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Skip Finley

Broadcast chief executive Skip Finley was born on July 23, 1948 in Ann Arbor, Michigan to Ewell W. Finley and Millie Finley. He attended Malverne High School in Long Island, New York, and later studied at Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts.

Finley obtained his first position as a floor manager at WHDH-TV in Boston in 1971, then as an assistant director and producer at Boston’s WSBK-TV. In 1972, he was recruited to the sales department at Boston’s WRKO-AM radio station, where he helped develop the RAB radio sales training course. In 1973, he joined Humphrey Browning MacDougall advertising agency’s media department as an account manager, where he marketed products for clients like Lionel Trains, Dutch Boy Paint and the Salada Tea Company. In 1974, he joined Sheridan Broadcasting Corporation’s Radio Division as a sales manager at WAMO AM-FM radio station in Pittsburgh, and was later promoted to the division’s vice president in 1977. In 1978, he worked as Eastern Sales Manager for Sheridan Broadcasting Networks, and was later promoted to president of the network in 1981. In 1982, he founded Albimar Communications, through which he owned and managed the popular black radio station, WKYS-FM/Washington, D.C. In 1988, he joined Carter Broadcast Group, Inc., the nation’s oldest black-owned radio station company, as the executive vice president of the board of directors. In 1995, he was recruited as CEO of American Urban Radio Networks, where he conceived of The Light , a 24-hour syndicated black gospel radio station format. Finley remained at American Urban Radio Networks until his retirement to Martha’s Vineyard in 1998.

From 2001 until 2011, Finley served as the vice chairman of the board of directors at Inner City Broadcasting Corporation. In 2012, he joined the Vineyard Gazette Media Group as director of sales and marketing, and also wrote the Vineyard Gazette’s weekly Oak Bluffs Town Column until 2017. In 2015, Finley founded M&M Community Development, Inc., a nonprofit to educate local high school students on professional radio station management and operation.

Finley was the recipient of Radio Ink Magazine’s Radio Wayne Award for Best Overall Broadcaster in 1994, American Urban Radio Network’s Urban Knight Hall of Fame Award and the Ward L. Quall Leadership Award from the Broadcaster’s Foundation of America in 2012.

Skip Finley was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 23, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.139

Sex

Male

Interview Date

08/23/2017 |and| 8/22/2018

Last Name

Finley

Maker Category
Organizations
First Name

Skip

Birth City, State, Country

Ann Arbor

HM ID

FIN05

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Michigan

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

7/23/1948

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Martha's Vineyard

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Corn Chex

Short Description

Broadcast chief executive Skip Finley (1948- ) was the founder of Albimar Communications, and served as president of Sheridan Broadcasting Networks, American Urban Radio Networks, and on the executive boards of Inner City Broadcasting Corporation and Carter Broadcast Group.

Favorite Color

Black

William Evans

Research physicist and research manager William J. Evans was born on September 16, 1965 in Chicago, Illinois to Billy Joe and Allie Bell Evans. He received his B.S. degree in physics from the California Institute of Technology. Evans went on to attend Harvard University, where he earned his S.M. degree and Ph.D. degrees in physics.

In 1995, Evans was hired as a full-time staff researcher at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). At LLNL, Evans works with scientists from multiple academic disciplines such as biology, chemistry, and physics to solve global problems. Although Evans received his education in physics, his work at LLNL encompasses aspects of physics, chemistry, and materials science. Such an interdisciplinary approach allowed him to understand the complex behavior of materials under high temperature and pressure conditions.

In 2008, Evans was promoted to research manager at LLNL, where he managed the research of all staff scientists in the high pressure physics group. The group’s research focused on ultrahigh-pressure diamond anvils, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray scattering among other things. Evans and his team of LLNL research scientists built an anvil, or pressure device, using flattened diamonds as the pressure surface. These diamond anvils allowed Evans to determine what happens to other materials as they get “squashed” by the diamonds.

Evans has published numerous scientific research articles in journals such as, Physical Review, Nature Materials, and the International Journal of High Pressure Research. Evans is also a member of several academic and professional societies, including the American Physical Society (APS), the American Chemical Society (ACS), and the Optical Society of Americs. He serves the community by judging youth science fairs in Livermore, California where he works and lives.

William J. Evans was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 5, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.238

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/5/2012

Last Name

Evans

Maker Category
Middle Name

J

Occupation
Schools

Harvard University

California Institute of Technology

Martin Luther King Elem. School

Angell School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

William

Birth City, State, Country

Ann Arbor

HM ID

EVA07

Favorite Season

Fall, Winter

State

Michigan

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

By Any Means Necessary.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

9/16/1965

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/Livermore

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Cookies

Short Description

Physicist William Evans (1965 - ) was the head research scientist of the high pressure physics group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California.

