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The Honorable Yvonne Atkinson Gates

Political leader Yvonne Atkinson Gates was born on June 10, 1956 in Henderson, Nevada to Bobbie Davis Atkinson and Eddie Atkinson. Gates graduated from Ed W. Clark High School in Las Vegas and went on to earn her B.S. degree in political science and journalism in 1979, her M.P.A. degree in 1982, and her Ph.D. degree in public administration in 2012, all from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

Following her graduation from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Gates worked as the research and planning manager for Clark County’s Department of Social Service, as well as personnel manager for Clark County’s Department of Aviation. From 1985 to 1992, Gates served on the Clark County School District Board of Trustees in Las Vegas. In 1992, Gates was elected as the youngest and only minority member to serve on the Clark County Board of Commissioners for District D in Las Vegas, becoming its first African American female chair in 1995. She was chosen as a super-delegate for the Democratic National Committee; and, in 2002, she chaired the Democratic National Committee Black Caucus. As chairwoman, she worked with black female elected officials like Donna Brazile and Minyon Moore to found the Women Building for the Future Political Action Committee. Throughout her political career, Gates advocated for strengthening public education and daycare programs nationwide. After resigning from the Clark County Board of Commissioners in 2007, Gates was appointed by Senator Harry Reid to serve as a Democratic National Committee super-delegate in 2008 for Hillary Rodham Clinton, although Gates later shifted her support to Barack Obama. In addition to her political career, Gates founded the construction firm of ECO Construction LLC in Las Vegas.

Gates was a recipient of the Community Image Award from the Professional Black Women Alliance in 1989, and a recipient of the Community Service Award from the Westcoast Black Publisher's Association in 1990. In recognition of her public service, the Clark County Board of School Trustees opened the Yvonne Atkinson Gates Center in 1996. In 1997, Gates was named Outstanding Democrat of the Year by the Democratic Party of Nevada. In 2002, she received an Eleanor Roosevelt Award from the DNC Women's Vote Center; and in 2006, she received a human rights award from Church Women United.

Gates and her husband, former Judge Lee Gates, have four children.

Yvonne Atkinson Gates was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 25, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.061

Sex

Female

Interview Date

9/25/2016

Last Name

Gates

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Atkinson

Occupation
Schools

Madison Elementary School

William E. Orr Middle School

Ed W. Clark High School

University of Nevada, Las Vegas

First Name

Yvonne

Birth City, State, Country

Henderson

HM ID

GAT05

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Nevada

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere on the Water

Favorite Quote

The Greatest Achievement Requires Time.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Colorado

Birth Date

6/10/1956

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Denver

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken

Short Description

Political leader Yvonne Atkinson Gates (1956 - ) represented District D on the Clark County Board of Commissioners, where she was the first African American woman to serve as chair.

Employment

ECO Construction, LLC

University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Clark County, Nevada

City of Las Vegas

State of Nevada

Favorite Color

Blue, Pink

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Yvonne Atkinson Gates' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates remembers segregation in Las Vegas, Nevada

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates describes her father's career

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates talks about how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates describes her likeness to her parents and paternal aunt

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates talks about her father's work as a brick mason

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates describes her neighborhood on the Westside of Las Vegas, Nevada

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates describes her early education in Las Vegas, Nevada

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates recalls her early experiences of religion

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates remembers Ed W. Clark High School in Las Vegas, Nevada

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates recalls her athletic involvement in high school

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates remembers building a homecoming float

Tape: 1 Story: 16 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates remembers a student demonstration at Ed W. Clark High School

Tape: 1 Story: 17 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates talks about the casino industry in Las Vegas, Nevada

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates recalls her start at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates describes her experiences at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates talks about the Runnin' Rebels basketball team

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates remembers her professors at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates describes her early political activities

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates remembers her early employment with the City of Las Vegas, Nevada

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates talks about the growth of Clark County, Nevada

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates describes her early employment with Clark County, Nevada

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates recalls her appointment to the Clark County Board of School Trustees

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates describes her work on the Clark County Board of School Trustees

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates describes the jurisdiction of Clark County, Nevada

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates recalls her decision to run for the Clark County Board of Commissioners

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates remembers the riots of 1992 in West Las Vegas, Nevada

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates talks about her husband's career

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates recalls joining the Clark County Board of Commissioners

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates talks about the authority of the Clark County Board of Commissioners, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates talks about the authority of the Clark County Board of Commissioners, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates remembers the congressional representatives for the State of Nevada

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates talks about her advocacy for early childhood education centers

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates remembers campaigning for President Bill Clinton

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates talks about her divestiture from Fat Tuesdays

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates remembers the gubernatorial campaign of Joe Neal

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates recalls speaking to the Democratic National Committee in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates talks about her work at the McCarran International Airport in Paradise, Nevada

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates reflects upon the presidential election of 2000

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates talks about chairing the Democratic National Committee Black Caucus

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates talks about the population growth in Las Vegas, Nevada

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates recalls the conviction of four Clark County commissioners for corruption

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates remembers the presidential election of 2004

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates recalls her decision to leave the Clark County Board of Commissioners

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates talks about her dissertation

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates recalls becoming a Democratic National Committee superdelegate

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates reflects upon Barack Obama's first presidential campaign

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates talks about her retirement

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates talks about the legalization of marijuana

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates talks about superdelegate reform in the Democratic National Committee

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates describes her support for Hillary Clinton's presidential campaign

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates talks about her plans for the future

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates talks about her family and community

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates talks about her chairmanship of the Clark County Board of Commissioners

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Yvonne Atkinson Gates reflects upon her legacy and how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$3

