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Dr. N. Anthony Coles

Pharmaceutical executive Dr. Tony Coles was born on May 17, 1960 in Roanoke, Virginia to Neavelle Anthony Coles and Leona Rogers Coles. Coles graduated from DuVal High School in Lanham, Maryland and received his B.S. degree from Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, his M.S. degree in public health from Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and his M.D. degree from Duke University in Durham, North Carolina.

Coles was a research fellow at Harvard Medical School, and then worked as a physician at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, where he completed his cardiology and internal medicine training. Coles resigned from practicing medicine and in 1992, he was hired at Merck & Co., where he became vice president of the hypertension and heart failure business group and oversaw the marketing of the ACE inhibitor drugs to cardiologists. Two years later, he joined Bristol-Myers Pharmaceuticals, taking a more global role in introducing cardiovascular products, including the blockbuster anti-clotting agent clopidrogel (Plavix). Coles was then hired by Vertex Pharmaceutical in 2002, as the company’s senior vice president of commercial operations-pharmaceutical products. He then became president and chief executive officer of Onyx Pharmaceuticals. In 2014, Coles co-founded and served as the president and chief executive officer of Yumanity Therapeutics, a biotech startup company.

In addition to his professional career, Coles was active in multiple community and national organizations, including as a member of the board of trustees at Johns Hopkins University and Johns Hopkins Medicine, NPS Pharmaceuticals, Inc., the Smithsonian’s National Museum of African American History and Culture, the board of trustees for the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, and the Council of Foreign Relations. Coles also served as a director of Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings, Campus Crest Communities, Inc., the U.S. Olympic and Paralympic Foundation, McKesson Corporation, and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. President Barack Obama also named him to the Precision Medicine Initiative in 2015. He also served as chairman of the board of directors of CRISPR Therapeutics AG since October 2015 and served on its Compensation Nomination and Corporate Governance Committee.

Coles and his wife, Robyn, have three sons.

Tony Coles was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 3, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.097

Sex

Male

Interview Date

05/03/2017

Last Name

Coles

Maker Category
Organizations
First Name

Tony

Birth City, State, Country

Roanoke

HM ID

COL31

Favorite Season

Summer

Sponsor

Dorothy Terrell

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Kiawah island, South Carolina

Favorite Quote

There's always room for one more.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

5/17/1960

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Hot dog

Short Description

Pharmaceutical executive Dr. Tony Coles (1960 - ) was president and CEO of Onyx Pharmaceuticals and co-founded Yumanity Therapeutics and served as its president and CEO.

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Blue

Kenneth C. Frazier

Pharmaceutical executive, lawyer, and corporate general counsel Kenneth C. Frazier was born on December 17, 1954 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to janitor and former sharecropper Otis Tindley Frazier and homemaker Clara Elizabeth Frazier. The second of three children, Frazier grew up in the deeply impoverished neighborhood of North Philadelphia. Frazier’s parents strongly encouraged education and hard work, ensuring that each of their children knew what it took to succeed. In 1966, when Frazier was twelve, his mother passed away, leaving Otis Frazier to raise three children alone. Frazier graduated from Northeast High School in Philadelphia before attending Pennsylvania State University. Upon completing his B.A. degree in 1975 with highest honors, Frazier enrolled at Harvard Law School, receiving his J.D. degree in 1978.

For the next fourteen years, Frazier worked as a lawyer and, eventually, partner at the Philadelphia law firm of Drinker, Biddle, & Reath. There he represented many corporate clients, including AlliedSignal and Merck & Co., Inc. However, the case which brought Frazier the most praise during this time was the pro bono work he contributed to freeing the innocent Willie “Bo” Cochran after twenty-one years on death row. Frazier accepted a position at Merck & Co., Inc in 1992. Frazier has served in various capacities at Merck, including general counsel, secretary, and vice president. During his tenure as general counsel, Frazier achieved great success in leading the company through more than 5,000 lawsuits regarding the alleged harmful effects of Vioxx.

