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Robert Dottin

Biologist and research director Robert Dottin was born in Trinidad in 1943. He graduated from St. Mary’s College in 1970 with his B.S. degree in in biology. Dottin went on to earn his M.S. degree in medical biophysics in 1972 and his Ph.D. in medical genetics in 1974 from the University of Toronto. Upon graduation, Dottin was awarded the Centennial Fellowship to pursue post-doctoral research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Dottin served as a professor at the Johns Hopkins University, and has been a visiting professor at the University of Copenhagen, Pasteur Institute in Paris, Karlova University in Prague and Oxford University. Dottin then became a full professor at Hunter College of the City University of New York. His teaching experience includes courses in bioinformatics, genetics and developmental biology, all of which utilize internet and digital technology to promote interactive learning. In addition, Dottin has developed many strategies that promote the inclusion of under-represented groups in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathemathics) research as well as addressing health disparities. Dottin is the founder of the “JustGarciaHill” website – a internet-based community of more than four-thousand minorities in science. Dottin scholarship is published in journals such as the Journal of Biological Chemistry and Ethnicity and Disease.

From 1988 to 1986, Dottin served as the program coordinator for the Center for the Study of Gene Structure and Function (Gene Center) at Hunter College. In 1998, he was appointed as the director of the Gene Center. As director, Dottin increased the productivity, the level of funding, and the diversity of the faculty and staff within the organization. He steered the research at the Gene Center towards a “translational research” agenda and managed equal partnership of the Gene Center in the Clinical and Translational Science Center (CTSC) with the Weill Cornell Medical Center, the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, and the Hospital for Special Surgery. He is the principal investigator for the CTSC sub-award to Hunter College, and he is co-principal investigator on T3 Translational Research Network pilot projects to use an interactive videoconferencing platform to prevent chronic diseases, infectious diseases, and environmental toxicity.

Robert Dottin was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 28, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.102

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/11/2013

Last Name

Dottin

Maker Category
Middle Name

Philip

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

University of Toronto

First Name

Robert

Birth City, State, Country

Port of Spain

HM ID

DOT03

Favorite Season

Spring

Favorite Vacation Destination

Valldemossa, Majorca

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

5/5/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

Trinidad & Tobago

Favorite Food

Grilled Seafood

Short Description

Biologist Robert Dottin (1943 - ) is a professor at Hunter College of City University of New York where he also was appointed as the program coordinator for the Center for the Study of Gene Structure and Function (Gene Center).

Employment

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

John Hopkins University

City University of New York

Hunter College

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Robert Dottin's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Robert Dottin lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Robert Dottin describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Robert Dottin talks about his mother, Lena Decoteau

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Robert Dottin describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Robert Dottin describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Robert Dottin talks about his parents' personality and who he takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Robert Dottin describes his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Robert Dottin describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Robert Dottin describes the neighborhoods where he grew up in Port of Spain, Trinidad

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Robert Dottin describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Port of Spain, Trinidad - part one

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Robert Dottin describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Port of Spain, Trinidad - part two

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Robert Dottin discusses the Trinidadian economy and political activism, and his memories of the country gaining its independence from Great Britain in 1961

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Robert Dottin describes the demographics of Trinidad and Tobago, and talks about famous writers who lived in Trinidad

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Robert Dottin discusses the genetic diversity in Africa and his work with the H3Africa project

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Robert Dottin talks about the schools that he attended in Trinidad, and describes the British system of education

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Robert Dottin describes his experience in elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Robert Dottin describes his math education in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Robert Dottin talks about studying calculus

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Robert Dottin talks about his interest in science and mathematics, and his experience in high school at Fatima College in Port of Spain, Trinidad

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Robert Dottin describes how Trinidad gained independence from Great Britain in 1961

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Robert Dottin talks about Trinidad's independence celebrations of 1961, and discusses the different ethnic backgrounds of immigrants and African Americans

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Robert Dottin describes his experience in high school at St. Mary's College in Port of Spain, Trinidad

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Robert Dottin describes his decision to attend the University of Toronto

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Robert Dottin describes his experience as an undergraduate student at the University of Toronto

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Robert Dottin describes his decision to pursue his master's and Ph.D. degrees at the University of Toronto, studying bacteriophage integration mechanisms

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Robert Dottin describes his master's and Ph.D. dissertation on bacteriophage lambda regulation

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Robert Dottin describes the scientific reaction to his Ph.D. dissertation on bacteriophage lambda regulation

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Robert Dottin describes his postdoctoral research at MIT, where he discovered novel features of the messenger RNA of the amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Robert Dottin talks about his experience as a visiting professor in Copenhagen, Sweden in 1976

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Robert Dottin describes his research on signal transduction in Dictyostelium discoideum

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Robert Dottin talks about working with Judge W. Arthur Garrity, Jr. on minority education in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Robert Dottin describes his decision to accept a faculty position at Hunter College in New York

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Robert Dottin describes his initial experience at the Center for the Study of Gene Structure at Hunter College

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Robert Dottin describes his experience at the Center for the Study of Gene Structure at Hunter College, and its achievements over the years - part one

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Robert Dottin describes his experience at the Center for the Study of Gene Structure at Hunter College, and its achievements over the years - part two

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Robert Dottin talks about Just Garcia Hill

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Robert Dottin talks about a study of the underlying biases that affect minorities in science and ongoing efforts to change this trend

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Robert Dottin discusses his current focus on science education and administration, and his research contributions over the course of his career

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Robert Dottin discusses his work promoting collaborations in science and education

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Robert Dottin describes his involvement in the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative and his work with cyber classrooms - part one

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Robert Dottin describes his involvement in the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative and his work with cyber classrooms - part two

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Robert Dottin shares his views on the politics of science and the debate on evolution

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Robert Dottin shares his views on climate change and evolution

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Robert Dottin talks about his role in establishing a collaborative network within the City University of New York and with other local universities

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Robert Dottin describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community, and discusses the need for minorities in STEM

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Robert Dottin reflects upon his career and his contributions towards science

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Robert Dottin reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Robert Dottin talks about his children

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Robert Dottin talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Robert Dottin describes his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

6$4

DAStory

1$5

DATitle
Robert Dottin describes his involvement in the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative and his work with cyber classrooms - part one
Robert Dottin describes his research on signal transduction in Dictyostelium discoideum
Transcript
Well you just mentioned before we ended the last session about the H3Africa [The Human Heredity and Health in Africa initiative] project, Francis Collins [American physician-geneticist noted for his discoveries of disease genes and his leadership of the Human Genome Project (HGP); currently serves as the director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH)].$$Um-hmm.$$So you want to elaborate some more about that?$$Well I mean that project arose because I had been teaching a bioinformatics course, introductory bioinformatics which I teach and I had been collaborating with people in Mississippi, several universities in Mississippi and Michigan on working on trying to build a cyber classroom where they could study something called visual analytics, which is a way of representing a lot of data in a visual way so that you can see changes. A pie chart is a visual analytic tool because even if it's based on millions of people, you know, you can have different colors to represent different groups or whatever, people who are tall or short or weigh within a particular weight and that kind of thing and you can show changes over time with these kinds of things. So, visual analytics is something that's really very important for large datasets and for representing them in a way that's easily understood. And there were grants given by the National Science Foundation [NSF] to a guy, colleague whose name is Rafael Zupe [ph.] and he has--he got a group of us together to work on this. And so, he's Nigerian and there were, and this collaboration involved people who were Chinese, whites, and all kinds from all these different universities. And this project was a pilot project and we started with him and we again provided some of the videoconferencing tools for people to work together and also we built a module which shows how you can look at evolution and teach evolution in a way online without being there and have these visual color schemes and heat maps to show differences in species across, as the evolution goes on for a particular protein. And so we built this environment and we got to know each other you know and so on and he knew what we had been doing here with Weill Cornell [Medical College, New York] and this clinical and translational research project now. So when the people in Nigeria wanted to have someone who might be able to help them with collaboration that's what they did. They called up, they asked us to come over. So Carlos, whom you met, and I went over, we did workshops there, we got people to understand the value in the technology and how it might work and it's you know, it's ongoing there. There's a meeting coming up with people in Nairobi [Kenya] and other parts of Africa, different countries now are collaborating and doing scientific collaborations and we're helping them with connecting and some of the bioinformatic things that they will be needing. Now we are not experts in bioinformatics, in genomics and high-throughput sequencing and all these techniques that they might be needing, and they will get those from other places. So our contributions--I mean we understand the projects and so on and so we are helping them in that way. Plus, some of the, two of the students now were identified and are now a part of our course so when we run the course on Saturdays, they come in. We either have the course in here and we have the students here or the students may be at home and they connect with cameras and so on and head pieces, they'll talk into the computers.$$So it's like Skype or something but with (unclear)?$$Sort of, but much more sophisticated because you can share the data and see the data that you're presenting and then talk to each other and they're seeing each other and they you know transmit information, jokes and everything and, but they don't have to come to the same place. So it's an experiment in a way on how that might work in the future. Seems to be working very well and we have of course an electronic classroom where you can put up information, slides and everything and people can work together. And that, so that's what some of them, two of the students from there are taking the course. We also do the videoconferencing for other projects in New York, reaching out to communities from here. This room is a studio and we reach--we get medical doctors and experts to come in and they give talks to people in many different places at the same time, churches and communities and so on. And they come up on the screens and they see each other and they talk about diabetes, hypertension and how to avoid it or they talk about, to people who are senior citizens in homes, how to avoid falls because a large fraction of those people who fall die as a result eventually very quickly because of the broken hips and all these things. So that's another topic. Sometimes we have a yoga person in here who might be getting people in different places to get up from their chairs and do yoga and those kinds of things. So it's prevention is the emphasis there rather than having to take more and more pills and so on. The emphasis there is on prevention. But in any case, with the Africa project it's more bioinformatics and genomics that they're focused on.$What was the most significant finding from your signal transduction research on [Dictyostelium discoideum]?$$Well the signal transduction work I did was done while I was at Johns Hopkins [University, Baltimore, Maryland] and when I came here [Hunter College, New York].$$Okay, so it's coming up?$$It's later, yeah.$$Okay, all right so Johns Hopkins [University, Baltimore, Maryland], when did you go to Johns Hopkins?$$Let's see. I think it was about the end of 1976. I can't remember exactly when but around then.$$And were you doing a post-doc at (unclear)?$$No, I was an assistant professor.$$Okay, you--$$I got a full time job.$$Okay, all right, associate professor of biology?$$Assistant.$$Assistant, okay. I'm sorry some of these are out of chronologic order.$$That's okay.$$I've got to jump around a little bit. Okay, so you were at Johns Hopkins for ten years.$$Yes.$$Yeah, from '76 [1976] to '86 [1986].$$Yes.$$And so what was the focus of your research at Johns Hopkins? I worked on the Dictyostelium [discoideum], that amoeba and that work was again concerned with regulation, gene, genetic control of development and things like that. And I, while I was there I did, I started studying signal transduction which was an important area of the research. Poorly understood at the time but now it's no big deal. The--this organism was a good one to do that experiment and it's--signal transduction has to do with how hormones work because these are molecules that are produced outside of cells and they activate cells to do certain things. And there, there are some hormones that enter the cell because they are hydrophobic. They can go through the membrane, like estrogen or something, and then they activate things inside of the cell, pathways. Tremendous biochemical reactions as you know you can stimulate, produce something in the brain and then all of a sudden it's having an affect in your liver or kidney or something. So those kinds of hormones, like the steroid hormones, that had---a lot of work was coming out on that from Yamamoto and other people on how they may work. But there are other hormones that never enter a cell and they have an effect. And in this organism we're working on, cyclic AMP [Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP or 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes. cAMP is derived from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and used for intracellular signal transduction in many different organisms, conveying the cAMP-dependent pathway] which is a small molecule, but it's charged, so it doesn't enter the cell, was having a profound effect on development of the cell. It changed a lot of things in the cell and allowed them to aggregate and so on. And there were people who were working on the mechanism of getting these cells sticky and aggregate--and what happens very early and one of them was at Hopkins too, Peter Devreotes, and we were looking more at gene expression. And what we found was that we could use the same molecules which were known not to enter cells but to bind on the surface and we found that those things were directly turning on genes, activating them inside the cell and that's what signal trans--well signal transduction means that something is acting on the outside and it's having an effect. Well we showed that it was actually turning on genes and at that time there were very few models where people could--there was a cancer kind of thing where some cell surface molecules were, seemed to be acting on specializing the cells or making them cancerous. But other than that, there was very little known and we took this and we showed that these molecules could bind to molecules on the outside of the cell called receptors and trigger a whole cascade of events. It's like one of these Rube Goldberg [Reuben Garrett Lucius "Rube" Goldberg was an American cartoonist, sculptor, author, engineer and inventor] things where you see the ball hits this and it hits something else and it activates something. And in the end you have the mouse jumps around or whatever. So this whole pathway was very interesting or it still is very interesting. But what we showed is that it activates the genes inside the cell and I would say that's an important, that was an important--and this was one of the few, first few papers on that area. Now there's thousands of papers on that, on how signal transduction works, literally thousands.$$Okay. But that time it was cutting edge?$$Yes.$$Okay.$$But not all the work you do as I pointed out is cutting edge. Sometimes you do stuff it's really mundane. The stuff I did at MIT [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts], it was published in a great journal [Cell] but in terms of the long term of, I think it you know it was okay but I think the signal transduction is more important and the lamda repressor things are more important.

Jeanette Jones

Biologist Jeanette Jones was born in Peach County, Fort Valley, Georgia. After graduating from Fort Valley State University in 1972 with her B.S. degree in biology education, Jones enrolled at Ohio State University and went on to receive her M.S. degree in botany and mycology in 1973 and her Ph.D. degree in botany and mycology in 1976. Jones pursued further study at the University of Nevada, the University of California Medical School (San Francisco), the National Centers for Disease Control-Atlanta, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Cambridge).