DAStory

16$11

DATitle
Yvonne Atkinson Gates remembers a student demonstration at Ed W. Clark High School
Yvonne Atkinson Gates talks about her divestiture from Fat Tuesdays
Transcript
You mentioned earlier, and I didn't ask you what happened, but you said the black organization had demonstrated--$$Yes, we did (simultaneous).$$--(simultaneous) at the school [Ed W. Clark High School, Las Vegas, Nevada]. What was the issue?$$We had a walk out (laughter) because we didn't think that African American kids were being treated fairly; and at the time, Brian Cram was the principal, and I was an officer, and we had a walk out, but he was able to calm everyone down, and, you know, kids came back, back into the school, but we, you know, we really voiced our opinion when we felt that something wasn't right.$$Okay. So did, did things change at the school as a result of the walk out in the?$$I would, I would say, yes, because--and, and Dr. Cram, at the time was really--he was more of a people person, so he was able to calm the kids down. We had meetings and discussions and so forth, and things improved a great deal. But we had students who were really active and wanted to make sure that the treatment of African Americans was fair and we received the same as other students.$$Okay. You--do you have any stories about discrimination at the school that--I mean, or a personal story about it?$$No. Actually, actually, I never really experienced, experienced that so much, but I do recall a conversation with one of my--he was the president of the, of the--of my class. I remember having a conversation. We had a conversation one day, and it really struck me as very--it, it touched a nerve. Let's put it that way. And he lived in a neighborhood that I later purchased a home as an adult in, and he said to me that the reason that they did not want blacks to live in their neighborhood was because if a black moved--a black person, a black family moved in a white neighborhood, then it would decrease the value of their property because African Americans didn't take care of their homes and their property the way in which they did. And I--you know, I never forgot that, and later as an adult, I purchased a home in that very same neighborhood, and I remember it vividly.$$Okay, okay. Now, did, did they have--did everybody go to the same prom?$$Yes. We all went to the same prom.$$Okay.$$There was no segregation in that respect; and blacks and white actually got along pretty well at the school when I was growing up.$$Okay, okay.$$Never--you know, no tension or anything of that nature. But there were times, as I said, when, you know, we felt that we weren't being treated fairly and equally, and, and we had the one walk out, sit-in.$In 1997, there's something that--there's some kind of scandal around Fat Tuesdays or something?$$(Laughter).$$What is that about?$$At the time, I was--I, I wasn't--I was a--start- well, I was working with a friend of mine to open a business, and we were talking about Fat Tuesdays. Hadn't been opened at that time, and we were just right in the process of doing it, but we weren't, we weren't open. We weren't--hadn't created the company, or we were doing our due diligence, and, you know, a few people didn't want me to have any connection to the business, and so I just stepped to the side and let my friends go ahead, and they actually got the business open. I wasn't a part of it. I abstained because they were friends of mine because they had to come to the county commission [Clark County Board of Commissioners] to get approved, and that was the extent of it.$$There's a couple questions on this. Now to what extent does being on the county commission handcuff you from being involved in--$$Well--$$--regular business?$$--you can be involved in business. You can be involved in business, and many of my commissioners were. You know, Paul Christensen owned Christensen Jewelers [M.J. Christensen Jewelers; M.J. Christensen Diamonds, Las Vegas, Nevada]. He was on the county commission, but there was different standards for African Americans than there were for whites. I--they, you know, just didn't want me to be involved, and especially when some of the locations were in casinos and so forth. I could have abstained but never had the opportunity to do that because it never came before us. I divested myself and wasn't involved, and--but I still abstained. So you can do that, and long as you abstain, there is no ethical conflict.$$Okay.$$And so I--of course I never got that far, didn't get that far.

John X. Miller

Journalist John Xavier Miller, Jr. was born on September 11, 1955 in Henderson, North Carolina to John Miller, Sr. and Betty Faison. Miller was raised in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, where he graduated from R.J. Reynolds High School in 1973. He went on to receive his B.A. degree in journalism from Washington and Lee University in 1977.

Miller began his career with an internship at the Twin City Sentinel in the 1970s. From 1978 to 1982, he worked as a copy editor for The Roanoke Times & World News and as a sports copy editor for the Charlotte Observer. Miller then became an original staff member of USA Today when he was hired as the newspaper’s sports copy desk chief in 1982. In 1991, he was named executive editor of The Reporter in Lansdale, Pennsylvania. In 1996, he was appointed as the managing editor of The Sun News in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. From 1999 to 2007, Miller worked at the Detroit Free Press and the Detroit Media Partnership (DMP), first as the Free Press’ public editor, then as the DMP’s director of community affairs.

In December of 2007, Miller was named chief executive officer of The Heat and Warmth Fund, a Detroit, Michigan-based nonprofit organization. Three years later, in 2010, he moved to the Hickory Daily Record, where he served as editor. In August of 2013, Miller became the first African American managing editor of the Winston-Salem Journal.

Miller has served on numerous boards including the Maynard Institute for Journalism Education, the Pew Center for Civic Journalism, the Michigan Humanities Council, and various American Society of News Editors and Associated Press Media Editors boards and committees. He was a founding member of the National Association of Minority Media Executives and former board chairman of ARISE Detroit!. He has been a Pulitzer Prize Juror, a facilitator at the American Press Institute in Reston, Virginia, and was the first Donald W. Reynolds Distinguished Visiting Professor of Journalism at Washington and Lee University in 2005. Miller received the Order of the Arrow Vigil Honor from the Boy Scouts of America (BSA) in 1973 and the Spark Plug Award from the Chicora District BSA in 1997.

John X. Miller was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 13, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.236

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/13/2014

Last Name

Miller

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

Xavier

Occupation
Schools

St. Benedict The Moor

Wiley Middle School

R.J. Reynolds High School

Washington and Lee University

Washington and Lee University School of Law

Greater Dimensions College of Theology

Search Occupation Category
First Name

John

Birth City, State, Country

Henderson

HM ID

MIL11

State

North Carolina

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

North Carolina

Birth Date

9/11/1955

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Winston-Salem

Country

United States

Short Description

Journalist John X. Miller (1955 - ) , managing editor of the Winston-Salem Journal, has served as an editor for several newspapers, including The Reporter, The Sun News, the Detroit Free Press, and the Hickory Daily Record. He was also one of the original staff members of USA Today, and served as CEO of The Heat and Warmth Fund.