Employment

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:616,11:1056,21:6160,156:7392,185:14970,270:17012,280:21016,339:26752,422:29088,466:33984,545:34374,551:35700,574:42408,740:48788,802:49972,835:57558,971:58242,983:58698,990:64532,1101:65085,1109:65717,1124:66428,1141:66981,1149:79743,1350:85126,1431:94289,1639:97300,1645:97606,1652:105652,1814:106390,1824:116078,1992:116386,1997:120174,2037:120854,2048:121262,2056:122214,2076:122486,2081:125682,2158:126974,2190:128266,2224:128606,2230:135960,2322:142136,2396:143110,2406$0,0:3560,109:3780,114:4660,140:8912,167:13865,196:14165,201:16565,248:18290,287:18740,295:19415,309:20465,337:21065,350:21365,355:24650,371:29140,397:29828,407:30774,420:32580,447:34128,478:39756,513:40395,526:46230,633:46590,640:48150,695:48450,702:48750,708:48990,713:50850,765:57230,832:58573,852:59995,898:60311,903:61891,955:62760,972:63471,993:63866,999:69027,1039:71841,1099:72377,1109:73114,1131:73784,1143:75392,1186:76397,1208:77335,1229:85173,1358:85528,1364:87587,1418:88652,1439:89291,1451:89788,1459:96193,1536:96408,1542:96666,1550:97225,1567:97655,1576:97956,1584:100859,1614:101154,1620:101567,1629:101980,1637:102275,1643:102511,1648:102747,1653:103573,1682:104989,1720:105402,1728:107172,1780:108411,1820:109001,1833:109827,1861:110476,1874:110889,1882:111243,1889:116182,1915:118560,1943:118840,1948:119330,1957:120310,1987:121850,2030:122270,2037:123530,2061:123880,2067:124160,2072:124580,2079:124860,2087:128005,2109:128685,2118:130130,2140:130980,2156:145946,2407:147226,2437:147674,2446:147930,2451:148186,2456:154570,2564:155641,2586:157972,2654:158350,2662:160933,2727:161311,2739:161563,2744:162319,2758:162823,2765:163957,2782:164272,2788:173047,2908:173544,2916:173899,2922:174254,2928:174751,2937:176171,2972:180330,2990
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of William Evans' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - William Evans lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - William Evans describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - William Evans describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - William Evans describes where his father attended college and graduate school

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - William Evans talks about his family

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - William Evans talks about his father's career as a scientist

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - William Evans describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - William Evans describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - William Evans talks about his growing up near the University of Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - William Evans talks about his study routine

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - William Evans talks about his elementary school experience

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - William Evans talks about his experiences while growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - William Evans talks about having access to his father's chemistry lab as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - William Evans talks about living in Germany

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - William Evans talks about his family as well as his brother's death

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - William Evans describes how he chose to attend the California Institute of Technology

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - William Evans talks about his growing up during high school

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - William Evans talks about his accomplished parents

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - William Evans talks about his high school experience

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - William Evans talks about some of his professors at the California Institute of Technology

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - William Evans talks about the physics program at the California Institute of Technology

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - William Evans talks about the impact of emerging information technologies on physics

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - William Evans talks about his studies at California Institute of Technology

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - William Evans talks about his decision to attend Harvard University for graduate school

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - William Evans talks about his experience at Harvard University

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - William Evans describes his dissertation about the behavior of hydrogen

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - William Evans talks about his dissertation and Carl Sagan

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - William Evans talks about his work at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - William Evans describes his work with beryllium

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - William Evans talks about his experience working at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - William Evans talks about the lack of minority representation in the physical sciences

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - William Evans talks about the work culture at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - William Evans talks about his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - William Evans talks about the uses of metalized hydrogen

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - William Evans talks about his desire to support underrepresented communities

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - William Evans reflects upon his career

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - William Evans talks about his mentors

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - William Evans describes his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - William Evans talks about what he would like to see accomplished in the future

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - William Evans talks about his family

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - William Evans talks about how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