In 1976, Jones was hired as an assistant professor of biology at Alabama A&M University and became a member of the graduate faculty. Jones was named full professor of biology in 1986 while serving concurrently as an adjunct professor in the College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University where she worked on a special project with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). In 1991, Jones became the first female appointed as the vice president of research and development Alabama A&M University. Jones then was appointed as the director of the Center for Biomedical, Behavioral and Environmental Research at Alabama A & M University. In 1992, she was appointed to U.S. Army Science Board by the U.S. Secretary of the Army, Togo West, served until 1998, and was reappointed in 2004 as a member of the U.S. Army Science Board under U.S. Army Secretary Francis J. Harvey. Jones moved to Jackson State University in Mississippi where she served on the Research Centers in Minority Institutions’ External Advisory Committee. She has also acted as consultant for federal agencies on training programs to attract women and minorities to STEM disciplines.

Jones was listed in the World’s Women Who’s Who (1975) and she was named an Outstanding Young Woman of America in 1978. Jones received the distinguished service award from the Beta Beta Beta National Biological Honor Society and the Significant Service Award from the NASA Space Life Sciences Training Program. In 2003, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) gave her its Extramural Associate Research Development Award. At Alabama A&M University, she was bestowed the Outstanding Leadership Award, a Resolution for Distinguished Service from the Board of Trustees, and was named Woman of the Year in 1990 and 2006.

Jeanette Jones was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on 4/10/2013.

Accession Number

A2013.101

Sex

Female

Interview Date

4/10/2013

Last Name

Jones

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

Fort Valley State College

The Ohio State University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Jeanette

Birth City, State, Country

Peach County

HM ID

JON34

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Spain

Favorite Quote

Marvelous.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Alabama

Birth Date

9/19/1950

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Huntsville

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Peaches

Short Description

Biologist Jeanette Jones (1950 - ) , the first female vice president for research and development for approximately seven years at Alabama A & M University, is the director of the Center for Biomedical, Behavioral and Environmental Research at Alabama A & M University.

Employment

Robins Air Force Base

Fort Valley State University

Forestry Experimental Laboratory

Ohio State University

Alabama A&M State University

Florida A&M University

National Institute of Health (NIH)

Center for Biomedical, Behavioral and Environmental Research

Favorite Color

Yellow

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Jeanette Jones's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Jeanette Jones lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Jeanette Jones talks about her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Jeanette Jones talks about her mother's growing up in Fort Valley, Georgia and her education

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Jeanette Jones talks about her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Jeanette Jones talks about her father's growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Jeanette Jones talks about her father's leg injury

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Jeanette Jones talks about her parents

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Jeanette Jones talks about her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Jeanette Jones describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Jeanette Jones describes the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Jeanette Jones talks about her childhood neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Jeanette Jones talks about her involvement in the church growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Jeanette Jones talks about her father's influence on her math skills and helping her father work on his car

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Jeanette Jones talks about her elementary school and her favorite sixth grade teacher

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Jeanette Jones talks about her early interest in science and fascination with nature

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Jeanette Jones talks about her academic performance in school

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Jeanette Jones talks about her reading interests during high school

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Jeanette Jones talks about her interest in music growing up

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Jeanette Jones talks about her preparation in science and her decision to attend Fort Valley State University

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Jeanette Jones talks about her experience and her decision to major in biology education at Fort Valley State University

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Jeanette Jones talks about her memories of the Civil Rights Movement and her involvement in voter registration politics

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Jeanette Jones talks about her studies at The Ohio State University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Jeanette Jones talks about her experience during her first semester of graduate school

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Jeanette Jones reflects on her experience at The Ohio State University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Jeanette Jones talks about Dr. Frank Hale and his initiatives at The Ohio State University

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Jeanette Jones talks about her emerging interest in mycology, the study of fungi

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Jeanette Jones talks about diseases caused by fungus and the distinction between fungi and bacterium

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Jeanette Jones talks about fungi and the difficulty in treating fungal diseases

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Jeanette Jones talks about fungal diseases and her concerns about spore dispersal and their lifespan

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Jeanette Jones talks about black piedra and how fungal infections can be contracted

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Jeanette Jones talks about her dissertation research on Piedraia and the response to her research on Candida albicans

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Jeanette Jones talks about antibiotics, anti-bacterial products, bleach, and mold

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Jeanette Jones talks about her recruitment to Alabama A&M University, candidiasis, and her interest in teaching

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Jeanette Jones talks about the graduate degree programs at Alabama A&M University

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Jeanette Jones talks about her professional activities

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Jeanette Jones talks about her work with the Army Science Board and the variations of fungi between Alabama and Florida

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Jeanette Jones talks about fungal growth

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Jeanette Jones talks about studying fungal immunology at the Centers for Disease Control and her visit to Japan and China

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Jeanette Jones talks about mushrooms and their nutrient content

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Jeanette Jones talks about influential mycologists and the use of technology to study fungi

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Jeanette Jones talks about her textbooks for her courses

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Jeanette Jones talks about her experience at Florida A&M University

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Jeanette Jones talks about the NASA Space Grant Fellowship Program at Alabama A&M University

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Jeanette Jones talks about fundraising for Alabama A&M University

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Jeanette Jones talks about The Links, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Jeanette Jones talks about her professional activities

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Jeanette Jones talks about her goals for Alabama A&M University

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Jeanette Jones reflects on her life choices and legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Jeanette Jones talks about her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Jeanette Jones talks about her family

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Jeanette Jones talks about the presidents of Alabama A&M University

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Jeanette Jones talks about how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Jeanette Jones describes her photos

DASession

1$1

DATape

6$3

DAStory

5$5

DATitle
Jeanette Jones talks about fundraising for Alabama A&M University
Jeanette Jones talks about her experience during her first semester of graduate school
Transcript
Now, as you were saying before you did mostly administration between 1989 and '96' [1996], right?$$Um-hum.$$So what's the, I guess the highlight of, or the--of that year?$$Well, one, one of the reasons I accepted that when the president at that time suggested it was because I had learned a lot at NIH [National Institutes of Health] in terms of what other institutions were doing in terms of supporting us, basic research, sponsor programs. Our institution did not have many of the kinds of support things in place, and having been a research person with grants, I wanted the office to be user friendly, to be a place where faculty could go and get the kind of support they needed to apply for grants and contracts. And so between that time, I put a lot of effort in trying to make it that. And so we were able to move the research enterprise at A and M. In 1989, I think we had about 4 million when I went in. And we moved it from that to about--and that's four million a year. But we moved to about $20,000,000 a year when I left. But we had a total portfolio of about 60 million, meaning multi-year awards. So it took a lot of effort, a lot of consortia, collaborations with other institutions to build it up to that. And so I was, that was the highlight that we were able to form relationships, to show that together, you could attract more money and so, that's what we did and before it became real popular to collaborate and to partner, we were doing that back then, so. But it really takes a lot of energy.$And it's one, its one story about graduate school I'll never forget, and I talk about it--$$Okay.$$--because it was a person--and I guess I have to talk about a class first to let you know. It was a different class. There were only eight in it. There were three students who were Masters students, me, a white female and a white male. And the other five were PhD candidates. And every time we--we had different things to do, but every time we would have papers, the teacher--I would sit here, and there white female, who was Kathy, a good friend of mine, she was sitting across from me. It was a long table. When the professor handed out papers, he would hand Kathy her papers, and he'd hold them until she grasped the papers. When he handed to me, when my hand went out, he would drop the papers before I got them. So, and he did that for maybe three times. Then I picked up on what he was doing, and then whenever he'd hand papers out, I would turn my head away, and I wouldn't look until he laid them down. And then I'd get my paper and then pass them on. So it was, it was something that he did. And that carried over into the class, you know. Kathy and I worked on all of our things. It was an experimental class so we had projects. And we worked together. All of the labs we did together. But whenever I got my lab back, I had a minus one, and she had a perfect paper. So I got nine and she got 10. And she said, why did you get the nine? I said, I don't know. And this all, 'cause we worked together on it. So the final, we did that all semester, and so the final exam in the class was for us to read five papers. When I was in school, I had a photostatic memory, you know, because I was, I was in Ohio, and my folks were in Georgia. I didn't have anything else to do. I studied. And so, I did the five papers, and so we scheduled--only had one hour to take the exam. When I went for my one hour exam, I go in, and he says to me that, he said he wanted to ask me some questions. And he said, you're my first experience with a black person. Do you mind if I ask you questions? And I'm, I'm 20 years, and I said, okay, I don't mind you asking questions. I'm naive. He said, well, I notice that you have friends, you have black friends that come to the lab, and you have friends, you're friends with Kathy, and you have white friends. And he said, if your friends were going--which friends would you go with if you were going somewhere? Who would you choose to go with? And I said, it depends on where they're going. And he said, well, say for instance a party. I said, well, if they're going to a party, I'd probably go with my black friends because we like the same kind of music, and I've been to some of the other parties, and I'd probably go with my black friends. He said, okay, that's fine. And then he went on to ask me, what was my--what did I think about whites in the North and whites in the South? What was the difference? And I said, well, I've experienced both, and I said, basically, I don't see--there's no difference. There's some feelings that are covert, some things are covert and some things are overt. Now, where did I get that from? I had been looking at the Watergate series, and so those two terms came up, overt and covert actions. And so, and I was really experiencing that. And so then he went on to drill me on, until about 30 minutes. And then he said, okay, let's go for the papers. And we had to talk about the papers. So he asked me questions about the papers. I answered them all. So I said, okay, Dr. Hoststetter, (ph.) at the end. He said, well, thank you, Jeannette. And I said, oh, what did I make? And he said, well, you got a B-plus. I said, I got a B-plus? I said, how did I get a B-plus? He said, well, some of your questions, you answered them, but you left a little bit to be desired. And I said, oh, okay, how could I challenge that? It was just subjective opinion. So, at the end of the semester, I got all A's and one B-plus from him. So it was my, that was my first experience at Ohio State, and it was challenging. It was the toughest semester, and the rest were fine.

Scott Edwards

Biologist Scott Edwards was born on July 7, 1963 in Honolulu, Hawaii, but he grew up in Riverdale in the Bronx, New York City. From an early age, Edwards was interested in natural history. Before graduating from Harvard University in 1986 with his B.A. degree in biology, he worked at the environmental institute Wave Hill. While earning his undergraduate degree, Edwards took a year off to volunteer at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History where he was first exposed to the world of museum research on birds. Upon graduation, Edwards was accepted into the University of California, Berkeley where he worked with bird evolution and graduated with his Ph.D. degree in zoology in 1992. His dissertation focused on songbirds from Australia and New Guinea – using DNA to track their movements and population differences.

Edwards then moved to the University of Florida where he completed an Alfred P. Sloan postdoctoral fellowship in molecular evolution studying avian genetics. In 1994, Edwards joined the faculty at the University of Washington in Seattle where he became an Assistant Professor of Zoology and Curator of Genetic Resources at the University’s Burke Museum. He left in 2003 to assume a professorial position at Harvard University in organismic and evolutionary biology as well as Curator of Ornithology at the Museum of Comparative Zoology.

Edwards’ work has been funded by the National Science Foundation and the National Geographic Society’s Committee for Research and Exploration. He has also served on panels for both of the organizations as well as on the advisory board of the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center in North Carolina. Edwards served on the editorial boards for the journals Molecular Biology and Evolution , Evolution, Systematic Biology and Conservation Genetics. He has published over 100 papers since the beginning of his undergraduate career. In 2010, Edwards was invited to co-host the six-part SyFy series Beast Legends, reconstructing what mythological creatures may have looked like based on first-person accounts, archaeological evidence, and scientific data.

Edwards was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on …

Accession Number

A2012.171

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/12/2012 |and| 11/17/2018

Last Name

Edwards

Maker Category
Middle Name

V.

Occupation
Schools

Harvard University

University of California, Berkeley

University of Florida

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Scott

Birth City, State, Country

Honolulu

HM ID

EDW04

Favorite Season

Spring, Summer

State

Hawaii

Favorite Vacation Destination

Western United States

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

7/7/1963

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pasta

Short Description

Biologist Scott Edwards (1963 - ) is a well known lead researcher in the field of Ornithology at Harvard.