Employment

Winston-Salem Journal

Hickory Daily Record

The Heat And Warmth Fund

Detroit Media Partnership, L.P.

Detroit Free Press Charities

Washington and Lee University

Detroit Free Press

The Sun News

The Reporter

USA Today

Charlotte Observer

The Roanoke Times & World-News

Howard University

Drew Berry

Media executive and consultant Drew Berry was born on December 22, 1955 in Henderson, Texas. He grew up in Dallas, Texas and graduated from the University of Texas at Austin with his B.S. degree in radio, television and film in 1978.

Upon graduation, Berry was hired at WVUE-TV Austin, Texas, an ABC Affiliate. He was then hired by two more ABC-TV affiliates in both San Antonio, Texas and then New Orleans, Louisiana before joining CNN in its infancy. After a short stint at CNN, in 1980 he was lured to WPVI-TV in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to produce two of its number-one rated newscasts. In 1987, he was promoted within the same company to producer and then executive producer at WABC-TV in New York City.

Berry took an opportunity to return to Philadelphia in 1990 in management for WCAU-TV, a CBS television station. After a few months as assistant news director he was promoted to run the entire news department as news director, where he earned two Emmys for “Outstanding Newscasts” from the Mid-Atlantic National Association for Television Arts and Sciences and where his team elevated the station’s newscast to a solid number two in ratings. In 1994, Berry returned to Dallas, Texas, where he became assistant news director at WFAA-TV, the top-rated station in Dallas. It was there that Berry led a thirty-two-person remote on-site team covering the bombing in Oklahoma City of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building.

In 1997, Berry was hired as station manager and news director of WMAR-TV in Baltimore, Maryland. Berry was named vice president and general manager in 2000. In 2007, he left the station to teach media management at the Scripps Howard School of Journalism and Communication at Hampton University, and also became founding president and CEO of Drew Berry & Associates, LLC, a media and consulting agency.

Berry is an active community leader. He has held positions on many business and community service boards and committees including the Comcast/NBC Diversity Council, Scripps Howard Foundation, Greater Baltimore Committee, the Maryland Business Council, the Signal 13 Foundation, Associated Black Charities, the Maryland Humanities Council, the Enoch Pratt Library System, the Baltimore Area Convention and Visitors Association, the Good Samaritan Hospital and MedStar Heath. As a member of the National Association of Black Journalists (NABJ), Berry has served on the finance committee, as consultant, and as interim executive director in 2009, and is credited with a one-million dollar positive revenue turnaround for NABJ in just nine months.

Berry was recognized with the State of Maryland Governor’s Citation in 2002 for excellence in broadcasting, and the Congressional Achievement Award in 2004 for business achievement. He received the President’s Award from the National Association of Black Journalists in 2009 and 2010.

Berry is married to Brenda Fowler-Berry, a chemical engineer. They have three children: Andrea, Adam and Andrew.

Drew Berry was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 4, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.312

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/4/2013 |and| 3/22/2014

Last Name

Berry

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

University of Texas at Austin

South Oak Cliff H S

Albert Sidney Johnston Elementary School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Drew

Birth City, State, Country

Henderson

HM ID

BER03

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Warm

Favorite Quote

Challenges are opportunities in disguise

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Maryland

Birth Date

12/22/1955

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Baltimore

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Salmon

Short Description

Media executive Drew Berry (1955 - ) served as vice president and general manager at WMAR-TV in Baltimore, Maryland, and as professor of media management at the Scripps Howard School of Journalism and Communication at Hampton University.

Employment

Drew Berry & Associates, LLC

WMAR TV

WFAA TV

WCAU TV

WABC TV New York City

WPIX TV

KVUE

CNN

WPVI-TV

KSAT-TV (ABC)

WVUE-TV

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:964,17:1503,25:6650,63:7070,90:7350,155:7910,166:8960,185:9380,193:14385,260:14896,269:15407,309:15699,314:15991,319:21325,392:39620,627:40270,640:41570,664:42285,677:44235,714:47160,775:53810,901:54449,912:54875,920:59703,1039:60555,1057:60839,1062:65100,1085:65841,1119:66183,1126:66696,1136:66924,1141:68926,1152:69414,1157:87872,1464:88862,1485:95670,1572:97305,1590:101282,1639:106997,1705:114104,1789:137818,2140:143815,2194:147048,2246:149830,2289:151405,2310:153610,2339:160049,2412:160901,2427:162392,2469:174040,2636:181790,2761:191406,2906:204642,3065:220343,3316:222870,3345:223126,3350:223702,3361:224854,3388:225494,3400:226006,3410:228502,3459:228950,3469:230038,3498:230486,3506:230742,3511:230998,3516:231382,3523:237605,3608:238269,3618:241390,3635:242020,3644:242740,3653:253490,3815:257372,3836:263908,3911:267700,3946:268020,3951:270900,4004:271380,4012:272340,4026:279910,4112:280235,4118:281470,4144:283030,4169:283420,4176:288646,4249:289041,4261:292675,4330:293860,4348:294255,4355:294729,4365:298540,4372:301312,4379:302992,4434:303664,4445:306270,4463:310768,4520:311188,4527:311608,4533:312990,4544$0,0:305,9:6832,84:10650,90:10918,102:11789,113:12124,119:12928,135:13531,146:15967,157:16380,165:16793,174:23668,243:25472,276:32227,375:33211,384:38520,445:38845,452:40275,502:40665,509:45698,582:48128,606:49386,632:49682,637:55737,739:56318,748:60902,774:61676,786:63310,820:80890,1066:82155,1084:93890,1173:95098,1178:96004,1185:102652,1216:103516,1231:104092,1241:116562,1367:118382,1384:118722,1395:118994,1400:119402,1407:119674,1412:120014,1418:124086,1465:124974,1488:125492,1497:125862,1503:130450,1617:137189,1691:137497,1696:137959,1703:143788,1760:144446,1768:152812,1884:157115,1914:159440,1958:165774,2064:177817,2242:186555,2389:189830,2415:192121,2458:195100,2491:195632,2501:196544,2523:197304,2535:199660,2584:213844,2801:217720,2904:217992,2909:218264,2914:219352,2938:219964,2952:228654,3021:234047,3090:236049,3121:239240,3137:240410,3159:244798,3169:245094,3174:246352,3197:246944,3206:249756,3270:250200,3277:250496,3282:250940,3289:251976,3309:253900,3390:255454,3444:260782,3563:266100,3579:266700,3590:269310,3604:276683,3725:280990,3844:283837,3888:285443,3917:285954,3926:295195,4062:295975,4077:296560,4089:296885,4095:297340,4104:297600,4116:298185,4132:298965,4149:299225,4154:302375,4170:302830,4180:303090,4185:303415,4191:306015,4234:307230,4244
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Drew Berry's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Drew Berry lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Drew Berry talks about his maternal family

