581,1983:175142,2098:176802,2122:177632,2133:179292,2165:182630,2186:192589,2312:193156,2320:193804,2344:208703,2615:212350,2624:221502,2753:234700,2874:235060,2879:237130,2898:240280,3023:244150,3073:245860,3103:250444,3125:251888,3145:255080,3184
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of John W. Mack's interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - John W. Mack lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - John W. Mack describes his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - John W. Mack remembers his mother's siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - John W. Mack describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - John W. Mack talks about his father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - John W. Mack lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - John W. Mack describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - John W. Mack talks about his early years in Darlington, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - John W. Mack remembers his teachers in Darlington, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - John W. Mack describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - John W. Mack recalls racism in Darlington, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - John W. Mack describes the Buddy Johnson concerts in Darlington, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - John W. Mack recalls his decision to pursue a college education

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - John W. Mack remembers dentist and social activist William Gibson

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - John W. Mack recalls attending the Agricultural and Technical College of North Carolina in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - John W. Mack describes his civil rights work at the Agricultural and Technical College of North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - John W. Mack recalls the alumni of the Agricultural and Technical College of North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - John W. Mack remembers meeting Whitney Young

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - John W. Mack remembers his father's death

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - John W. Mack remembers his first exposure to Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - John W. Mack talks about his mentor, Whitney Young

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - John W. Mack describes civil rights leaders in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - John W. Mack talks about the Committee on Appeal for Human Rights

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - John W. Mack remembers Atlanta newspapers' coverage of the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - John W. Mack describes protests organized by the Committee on Appeal for Human Rights

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - John W. Mack remembers the importance of nonviolent resistance

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - John W. Mack remembers meeting his wife

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - John W. Mack recalls marrying his wife

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - John W. Mack remembers protesting Rich's Department Store in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - John W. Mack describes reactions to the protest at Rich's Department Store

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - John W. Mack remembers a three-pronged protest, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - John W. Mack remembers a three-pronged protest, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - John W. Mack recalls a white student's involvement in the Atlanta Student Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - John W. Mack recalls a trip to Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - John W. Mack recalls a meeting at Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - John W. Mack remembers the national media coverage of the Atlanta Student Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - John W. Mack describes the role of the NAACP in the Atlanta Student Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - John W. Mack recalls the role of Atlanta churches in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - John W. Mack talks about CORE's involvement in the Civil Rights Movement in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - John W. Mack recalls moving to California

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - John W. Mack remembers addressing the 1960 Democratic National Convention platform committee, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - John W. Mack remembers addressing the Democratic Convention platform committee, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - John W. Mack reflects upon leaving Atlanta, Georgia in the 1960s

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Slating of John W. Mack's interview, session 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - John W. Mack describes his experiences in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - John W. Mack talks about the mission of the National Urban League

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - John W. Mack talks about the role of the Big Six in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - John W. Mack remembers joining the Urban League of Flint in Flint, Michigan

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - John W. Mack recalls attending the 1960 Democratic National Convention in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - John W. Mack remembers the reaction of Flint, Michigan to Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - John W. Mack talks about his Los Angeles Urban League predecessors

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - John W. Mack recalls his efforts to desegregate schools in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - John W. Mack describes his conflicts with the Los Angeles Police Department in California

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - John W. Mack remembers the Los Angeles civic organizations' response to the Rodney King incident

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - John W. Mack describes protocol changes for the appointment of the Los Angeles police chief

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - John W. Mack talks about community policing in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - John W. Mack describes issues within the Los Angeles Police Department

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - John W. Mack remembers leading the Los Angeles Board of Police Commissioners

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - John W. Mack reflects upon institutional change at the LAPD

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - John W. Mack remembers Los Angeles Police Chief Bernard Parks, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - John W. Mack remembers Los Angeles Police Chief Bernard Parks, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - John W. Mack reflects upon the Rampart scandal in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - John W. Mack describes his philosophy of activism

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - John W. Mack remembers his work with the Los Angeles Urban League

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - John W. Mack recalls the first Whitney M. Young, Jr. Awards Dinner in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - John W. Mack remembers Whitney Young

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - John W. Mack talks about the legacy of Los Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - John W. Mack remembers his conflicts with Daryl Gates, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - John W. Mack remembers his conflicts with Daryl Gates, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - John W. Mack recalls an assassination threat from skinheads

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - John W. Mack reflects upon his tenure as police commissioner in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - John W. Mack remembers the O.J. Simpson trial, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - John W. Mack remembers the O.J. Simpson trial, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - John W. Mack describes Johnnie Cochran

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - John W. Mack recalls advice about William Bratton

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - John W. Mack describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - John W. Mack reflects upon his life

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - John W. Mack reflects upon his career

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - John W. Mack talks about his mentorship in the National Urban League

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - John W. Mack describes his family

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - John W. Mack describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$2