Employment

University of Washington

Harvard University

Best Legends

Favorite Color

Brown, Orange

Timing Pairs
0,0:1130,11:1808,19:4746,53:5198,58:7345,88:21770,170:22888,186:28990,252:31529,286:34660,296:36446,315:37762,337:38420,345:40459,357:40970,365:44386,407:44718,412:45216,419:45797,428:46212,434:47457,451:48287,463:48868,472:49366,487:50030,497:50528,505:50860,510:52188,525:56170,533:56482,538:57886,557:59134,572:59446,577:60148,587:61708,614:62176,621:62956,637:63424,646:67558,685:68260,695:69118,707:72102,753:73103,766:74741,786:77289,842:81614,879:82394,888:82940,895:83486,904:83876,910:84422,918:85748,935:86372,944:86684,949:88088,978:88868,995:89648,1007:90038,1012:90974,1026:91754,1037:95600,1042:96672,1065:97074,1072:97543,1081:98481,1101:98883,1108:99486,1121:99821,1127:100223,1134:101027,1150:101295,1155:108958,1273:109579,1283:110269,1296:110752,1306:111304,1316:112063,1331:114030,1336:118800,1376:119160,1382:119664,1390:121032,1421:122112,1441:122616,1451:123048,1459:126000,1524:127080,1547:131230,1559:131930,1568:132330,1573:134638,1595:135078,1600:137014,1629:137630,1637:138510,1651:139302,1663:140358,1684:143040,1699:143706,1709:144224,1722:145186,1765:145778,1775:146370,1784:146666,1789:147780,1794:148140,1799:148950,1809:150210,1832:150930,1842:151290,1847:153450,1879:156960,1901:158884,1942:166668,2042:166900,2047:167596,2054:167944,2061:171134,2127:172410,2169:172700,2186:172990,2193:173396,2202:173744,2209:174788,2231:175368,2244:175890,2254:180072,2267:182610,2273:182862,2278:183744,2296:183996,2301:184248,2306:184689,2314:184941,2320:187124,2343:195560,2492:196396,2504:201000,2540:203928,2577:205776,2616:206084,2621:207640,2629:208088,2638:208536,2646:209368,2664:209752,2675:210264,2684:211784,2696:212048,2701:212906,2716:213500,2726:213764,2731:214226,2740:214622,2747:215860,2754:216322,2766:216652,2774:217246,2789:217510,2794:218170,2805:218434,2813:219622,2838:221074,2903:221338,2908:221800,2916:222130,2922:225190,2932:226006,2947:226618,2957:229002,2976:229812,2995:230217,3001:231027,3015:231351,3020:231675,3025:232323,3035:235077,3079:236778,3110:240753,3135:241191,3142:241629,3155:242213,3164:243016,3186:243673,3197:244038,3203:248783,3306:249586,3327:250097,3335:256950,3385:261130,3437:263398,3486:263650,3491:264280,3502:267416,3523:268592,3544:269096,3551:269684,3560:271952,3614:277100,3645:278822,3669:280774,3676:282358,3698:282710,3703:283326,3712:283854,3719:284558,3729:285438,3742:287726,3774:288254,3781:289486,3806:289838,3812:290542,3823:291158,3831:291686,3838:295993,3849:297172,3860:298744,3875:299530,3882:302900,3895:304268,3929:304572,3934:305256,3953:305864,3962:306548,3972:306852,3977:310500,4046$0,0:960,24:1824,34:3552,109:15892,221:17296,241:18052,250:18592,255:19456,268:19996,281:20860,290:21940,309:28520,382:29420,399:29720,404:31980,441:38150,510:42708,614:43396,623:44686,646:45718,661:52550,734:53254,750:54838,774:56070,786:59794,798:60746,810:61018,815:62310,843:62854,852:65166,885:65438,890:69398,909:83174,1148:83762,1161:93653,1286:100610,1368:105250,1445:106690,1476:115260,1563:118560,1624:122460,1689:127918,1734:135620,1892:136421,1913:142206,2117:149032,2183:158377,2300:158911,2308:159267,2313:163183,2409:164874,2433:165230,2438:194216,2817:195436,2829:196412,2838:199433,2891:202815,2981:210480,3025:213456,3121:213744,3126:223492,3267:224402,3279:233260,3386:235740,3432:236220,3439:238220,3483:238940,3494:243150,3517:244640,3556:246935,3610:251392,3676:251704,3681:252874,3719:253888,3738:255526,3765:256774,3792:271885,3952:273016,3989:273364,3994:275600,4024
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Scott Edwards' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Scott Edwards lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Scott Edwards describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Scott Edwards talks about his mother's schooling and career

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Scott Edwards describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Scott Edwards talks about his father's schooling and career

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Scott Edwards talks about Hawaii

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Scott Edwards talks about his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Scott Edwards describes his father's medical practice in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Scott Edwards describes the neighborhoods where he was raised in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Scott Edwards describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Scott Edwards describes the sights and sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Scott Edwards describes his grade school in Manhattan

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Scott Edwards describes his earliest experiences with science

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Scott Edwards talks about his favorite teachers in grade school

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Scott Edwards discusses sports, religion, and the outdoors

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Scott Edwards describes his interest in bird-watching

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Scott Edwards describes his performance in school

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Scott Edwards talks about his siblings

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Scott Edwards describes his experience in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Scott Edwards talks about his decision to major in biology in college

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Scott Edwards describes his experience at Phillips Exeter Academy

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Scott Edwards describes his experience at Wave Hill, an environmental center

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Scott Edwards explains the history of evolutionary biology

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Scott Edwards describes his time in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Scott Edwards describes his volunteer experience at the Smithsonian Institute

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Scott Edwards describes his ornithology-based study in Hawaii

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Scott Edwards talks about his senior thesis

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Scott Edwards describes his experience in New Guinea

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Scott Edwards describes the African American community's perception of evolution

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Scott Edwards notes the importance of evolution

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Scott Edwards describes the focus of his doctoral dissertation

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Scott Edwards provides an overview of evolutionary biology

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Scott Edwards describes what it takes to become an evolutionary biologist

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Scott Edwards discusses the racial implications of specific publications

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Scott Edwards describes the concept of race in biological terms

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Scott Edwards describes living in Florida

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Scott Edwards describes his post-doctoral research at the University of Florida

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Scott Edwards briefly describes his post-doctoral experience at the University of Florida

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Scott Edwards describes the rich wildlife of northern Florida

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Scott Edwards describes his experience at the University of Washington

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Scott Edwards describes his professional responsibilities at Harvard University

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Scott Edwards describes the collections at the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Scott Edwards describes the evolutionary basis of skin color

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

1$3

DATitle
Scott Edwards describes his volunteer experience at the Smithsonian Institute
Scott Edwards discusses the racial implications of specific publications
Transcript
Well, now, tell us what you did at the Smithsonian? This would have been in, what, the summer of--$$It was fall of '82 [1982], I think, and is that right? Yeah, it was after sophomore year, and so it was, I believe fall of '82 [1982] or '83 [1983]. Anyway--$$Okay.$$--yeah, so I was literally numbering bones of specimens. You know, museums have to put catalog numbers on all the bones which required a very steady hand and small writing and just helping out with odd jobs. I got a chance to help do some research for a exhibit that went on, it was an exhibit on the U.S. exploring expedition, which was a, a famous expedition that went out between 1838 and 1843. It was sort of America's first foray into the age of discovery. And that had been dominated by Europe. And it was fascinating. You know, we, I, I had to dig through old archives and, you know, I found this sheaf of papers with all these amazing drawings of fish that had been drawn by naturalists on that expedition. And apparently, this collection of papers had been lost or it hadn't been really seen for decades. And so my mentor there, a guy named George Watson was, was very impressed, and, you know, said, this, wow, this is--I can't believe we found these, these papers. So it was a mix of different things. And George, I remember, spent a lot of time with me. You know, it's, you get these green college students sort of wanting to do something, and, you know, you have to think of stuff for them to do. And George, I remember, was just very generous with his time. And, yeah, we went over to the, the rare book division outside the Natural History Museum, and I just was so impressed with these extraordinary, beautiful volumes, you know, Audubon's [National Audubon Society] drawings, drawings from this U.S. exploring expedition. You know, these are just priceless, and it was just, the quality of the way in which they were cared for was just very, really impressive to me.$$Okay, now, now, the connection you made with the Smithsonian, and did you know George Watson before or did someone at Howard [University] recommend, I mean at Harvard [University] recommend--?$$I, you know, I don't, I know I wrote to George probably as a, in the spring of my sophomore year. And I don't know whether I got his name from someone here, possibly, or whether I wrote to just the ornithology department in general. But he was the one that answered, yeah, and it was, you know, it was very impressive, to get a typewritten letter on Smithsonian [Institution] letterhead. And so, yeah, that was, that was great. I had a, definitely a very healthy habit of writing letters. I think even in my freshman year, I was just bombarding the community with letters, asking about, what do you need to study going in this particular area of study? I was writing to people at the American Museum [of Natural History, in New York], just curious about different sightings, and different questions and so I wish I had some of those letters. I'm sure they were, you know, naive and humorous, and by, different turns. But, you know, and, of course, maybe one out of twenty people would actually respond. But that's, that's the whole point, right, you know, just sort of cast the net wide and (laughter) see who responds.$$Now, does the Smithsonian have the largest collection of bird specimens in the country or--$$It's, you know, I think it's not the largest in the country. No, it's--or the world. I mean it's a very impressive collection. It's, I believe it's got the second largest, after the American Museum [of Natural History] in New York. So, but it's, you know, even then it was just a global resource, and you can just walk the aisles there and just see any species you'd want. And it was really impressive to me to, you know, there were serious people working on specimens, skeletons. It wasn't some sort of dilettantish thing. I mean these were really, there were pressing questions that people wanted to answer. And that, that was really impressive to me.$All right. I asked, we mentioned before the book, 'The Mismeasure of Man,' and I was asked to ask you about that, in specific, because of its implications, its racial implications.$$Right, right. Yeah, I mean it's, you know, you'd like to think we were beyond that, that period, although remarkably, it, it still raises its ugly head in various forms. I mean what was this book, called the, 'The Bell Curve'--$$Right, right.$$--you know, published by a Harvard psychologist. So everyone's always trying to focus on the, the--and interpret the differences between humans. But evolutionary biology is, I think, exciting because a lot of it is focused on the similarities. I mean what makes us similar. And so, you know, a lot of people would be surprised to learn that humans as a species are genetically very similar to each other, even Africans versus Asians, versus Caucasians from Europe. I mean we have so few genetic differences. I can go into the backyard, and any backyard snake or rat will have far more genetic diversity than humans would. And so I think evolutionary biology for me is exciting in that way, and we tend, we often focus on the similarities between individuals and species rather than the differences. Of course, the differences are, are what makes it exciting, but it's, you know, and it's very challenging to--you know, I would say defining the characteristics of an organism that you wanna study. That's in some ways the most challenging part. How do you define intelligence? I mean I would say it's, it's a very difficult thing to do. And so--$$Yeah, I even hear with, well, animal intelligence, I know they're constantly redefining where that is because, you know, they, at one time I heard that a pig was smarter than another animal--$$Right.$$--and then, you know, and a dog was way down on the list-- Right (laughter).$$--and, you know, but when humans interact with animals, it's usually a dog. Right, exactly (laughter).$$And the chimp is closer to us, but, and yet, chimps don't respond well to human beings--$$(Laughter) That's right.$$--you know, I--$$Yeah, I mean, well, I don't know if intelligence is necessarily a, it shouldn't necessarily be a human-centric trait, right? I mean there's all sorts of intelligence out there, and, you know, the fact is most species on the planet have been here a lot longer than the human species has, and so maybe just persistence time is the best measure of intelligence (laughter), you know. If we're lucky enough not to extinguish ourselves, then maybe we can be considered intelligent (laughter).$$So it's a subjective measurement, I don't know--$$Yeah, so, I mean I'm not a psychologist, but you can't, I'm very skeptical of certain universal measures of intelligence, I would say.$$Yeah, it would have to be, you'd have establish a standard based on something that, you know--I mean that's the only way to qualify it, I guess--$$That's right.$$--you'd have to say, well, intelligence based on this--$$That's right.$$--factor or that factor.$$Exactly.$$And, you know, so, yeah.$$I mean it's, it's, yeah, it's just, it's just very difficult to characterize mental and, you know, to sort of (unclear) of behavioral traits. I mean it's not, not impossible. I mean you can measure how much an animal moves or how deep a burrow it can dig or how, whether it migrates or not. Those are things that you can quantify, but I think one of the things about evolutionary biology and, and sort of science in general that I like is that, you know, you have to, you can't speculate based on a little bit of data. You have to interpret the facts that you collect in a way that's commensurate with those facts. You can't just begin to speculate. And so what you can talk about in terms of a conclusion of a study is dependent on what you measure and, and, and what you can confidently measure. And so, in that sense, you know, there's some characteristic of animals which I would say are much easier to talk about and discuss than others.

Wayne Bowen

Biology and Pharmacology Professor Wayne Darrell Bowen was born to (mother) and (father) in 1952. As a child, Bowen knew early on that he was interested in pursuing a career in science, and indeed, he went on to earn his B.S. degree in Chemistry from Morgan State College, in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1974. Bowen then pursued a graduate degree with a major in biochemistry and a minor in neuropharmacology, graduating from Cornell University with his Ph.D. degree after completing a thesis on the biochemical process of cholesterol synthesis.
Bowen went on to do his postdoctoral work from 1980 to 1983 at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), a research institute of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) located in Bethesda, Maryland, where his work centered on opiate receptor biochemistry. From 1983 to 1991 Bowen taught courses in endocrinology, introductory biology, and biochemistry at Brown University as an Assistant Professor of Biology. During his time at Brown, Bowen also founded the macromolecular biochemistry facility on campus, which provided campus and surrounding medical facilities with synthetic peptide compounds.
From 1991 until 2004, Bowen served as tenured chief of the Unit on Receptor Biochemistry and Pharmacology at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases in Bethesda, Maryland, working in the Drug Design and Synthesis Section of the Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry. During his time as Chief, Bowen continued to lecture for undergraduate students at Brown University, serving as both Adjunct Professor of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology, and Biochemistry as well as Adjunct Professor of Neuroscience. During a corresponding period, from 1999 to 2004, Bowen also chaired the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology of the NIH Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences Graduate School.
In 2004, Bowen returned to the task of educating future scientists as a full-time Professor of Biology at Brown University, teaching in the Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biotechnology. Bowen was then appointed Chair of his department in 2007. His research at Brown focuses on the potential for developing new treatments for disease through the understanding of sigma receptors, specifically treatment for neurological disorders and cancer.
Bowen has served as President of the Black Scientists Association at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 2001and is a member of the Society for Neuroscience, the American Association for Cancer Research, and the International Brain Research Organization/World Federation of Neuroscientists. He has also received a Certificate of Appreciation from the Student and Teacher Internship Program at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and NIH as well as an Award of Appreciation from the Science and Engineering Fair at Morgan State University. In addition, he was also awarded a Certificate of Recognition from the NIH Speakers Bureau and a Special Recognition Award from the Undergraduate Scholarship Program at NIH, as well as numerous research grants.

Accession Number

A2012.216

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/9/2012

Last Name

Bowen

Maker Category
Middle Name

D.