In 2007, Frazier accepted the role of president of Merck & Co., Inc, and was given the additional roles of CEO and chairman in 2011, making him the first African American to serve as CEO of a major pharmaceutical company. Frazier has served on the boards of several organizations, such as Exxon Mobil, Penn State University, and Cornerstone Christian Academy, a private charter school serving at-risk youth in Philadelphia, which he also co-founded. Due to his professional success and his position on the board of trustees, Frazier was selected to lead the investigation of the allegations against former Penn State assistant football coach Jerry Sandusky and university officials. Frazier has received numerous awards, including the 2001 Penn State Alumni Fellow Award, the Association of Corporate Counsel’s 2004 Excellence in Corporate Practice Award, and the Equal Justice Initiative’s 2009 Equal Justice Champion award.

Frazier lives in Pennsylvania with his wife, Andréa, and their son, James. Their daughter, Lauren, is an engineer.

Frazier was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 2, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.124

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/2/2012

Last Name

Frazier

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

C.

Schools

M Hall Stanton Elementary School

Northeast High School

Pennsylvania State University

Harvard Law School

First Name

Kenneth

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

FRA09

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Bermuda

Favorite Quote

You Can Be Anything You Want To Be.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New Jersey

Birth Date

12/17/1954

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Whitehouse Station

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pizza

Short Description

Pharmaceutical executive, lawyer, and corporate general counsel Kenneth C. Frazier (1954 - ) was the first African American to serve as CEO of a major pharmaceutical company and was known for his success in corporate law.

Employment

Merck & Co.

Astra Merck Group

Drinker Biddle & Reath

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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9
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Kenneth C. Frazier's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Kenneth C. Frazier lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Kenneth C. Frazier describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Kenneth C. Frazier describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Kenneth C. Frazier lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Kenneth C. Frazier describes his household growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Kenneth C. Frazier describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers an influential teacher

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Kenneth C. Frazier describes the Julia R. Masterman Laboratory and Demonstration School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers his mother's death

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Kenneth C. Frazier recalls the role of his maternal aunts after his mother's death

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his early understanding of race

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers North East High School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his influences at Nort East High School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Kenneth C. Frazier recalls his admission to Pennsylvania State University in University Park, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers entering college at sixteen years old

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Kenneth C. Frazier recalls his decision to study political science and history

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Kenneth C. Frazier describes the racial discrimination at Pennsylvania State University

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers his graduation from Pennsylvania State University

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his social life at the Harvard Law School

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Kenneth C. Frazier recalls his accomplishments at the Harvard Law School

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers his club football team at the Harvard Law School

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about the school busing crisis in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers his mentors at the Harvard Law School

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers his first legal case

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers the case of Cochran v. Herring

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about African Americans in the law profession

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers being one of two black partners at Drinker Biddle and Reath LLP

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his role as general counsel for a joint pharmaceutical venture

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Kenneth C. Frazier recalls his promotion to vice president of public affairs at Merck and Co., Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers his promotion to general counsel of Merck and Co., Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about the recall of Vioxx by Merck & Co., Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Kenneth C. Frazier explains his strategy as general counsel of Merck and Co., Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his perserverance during the Vioxx trial

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers becoming the CEO of Merck and Co., Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his accomplishments at Merck and Co., Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers being named CEO of Merck and Co., Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his performance as the CEO of Merck and Co., Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his role as the CEO of Merck and Co., Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his family

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Kenneth C. Frazier describes his involvement at Pennsylvania State University

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his interest in education

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Kenneth C. Frazier reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Kenneth C. Frazier describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Kenneth C. Frazier describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Kenneth C. Frazier shares a message to future generations

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Kenneth C. Frazier narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$4