DATape

4$7

DAStory

5$1

DATitle
John W. Mack remembers a three-pronged protest, pt. 1
John W. Mack describes his conflicts with the Los Angeles Police Department in California
Transcript
But the demonstration of all demonstrations, we had--this was in the spring of 1960. We wanted to attack segregation at the local level, state level, and federal level. And three of us headed, Lonnie King [Lonnie C. King, Jr.] headed one group, I headed another group, and I'm trying to recall who had--I think it was Johnny Parham [Johnny E. Parham, Jr.] maybe who headed a third group. One was on the Fulton County Courthouse [Atlanta, Georgia] that was to attack at the state, the, the, I mean, at the county, local level. Another group went to the state capitol [Georgia State Capitol, Atlanta, Georgia]. So then I led the group that demonstrated at the Peachtree cafeteria [ph.]. Peachtree cafeteria was a federal--it was, it was occupied by the federal government but it was leased from a local entrepreneur. And that was the focus of, of my group was to go at the, the federal government for, for being a party to discrimination and segregation. And we, the way we strategized it, all three demonstrations occurred at the same time, high noon, on the same day (laughter).$$(Laughter).$$And just, and needless to say it just, it created all kinds of media attention. And at this stage of the game we had really gained a lot of momentum and there was tremendous community support for, you know, for what we were doing. And the--and while our administrators had to be careful they didn't endorse us or, you know, just being out of school and that kind of thing but certainly, I mean, Whitney [Whitney Young] was there with us and Carl Holman [M. Carl Holman] and people like that were supportive of us. And--$$And what was Carl Holman's role there?$$Carl, Carl was, at that time he was an instructor at, at Spelman [sic. Clark College; Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia].$$Okay.$$And but he too was, you know, very supportive of what we were doing. And, and, and one of the advisors, one of the people who, who was very closely aligned with the students and what we were, and he was a part of those adult advisors there with us.$$Right.$$And who were there to support us but also there to help us strategize and think through our, our, our plans.$$Okay.$$And, and, of course, he went on to head the National Urban Coalition, I think as--$$Right.$$--many would, of your viewers would know.$$Right. And [HistoryMaker] Marian Wright Edelman.$$And Marian Wright Edelman. Marian was a student at Spelman [Spelman College, Atlanta, Georgia].$$Okay.$$And she was, you know, a part of the, the group. We--$$[HistoryMaker] Julian Bond at that time.$$Julian Bond, Morehouse [Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia] yep.$$He was a student at More--$$He was a student Morehouse, yep.$$At that time.$$And part of the group, yeah.$$Okay.$$Yeah. And the, you know, they were both members, very dedicated and committed members. And, and Julian has great writing skills and he would write, he would do quite a bit of our journalistic, you know--$$Work.$$--work. As I mentioned before, he went on to actually, once the, our group subsequently decided we needed to establish our own newspaper, Julian became the first editor of that newspaper.$$Okay.$$Um-hm.$$The Inquirer [Atlanta Inquirer].$$Yes, yes, right.$The police department. Now what, what were some of the issues?$$LAPD on, on the advocacy side this is where I spent more of my time than any place else. You know, other than running programs, you know, job training, education programs, and that kind of activity. We still had those programs going but, but the Los Angeles, the Los Angeles Police Department for decades had the, the, you know, the, was recognized as probably the most racist, brutal, police department in America. And, of course, the late Daryl Gates, he epitomized the worst. I mean, he wasn't the only one, but he was, he was the one where so many of my battles and, and my colleagues battled him tooth and nail. We--as I, as I reflect back, we had an incident, a, a woman named Eula Love, a black woman, who owned a, who owed a gas bill for around twenty-five dollars that she had not paid. And for some weird reason, which doesn't even make sense as you think about it, after the gas company tried to collect the money, and she didn't pay it because she wasn't able to pay it, they said cops went to her home and demanded payment. She didn't pay it, 'cause she didn't have the money, and they end up shooting and killing the woman. And, you know, that needless to say, was just the, the, it was a mind boggler. It made no sense in so, in so many different levels. I mean, but it was an example of how it was open season on black people. LAPD operated for several decades like an occupation force in the African American community. Now, it was user friendly in the white communities so it was hard for white residents of Los Angeles [California] to even begin to understand and appreciate the, the, the fact that this department was just, had no regard for the civil rights of the, or, or, or frankly, the, the basic worth--you talk about respect, there was no respect, and especially among young black men. Then we had the chokehold incident, where you had twenty-one young African American men who died as a result of the application of the chokehold, and Daryl Gates had the gall to say it was because there was something medically and physically wrong with us that made us more susceptible to dying from the application of the chokehold. In that instance, the late Johnnie Cochran, who we worked very closely together with, Johnnie Cochran at the time was serving on the Urban League board [Los Angeles Urban League, Los Angeles, California]. There was another African American, Dr. Madison Richardson, a very prominent physician who chaired the board, and we held a press conference at the Urban League. And Johnnie Cochran attacked LAPD and Gates, you know, from a legal standpoint, Dr. Madison Richardson from a medical standpoint, just dissected and totally, totally destroyed Gates' argument and rationale, and I from a community and civil rights perspective. And we went on to make demands before the police commission [Los Angeles Board of Police Commissioners], the city council [Los Angeles City Council], the mayor at the time Tom Bradley, and we were able to ultimately, ultimately as a result of the pressure cause LAPD's policy to change in terms of how the chokehold was applied.