Occupation
Schools

Morgan State University

Cornell University

Dr. Carter Godwin Woodson Elementary

Baltimore City College

William H. Lemmel Middle

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Wayne

HM ID

BOW07

Favorite Season

Summer

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Rhode Island

Birth Date

11/11/1952

Speakers Bureau Region City

Providence

Favorite Food

Steak

Short Description

Biologist Wayne Bowen (1952 - ) is a professor of biology and pharmacology and a biologist studying alternative treatments for disease at Brown University.

Employment

National Institute of Mental Health (NIH)

Brown University

Cornell University

National Institute of Health (NIH)

Smith, Kline and French

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Wayne Bowen's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Wayne Bowen lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Wayne Bowen talks about his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Wayne Bowen talks about his mother's education and career

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Wayne Bowen talks about his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Wayne Bowen talks about his father's growing up and his career

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Wayne Bowen talks about how his parents met, married, and later moved to Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Wayne Bowen talks about his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Wayne Bowen describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Wayne Bowen describes his childhood neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Wayne Bowen describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Wayne Bowen talks about his interest in music during his adolescence

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Wayne Bowen talks about his interest in science and his experiments with his Gilbert chemistry set

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Wayne Bowen talks about his interest in science and his aspirations for a career as a scientist

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Wayne Bowen talks about his family's involvement in both the Baptist and Methodist church

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Wayne Bowen talks about his elementary school, his early science education, his interest in chemistry, and his favorite high school science teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Wayne Bowen talks about his friend's death, his social life in junior high school and his junior high school science projects

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Wayne Bowen talks about his high school extracurricular activities and his interest in photography

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Wayne Bowen talks about his band, St. George's Gate

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Wayne Bowen talks about his experience playing in a musical production

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Wayne Bowen talks about his decision to attend Morgan State University

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Wayne Bowen talks about his high school experience at Baltimore City College, including the demographics of the school and his job as a photographer

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Wayne Bowen talks about missing Jimi Hendricks perform at the Baltimore Civic Center

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Wayne Bowen talks about his mentors, his jobs, and his experience in the chemistry department at Morgan State University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Wayne Bowen talks about his extracurricular activities and his experience being a commuter student at Morgan State University

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Wayne Bowen talks about his undergraduate research project on porphyrins

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Wayne Bowen talks about his emerging interest in biochemistry and his decision to attend Cornell University

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Wayne Bowen talks about his first research publication and his introduction to the field of pharmacology

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Wayne Bowen talks about his Ph.D. advisor, James Gaylor, and his experience at Cornell University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Wayne Bowen talks about his dissertation research on the biochemical process of cholesterol synthesis - part one

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Wayne Bowen talks about his dissertation research on the biochemical process of cholesterol synthesis - part two

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Wayne Bowen talks about graduating from Cornell University and his interest in pharmacology at the National Institute of Mental Health

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Wayne Bowen describes his postdoctoral research on the biochemistry of opioid receptors at the National Institute of Mental Health

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Wayne Bowen talks about establishing the Macromolecular Biochemistry Facility at Brown University

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Wayne Bowen describes the pharmacology of sigma receptors

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Wayne Bowen talks about his research on opioid receptors

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Wayne Bowen talks about his research on sigma receptors - part one

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Wayne Bowen talks about the role of sigma receptors in cancer research

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Wayne Bowen talks about his research with sigma receptors - part two

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Wayne Bowen talks about his professional activities and his research on sigma receptors and their implications for cancer research

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Wayne Bowen talks about his research with sigma receptors - part three

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Wayne Bowen talks about the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Black Scientists Association and its initiatives

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Wayne Bowen talks about becoming Chair of the Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Physiology and Biotechnology at Brown University

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Wayne Bowen talks about his duties as Chair of the Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biotechnology at Brown University

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Wayne Bowen talks about the potential uses of the sigma-1 receptor and emerging areas of research

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Wayne Bowen talks about therapies that have been developed from the sigma 2 receptor

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Wayne Bowen talks about the field of structural biology

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Wayne Bowen talks about how street drugs can inform pharmacological research

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Wayne Bowen talks about the physiology of drug addiction

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Wayne Bowen talks about the hallucinogen, ibogaine, its psychoactive effects, and its potential therapeutic uses

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Wayne Bowen reflects upon his life choices

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Wayne Bowen reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Wayne Bowen shares his advice for aspiring scientists and pharmacologists

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Wayne Bowen talks about his family

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Wayne Bowen talks about his interest in history and the Civil War

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Wayne Bowen talks about his hobbies

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Wayne Bowen talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Wayne Bowen describes his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$6

DAStory

4$3

DATitle
Wayne Bowen talks about his professional activities and his research on sigma receptors and their implications for cancer research
Wayne Bowen talks about the potential uses of the sigma-1 receptor and emerging areas of research
Transcript
So, I went back to NIH [National Institutes of Health] in 1991.$$Okay, alright. The director of--$$And became director, a unit chief down there, and stayed down there until 2004.$$Okay.$$And during that whole time I was at NIH, we did, the work was completely focused on sigma receptors. And we published a number of papers showing that sigma receptors were present in an organ now called lipid rafts, and that that might influence their function. We discovered that the sigma receptors, when activated, produces a change of calcium levels in cells, which is a known second messenger that can change signaling and biochemistry in cells. We found that turning on the sigma receptor increases the levels of a lipid called ceramic, which is a toxic lipid that has a number of targets in cells, and can turn on the apoptotic process. And at the same time, we developed a whole series of compounds through our collaboration with a medicinal chemist. The main chemist that I collaborated with was Brian DeCosta, who was at the NIH then. There was another chemist called Craig, his name was Craig Bertha, who made some compounds that we, he made a compound that we're still using today, that's sort of a prototypic selective sigma 2 receptor agonist. We're always interested in--so, once we found that there were two sub-types of the receptor--so, we were first interested in designing compounds that were selected for the sigma receptor system. And we found a few of those. But now what we're trying to do is hone compounds to be selected for either the sigma 1 or the sigma 2 receptor. And we found a few of those, working with our medicinal chemist colleagues. So then in 2004 I moved back to Brown [University], and joined The Department of Molecular Pharmacology Physiology And Biotechnology, and continued to work on the sigma receptor system. And continuing now with more of a focus on what they're doing in tumor cells, how they are affecting cell growth and proliferation, with a main focus on the ability of the sigma 2 receptor to turn on the apoptosis. And the discovery there was that cells that are resistant--forms of cancer that are resistant to chemotherapy, like pancreatic cancer, is resistant to a number of chemotherapeutic approaches, are susceptible to the sigma receptor. So, we can kill--we looked at three different pancreatic cancer cell lines that are readily killed by activating the sigma 2 receptor when these cells are resistant to other types of chemotherapeutic agents. So, the signaling mechanisms that are turned on by the sigma 2 receptor apparently go in directions that bypass a number of the molecules that are mutated in cancer. Cancer is a problem of unrestricted cell growth, so proliferation. And the way cancer cells do that, is they, there are mutations and molecules that are normally designed to turn on the cell death process. So, cells have a, all the cells in your body, with the exception of your neurons, have a time clock in them, and they'll divide for a certain number of times. And then that cell will turn on an apoptotic program, and basically commit suicide.$$This is the process of replenishing--$$The process of replenishing cells. And in cancer cells, that process is sabotaged, it's hijacked, because the biochemistry that's used to turn on that cell death process is altered in tumor cells. So, these cells escape this apoptotic process. And what we're trying to do with these chemotherapeutic agents is turn that process back on. And apparently, what the sigma 2 receptor does is turn on the programs that sort of bypass these roadblocks in the apoptotic pathway, so that if you have a cell that is resistant to chemotherapy, turning on the sigma 2 receptor opens up another pathway, because there are multiple ways to kill a cell. And the tumor cells haven't figured out yet all of those ways. So we try, so the sigma 2 receptor finds a way to exploit a system that's not yet been altered, and that's a very, that will be a very valuable tool. Because if all tumor cell types, or most tumor cell types, express these receptors, then you have sort of a broad spectrum of tools to attack a number of different types of tumors. So, since coming back to Brown [University], we've focused on that. I've had a couple of post-docs that have worked on this project. Shee Wong worked on looking at the mechanism of how the cells are able to use the mitochondrial pathway to turn on cell deaths. This is a relatively novel discovery, that the mitochondria in cells can be involved in committing this type of cell suicide.$Now, where do you see the field of sigma receptors heading in the next decade?$$So, I think we're in a state, at a stage in the field now where we're just beginning to figure out what these receptors might be doing. There are people studying this system from a number of angles. So, most of the, if you were talking to me five years ago, I would say that most of the people in the field are coming into the field from neuroscience, because they were originally thought to be opioid receptors. And so, people of my age group, I guess, generation, started out studying opioid receptors, from a standpoint of the CNS [central nervous system]. But in recent years, the field has branched into other areas. So, one of the areas where the field is going is in the area of drug abuse. It turns out that the sigma 1 receptor is a target for, a potential target, for developing drugs to treat drug abuse. One of my colleagues I collaborated with is Ray Natsomoti, who's now at West Virginia University, and has pioneered this work in showing that the sigma receptor, that the sigma 1 receptor, when it's blocked, will ameliorate some of the toxic effects of cocaine, some of the local motor effects of cocaine. One of the things that, one of the toxicities of cocaine is that it causes convulsions at high dosages. And she found that if you block sigma 1 receptors with sigma 1 receptor antagonists, that you block the convulsive effects of cocaine. And so, and you can do this even after the animal has been given a dose of cocaine, a convulsive dose of cocaine. So, that's a potential therapeutic use of the sigma 1 receptor, targeting the sigma 1 receptor. Others have shown that blockade of the sigma 1 receptor has effects on drug self-administration. So, if you train animals to self-administer cocaine or-- there's a group at Boston [Massachusetts] that's doing alcohol, and give them sigma 1 antagonists, that you can block or inhibit drug self-administration in these animals. But more importantly, it's been shown that blockade of the sigma 1 receptor blocks the process that's called, the process where the animal begins to self-administer again after they've been off the drug for a while, so re-instatement, it's called. So, you if make an animal addicted to cocaine, and give him certain--and then take the animal off cocaine, and then give certain cues, the animal will go back to self-administering cocaine. And this is thought to be what happens in humans, where they go to rehab and they're off drugs for a while, and there are certain cues--stress, other cues, that get them self-administering drugs again. And it's been shown that blocking the sigma 1 receptor will block this re-instatement process. So, there are people who are interested in targeting the sigma 1 receptor for treatment of drug abuse, and I think that's a direction that the field is going to go. The other major direction, also involving a sigma 1 receptor, is learning and memory. The sigma 1 receptor is expressing a part of the brain called the hippocampus. And it's been shown by a group in France that blocking sigma 1 receptors in the hippocampus will induce memory loss in animal models of learning and memory. So, there are several animal models where you can train a rat to find a floating block in a pool. Or, you train a rat to do a certain task, you know, go through a maze to find food. If you give them blockers of sigma 1 receptors after they've been trained, they forget how to do it. If you put a rat in a pool that's been trained to find a block of wood, they can't. They swim around like it's, like they never had that experience. So, the corollary of that the activating sigma 1 receptors must play a role in acquisition of learning and reinstatement of memory. So, there are people who are interested in developing sigma 1 receptor agonists for treatment of memory deficits, like Alzheimer's disease, or just any sort of cognitive defect they have. So, cognitive enhancing agents is another sort of way that the sigma receptor field is going at the current.

Edwin Cooper

Biologist and immuno-biology professor Edwin Cooper was born on December 23, 1936, in Houston, Texas. Cooper attended Jack Yates High School, graduating with honors in 1957. He won the first prize in a state art contest, for which his ceramic vase was sent to the national competition at the Carnegie Art Institute. Although Cooper was interested in art, he was more attracted to the field of biology, studying butterflies, earthworms, and other animals as a youth. Cooper pursued his interest in biology at Texas Southern University, where he earned his B.S. degree in 1957 with honors. Continuing his studies in biology, Cooper earned his M.S. degree in biology from Atlanta University in 1959 and his Ph.D. degree from Brown University in 1963.

Upon completing his doctorate, he became an assistant professor of anatomy at the University of California at Los Angeles School of Medicine in 1964 and attained full professorship by 1973. Cooper taught immunology around the world, beginning with an exchange program (sponsored by the Agency for International Development) with the Instituto Politecnico Nacional in Mexico City, Mexico. He later received a prestigious Guggenheim Fellowship to the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden in 1970, while maintaining his position at UCLA. Cooper founded the Division of Comparative Immunology of the American Society of Zoologists in 1975 and was a founding editor of the International Journal of Developmental and Comparative Immunology, and its society, the International Society of Developmental and Comparative Immunology. He has founded similar national groups in Japan and Italy. From 1989 to 1993, Cooper served as the vice chair for UCLA’s Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology. He became the founding editor in chief of "Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine" in 2004.

Throughout his professional career, Cooper’s research has been at the forefront of the discoveries made in the field of immunobiology, better known as comparative immunology following the publication of the first textbook and many others related to comparative immunology: he is credited with having established that discipline. His research on invertebrate immune systems and the evolution of immune systems has been published in several immunology journals including the Journal of Biological Chemistry and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. From studying chronic allograft rejection in earthworms to the identification of characteristics of the fish, amphibians and other invertebrates, Cooper shifted the focus of his work to better understand vertebrate and human disease. The products of terrestrial and marine invertebrates are useful in certain diseases as was discovered in ancient cultures like in China and India.

The impact of Cooper’s work has been recognized; Cooper has received five honorary degrees internationally, including one from his alma mater, Brown University, in 1988. He has also been awarded other international prizes in the sciences, such as the Alexander von Humboldt Prize in Germany, The Eleanor Roosevelt Award for Cancer Research to work with the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research in Switzerland, and the S.M. Nabrit Achievement Award in Science from Atlanta University.

Cooper and his wife, Helene, have two adult children.

Edwin Cooper was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 27, 2011.

Accession Number

A2011.033

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/27/2011 |and| 11/30/2012

Last Name

Cooper

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

L.