DAStory

10$7

DATitle
Kenneth C. Frazier remembers his mother's death
Kenneth C. Frazier remembers being named CEO of Merck and Co., Inc.
Transcript
So then high school, name of your high school?$$Was Northeast High School [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania]--the academic high school in Philadelphia [Pennsylvania] is called Central High School, but Northeast High School had just started a program for scientifically gifted children who were interested in the space exploration effort and I really was very interested in space and science. And so I chose to go Northeast High School to this program within there that was again sort of a magnet program for scientifically strong children.$$Now are your parents encouraging you in this regard?$$Well there's an important fact that we've not covered in the academic thing which is that, when I was in the seventh grade, my mother [Clara Frazier] passed away. So at this point, I had only my father [Otis Frazier] who raised me.$$And your father is raising two other children in addition to you?$$Correct.$$So in seventh grade, that's you're what you're twelve?$$Something like that.$$Twelve, thirteen, something around that age?$$Uh-hm.$$That had to be devastating?$$It was, it was, I have to say the most pivotal moment in my life because my mother died of a blood clot that was secondary to a hysterectomy. So she went into the hospital to have a pro- a procedure that I wouldn't call routine, but it was also not something that where we thought she was sick and in jeopardy of her life. And I can still remember my father, we came downstairs to go to school and my father said, "There's something I need to tell you kids and it's that your mother died last night." And I sa- you, know, I can still remember it like was yesterday, how devastating that was.$$And you made it through the seventh grade even this, I mean academically well and in spite of (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Oh yes.$$And was that because of your father?$$Yes.$$Tell us a little bit, what your father did. How he kept you guys, how he moved you guys through this?$$Well let me just put it this way. My father was a wonderful man, but he was not very sentimental about his children. And he had very high standards and I remember, I didn't finish the story. We were all devastated when my mother died and I remember he said, "You guys, you kids go up to your room and you can cry a little bit, but when you come down, we're going to have to keep going in life." And we did cry a little bit, but we came down and we had breakfast. And my father said, "Life goes on." And my father was very distant man before then because I think like many families of that time, the mother was the nurturer, the one that raised us. My father, his job in the family was to work and earn money and to hand out the discipline when my mother encouraged him to do that. He taught us obviously how to throw a baseball and things like that. But, like unlike modern parenting where I think my children [Lauren Frazier and James Frazier] feel like they know me, I didn't feel like I knew my father. I knew my mother, my mother was the, was the nurturing parent. And then when she died suddenly my father had to step into that role, and I think that for him it was a great opportunity. Years later he would say, "I would not have even known my children had my wife died." But he, he became the mother and the father. He had no domestic skills but he learned to cook, he learned to do all the things that you needed to do to raise children.$Let's move on to the day that you become chairman of this company. You've been here what (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) CEO.$$CEO.$$First I became CEO and then chairman$$CEO and then chairman. But you've been at Merck [Merck and Co., Inc.] about what seventeen years when you become the CEO?$$Yes.$$Tell, tell me about that day. What was that when the announcement was made, and how you felt and what it meant, what's your thought?$$I felt overwhelmed by the announcement. I've never been a person to feel glad that I got somewhere. My wife [Andrea Wilkerson Frazier] always says, you don't enjoy anything because you're always on to the next thing. So when I became CEO, I was worried about whether or not I could run this company in a way that I would make a very satisfactory mark as CEO. I knew I felt really good when, I can't lie when the announcement came out and I looked at it and I realized I'm the CEO of Merck and my father [Otis Frazier] had a third grade education and was a janitor, I felt really good about that. My family felt really good about that. But I really am honest when I say that it's really not about me. This company Merck is no ordinary place. The work that we do here is incredibly important to mankind. And so, if you step into that CEO role. My office, I feel like I'm renting that office and that it's my obligation to leave this company better than I found it. And so, I think my overwhelming feeling was a feeling of huge, awesome responsibility. And if you knew the scientific enterprise of this company and the people who comprise it, the quality of the scientists and the physicians who make up the core of our research labs. In some ways, you're saying, I'm a mere mortal. How can I be the CEO of people that are that sort of otherworldly smart? And so, I also say, how can I do my job so that I can enable great science since I'm not a scientist. So it's not a kind of thing that you feel very--at least I don't feel very egotistical about it. I feel like I have to prove to the world that my tenure here put this company back on track to greatness.$$Well let's talk a little bit about the symbolic torch at, at Merck that gets passed from one CEO to the next CEO. You, you were telling me a little bit about that previously. Tell us about that on the record?$$Well I think--again I say this is not the ordinary company and one of the exemplars of that is that the modern day founder of Merck is a guy named George W. Merck and he had a saying that every Merck employee knows by heart. He said, "Medicine is for the people, not the profits," and the more we've remembered that the better the profits have been and then he went on to say that, "It's our obligation to ensure that our finest achievement," meaning the medicine and vaccines we created, "are made available to everybody." So everybody knows that and there is a Time magazine article from I believe it's 1951 [sic. 1952] where he made, a, a medical school commencement speech in which he uttered those words. He became a cover story of Time in 1951. And that Time magazine (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) The year you were born. No sorry, I'm wrong sorry.$$No, I was born in 1954, but it's, that, that Time magazine, the original magazine is preserved in a, in a glass case and that glass case is handed from one CEO to the next CEO and you're supposed to display it prominently in your office as a reminder that, that's what this company is about. It's about the people, not the profits. And although, we're under the same pressure any other publicly traded company is, I think it's my obligation all the time to remember that while I have to do the short term performance that drives the stock price. What I'm really here is to create long term medical value and societal value. If I do that, that would drive the economic value, which in term will drive the stock price.$$So when you say this is no ordinary place. Then for you, it's a very special place.$$It is, I mean you just look at any indicator of the number of Nobel Prize winners. The work that was done to commercialize penicillin. The work that was done to commercialize the corticosteroids. The work--something like thirteen of the seventeen vaccines that are required for American children are made by this company. So the, the nation trust its newborn to us. The work that we've done in past on HIV [human immunodeficiency virus], which I've talked about a few minutes ago. Work that we're doing on cardiovascular and infectious diseases. What this company has done single handily to expand life expectancy. The work that we've done in Africa where by donating products, we've almost eradicated a horrible series of diseases exemplified by river blindness. When you come to work in a company like that and you realize that the company exists to alleviate human suffering, if you just say that, the company's reason for existing is to apply cutting edge science to develop medically important products, vaccines, and medicines that alleviate human suffering and improve and extend human life. It is no ordinary place.