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Drew Berry talks about segregation in Dallas, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Drew Berry describes his mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Drew Berry talks about growing up in Dallas, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Drew Berry talks about his paternal family

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Drew Berry talks about his grandfather, Calvin Charles Berry, Sr., the Presiding Bishop of Church of the Living God

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Drew Berry talks about his father's family

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Drew Berry talks about his father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Drew Berry describes how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Drew Berry talks about his father's military service in the U.S. Army

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Drew Berry describes his parents' personalities

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Drew Berry talks about his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Drew Berry talks about growing up in Oak Cliff, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Drew Berry describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Drew Berry remembers growing up as the son of a minister

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Drew Berry talks about his love of the Dallas Cowboys as well as the game of football

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Drew Berry talks about grade school and his memory of the 1963 assassination of President John F. Kennedy

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Drew Berry describes how television news reporting changed after John F. Kennedy's assassination in 1963

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Drew Berry talks about how he was raised affects his parenting philosophy

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Drew Berry talks about his experiences in school and an influential mentor

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Drew Berry describes his interest in films and filmmaking

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Drew Berry talks about Iola Johnson, the first African American female anchor in Dallas, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Drew Berry talks about the effects of the 1973 oil crisis

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Drew Berry talks about U.S. Congresswoman Barbara Jordan and other notable Texan politicians

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Drew Berry talks about his father's conservative attitude toward the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Drew Berry talks about his decision to attend the University of Texas at Austin in Austin, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Drew Berry talks about the academic challenges he faced at the University of Texas at Austin

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Drew Berry talks about working to finance his undergraduate education and working as a reporter/trainee at KVUE, an ABC-TV affiliate

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Drew Berry talks about the training he received at KVUE as a reporter/trainee

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Drew Berry talks about working as a producer at KVUE in Austin, Texas

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Drew Berry talks about learning production at KVUE in Austin, Texas

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Drew Berry talks about his decision to go to KSAT-TV in San Antonio, Texas

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Drew Berry describes being recruited by WVUE in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Drew Berry talks about learning a critical lesson in management while at WVUE in New Orleans, Louisiana, part 1

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Drew Berry talks about learning a critical lesson in management while at WVUE in New Orleans, Louisiana, part 2

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Drew Berry talks about turning down a job offer in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to work at CNN in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Drew Berry talks about working at CNN in Atlanta, Georgia in the early years of cable TV

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Drew Berry describes his decision to join WPVI-TV in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Drew Berry remembers working with anchor Jim Gardner of WPVI-TV in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Drew Berry talks about being promoted to work as a producer at WABC-TV in New York City

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Drew Berry talks about what he learned at WABC-TV

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Drew Berry describes his working at ABC when union cuts affected the employee workforce and the newsroom

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Drew Martin talks about being promoted to news director and winning two Emmy Awards

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Drew Berry describes the network's strategy around sweeps programming

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Drew Berry talks about how sweeps can result in improved news coverage

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Drew Berry describes the Nielsen Rating System and consumer sampling

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Drew Berry talks about the Emmy Awards he received at WCAU-TV

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Drew Berry talks about WCAU-TV's consumer investigative reporting unit

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Drew Berry talks about the ingredients of WCAU-TV's success

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Drew Berry talks about the MOVE organization and the mistake made in coverage by WCAU-TV's Action News