Schools

Jack Yates High School

Texas Southern University

Clark Atlanta University

Brown University

Charles W. Luckie Elementary School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Edwin

Birth City, State, Country

Oakland

HM ID

COO10

Favorite Season

Spring

Sponsor

National Science Foundation

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Everyday

Favorite Quote

If You Aim Low You Can't Fall, If You Aim High, You Have A Place To Fall.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

12/23/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Biologist and biology professor Edwin Cooper (1936 - ) was a leader in the fields of invertebrate immune systems and comparative immunology. He conducted research at the University of California, Los Angeles for more than forty years.

Employment

University of California, Los Angeles

Main Sponsor
Main Sponsor URL
Favorite Color

Blue

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Edwin Cooper's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Edwin Cooper shares his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Edwin Cooper talks about his mother's side of the family, part 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Edwin Cooper talks about his mother's side of the family, part 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Edwin Cooper talks about his mother's desire to go to college

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Edwin Cooper talks about his father's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Edwin Cooper discusses his great-grandfather's involvement in the Civil War

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Edwin Cooper talks about his great-grandfather, a Methodist minister

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Edwin Cooper talks about his paternal grandparents

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Edwin Cooper talks about his father's loving to work with his hands

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Edwin Cooper talks about how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Edwin Cooper talks about his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Edwin Cooper talks about which parent he takes after most

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Edwin Cooper shares a story about his birth

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Edwin Cooper shares his opinion on healthy diets from a biologist's perspective

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Edwin Cooper talks about his childhood interest in animals

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Edwin Cooper describes the schools he attended in Houston, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Edwin Cooper describes his neighborhood in Houston, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Edwin Cooper talks about his childhood activities and academics

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Edwin Cooper recalls the radio programs he listened to as a child

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Edwin Cooper talks about his educational influences

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Edwin Cooper discusses race relations in his Houston community

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Edwin Cooper talks about his high school

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Edwin Cooper talks about his interest in art

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Edwin Cooper recalls his influences at Texas Southern University and Atlanta University

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Edwin Cooper explains his parallel interests in biology and art

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Edwin Cooper describes his master's thesis in developmental biology

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Edwin Cooper relates his graduate school experience at Atlanta University

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Edwin Cooper talks about his experience at Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Edwin Cooper recalls his experience at Brown University during his Ph.D. studies

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Edwin Cooper discusses his interest in comparative immunology

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Edwin Cooper discusses the importance of studying primitive animal systems

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Edwin Cooper talks about his family's pride in his academic achievements

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Edwin Cooper talks about his experience as a faculty member at UCLA

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Edwin Cooper describes his connections with Mexico

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Edwin Cooper discusses his experience publishing papers in the field of comparative immunology

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Slating of Edwin Cooper's interview, session 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Edwin Cooper talks about his first book being republished without permission

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Edwin Cooper describes the changes at the UCLA School of Medicine

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Edwin Cooper recalls the controversy of pioneering comparative immunology

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Edwin Cooper describes the role of the thymus in the generation of immune response

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Edwin Cooper describes his discovery of immune responses in primitive invertebrates

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Edwin Cooper recalls pursuing his research interests at the University of California, Los Angeles

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Edwin Cooper describes the reception of his research outside of the United States

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Edwin Cooper remembers the creation of the journal, Development and Comparative Immunology

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Edwin Cooper recalls his research fellowships

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Edwin Cooper talks about his research laboratory choices

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Edwin Cooper describes the meetings of the International Society for the Development of Comparative Immunology

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Edwin Cooper recalls editing 'Animal Models of Comparative and Development Aspects of Immunity and Disease'

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Edwin Cooper recalls working with Agustin Zapata

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Edwin Cooper talks about writing 'Comparative Histophysiology of the Immune System' with Agustin Zapata

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Edwin Cooper remembers his work in Scandinavian countries

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Edwin Cooper talks about visits from international researchers

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Edwin Cooper recalls his Fulbright Fellowship to Cairo University in Cairo, Egypt

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Edwin Cooper recalls his scientific work internationally

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Edwin Cooper talks about innate and adaptive immune systems, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Edwin Cooper talks about innate and adaptive immune systems, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Edwin Cooper describes his presidency at the American Society of Zoologists

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Edwin Cooper talks about the discovery of the cytotoxic T cell receptor by Leroy Hood

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Edwin Cooper talks about serving as vice chairman of the department of anatomy and cell biology at UCLA, School of Medicine

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Edwin Cooper describes the interpersonal challenges he faced as a professor at the University of California, Los Angeles

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Edwin Cooper describes the discovery of peptides' role in MHC class II structure

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Edwin Cooper talks about the extensive publication of his research

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Edwin Cooper describes immune toll-like receptors

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Edwin Cooper recalls his work with tunicates

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Edwin Cooper recalls his research on soil pollution's effects on earthworms

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Edwin Cooper describes the use of leeches and maggots in the removal of dead tissue

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Edwin Cooper talks about the anti-microbial properties in honey

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Edwin Cooper remembers creating the Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine journal

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Edwin Cooper describes the importance of evidence based complimentary remedies

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Edwin Cooper talks about the use of lumbrokinase for dissolving blood clots

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Edwin Cooper remembers changing publishers for Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Edwin Cooper describes the restrictions for accepting publications in 'Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine'

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Edwin Cooper describes his opinions on the use of medical marijuana

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Edwin Cooper describes the United States' lack of preparation to care for its aging population

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Edwin Cooper talks about centenarians and aging

Tape: 10 Story: 8 - Edwin Cooper talks about the scientific study of centenarians

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Edwin Cooper describes aspirin's natural origins

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Edwin Cooper talks about the treatment of emeritus professors

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Edwin Cooper reflects upon his life

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Edwin Cooper reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Edwin Cooper talks about his family, pt. 1

Tape: 11 Story: 6 - Edwin Cooper talks about his family, pt. 2

Tape: 11 Story: 7 - Edwin Cooper describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 11 Story: 8 - Edwin Cooper narrates his photographs

J. K. Haynes

Biologist and academic administrator John K. “J.K.” Haynes was born on October 30, 1943 in Monroe, Louisiana to John and Grace Haynes. His mother was a teacher and his father was the principal of Lincoln High School in Ruston, Louisiana. Haynes began first grade when he was four years old. When he was six, his family moved to Baton Rouge, Louisiana and Haynes began attending Southern University Laboratory School. He attended Morehouse College when he was seventeen and he received his B.S. degree in biology in 1964. Haynes aspired to attend medical school. However, a professor advised him to apply to graduate school and he went on to attend Brown University, where he obtained his Ph.D. degree in biology in 1970.

Haynes completed his first year of postdoctoral research at Brown University, where he worked on restriction enzymes. During this time, he became interested in sickle cell anemia, which led to a second postdoctoral appointment in biochemistry at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where he worked with Vernon Ingram, the scientist who discovered the amino acid difference between normal and sickle cell hemoglobin. In 1973, Haynes joined the faculty at the Meharry Medical School as a junior faculty member in the department of genetics and molecular medicine and the department of anatomy. His research was focused on why sickle cells were less deformable than normal. In 1979, he returned to Morehouse College as an associate professor of biology as well as the director of the Office of Health Professions. As part of his work, Haynes created a program for high school students interested in medical school. Haynes has also helped recruit minority students into science with the assistance of agencies like the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Haynes became the endowed David E. Packard Chair in Science at Morehouse College and chairman of the biology department in 1985. In 1991, he took a sabbatical and went to Brown University to continue his work on sickle cells. Since 1999, he has served as Dean of Science and Mathematics at Morehouse College.

Under Haynes administrative leadership, new buildings for both chemistry and biology were built at Morehouse College as well as a curriculum with an emphasis on lab work. Haynes has published papers on cell biology as well as on undergraduate STEM education.

J. K. Haynes was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 14, 2011.

Accession Number

A2011.013

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/14/2011

Last Name

Haynes

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Kermit

Schools

Southern University Laboratory School

Morehouse College

Brown University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

John

Birth City, State, Country

Monroe

HM ID

HAY12

Favorite Season

Summer

Sponsor

National Science Foundation

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris, France

Favorite Quote

We're Building A House At The House.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

10/30/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Lamb

Short Description

Academic administrator and biologist J. K. Haynes (1943 - ) developed methods for detecting and preventing sickle cell anemia. He joined the faculty of Morehouse College in 1979 and later became Dean of the Division of Science and Mathematics.

Employment

Meharry Medical College

Morehouse College

Brown University

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Main Sponsor
Main Sponsor URL
Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:3029,36:5320,119:9033,184:15200,260:20140,375:20748,384:21964,402:36644,604:37232,613:39416,647:53116,845:55428,883:63870,1026:65040,1047:65352,1052:67810,1057:69640,1066:72810,1117:74630,1192:102459,1581:103089,1592:105357,1645:109880,1687:111988,1736:123810,1937:128080,2036:128850,2049:129270,2056:139160,2181:143316,2221:145087,2257:147474,2307:150169,2364:150554,2370:152017,2414:160924,2522:169586,2614:175549,2692:176353,2708:183284,2776:185156,2820:185804,2830:189417,2868:189886,2876:198375,3034:209050,3231:210022,3244:210589,3253:214938,3297:222558,3375:224702,3428:239610,3591$0,0:12120,145:13055,156:13990,167:15690,197:16370,208:19175,255:19515,260:28600,368:28925,374:29640,391:30550,412:31265,425:32760,456:33605,472:34255,484:34515,491:36205,533:37505,556:43550,696:44785,720:45435,728:45695,733:46085,764:53270,828:58198,935:62108,993:67291,1095:70722,1180:71525,1193:73131,1225:74737,1267:75175,1274:76124,1295:77219,1316:88180,1478:94387,1532:94751,1537:95115,1542:95570,1549:97390,1579:98118,1588:102625,1622:103275,1634:103535,1639:119418,1986:122822,2067:123488,2078:140640,2342:140900,2347:141940,2365:142200,2407:152455,2533:156089,2659:175900,2846:176960,2858
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of J.K. Haynes' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - J.K. Haynes lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - J.K. Haynes talks about his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - J.K. Haynes talks about his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - J.K. Haynes recalls his childhood in Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - J.K. Haynes talks about himself as a student

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - J.K. Haynes explains his family's involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - J.K. Haynes recalls his father's funeral home business

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - J.K. Haynes recounts his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - J.K. Haynes talks about his interests during high school

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - J.K. Haynes talks about his experience in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - J.K. Haynes talks about resemblance to certain family members

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - J.K. Haynes recalls his experience at Morehouse College under President Benjamin Mays

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - J.K. Haynes recalls student activism in Atlanta

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - J.K. Haynes talks about the influential science faculty at Morehouse College, part 1

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - J.K. Haynes talks about the influential science faculty at Morehouse College, part 2

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - J.K. Haynes talks about his graduate school experience at Brown University

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - J.K. Haynes talks about sickle cell anemia and relates his Ph.D. dissertation topic

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - J.K. Haynes describes his postdoctoral molecular biology research at Brown University

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - J.K. Haynes responds to a question about his work as a biologist

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - J.K. Haynes discusses the nature of post doctoral research

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - J.K. Haynes talks about financial problems at the Meharry Medical College

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - J.K. Haynes talks about his achievements in sickle cell anemia research, part 1

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - J.K. Haynes talks about his achievements in sickle cell anemia research, part 2

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - J.K. Haynes discusses his reaction to the first reported sickle cell anemia cure

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - J.K. Haynes talks about his research in sickle cell anemia, part 1

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - J.K. Haynes talks about his research in sickle cell anemia, part 2

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - J.K. Haynes discusses the nature of his scientific research and funding

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - J.K. Haynes describes Project Kaleidoscope

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - J.K. Haynes describes the history of the Nabrit-Mapp-McBay building at Morehouse College

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - J.K. Haynes talks about his involvement with the American Society for Cell Biology Minorities Affairs Committee

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - J.K. Haynes recalls Walter Massey's presidency at Morehouse College

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - J.K. Haynes talks about the sickle cell anemia drugs and treatments

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - J.K. Haynes reflects on the wisdom of his parents

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - J.K. Haynes talks about his academic promotions at Morehouse College

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - J.K. Haynes discusses health issues in the black community

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - J.K. Haynes reflects on balancing his administrative, research, and teaching responsibilities

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - J.K. Haynes talks about the changing focus of sickle cell anemia research

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - J.K. Haynes talks about his involvement with the World Learning School for International Training

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - J.K. Haynes describes his concept for a program to develop new science faculty

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - J.K. Haynes shares his hopes for Morehouse College's future

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - J.K. Haynes talks about what he would have done differently in his career

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - J.K. Haynes discusses the impact of advice from his mentors

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - J.K. Haynes reflects on his life's accomplishments

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - J.K. Haynes talks about his family and his likeness to Ebony editor, Lerone Bennett

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - J.K. Haynes responds to a question about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - J.K. Haynes talks about his interest in art and music