Joseph A. De Laine, Jr.

Pharmaceutical executive and retail entrepreneur Joseph Armstrong De Laine, Jr. was born on August 17, 1933, in Blackville, South Carolina, to Mattie Lee Belton De Laine, a teacher, and Joseph Armstrong De Laine, Sr., a minister, teacher and community activist. De Laine, Sr., was instrumental in the Civil Rights Movement in Clarendon County, South Carolina, that led to the Briggs v. Elliot court case. De Laine attended Scott’s Branch Public High School in Summerton, South Carolina, and graduated from high school at Mather Academy in 1950. De Laine attended Johnson C. Smith University for a year until transferring to Lincoln University in Pennsylvania, where he graduated in 1954. He served for the U.S. armed forces during the Korean Conflict.

Upon De Laine’s return from Korea, he joined his family in New York, where they resettled after death threats in South Carolina. Over a six year period, he was employed as a cancer research assistant at Roswell Park in Buffalo, New York; Sloan Kettering Institute in New York, New York; E. R. Squibb in New Brunswick, New Jersey; and Joint Disease Hospital in New York, New York. In 1964, De Laine joined Hoffmann La Roche, Inc. as a pharmaceutical sales representative. During the ensuing twenty years, he enjoyed positions at the management level in promotion, marketing, and staff positions as Director of Marketing for Diagnostics Division and Corporate Director of Corporate EEO. Upon retirement, De Laine relocated from New Jersey to Charlotte, North Carolina, where he owned and operated Joseph’s Imports, an outlet of unusual imported artifacts from Europe, Africa, and Asia.

De Laine presently serves on the Board of Directors for the Briggs-De Laine-Pearson Foundation in Summerton, South Carolina, and for the International African American Museum in Charleston, South Carolina. Since retirement, he also served as a Presidential Appointee on the “50th Anniversary Brown v. Board Presidential Commission” and for several years as a member and president of the Board for the Northwest Corridor Community Development Corporation in Charlotte, North Carolina.

Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 21, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.182

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/21/2007

Last Name

De Laine

Maker Category
Marital Status

Single

Middle Name

A.

Schools

Scotts Branch High School

Boylan-Haven-Mather Academy

Bob Johnson School

Lincoln University

Johnson C. Smith University

First Name

Joseph

Birth City, State, Country

Blackville

HM ID

DEL07

Favorite Season

Spring

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Solitude

Favorite Quote

God Gave Me A Brain To Think For Myself.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

North Carolina

Birth Date

8/17/1933

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Charlotte

Country

United States

Favorite Food

French Food

Short Description

Retail entrepreneur and pharmaceutical executive Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. (1933 - ) was both a cancer researcher and the founder, owner, and operator of Joseph’s Imports in Charlotte, North Carolina, selling international artifacts from Europe, Africa and Asia from 1984 to 1992.

Employment

Joseph's Imports

Hoffmann La Roche, Inc

Hospital for Joint Diseases

Bristol-Myers Squibb Company

Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Joseph A. De Laine, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his mother's career

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. talks about his enslaved maternal ancestors

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his father's occupation and education

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his paternal grandmother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his paternal grandfather's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his paternal grandfather's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. talks about his possible ancestor, Ben De Lane

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. talks about his paternal great-great-grandparents

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls living on the campus of Macedonia High School in Blackville, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. remembers his family's move to Clarendon County, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes the Bob Johnson School in Clarendon County, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his home in Summerton, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. remembers the holidays with his family

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls lessons from his family about racial discrimination

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes segregation in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his father's role in the community, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his father's role in the community, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes the white community in Clarendon County, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. shares the history of public education in South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls the transportation for black students in Clarendon County, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. remembers Pearson v. Clarendon County and School District No. 26

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. talks about the black community's commitment to education

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes the role of the NAACP in Clarendon County, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his father's meeting with Thurgood Marshall

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. remembers the termination of Principal A.M. Anderson

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes the discriminatory voting regulations in Summerton, South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls the unrest at Scotts Branch High School in Summerton, South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes Scotts Branch High School

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes the Mather Academy in Camden, South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. remembers his principal at the Mather Academy

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes Thurgood Marshall's role in Briggs v. Elliott

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls the decision of Briggs v. Elliott

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. remembers the burning of his father's house

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls observing a Ku Klux Klan meeting, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls observing a Ku Klux Klan meeting, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls the reprisals against his father

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his father's escape to New York State

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his father's civil rights work in New York

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his father's personality

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls his decision to attend Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls his experiences at Johnson C. Smith University

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls his transfer to Lincoln University in Pennsylvania

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes segregation in Pennsylvania

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls his experiences at Lincoln University

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. remembers his service in the U.S. Army

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his U.S. Army battalion

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his parents' experiences in New York

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls his work in cancer research

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his graduate education

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. talks about his father's involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his work in the pharmaceutical industry

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls his experiences of discrimination at F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. recalls his experiences of financial discrimination

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his community involvement in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. reflects upon his mother's legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. lists his mother's siblings

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. lists his father's siblings

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. reflects upon his parents' legacies

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes how he would like his father to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. talks about his organizational involvement

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. talks about helping others in nonconventional ways