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$5

DAStory

1$7

DATitle
Drew Berry describes his working at ABC when union cuts affected the employee workforce and the newsroom
Drew Berry talks about WCAU-TV's consumer investigative reporting unit
Transcript
Okay, so we were talking about the producer's nightmare in New York [City, New York]. So they [unionized employees at WABC-TV in New York City, New York] knew I was from the non-union shop in Philadelphia [Pennsylvania] and I was this new guy comin' in there from the company [Capital Cities Communications] that just bought ABC [American Broadcasting Corporation]; they weren't crazy about that, so they wanted me to know--you're really in the big leagues now; you're in New York. So--ahh, 6:00 news, number one show in the market, so I--you know, I was a producer, I'm feelin' pretty good, I know there are check points, I check to see whether or not my video packages are ready for the top of show or for the first segment of the show, make sure the video is there, and that type of thing. So I would go back to the coordinator and I'd say, "How are we?" He says, "Well," he says, "Everybody's working as hard as they can; my folk work as hard as they can, and it's gonna be tight but, you know, I'm not making any promises, but we should be okay." I've heard that--I've heard that before, but something felt a little different this time, so I kept asking, you know--an hour before, half-hour before, 20 minutes before, 15 minutes, and--"Well, don't have anything, don't have anything yet; don't have the video yet, you know? They're really humpin' it. It was a lotta volume today but we're workin' as fast as we can." Five minutes--"Ahh, it's gonna be tight, it's gonna be tight." Before the open of the show, I go up in the booth, the open hits, "What do we have?" "We don't have anything; we don't have any video, we don't have anything." I say, "Okay." So I get on the little toggle to talk to the anchor in the ear--in his ear while the show opens. "Bill [Beutel], we have no video, no package for the top of the show; we just need to tell folk; tell 'em what the story is about and tell 'em we'll be back in a minute 'cause we need to buy some time." Sabotage is what they did. So the show opened, and the anchor came on and said, "Hello, I'm Bill Beutel on this"--whatever--"Monday blah, blah, blah. Our top story today is X, Y and Z; we'll have more on that story in just a minute--we'll be back in a minute." Went to commercial. That's a producer's nightmare because you're going back to commercial within 30 seconds of opening that show, so the whole half-hour of that show was me back and forth with the video people saying, "What do we have?" And just puttin' in; as we got it, we just--we put it in. After the show, of course I was livid; I knew it was sabotage, I knew what was goin' on. I marched back to the news director's office, I said, "You know what happened;" he says, "They got you." He said, "They got you; I'll handle it." Brought the folk in, guy said, "Well, you know what? Things got in late today, we were doing the best we could," you know, and "My guys work hard"--that kinda thing. And leavin' out, his back to the news director, he looked at me and went (INTERVIEWEE WINKED) (laughter). So that was my, that was--okay, you gotta play ball with this guy, okay?$$So what weren't you doing with him that (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous)--It's about establishing a rapport, but it was more than just establishing a rapport immediately; it was more the anger that they--they did not want this company to take over ABC because this company was known for doing things a very efficient way, and they knew cuts were coming and I represented the company that they didn't like, so it was an instantly--you don't want him here, so much so they brought other people in there. They put feces in people's locker who had came up; it was--they got really nasty, okay? The best thing to happen to me is that--it was around the political election; we went with--the top union guy and I were assigned with another anchor to go around the country during this election cycle; we bonded. I never had any more problems. In fact, even on the trip, the guy let me pick up equipment and help out. It was a bond. They had made their statement. Now, they had anger toward other people who were coming up from that--from that new parent company, and they didn't let up on those folk at all. But they cut me a break; they found out I was a pretty good guy, that kinda thing, and so I had no problems. But it took a couple of months before that. So it was a tough environment but it was just a great news town, and after a year, they promoted me to executive producer, and it was just a great experience.$We had a fantastic investigative unit--consumer investigative unit--and speaking of that, some of the things you don't hear that go on behind the scenes, in dealing with the sales department--this is when I really learned about sales and news relationship. Now remember, the salespeople, they go out and they get the money so you can keep the lights on; the news department produces content so that they can sell it, that type of thing. Well, when I first arrived in Philadelphia [Pennsylvania] that second time, there were some big car dealers that were really pissed off at the station [WCAU-TV]. Now keep in mind, probably at that time, 40 percent of the revenue might have come from car dealers. So the car dealers, some of the car dealers, said they would never buy time on the station again because they didn't like a report that the consumer investigator did. Now this goes on; you're not gonna hear a lot about this. People don't--people kinda hush, hush; they won't say a lot. Well, I'm like--I wanna uncover all wrongdoing whether, you know, whether it's people doing unnecessary repairs, blah, blah, blah, whatever--that kinda thing. Well, we were banned from having this reporter do those type of stories at the major car dealers. The choice--you have two choices; you eat or you don't eat if you're gonna work there. You work there or you don't work there--very clear. We were banned from doing that. Now, I'd argued a good fight and all of that, and the argument from the other side is that, well, you know, you wanna keep other people employed, blah, blah, blah. Now, this goes on in every station; nobody will admit it. They're just not gonna admit it. But you will notice that you're not generally going to see many stories on a station going in uncovering repairs, you know--unneeded repairs and things like that, anti-car dealership story unless--two reasons you'll see it; if the state agency or federal agency comes in and says, "We're investigating you for whatever." You're gonna see it then, okay?$$But none initiated by the station?$$But they're not gonna be--usually, they're not gonna be initiated by the station, okay? And it's a kind of an unspoken thing, and people will deny it; they'll deny it because that speaks right at that whole credibility issue--wait a minute now. But what you will do is you may see some of the smaller mom and pop stories, but not the huge people who advertise a lot of money on the station; you'll occasionally see that, but most of the time it's because the state or the feds have come in and they're doing some kind of investigation, okay?$$So if you're a bad plumber, it's okay to get (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous)--Well, bad plumber--they're gonna be all--you're gonna get them. But a big plumbing agency, you'll get them too, but I'm talking about car dealerships.$$Car dealerships.$$Forty percent of your revenue; and they have associations and all of that. So you have to be smart about how you do those stories. If the feds or the state get involved, hey, no problem. You initiate and try to do your sting and all that--at the big places, you are playing with a lot of fire, and it's unfortunate.$$Is there pressure from government? I mean, for instance, city government, around things like police brutality and other things. Are they (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous)--Oh, they don't advertise, so that does--that has no impact--just I'm talking about this one category, and that's automobiles, okay?$$Okay, cars; alright.$$That's the category 'cause it's--many times, a life blood of a television station, of a newspaper, okay; but especially TV--40 percent, up to 40 percent of your revenue. They shut down, you lay off, you lose jobs. It's, it's real tough.$$Okay. The car dealerships is something like a common denominator across the board that people--$$Pretty much so, but stations have tried to kinda get away from being so dependent on car dealership--car dealer advertising. They're trying to diversify their portfolio more so they won't have those type of pressures; but that was my first taste of that in the industry, and I thought that was just awful. So, you know, you find other ways to do it and to get the story to help consumers.