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

5$7

DATitle
J.K. Haynes talks about the influential science faculty at Morehouse College, part 1
J.K. Haynes recalls Walter Massey's presidency at Morehouse College
Transcript
Some people like Lonnie King, and I think that Lonnie King may have been here. He may have been a senior when I was a freshman so Lonnie was one of these guys with Julian [Bonds] and others. That's what they spent their time doing.$$Now, was David Satcher a biology major too?$$Yes.$$Okay, so did you see a lot of him in the biology department?$$Yeah, yeah. So one of the powerful influences on the biology majors during that time was a guy by the name of Roy Hunter. And so Roy Hunter was one of, Roy loved David Satcher, and so when I came along under Roy Hunter, and so when I give talks about my mentors, he's the one who I always mention first at Morehouse [College, Atlanta, Georgia].$$Now, why was Dr. Hunter so important?$$He was a powerful, powerful instructor. So he was a guy who had polio when he was a kid, and so he spent his life on crutches before he moved to a motorized cart. But when he taught at Morehouse, he was on crutches. Yet he could draw these beautiful diagrams of anatomy and embryos on the board, and he'd talk with such facility about the subject. And so for those--it turns out that he and Dr. [Frederick E.] Mapp who was the chair of the department at that time, did not necessarily get along. And so Roy Hunter's tenure at Morehouse was short-lived. But for those of us who came along during the time that he was there, or here, he was a tremendous influence on us.$$Now, where did he go when he left Morehouse, do you know?$$I think he became chair of the Department of Biology at Morgan State [University, Baltimore, Maryland]. And he eventually became chair of the Department of Biology at Atlanta University, and at some point, he went to work for Lou Sullivan at the Morehouse School of Medicine as an administrator.$$Okay.$$So one of the things that I regret most is not bringing him back to the faculty at Morehouse when I became chair of biology. He and I used to talk about that. I just couldn't pull it off. So one of the things that I did as chair of biology was to move in the direction of hiring people who not only taught but did research. So Roy was way beyond doing research, but he was such a giant that I wanted to have him in the midst just to have that history and tradition and the power that he conveyed just talking to students. And I just didn't pull it off. And he always reminded me, I'm still waiting for you to invite me back. I just, just couldn't do it.$$So, he's passed now?$$Yeah, he died, I guess, about ten years ago.$$Okay, okay, but a great mentor.$$Powerful mentor.$$Okay, now we always hear a lot about Henry McBay. Did you have him for--$$I took him for, I had him in general chemistry class, and was also powerfully influenced by him. People were more frightened by Henry McBay. So he's known for either producing chemists or producing politicians or ministers. So Maynard Jackson used to tell the story that the reason--because Maynard Jackson apparently wanted to be a physician when he came here. And so Henry McBay turned him towards politics.$$So in other words, he, you either succeeded sort of--$$That's right.$$--big time here or he pushed out of--$$That's right, right. So he was very demanding, put a lot of emphasis on the mathematical basis of chemistry. He would fill up the board with just equations, and he wrote beautifully. And his, he had sort of an extreme attitude about things, and so he frightened a lot of students. I mean I thought he was a great instructor. I enjoyed his style of lecturing. And I don't think I felt intimidated by him.$$That's interesting. Okay.$Okay. So in '95 [1995], Walter Massey becomes the ninth president of Morehouse [College, Atlanta, Georgia]. He's a physicist.$$Right.$$Did his presidency facilitate science at Morehouse?$$Not as much as we thought it would, although Walter [Massey] was very supportive of a number of things that we did. So one of the important things that Walter did was to create three divisions at the college. So we have Business and Economics, Social Sciences and Humanities, and Science and Math. That was his idea, and so we've split the college now into about three equal parts. With about a thousand students--at the time, he was here, we had about three thousand students. And so his idea was to reduce the scale of the college more like it looked, and to make it more like it looked when he was a student here, so when I was a student, there were only eight hundred students at Morehouse. So he was trying to promote faculty-faculty interaction, faculty-student interactions, etc. And that actually had a transformative effect. So when we created, when we brought the three--six departments together that constitute the Division of Science and Math, it's been a, there was an explosion of activity. And so we meet, as a faculty, every month. People are talking across disciplines. And at some point, students finishing the division will have a more interdisciplinary education, which is where we wanna go. We're developing interdisciplinary curricula, interdisciplinary research and so I think while, at the time, it didn't seem like such a momentous deal, it has had an enormous impact. We began the Division of Science and Math with a grant that we got from the Packard Foundation. Walter was on the board of the Packard Foundation. So that's very helpful. So Walter is connected to the titans of American industry. So he brought the heads of GE [General Electric, Fairfield, Connecticut], Motorola [Inc., Schaumburg, Illinois]. Walter is more of a scholar than he is a business person. So he's not known for twisting arms. And so they didn't leave perhaps as much money as they might, but they came to know about us. And so the current president [Robert M. Franklin] I think is more of an arm twister, and I think, so we're gonna reap the benefits of what Walter has established. But Walter had to deal--you know, people have said about Walter that he's a guy who thinks very broadly. He's now the president of the Art Institute of Chicago, right, so (laughter). So he's had a very broad prospective, and so I think that he was a wonderful president at Morehouse. I don't know that he could afford, because we had a number of problems that he had to deal with. I don't know that he could afford to just tackle the sciences. So I think what he did was to seed something. And the fruits of that will be manifested in the years ahead.

George Jones

Biologist and biology professor George H. Jones was born February 21, 1942 in Muskogee, Oklahoma. He received his B.A. degree in biochemical sciences from Harvard University in 1963. Jones continued his education at the University of California, Berkeley, where he attained his Ph.D. degree in biochemistry under the tutelage of Dr. C. E. Ballou. Jones then worked for two years as a visiting scientist at the National Institutes of Health between 1968 and 1970. After this, he moved on to the University of Geneva in Switzerland, where he completed a postdoctoral fellowship in 1971. Upon returning to the United States, Jones was hired by the zoology department at the University of Michigan, and in 1975, he moved to the department of biology and chaired the department of cellular and molecular biology within the Division of Biological Sciences between 1980 and 1982.

In 1984, Jones assumed yet another post as professor and Associate Chairman for Space and Facilities at the University of Michigan; he also taught in the Division of Biological Sciences and served as Associate Dean at the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies. Between 1986 and 1989, Jones served as a professor in the department of biology at University of Michigan, and then in 1989, he moved to Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia to serve as its Dean in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and Vice President for Research and Graduate Studies. In 1990, he served as the college’s acting dean. In 1996, Jones received the prestigious Goodrich C. White Professorship in Biology at Emory University.

Jones’ numerous awards include the University of Michigan Excellence in Teaching Award (1989) and the Emory University Scholar/Teacher Award (1998), as well as membership in several distinguished professional societies, including the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and the American Society for Microbiology. His research concerns the mechanism and regulation of antibiotic synthesis in the bacteria Streptomyces. He received a three-year National Science Foundation Grant in 2003 to study RNA degradation and antibiotic synthesis in Streptomyces, and another in 2008 to study RNA degradation and the regulation of antibiotic production. He resides in Atlanta, Georgia.

George H. Jones was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 12, 2011.

Accession Number

A2011.021

Sex

Male

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

4/12/2011

Last Name

Jones

Middle Name

H.

Schools

Manual Training High School

Harvard University

University of California, Berkeley

Search Occupation Category
First Name

George

Birth City, State, Country

Muskogee

HM ID

JON24

Favorite Season

Fall

Sponsor

National Science Foundation

State

Oklahoma

Favorite Vacation Destination

Vancouver, British Columbia

Favorite Quote

Never give up. Never slow down. Never grow old. Never ever die young.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

2/21/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Cheeseburgers (Bacon)

Short Description

Biology professor and biologist George Jones (1942 - ) researched RNA metabolism and the production of antibodies in bacteria. He was named the Goodrich C. White Professor in Biology at Emory University in 1996.

Employment

National Institute of Health (NIH)

University of Geneva, Switzerland

University of Michigan

Emory University

Main Sponsor
Main Sponsor URL
Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
182,0:1304,12:1568,18:1964,25:2228,30:2624,63:3284,76:4076,89:5396,193:5726,201:6122,209:6518,216:6848,222:7112,227:7640,239:8762,260:9422,273:11204,312:11534,318:11930,325:16370,337:17356,347:17762,355:18342,367:18748,375:19038,381:19560,394:19908,401:21126,416:21764,430:22054,436:22750,450:23272,461:24200,483:24432,488:25302,506:26056,525:26404,533:26868,544:29246,589:29768,599:30174,608:30464,615:31160,638:31450,644:31682,649:36244,667:36556,672:37336,685:38350,707:39442,725:40456,741:43186,782:43498,787:45838,834:52750,904:53066,909:53935,930:54251,935:54567,940:56858,974:57490,983:63070,995:63678,1004:64362,1015:67261,1048:68416,1067:68801,1073:70850,1080:72918,1095:75102,1130:75774,1138:75998,1143:76446,1156:76726,1162:77174,1173:77398,1178:79590,1192:81150,1228:81690,1239:82530,1257:83070,1269:83430,1277:86040,1283:86584,1293:87876,1334:88692,1349:89372,1367:89644,1372:97140,1443:97560,1450:101200,1669:101760,1680:102390,1689:102670,1698:103230,1708:107080,1776:107430,1782:107990,1793:111810,1802:112810,1813:118630,1822:119341,1836:119657,1841:120289,1850:124608,1896:124852,1901:126011,1925:126987,1939:127658,1953:128207,1964:128695,1973:128939,1978:129305,1987:129793,1997:130220,2007:133518,2032:133810,2037:134175,2043:134686,2052:135489,2067:135781,2072:136365,2083:137168,2096:137460,2101:140444,2132:140871,2141:141298,2149:141786,2159:142152,2167:142640,2176:143067,2184:143311,2189:143677,2196:143982,2202:144226,2207:144653,2216:145019,2224:145751,2241:145995,2246:146422,2255:147215,2281:147642,2290:148313,2304:153049,2335:153463,2342:154015,2351:156670,2386$0,0:2048,30:6164,126:7508,149:10364,202:13960,212:26650,434:27308,443:28906,469:29846,480:32478,509:40178,529:40634,534:50842,620:52210,648:52514,653:54414,690:56542,731:57226,743:67320,829:67810,837:72555,880:74220,886:77059,912:78127,923:83510,993:83910,999:84390,1006:92750,1118:93608,1137:95870,1174:99979,1208:100394,1214:100726,1219:101473,1231:101805,1236:103133,1253:103797,1263:104627,1274:104959,1279:105540,1286:107825,1296:108725,1309:112532,1367:113234,1378:115410,1396:115938,1403:119230,1433:119650,1440:119930,1445:120420,1454:121470,1468:121960,1478:123220,1500:123500,1508:123920,1516:125530,1542:126650,1564:127770,1582:128050,1587:130220,1612:130780,1621:131060,1626:140649,1725:142240,1731:142920,1744:143736,1752:145164,1789:145572,1796:146388,1815:147136,1832:147884,1847:148224,1853:153131,1868:154605,1892:160836,2001:161372,2011:161640,2016:166020,2034:166956,2044:167372,2049:168100,2059:170207,2087:177858,2208:191129,2438:192425,2460:194693,2508:198180,2523:200158,2560:201190,2577:205480,2654
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slates of George Jones's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - George Jones shares his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - George Jones talks about his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - George Jones shares his mother's aspirations and career path

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - George Jones talks about his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - George Jones describes his parents' relationship

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - George Jones describes his childhood family life

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - George Jones recalls his childhood neighborhood in Muskoegee, Oklahoma

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - George Jones recalls older extended family members

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - George Jones describes his early interest in science

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - George Jones describes the community influences of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - George Jones discusses the history of African Americans in Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - George Jones recalls the black newspapers of Muskogee, Oklahoma

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - George Jones describes the cultural influences of his youth

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - George Jones remembers his interest in science, exploration and traveling

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - George Jones discusses living out West during the 1950s

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - George Jones describes the classes at Manual Training High School

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - George Jones shares memories of his high school mentors

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - George Jones describes his interest in applying to Harvard University

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - George Jones talks about his high school activities

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - George Jones discusses the importance of music in his community in Oklahoma

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - George Jones remembers his acceptance to Harvard University

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - George Jones describes racial relations in Muskogee, Oklahoma

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - George Jones describes his trip from Muskogee, Oklahoma, to Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - George Jones remembers his transition to Harvard University as an undergraduate

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - George Jones talks about his college roommates and the black presence at Harvard University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - George Jones discusses the tension of the Cold War and Civil Rights Movement during his time at Harvard University

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - George Jones talks about his sense of responsibility as a black student at Harvard University from 1959 to 1963

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - George Jones recalls his classmates from Harvard University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - George Jones discusses not having any mentors at Harvard University

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - George Jones recalls the lack of racism at Harvard University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - George Jones talks about his career aspirations after his Harvard graduation

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - George Jones talks about the field of biochemistry in the 1950s and 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - George Jones describes the social climate of the Bay Area, California, in the 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - George Jones describes his graduate research on alpha-mannosidase

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - George Jones talks about the work environment at University of California, Berkeley

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - George Jones describes his work with the National Institutes of Health

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - George Jones talks about his fellowship at the University of Geneva

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - George Jones recalls his decision to work with the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - George Jones recalls the riots in Washington, D.C. in April 1968

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - George Jones shares his regrets on becoming a dean at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - George Jones talks about his research on the bacteria, Streptomyces

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - George Jones talks about the antibiotic, actinomycin

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - George Jones describes his decision to work at Emory University in 1989

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - George Jones discusses the research environment in the biology department of Emory University

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - George Jones talks about RNA degradation

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - George Jones discusses the use of DNA sequencing in his research

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - George Jones discusses the value of learning something new every day

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - George Jones discusses the dogmas of science and religion

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - George Jones talks about the importance of studying the evolution of microorganisms

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - George Jones discusses the dangers of antibacterials

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - George Jones discusses his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - George Jones remarks on the importance of science in modern society

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - George Jones talks about Atlanta as a center for research

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - George Jones answers questions about members of his family

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - George Jones shares his concerns for the black community

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - George Jones reflects on how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$6