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$3

DAStory

3$6

DATitle
Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. describes his father's escape to New York State
Joseph A. De Laine, Jr. talks about the black community's commitment to education
Transcript
And he went back to Lake City [South Carolina], and--no, no, no, no, no--before he got back to Lake City on the sixth day or something like this, of the letter, the church [Greater St. James African Methodist Episcopal Church, Lake City, South Carolina] was destroyed by arson. Then on the tenth day, which is after he returned because he said he wasn't going anywhere, there was a shootout at midnight. And, so, the third time of the shootout, he started shooting back and nobody knows what happened. It is said--the papers admit that there were three people injured. The grand jury report says five people were injured by him. The local people says that one police officer had a funeral. Now, we don't know what happened, but he fled that night to a town about forty miles away, and escaped the next day to New York State. Someone came back and got my mother [Mattie Belton De Laine]. And the family who lived next door were members of his church, and also the aunt of [HistoryMaker] Ossie Davis, Ossie Davis' mother's sister. They are the ones who protected my mother that night. And her name--all I know is his name was Webb, his first name W-E-B-B, Eady [ph.], and she was Viola Eady [ph.]. The arrangement for his getting out of the state was, I guess, masterminded by an Attorney Williams [ph.] in Florence [South Carolina] and a Mr. Guile, G-U-I-L-E. I can't think of their first names. Guile's wife is still alive. But, they went back and got my mother and smuggled him into Charlotte [North Carolina]. My uncle lived next door and one lived up the street, and they stopped up the street and made arrangements for him to take a plane that night out of here. And, the problem was, they weren't sure where to go. He first took a flight--he took a flight to Washington, D.C. Now, of course, he was on his own at that point, and when he got in Washington he called his cousin, and his cousin said, "No, this is worse than being in Mississippi, so let's get out of here right now." So, my father [Joseph A. De Laine, Sr.] took a cab to his house and they jumped in his car and they started heading north, and ended up in New York. That's how he ended up there. And, the State of South Carolina attemp- they appealed to the attorney general at that time, which was Richard Brownell [sic. Herbert Brownell, Jr.] and to Eisenhower [President Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower], to invoke the federal fugitive act [Fugitive Felon Act], to return him, and that was denied because my father had let them know exactly where he was every step of the way.$$But, he'd been writing the FBI [Federal Bureau of Investigation] for years, documenting the situation?$$That's right, right. And then after that in the State of New York, before South Carolina even got to the point of asking for extradition, the State of New York reviewed the case, and determined that they would not honor any extradition, so that's what kept him safe in New York State. Now, they moved back--they moved here in 1971.$$To Charlotte, North Carolina?$$To Charlotte, to this house, because my father knew that he was not probably going to live very long and he wanted to get my mother close to family members, an uncle--a brother next door, and one up the street. So, that's why they came here. But he at that time did not have a safety clearance for his legal problems, but it was ignored in the State of North Carolina, and the warrant for his arrest in South Carolina existed until the year 2000, which was twenty-six years after his death, before it was lifted.$So what happened after that lawsuit [Levi Pearson v. Clarendon County and School District No. 26] was dismissed?$$When that lawsuit was dismissed, they then decided that we don't want to drop this battle, that we want a case that will do something to improve the situation for our children, so we're going to ask NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] to sponsor something that will force some improvements in the schools. We don't know what it is, but we want improvement.$$So, the focus went beyond just busing. Extended to education?$$The focus all along was on education. You're getting a situation where I'm sure that most of these people did not envision what they were leading up to. I'm not too sure my father [Joseph A. De Laine, Sr.] envisioned the whole thing at first. But, we're looking at a situation that is intolerable, a situation where our children are not getting their education, a situation where the parents of that era--and I'm amazed that they're so different than the parents of today, but I remember talking to people and people would tell me, "Look, I wash clothes and I don't want my children washing clothes for a living, so I want them to get an education, and I want to make sure that they can get it right here." That was the kind of expectation and tenacity that I saw as a young man at that time in those people. And, I didn't get that from one, I got that from all. Now, people will say--we talk today about our platitudes of Uncle Toms and all this business--half of the people that we labeled as Uncle Toms weren't Uncle Toms. I talked with a lady, not a girl, she's my age, not too long ago. Her daddy was a bootlegger in town. And, he kept his name as far away from all this stuff as possible. She's a Ph.D. and her husband's a Ph.D. I was talking to her and she says, "Well, he couldn't afford to because the only way he knew how to make a living was this." But, all of his children are educated and if we go back and look then--$$What was his name?$$Smith, we called him Monkey Smith [ph.], I don't know if they want that publicized or not. Anyway, but if we go back and look at then, money was being slid under the table for the movement from him all along.