Alice Key

Community activist, dancer, and newspaper columnist Alice Marie Key was born on March 18, 1911, in Henderson, Kentucky to Louise and Malcolm Key. As a young child, she moved to Riverside, California with her family. She finished high school in Riverside and then went to the University of California, Los Angeles to pursue a degree in journalism. Her mother managed a coffee shop near the famous Club Alabama in central Los Angeles, California. Key met a girl there who worked at the Cotton Club in Culver City, California, who eventually persuaded her to dance at the club, too. She left school and danced for the next five years.

Key’s career as a dancer took her to New York where she worked at the Ubangi Club, and later, she spent six months in Europe touring with the Cotton Club Show. In 1943, Key ended her dancing career and started working as a writer for an African American newspaper, the "Los Angeles Tribune." In 1954, she moved to Las Vegas to take a job working for the "Las Vegas Voice." Not long after her arrival, Key and Bob Bailey started the first all-African American television talk show in Las Vegas, "Talk of the Town," which she co-hosted for several months. In the 1960s, Key became the public relations manager for the Nevada Committee for the Rights of Women, which promoted education about birth control and fought for reforms to the abortion laws in Nevada. After that position, she worked for the Economic Opportunity Board until 1971. In 1983, Governor Richard Bryan named Key as the Deputy Commissioner of Labor, a position she held for ten years. She became involved in political campaigns, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and founded the Barbara Jordan Democratic Women’s Club. When she retired from public service, Key worked to preserve the history of African Americans in Las Vegas through the Moulin Rouge Preservation Association and the Black History Society, Inc. On July 20, 2005, Key was inducted into KLAS, Channel 8’s Wall of Fame.

Key resided until her death on September 29, 2010, in Las Vegas, Nevada. Her dedication to equality and commitment to her community helped to lower barriers faced by women and African Americans in Nevada. She had one daughter, Alice McAbee, two grandsons, and several great-grandchildren.

Alice Marie Key was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 31, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.313

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/31/2007

Last Name

Key

Maker Category
Marital Status

Single

Middle Name

Marie

Schools

Longfellow Elementary School

Riverside Polytechnic High School

University of California, Los Angeles

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Alice

Birth City, State, Country

Henderson

HM ID

KEY02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Kentucky

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere

Favorite Quote

Born To Serve.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Nevada

Birth Date

3/18/1911

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Las Vegas

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chitterlings

Death Date

9/29/2010

Short Description

Community activist and newspaper columnist Alice Key (1911 - 2010 ) was the co-host of the first all-African American television talk show in Las Vegas, 'Talk of the Town,' and was active in fighting for civil rights in Nevada and California. She worked to preserve the history of African Americans in Las Vegas through the Moulin Rouge Preservation Association and the Black History Society, Inc.

Employment

Cotton Club

Ubangi Club

Los Angeles Tribune

Las Vegas Voice

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

State of Nevada

Favorite Color

Green

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Alice Key's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Alice Key lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Alice Key describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Alice Key describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Alice Key talks about her maternal foster grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Alice Key describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Alice Key describes her maternal family's involvement in Riverside, California

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Alice Key describes her neighborhood in Riverside, California

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Alice Key recalls her political efforts in Riverside, California

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Alice Key describes her experiences in Riverside, California's public schools

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Alice Key remembers her childhood burn and healing

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Alice Key describes her experiences at Riverside Polytechnic High School in Riverside, California

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Alice Key describes her experiences at University of California, Los Angeles

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Alice Key talks about the role of the chorus girl

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Alice Key recalls dancing as a chorus girl at Frank Sebastian's Cotton Club in Culver City, California

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Alice Key remembers Louis Armstrong

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Alice Key remembers Duke Ellington

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Alice Key describes her move to the Cotton Club in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Alice Key describes her experiences at the Cotton Club in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Alice Key describes the Cotton Club's European tour

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Alice Key recalls her final performance as a chorus girl, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Alice Key remembers adopting her daughter

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Alice Key recalls her final performance as a chorus girl, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Alice Key describes her relationship with Lena Horne

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Alice Key recalls reporting on the segregation of donated blood by the U.S. military

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Alice Key remembers Lena Horne and Paul Robeson

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Alice Key remembers Joe Louis

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Alice Key remembers hosting a show for the United Service Organizations

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Alice Key remembers her move to Las Vegas, Nevada

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Alice Key describes her involvement in voter registration

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Alice Key talks about segregation in Las Vegas, Nevada

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Alice Key describes her working relationship with William "Bob" Bailey

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Alice Key recalls the closure of the Moulin Rouge Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Alice Key describes her political activities

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Alice Key recalls serving as the editor of the Las Vegas Voice

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Alice Key talks about the Nevada Committee for the Rights of Women

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Alice Key remembers Nat King Cole

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Alice Key remembers Billie Holiday, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Alice Key remembers Billie Holiday, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Alice Key describes her work with the State of Nevada

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Alice Key describes her involvement with the Nevada Democratic Party

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Alice Key describes her role at the NAACP chapter in Las Vegas, Nevada

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Alice Key recalls serving as the deputy commissioner of labor for the State of Nevada

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Alice Key talks about her organizational involvement

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Alice Key remembers moving back to Riverside, California

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Alice Key recalls being honored by KLAS-TV in Las Vegas, Nevada

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Alice Key talks about the Las Vegas Black Historical Society, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Alice Key reflects upon her life, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Alice Key describes her advice to aspiring entertainers and activists

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Alice Key reflects upon her life, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Alice Key reflects upon the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Alice Key describes her concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Alice Key reflects upon her values

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Alice Key describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Alice Key talks about the importance of history

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - Alice Key describes the WonderChild-SHEROES project

Tape: 6 Story: 13 - Alice Key narrates her photographs

Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg

Aircraft commander Lucius Perry Gregg, Jr. was born on January 16, 1933 in Henderson, North Carolina to Rachel and Lucius Gregg, Sr. Gregg graduated from Wendell Phillips High School in Chicago, Illinois in 1950, before receiving his B.S. degree from the U.S. Naval Academy as the fourth African American to ever graduate. Gregg received his M.S. degree in aeronautics and astronautics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

In 1955, Gregg began his service in the United States Air Force, working as a pilot from 1956 to 1959. In 1961, Gregg became the mission commander for the VIP Squadron at Andrews Air Force Base in Maryland. Also during this year, Gregg started working for the United States Air Force Office of Scientific Research as a project director in space technology and worked there until 1965.