DAStory

1$2

DATitle
George Jones discusses the importance of music in his community in Oklahoma
George Jones discusses the use of DNA sequencing in his research
Transcript
What was it like, seeing your mother [Bernice Imonette Weaver] operate in a professional capacity [as choir director at Manual Training High School, Muskogee, Oklahoma], you know, I guess...?$$Well, I guess I didn't think much about it, I knew she was good at what she did because I had seen--she used to put on these really extravagant programs, musical programs of various sorts that I would always attend. And I would see her doing those kind of things and frequently, she would have rehearsals at the house or she would need to take me to school in order to have a--for there to be a rehearsal because, again, there wasn't any other child care available. So, I knew that she was good at what she did, because I saw the products of her efforts. And, so, being in the choir, I knew that she was going to hold all of us to a high standard, and she did. And the thing that she used to do, and it was very clever of her, and I even knew that at the time--so I was in the baritone section and whenever anyone was misbehaving, she wouldn't try to identify them, she would always blame me. She would say, you know, "Somebody was talking back there." She would tell me to stop talking. So, what I had to do in order not to be blamed for that was I had to keep all of them in line, because I knew I was going to be blamed for it, no matter who was doing it. It was very clever, and it worked.$$Okay, that's interesting. There seems to be a strong musical tradition in Oklahoma, you know.$$Yeah.$$Dr. [Legand L.] Burge [Dean of the College of Engineering, Architecture, and Physical Sciences], we interviewed at Tuskegee [Tuskegee Inst., Alabama, on April 11, 2011], grew up in Oklahoma City, he plays the piano. He was a pianist in church and toured all over Oklahoma.$$I think that was a part of, again, the kind of, there weren't many artistic outlets for us as we were growing up. It was very difficult, I think, for anybody in my community, no matter how talented they were, to become an artist, a sculptor. There weren't even those kinds of classes in the high school, or anywhere for that matter that I'm aware of. So, when you thought about the kind of artistic outlets that people might both want and need to have, one of the ones that was available, one of the few that was available was music.$$Okay.$$And so a lot of really terrific musicians came out of my community.$Okay. Are you happiest doing research?$$Yes.$$Okay.$$Yeah, even at my advanced age [sixty nine years old], I still enjoy the research, and actually still enjoy doing experiments myself. I don't do as much as I used to, but I still work at the bench myself from time to time.$$So, is there an ultimate goal you want to, is there--that you want to accomplish before you...?$$Well, yeah there is, there really is. Not ultimate in the sense of answering the fundamental biological question, but really sort of serendipitously, we have used, or are beginning to use, a new approach to study the biology systems that we're interested in. It's called high throughput DNA sequencing. Just to give you an idea of sort of the way that that has an impact on the kind of stuff that we do in terms of understanding the structure of the genetic material and the genomes of organisms, the first living cell whose DNA was sequenced, probably took a year to get that sequence information. It might have taken longer than that, certainly six months to a year. Now you can do it in a week, maybe less. And that's because of the development of new techniques that allow you to do this kind of sequencing very rapidly. We've been able to use that technique in our system to understand some things about the relationship between RNA degradation and antibiotic production. To my knowledge, nobody yet in the entire world, has done that, and I'm hoping that before I actually step down as a practicing scientist, that we will be able to mime, to use that approach, to mime the system and get as much information out of it as possible that will help us to understand how these processes work.$$Okay.$$And that's one of the reasons why I'm still involved and excited about the science, because there are things that we can do now that we couldn't even do two or three years ago.$$In research, the nature of research, I've been told, is that you really have to stay on the new technology...$$That's right. You know, there's a real temptation to get something that works and just to keep doing it. And that's the quickest way to stagnate. You may become very good at it, but in the meantime, the likelihood is going to be that the science is passing you by.$$Yeah, we've interviewed others who have gone into administration and tried to get back to research, and find that the bus has left, the train has left the station.$$Exactly. That's one of the reasons why I was not willing to completely give up my science when I became a dean, because I knew from talking to other people, in part, that if you give it up completely, it's almost impossible to come back to it.

Luther Williams

Biologist and academic administrator Luther Williams was born on August 19, 1940 in Wedgeworth, Alabama to Mattie Wallace Williams and Roosevelt Williams, the third of nine children. Williams grew up fascinated by living systems and was encouraged by his fifth grade math and science teacher to pursue his interest in science. After graduating from Hale County Training School in Greensboro, Alabama, Williams attended Miles College, earning his B.S. degree in biology in 1961. Two years later, Williams received his M.S. degree from Atlanta University, where he studied under Dr. Mary Logan Reddick. Williams was awarded an NIH pre-doctoral fellowship to study at Purdue University in 1966, enabling him to work with Dr. Frederick C. Neidhardt and earn his Ph.D. degree in molecular biology in 1968.

Within the next decade, Williams continued his work at Purdue University by 1979, he was named a full professor of biology at Purdue University. Williams conducted a significant amount of his scientific research while at Purdue University, Washington University (while serving as the Dean of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences) and the University of Colorado, at which he served as the vice president for academic affairs of the University of Colorado system. His research focused on the properties and cellular regulation of aminoacyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetases, key enzymes in the biological process of translating the genetic code to usable proteins.

In 1984, Williams was named the president of Atlanta University. He then served as the chair of the White House Biotechnology Science Coordinating Committee, the deputy director of the National Institute of General Medical Science of the National Institutes of Health, and assistant director of education and human resources at the National Science Foundation. After serving as the William T. Kemper Director of Education and Interpretation at the Missouri Botanical Garden from 2001 to 2005, Williams was invited to join the faculty of Tuskegee University as the dean of graduate studies and research and then provost and vice president of academic affairs. He was subsequently reappointed to provost and vice president for academic affairs at Tuskegee University in 2010.

Williams has been recognized for his leadership and his dedication to creating opportunities for minorities in the sciences. He received the Presidential Distinguished Executive Rank Award by President Clinton in 1993. He was also named distinguished alumnus of the School of Science, Purdue University in 1997. In addition, he received the William A. Hinton Research Training Award from the American Society for Microbiology in 2000, and a number of honorary doctorate degrees. He has contributed to over seventy academic papers and professional scientific journals and more than twenty articles concerning the status of science education in the United States. He was also named one of the fifty most important Blacks in science research by Spectrum magazine in 2005, and was appointed a member of the Council of Councils, Office of the Director, the National Institutes of Health in 2009.

Williams lives with his wife, Constance Marion. The couple has two adult children, Mark and Monique Williams.

Luther Williams was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 11, 2011.

Accession Number

A2011.012

Sex

Male

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

4/11/2011

Last Name

Williams

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

S.

Schools

Hale County Training High School

Angeles Mesa Elementary School

Clark Atlanta University

Purdue University

Flatwoods Elementary School

Search Occupation Category
Archival Photo 2
First Name

Luther

Birth City, State, Country

Wedgeworth

HM ID

WIL56

Favorite Season

Spring

Sponsor

National Science Foundation

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Barbados

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Missouri

Birth Date

8/19/1940

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

St. Louis

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Academic administrator and biologist Luther Williams (1940 - ) studied the properties of the cellular enzymes aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. He was named the provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs at Tuskegee University in 2010.

Employment

State University of New York at Stony Brook

Washington University

University of Colorado at Boulder

Atlanta University

National Institute of Health (NIH)

National Science Foundation (NSF)

Missouri Botanical Garden

Tuskegee University

Purdue University

Main Sponsor
Main Sponsor URL
Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Luther Williams' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Luther Williams shares his favorites.

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Luther Williams talks about his mother's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Luther Williams relates stories from his mother's life

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Luther Williams talks about his father's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Luther Williams describes the area where his father was born

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Luther Williams talks about the history of Tuskegee University

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Luther Williams talks about his great-grandmother

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Luther Williams talks about his father's education

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Luther Williams explains how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Luther Williams talks about his parents' dispositions

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Luther Williams talks about his confidantes and his early interest in science and living systems

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Luther Williams recalls growing up in his great-grandmother's house, part 1

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Luther Williams recalls growing up in his great-grandmother's house, part 2

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Luther Williams talks about his elementary school experience

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Luther Williams talks about his interest in science and influential teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Luther Williams discusses his path from high school to Tuskegee University and later Miles College

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Luther Williams describes his discipline and work ethic in college

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Luther Williams talks about influential professors at Miles College in Fairfield, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Luther Williams recalls meeting his wife in graduate school at Atlanta University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Luther Williams describes his graduate school experience at Purdue University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Luther Williams discusses the nature of African Americans in science higher education

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Luther Williams describes his Ph.D. dissertation

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Luther Williams discusses the practical applications of his dissertation research

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Luther Williams responds to a comment about antibacterial hand sanitizers

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - "Luther Williams talks about his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Luther Williams talks about activists and politicians who were trained as scientists

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Luther Williams relates his experience with the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Luther Williams talks about the relationship between science and religion

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Luther Williams talks about his transition from working at Atlanta University to working at Purdue University

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Luther Williams talks about his experience working at Purdue University

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Luther Williams details the progression of his career, part 1

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Luther Williams details the progression of his career, part 2

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Luther Williams explains his program, Alliance for Minority Participation

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Luther Williams describes his program Urban Systemic Initiative

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Luther Williams talks about his position with the Missouri Botanical Garden

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Luther Williams explains his positions at Tuskegee University

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Luther Williams reflects on his life's accomplishments and the significance of his genetics research

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Luther Williams discusses genetic manipulation

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Luther Williams talks about his great-grandmother and his brother

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Luther Williams talks about his goals for Tuskegee University

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Luther Williams explains how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$5

DAStory

5$1

DATitle
Luther Williams talks about his confidantes and his early interest in science and living systems
Luther Williams talks about his transition from working at Atlanta University to working at Purdue University
Transcript
I've often asked scientists this question about that kind of thing. Because often black scientists find themselves in a situation where they're, they're thinking thoughts and pondering things that other people around them are certainly not, haven't been trained to think about, or they inclination is not thinking about, or culturally not even brought to that place. So I mean were there others around you? Was there anyone to talk to about something like that?$$There were. I have an older brother [Charles E. Williams], two years older than I am and was a Tuskegee graduate and was in ROTC [Reserve Officer Training Corps] here and retired as a Major General, worked for Colin Powell and so forth. He was a very precocious student, very different personality than mine. So he and I talked about it when I was young. I had another classmate that--I had a classmate with whom I could have a conversation. But who I could really have the conversation with in a very different way, was my great-grandmother [Annie Ellis]. I would talk to her, and her point was she had this huge, over--I'm sure you've seen one of these monstrous, oversized family Bible, this huge thing with all these photographs in it. And she would say how much, how much learning--she didn't use the word knowledge, I'm trying to remember what she said. How much understanding or sense, how much sense, that was the word, how much sense do you think there is in this huge Bible? And I said I don't know. Well, it's there. I, no one else can prevent you from knowing everything that's contained therein. So do it. And use what you learn. So I would say should I try to do this--she'd go and find some appropriate statement in the Bible about--I remember the first such conversation I had with her. There is--it was about feeling guilty about insisting on having a straight A, always having a straight A average. And she says that's not your choice. So she cited the story about the differential talents, the person with ten talents, five talents and one. If you, if you have, if you have been so endowed, you have an obligation to multiply and multiply and multiply and multiply.$$That's interesting.$$So she was, she was the real force. And I, and I, I--it was a--it was freeing in a way. Early on, I must confess I became fascinated with science, which also I think helped me grow up in that place because after a period of time, I didn't live there any longer. I mean I wanted to understand why the leaves left, the trees lost the leaves. And people would say it's fall, and that's nonsense. I want to understand why it happened. I wanted to understand why I can stand in the water in a little stream and feel this incredible force and someone says well that's because the water is running down the hill or whatever. I wanted to understand why I could see in this rather open pond, lake I could see the fish swimming patterns and whatever. And the horses can't do that, you know and other farm animals, these can. And their breathing patterns. So I just, I just became fascinated with, with living systems and, and that, that became my, if you will my world, my escape mechanism. And I was very tolerant and accommodating and cooperative with everyone else. But every single day, even school. School was kind of a necessary event, but not really the major issue for me going to school each day. The major issue was when school was out and I had to walk home and I'm walking through these woods and streams and I stop for five minutes and do the examination of the stream the same way I did yesterday, or (unclear) take a small container, a can or something from home and carry it around in my pocket the whole while I'm school and then the route home, scoop up water samples and discovered that this world I live in with these few human beings and, and all of their insanity, is not the world fully. In this ten milliliters of water, ten ccs of water, there is, there must be fifty different living things. Well it was that. So that's what I did from--got me through some very difficult times, including my mother [Mattie Wallace Williams] died from when I was about, maybe fifth grade, until I got out of high school.$Okay, all right so now, now we're at Atlanta University [Georgia] after Stony Brook. After Stony Brook [State University of New York, Stony Brook] you go to Atlanta University and you take a position as--$$assistant professor.$$assistant professor, okay.$$I was there a year. And when I went to Atlanta University, I had three other job offers. One of which was at Purdue University [West Lafayette, Indiana], from which I had just graduated. I had an understanding with them that if I had a successful postdoctoral period when I was at Stony Brook, they would offer me a job. So as I was about to go to Atlanta, they did offer me a job as did Johns Hopkins [University, Baltimore, Maryland], as did Harvard Medical School [Boston, Massachusetts]. So I went to Atlanta with, quite frankly, some mixed feelings. But I think it was a godsend in the following regard: I was lucky to get two--my first two research grants, which is how you initiate a career. One from the National Institutes of Health, and one from the American Cancer Society that had supported my postdoctoral studies. So I arrived in Atlanta [Georgia] with two grants. Immediately put together my research laboratory and attracted a large collection of graduate students at Atlanta University working on their master's degrees. And in the middle of the year I decided I really wanted to go get back in the high power environment of Purdue. Neidhardt, the person with whom I had taken my degree, had just gotten a job as the head of the Department of Microbiology at the University of Michigan [Ann Arbor, Michigan]. So he was vacating his laboratory, the laboratory in which I was trained. And the department had the audacity to offer me the position that he once held. So all bets off, I was leaving Atlanta. But I negotiated, since they very much wanted me to come, and this is an outlier and I don't mean it arrogantly, but I do mean it in terms of what is possible. I have never applied for a job in my entire career, and I've had many jobs. I've never--I've always responded to someone's overture to me. So the department heads says--I said I don't, I'll take the job. But I've started this effort of training these minority students. And if, if I take the job, will you admit them as graduate students? And the answer finally was yes. So very rapidly in the middle of the summer, after all of the application deadlines were passed, my students submitted papers and I took seven students from Atlanta University to Purdue with me. I'm a starting, Green Assistant Professor. And instantaneously my laboratory became what it remained throughout my active career. Beyond my research, it became a major, major training center for African American scientists. Of those students, one of them spent a year with me at Purdue and, and took his degree from Atlanta University because he was nearly finished. He subsequently came here to Tuskegee [University, Tuskegee, Alabama] and chaired the Department of Biology for twenty or thirty years. Another student who was my younger brother, had taken a master's degree at Atlanta University, got his PhD at Purdue with a friend of mine because of nepotism I couldn't serve as his major professor. Another former student that went from Atlanta to Purdue with me, Dr. McGinnis, is a full professor at Meharry [Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee] and chairs a department there. Another of those students got his PhD with me, Dr. Coleman, went to the NIH [National Institutes of Health] after he got his doctorate with me and he's had a very productive thirty odd [years] career at NIH, etc. Incidentally, in the publications that I gave you, you will see that most of those--the ones I selected I did it deliberately, are co-authored with these students. So out of that Atlanta University to Purdue University transition, I was able to bring together what I, what I regarded as the, essentially a sacred vocation. Because I had the choice, I mean I had the option. I had my grants. All I had was do my own research and do my career. But I challenged myself to see if I could do both and, and I am exceedingly proud of the output. After I was at Purdue for three years, in, in higher education it normally takes six years to get tenure. Are we together? But I actually got promoted from assistant to associate professor in three years and received tenure, which as you know is lifetime appointment. There had been--