In 1965, Gregg became the Northwestern University Associate Dean of Science, and was also promoted to the rank of major in the U.S. Air Force. In 1969, Gregg became the Alfred P. Sloan Fund program officer, before moving to the First Chicago University Finance Corporation assuming the role of president in 1972.

In 1975, Gregg graduated from the Advanced Management Program at Harvard University Business School, and in 1979, became Vice President and Director of National Public Affairs, and Vice President of Governmental Relations at Citibank/Citicorp. In 1985, Gregg worked as Vice President of Public Affairs for the New York Daily News, before moving to Los Angeles to become the Vice President of Corporate Communications at the Hughes Aircraft Company/Hughes Electronics.

In 1999, Gregg founded the Foundation for the Study of America’s Technology Leadership in Marina Del Rey, California. The foundation seeks to understand and raise awareness of the factors that led to America’s technology leadership—from the role of innovation to the assimilation of women and minorities into the technology leadership arena.

Gregg has served on numerous technological and scientific boards including the Fermi (AEC) National Accelerator Laboratory, the Academic Board of the U.S. Naval Academy and the National Academy of Science Foundation Commission on Human Resources.

Gregg was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 17, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.143

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/17/2007 |and| 4/20/2007

Last Name

Gregg

Maker Category
Middle Name

P.

Occupation
Schools

Wendell Phillips Academy High School

Douglas Elementary School

United States Naval Academy

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Harvard Business School

Search Occupation Category
Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Depends on Schedule

First Name

Lucius

Birth City, State, Country

Henderson

HM ID

GRE10

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - Negotiable

Favorite Season

Fall, Summer

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Boating

Favorite Quote

Most Major Achievements Come From Those Who Can Stand On The Shoulders Of Giants And Look Forward.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

1/16/1933

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Crab Cakes, Baby Back Ribs

Short Description

Aircraft commander Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg (1933 - ) founded the Foundation for the Study of America’s Technology Leadership in Marina Del Rey, California.

Employment

Northwestern University

Hughes Aircraft Company; Hughes Electronics Corporation

New York Daily News

Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

Bristol-Myers

Citibank, N.A.

U.S. Air Force

Foundation for the Study of America's Technology Leadership

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg's interview, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Slating of Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg's interview, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg talks about his maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg talks about his father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg describes his parents' education

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg lists his sisters

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg remembers his early religious experiences

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg describes his mother's employment in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg recalls his maternal grandparents' home in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg remembers Douglas Elementary School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg remembers his neighborhood in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg remembers his mother's expectations

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg recalls his experiences in the Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg remembers Wendell Phillips High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg talks about the impact of migration in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg recalls his early work experiences

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg describes his high school activities

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg recalls the start of the Korean War

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg recalls his training in the U.S. Marine Corps, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg recalls his training in the U.S. Marine Corps, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg recalls his mother's role in his admission to the United States Naval Academy

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg remembers the entrance examination for the United States Naval Academy

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg recalls his admission to the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg remembers the black community in Annapolis, Maryland, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg remembers the black community in Annapolis, Maryland, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg talks about Wesley A. Brown's experiences at the United States Naval Academy

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg remembers his experiences at the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg recalls the rowing team at the United States Naval Academy

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg remembers his roommate at the United States Naval Academy

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg describes Jimmy Carter's support for Wesley A. Brown

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg talks about his friendship with Wesley A. Brown

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg recalls his invitation to the Sugar Bowl in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg remembers the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg recalls joining the advisory board of the United States Naval Academy

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg describes the changes to the United States Naval Academy's admissions policies

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg remembers joining the U.S. Air Force

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg describes his experiences in the U.S. Air Force

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg recalls his promotion to first lieutenant

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg describes his experiences as a first lieutenant in the U.S. Air Force

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg remembers his aeronautics training

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg remembers the escalation of the Cold War

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg describes his research in aerospace engineering

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg recalls joining the faculty of Northwestern University, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg remembers the birth of his son, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg remembers the birth of his son, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg recalls joining the faculty of Northwestern University, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg recalls his role at the National Accelerator Lab in Illinois

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg remembers the student protests at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg recalls Northwestern University's advancement in the college rankings

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg reflects upon his experiences at Northwestern University

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg describes his work at the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg recalls his recruitment to the First National Bank of Chicago

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg describes his career at the First National Bank of Chicago

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg recalls his integration efforts in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg talks about his university board memberships

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg remembers his role as chairman of Tulane University's Board of Visitors

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg remembers his work for Bristol-Myers

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg recalls his advisory work for the National Academy of Sciences

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg talks about interstate banking regulations

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg recalls his public relations work for Citibank, N.A. in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg remembers meeting with journalist James F. Hoge, Jr.

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg remembers the publisher's forum at the New York Daily News

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg recalls the New York Daily News' presidential debate

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg describes the history of the New York Daily News

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg talks about James F. Hoge, Jr.