Tyrone Hayes

Biologist and biology professor Tyrone B. Hayes was born on July 29, 1967 in Columbia, South Carolina, to Romeo and Susie Hayes. In the forests near Columbia, Hayes first became interested in the way that frogs morphed from tadpoles to their adult form. He graduated from Dreher High School in 1985 and then earned his B.A. and M.A. degrees in biology in 1989 from Harvard University. His dissertation on the genetic and environmental mechanisms determining the gender of the wood frog would be indicative of the research he would pursue later. After graduating from Harvard University, Hayes continued his studies at the University of California, Berkeley, where he received his Ph.D. degree in integrative biology in 1993 for his study of the role of hormones in mediating developmental responses to environmental changes in amphibians.

Hayes worked as a National Science Foundation postdoctoral fellow at the University of California, Berkeley before he became an assistant professor at the University in 1994. He was appointed to a full professorship position in 2003. Hayes’ scientific research continues to focus on the potential of genetic adaptation and the role of hormones in the development of the amphibian. His investigations have shown that chemical agents, such as a commonly used herbicide, have the ability to negatively impact the sexual development of the amphibian, even when such toxins are present in low concentrations. Hayes has taken an interest in the hormonal regulation and development of aggressive behavior. Hayes has also been active with the National Science Foundation Review Panel since 1995, and he has served on several other advisory boards as well.

Hayes has won several awards for his teaching and his research, including the Distinguished Teaching Award from University of California, Berkeley in 2002 and the President’s Citation Award from the American Institute of Biological Science in 2004. He was also awarded the National Geographic Emerging Explorer Award and the Jennifer Altman Award in 2005.

Hayes lives in California with his wife, Kathy Kim, and their two children, Tyler and Kassina.

Tyrone Hayes was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 7, 2011.

Accession Number

A2011.001

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/7/2011

Last Name

Hayes

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

B

Organizations
Schools

Greenview Elementary School

Hand Middle School

Dreher High School

Harvard University

University of California, Berkeley

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Tyrone

Birth City, State, Country

Columbia

HM ID

HAY11

Favorite Season

Christmas

Sponsor

National Science Foundation

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

7/29/1967

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/Oakland

Country

United States

Favorite Food

All Food

Short Description

Biology professor and biologist Tyrone Hayes (1967 - ) is a leading researcher in amphibian endocrinology. Professor at the University of California, Berkeley, Hayes’s work has shown the herbicidal chemical Atrazine to act as an endocrine disruptor in the sexual development of frogs.

Employment

University of California, Berkeley

Main Sponsor
Main Sponsor URL
Favorite Color

Black

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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Tyrone Hayes's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Tyrone Hayes shares his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Tyrone Hayes talks about his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Tyrone Hayes recalls his mother's childhood memories of Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Tyrone Hayes discusses his paternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Tyrone Hayes describes his father's memories of growing up in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Tyrone Hayes describes his father's career path

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Tyrone Hayes shares the story of how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Tyrone Hayes talks about his parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Tyrone Hayes talks about his childhood neighborhood in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Tyrone Hayes talks about his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Tyrone Hayes shares his earliest childhood memories of growing up in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Tyrone Hayes reflects on his interest in the outdoors and wildlife

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Tyrone Hayes considers his family's role in his interest in science

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Tyrone Hayes talks about his parents' views on toy weapons

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Tyrone Hayes recalls his dreams of becoming an explorer

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Tyrone Hayes shares memories of elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Tyrone Hayes discusses learning about science outside of the classroom

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Tyrone Hayes describes his early fascination with frogs and reptiles

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Tyrone Hayes discusses his role models and the zoo as key influences during his junior high school years

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Tyrone Hayes talks about his musical influences

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Tyrone Hayes discusses attending a middle school for artistically talented and gifted students

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Tyrone Hayes describes his first interactions with white people

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Tyrone Hayes recounts his experiences with focusing and being tracked in school

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Tyrone Hayes remembers his high school experience

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Tyrone Hayes describes the difference between a vocational and an academically enriched program

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Tyrone Hayes describes his high school classes and teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Tyrone Hayes discusses youth including his breeding of lizards and locusts

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Tyrone Hayes discusses the global decline of amphibians

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Tyrone Hayes describes the effects of industrialization on the environment

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Tyrone Hayes describes his interest in science fiction

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Tyrone Hayes discusses dating in high school and college

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Tyrone Hayes talks about his laboratory work during college

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Tyrone Hayes talks about applying only to Harvard University

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Tyrone Hayes describes his difficult transition in college

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Tyrone Hayes recalls his Harvard University experience

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Tyrone Hayes recalls some of the African American individuals and organizations of Harvard University

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Tyrone Hayes describes meeting his future wife

Tape: 3 Story: 13 - Tyrone Hayes explains the importance of control and discipline for college success

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Tyrone Hayes discusses the importance of having the experience working in a laboratory during college

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Tyrone Hayes describes the title of endocrinologist

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Tyrone Hayes explains how he chose to do his graduate studies at the University of California, Berkeley [Berkeley, California]

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Tyrone Hayes describes the atmosphere of the endocrinology groups at the University of California, Berkeley

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Tyrone Hayes describes the declining amphibian population and the role of frogs as environmental indicators

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Tyrone Hayes explains the role of hormones in amphibian metamorphosis

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Tyrone Hayes explains the term "endocrine disruptor"

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Tyrone Hayes responds to the question about the black presence on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley [Berkeley, California]

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Tyrone Hayes talks about his dissertation

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Tyrone Hayes discusses the problems of the African clawed frog, an invasive species

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Tyrone Hayes describes his research studies in Kenya

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Tyrone Hayes discusses his post-graduate studies

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Tyrone Hayes talks about his work for the Environmental Protection Agency and Ecorisk, part 1

Tape: 4 Story: 14 - Tyrone Hayes talks about his work for the Environmental Protection Agency and Ecorisk, part 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Tyrone Hayes discusses his views on pharmaceuticals and herbicides

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Tyrone Hayes discusses the results of his tests on the effects Atrazine on frogs

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Tyrone Hayes discusses the effects of Atrazine on human health

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Tyrone Hayes reveals companies that sell chemicals to cause and cure disease

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Tyrone Hayes discusses the reactions of Novartis in response to his publishing his findings, part 1

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Tyrone Hayes discusses the reactions of Novartis in response to his publishing his findings, part 2

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Tyrone Hayes explains how he has funded his research

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Tyrone Hayes explains his patent, the Hyperolius Argus Endocrine Screen [HAES]

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Tyrone Hayes details the work in his laboratory

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Tyrone Hayes explains that his lab has studied fish in the past

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Tyrone Hayes discusses how others have become involved in the fight against the use of Atrazine

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Tyrone Hayes describes the importance of blind sampling

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Tyrone Hayes describes his scientific philosophy

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Tyrone Hayes describes the balancing of his personal and professional lives

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Tyrone Hayes discusses his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Tyrone Hayes addresses the problem of education in the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Tyrone Hayes describes the importance of exposing nonscientists to the scientific professions

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Tyrone Hayes describes the additional effects of Atrazine

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Tyrone Hayes discusses the problem of putting his scientific findings in a social context

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - Tyrone Hayes reflects on the honors he has received

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Tyrone Hayes describes his fitness regime

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Tyrone Hayes reviews his life decisions

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Tyrone Hayes responds to questions about his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Tyrone Hayes talks about how he wants to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$5

DAStory

13$4

DATitle
Tyrone Hayes reflects on his interest in the outdoors and wildlife
Tyrone Hayes reveals companies that sell chemicals to cause and cure disease
Transcript
Now, when you explored the woods around there, did you have any, did anybody--was anyone around to tell you like, this is the type of tree you were looking at or to explain or decode what the what the different animals and trees(unclear) (simultaneous)--$$No, but my grandmother [Agnes Elizabeth Bailey] gave me a lot of books. So I had a lot of field guides, and they had, you know, they had I guess what you'd call sort of folk stuff that they would say about the lizards. I think, you know, if the toad pees on you, you'll get warts. I mean my grandmother and great grandmother taught me a lot of things like that, "don't let it pee on you, you'll get warts". And, you know, there were certain things they'd say about fireflies and making wishes and that kind of thing. So, and my grandmother--and it had been a farm, and so there were still some remnants of the farm. So there were some plum trees and my grandmother had a peach tree that grew over the well. And I remember it was still this kind of wild asparagus that grew. So she knew things kind of about farming. And my grandmother was really into flowers. So she was always planting flowers, and we'd talk about fertilizers. And I remember I had a little guide to insect pests, and I would go around and inspect the flowers and try to figure out what pests she had on her flowers, you know, Japanese beetles on her roses and things like that. But not, I mean not really hardcore science stuff, but just sort of--$$Interests, keen interests.$$Yeah, and then there were some things like snakes. Every snake was bad. I mean, and so--and in fact, I was because of that, sort of afraid of snakes until I was in college. And that's when I just decided, you know, this is silly 'cause I loved all animals. And I just really made an effort to learn about how to handle snakes and all that. But it was, you know, and my father [Romeo Hayes] was more of a, anything on his property was dead, you know, I mean lizards, I mean he killed everything (laughter), insects, lizards, everything was a threat somehow, you know, In fact, I remember my neighbor with these big skinks, actually interesting story, these big, you know, these blue-tailed skinks, these big lizards, my neighbor used to shoot them with a twenty-two [rifle], just pow, pow, blow 'em up. And people in the South, black people called them scorpions. In fact, my grandmother told me this story. She said that if you stepped on them, when she was working in the fields when she was little, that they would sting you with their tail. You know the lizard I'm talking about? They're big and they have bright, blue tails.$$Big blue--$$So the interesting thing is--$$You call them a skink?$$It's a skink, yeah. It's a, the family that the lizard belongs to, and they're ground-dwelling lizards. And when they turn adults, they turn into adults, they turn into the bright gold with a bright, red head. And black people in South call them scorpions. So here's an interesting story. When I started working in Kenya, the Swahili word that they use for a similar lizard in Kenya means scorpion and they tell the same story, that if one of them bites you on the toe in your field, then you'll get sick for a week, exact same story. So I don't know the root of it or how, you know, how it got transferred into the story that black people tell in the South, but obviously, it has an origin in Africa somewhere.$$Hmmm. Okay.$Turns out that the same company [Novartis, sister company of Syngenta] sells a chemical to block aromatase that they sell to breast cancer patients. So to me, that's the biggest piece of evidence. How are you gonna argue that Atrazine turning on aromatase does not increase the likelihood of breast cancer when you're selling a chemical that does exactly the opposite with the promise that it's gonna keep your breast cancer from spreading or occurring.$$This is amazing.$$And they, you know, I'm not sure what their argument is, but they write these letters to my dean. And, you know, I joke all the time. I told them, my Daddy [Romeo Hayes] lives in South Carolina. Writing letter to my dean ain't gonna get you nowhere (laughter). If my father calls me up and says, son, do something else, then I'd think about it. But writing to my dean, no. So, because I published that relationship. I published a paper called the "One Stop Shop, Chemical Causes and Cures for Cancer". And you'll see this. If you look across the board, okay, that same company under a different name, for example, sold DDT [dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, a pesticide], Cepegigge or gigge (ph.). DDT we know is an estrogen mimi. You know, it's like getting in this room. It fits into the estrogen lock, even though it's not. Okay, they sold an estrogen mimic. The same company sold Tamoxifen which is an estrogen blocker to treat breast cancer. So you have these big chemical companies really getting paid on both ends so to speak. And whether or not there's a conspiracy and anybody's doing, that's not what I'm saying. But the case of Atrazine, in the year 2000, January, that guy, John Giesy I was telling you about published a paper where he actually wrote in the paper, John Giesy, the former advisor of the vice president of Novartis [Gary Dixon], wrote a paper where he said, the induction of aromatase by Atrazine may explain some of the tumor-promoting properties of Atrazine. They wrote that in January 2000. In July 2000, they applied to the FDA [U.S. Food and Drug Administation] to start selling their aromatase blocker, just six months later. In November 2000, Novartis spins off this company, Syngenta, who keeps selling Atrazine. And now Novartis only sells the aromatase blocker. But come on. At some point you have to know there were two men in the same room who went, "Oh, shit" (laughter), right, but, you know, but treat it how it is. Those are the facts. All in one year, they discover that Atrazine turns on aromatase. Six months later, they start--they apply to start selling an aromatase blocker, and then by November, they spin off another company--they keep selling Atrazine, and they start selling the aromatase blocker. Come on. (laughter)