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg recalls his recruitment by E. Pendleton James

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg remembers joining the Hughes Electronics Corporation

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg talks about the Hughes Electronics Corporation

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg recalls his public television board service

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg recalls his career at Hughes Electronics Corporation

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg remembers the riots of 1992 in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg remembers writing speeches for C. Michael Alexander

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg recalls the Hughes Electronics Corporation's partnership with historically black colleges

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg remembers his wife, Doris Jefferson Gregg

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg describes how he met his wife, Beverly Carmichael Gregg

Tape: 10 Story: 8 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg describes his passion for boating

Tape: 10 Story: 9 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg talks about science and technology in the United States, pt. 1

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg reflects upon his life

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg talks about science and technology in the United States, pt. 2

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg talks about the opportunities for careers in science and technology

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg describes the Student Technology Roundtable

Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg narrates his photographs

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Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg recalls his training in the U.S. Marine Corps, pt. 1
Lt. Col. Lucius P. Gregg describes Jimmy Carter's support for Wesley A. Brown
Transcript
And then, of course, to my surprise--well, I really wasn't that knowledgeable, but anyhow, I can just tell what happened. After I came out of boot camp, and they sent us off to cold weather training, and we're trying to show how, at the age of seventeen, we're trying to show how tough we are, that we can really cope with the challenges they were putting before us. I went through cold weather training, and then, because of my size, I got special training as--with the heavy machine gun. It was a water cooled rapid fire machine gun that would--you'd put on a tripod. And, one person had to feed the bullets in--through on a belt, and another person was behind, and you had to have a certain size in order to carry that, that kind of stuff and be able to fall on the ground and put it up and set it up within a matter of a few seconds and start opening fire. And the other thing they qualified me for was the flamethrower. And for those who can think back as to what those two things meant, I wanted to perform well, but then when I think about it ten or twenty years later, the life expectancy of a person operating the heavy machine gun--you're making so much noise that you're immediately--and you've got tracer bullets that were red hot that you used to guide and make sure that you've got it aimed to the right person or the right foxhole or house or something, or the flamethrower, which if you open it up in the middle of the night, it just basically lights up exactly where you are. The life expectancy of that person is less than a few minutes, because you're almost--you have to sacrifice yourself in order to perform, and the enemy immediately recognizes where you are and you basically tell them that, and they counter.$$Right.$$And here I was seventeen. I wasn't thinking of that, but yet that was one of the parts of the [U.S.] military.$$Where did you take this training?$$San Diego [California], and also Camp Pendleton [Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, San Diego County, California].$$Okay.$$Camp Pendleton. But then what happened was that (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) It sounds as if now you're having second thoughts about this whole thing.$$At seventeen, I was more interested in--I was with my buddies from Chicago [Illinois] and we were having too much fun being, being men. You know, we had just left home under the supervision of our parents. We were now out on our own, we could go and drink beer at age seventeen, eighteen years old, we could go into San Diego where the bars were, and sometimes the guys would fight with the sailors. I mean, the sailors and the Marines [U.S. Marine Corps], even though the Marines come under the [U.S.] Navy, there's always that little tension (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) But you were being men there at seventeen, or almost eighteen.$$Yeah. So I can understand how seventeen, eighteen year olds get into--are tempted to do something that they would not do if they're ten years older, what have you, because you just don't--you don't think, and I think society is willing--and the courts sort of say, well how old are you at seventeen? Okay. You just don't have that depth of judgment in terms of it. But, anyhow, that, that was what I was being prepared for.$(Simultaneous) Interesting, going back to the first--Wesley Brown [Wesley A. Brown], who came out of there in 1949, what the naval historian found from talking around, talking you know twenty, thirty years later to his classmates, really almost fifty years--was that there were--some of the southerners got together--southerners who were like a year or two ahead, they could give him demerits. If you got so many demerits because your shoes weren't shined enough, or your pants weren't pressed enough, and so forth, your uniform, you reach a certain number of demerits and you're out of there, just on terms of being mili- unsatisfactory for--you know, what they would expect of a naval officer. And so those demerits could be given to you by those that are above you. And they didn't have to account (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) By you mean fellow cadets?$$Fellow cadets that were above you--seniors. So in, if you're in your first or second year, anyone who was a year ahead of you or in their senior year could actually come, they could come around to your room when you weren't there and see if your bed was--your bedding, your bed cover had to be tight enough that they could drop a quarter on it, and it would have to bounce. And if didn't they could write you up for not--. I mean, it was really being a little bit mean, because you'd have to have it in for the person that you're--. And anyone could do that to--particularly to any plebe, any freshman's room. And, evidently there was some sentiment developing within his class, now kee- I'm sorry, let me come back to this. Keep in mind that before Wesley Brown graduated, five other blacks had been admitted to the academy [United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland] over a seventy-five year period, and had never graduated, okay. And so, what appeared to be in the making was that--and these are Wesley Brown's classmates (unclear)--that the southern guys were beginning to get together to say, he doesn't belong here, and it's our duty to make sure that we get him out of here, okay, except for one guy. He was two years ahead of Wesley Brown, and his name was Jimmy Carter [James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr.].$$(Laughter) And he had the courage--$$And he went to them. He went to this southern group where he knew he had heard that they allowed this kind of discussion when they put, when they got their heads together. And, the Georgia peanut farmer went there and said, "I understand what you're trying to do, and I'm going to ask you not to do it, because I know what you're up to." Which meant that Jimmy Carter was saying to them, I know what you're up to and if I go forward and report on this, then you guys will be in some kind of trouble on it. So (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) And as a southerner, he was really going against--that took a lot of courage.$$Yeah. And he wasn't from one of the major cities of the South, you know, they expect--out of Atlanta [Georgia] or out of Nashville [Tennessee], or what--something like that but might not have be--. No. And, and this did not come out until this historian made the rounds and got four or five of Wesley Brown's classmates, or those who were a year or two ahead of him to verify--$$Do you remember the name of this historian on that?$$Yes (laughter), Schueller [sic. Robert J. Schneller, Jr.], Schueller, because he first started out to do a complete book on the blacks who had come through the academy, and so he wanted a biographical summary from me, and I managed to get it together. But then after he got all this together, he said, "No, the first book has to be on Wesley Brown." He said, "If there's another book--there will have to be a second book, but I don't think we ought to take that life and mix it in with all those that came through ten years later or fifteen years later," or what have you.