10$6

DATitle
William Evans describes his dissertation about the behavior of hydrogen
William Evans talks about the work culture at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Transcript
Okay, now, could you explain your dissertation to us, I mean just state it again, and kind of explain what you were actually doing?$$So, so hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe, and, in fact, it's what drives, you know, our sun, fuses hydrogen together generates energy in a helium atom. And so what we were studying was what does hydrogen do? So under normal conditions, hydrogen is a gas. But if you cool it or you compress it, it turns into a liquid, and if you continue to compress it, it turns into a solid. One of the early predictions of quantum theory was that hydrogen would metalize. So it would go from being an insulator, you know, the plastic cladding on a wire is insulators, the electricity doesn't, it doesn't pass electricity. But compressing it would force the electrons on the different atoms together. And they'd start being shared, and you can now pass a current through this material. And so it becomes a metal. And so the goal of the thesis work was to metalize hydrogen. That was the kind of ultimate goal of my thesis advisor. I worked on that for several years. It's a very challenging problem that, to this day, hasn't been adequately solved. But we did, we made some good progress on it, although we did not metal hydrogen. But we made some measurements along the way of how the index for a fraction of hydrogen changes under pressure. So the (unclear) [index?] fraction tells you, I mean one simple way to think of it, it's a, it's an indicator of the electronic properties of the materials, but effectively, it, in common experience, it'll tell you how light gets bent when it goes, passes into it. So, for example, when you look at a prism, if you have a white light coming into a prism, it hits the prism, and the different colors of light get bent different angles, different, depending on index of a fraction. And that's kind of a layman's explanation of what we measured, but we measured the (unclear) fraction of hydrogen high pressure, which--so this data helps you understand when it might metalize. It also allows you to valuate theories that predict how hydrogen is behaving at high pressure. So it's experimental data that's very important in the sense that it lets you understand if your theories are even close to being correct, and once, and also quantifying the quality of various theories to explain properties of materials.$Okay, okay.$$Livermore [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory] is actually, Livermore won an award, I think last year for being one of the best employers for African Americans. I find Livermore very supportive, but I'm, I'm kind of saddened that Livermore is, is--I think Livermore is doing a solid job. I would have hoped there were people doing even better job than Livermore is doing at, at engaging, encouraging, utilizing underrepresented groups. So I'm, it's kind of, kind of--I'm glad Livermore got an award, but I wish the bar were a lot higher.$$Okay, so the general landscape is--$$Yeah, yeah. You know, and there are little things. I mean when I went to Livermore [California], when I first went there, I was coming from the East Coast. East Coast people wore a tie and coat to work. And, you know, there was, one told, a bus driver, told me, you know, what are you doing wearing that stuff? You don't wear, you don't need to wear that here, as if, you know, I mean I was a staff scientist. Early on in the, within the first year I was at Livermore, we have rooms where we store supplies, like, you know, pens, binders and things. And I was in there getting, I had just started so I was getting stuff for my office, and one of the scientist walks by and says, you know, we, we're running out of pens. Can you get some more pens? You'd think that if you're wearing a tie and coat, it's kind of a sign that you're not part of the support staff. But, you know, these little comments, for me it didn't, it didn't--I would like to think that in my case, it doesn't bother me. But I have little doubt that for someone who's much more junior, let's say a graduate student, who's working at the lab, if someone comes in and treats them like they're a maintenance person, they're not gonna be, you know, it's not the kind of environment that is conducive to keeping people there and advancing their careers. Now, none of this came from the management. The management's always very constructive. And it has been always very supportive. But I think it's really more an indication of kind of societal prejudices and biases that we need to work on.$$Okay, okay. So you've been there your whole career, so--$$Yeah.$$--you really don't have another place, I guess, to compare it to--$$Right.$$--in terms of that, but you said, Livermore [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory], according to reports--$$Yeah.$$--is--$$And they had been very supportive. I mean, you know, when I, when I served on the APS Committee on Minorities, there had to be an account to pay for my time when I was doing that work. And the management was, it wasn't even an issue for them. They were, definitely do it, you know. They've always been very supportive of hiring underrepresented staff members. So the management at Livermore has been very, very supportive, but I think there are, there're, you know, our society still isn't where we think it is (laughter), where we'd like for it to be.

Katherine Schaffner

Original member of the Marvelettes, Katherine Anderson Schaffner was born Katherine Elaine Anderson on January 16, 1944, in Ann Arbor, Michigan to Robert Timothy Calvin “T.C.”Anderson and Florence Smith Anderson. Raised in the Detroit suburb of Inkster’s Carver Homes, Schaffner attended Carver Elementary School, Ford Junior High School, Fellrath Junior High School and Inkster High School. At age seventeen, she was drafted as a back up singer for friends Gladys Horton and Georgia Dobbins for the Inkster High School talent show in 1961. Their group included Georgeanna Tillman and Wyanetta (often spelled “Juanita”) Cowart. The five teenagers called themselves the Casinyets for “Can’t Sing Yets.” They won fourth place, but with the help of their teacher, Shirley Sharpley, who knew Berry Gordy’s driver, Jon O’Den, they were able to land an audition with Motown Records. Motown’s featured stars in 1961 were Smokey Robinson and the Miracles and Mary Wells. Dobbins modified a William Garrett song for the group and the result was Please Mr. Postman. Impressed, Gordy signed them on 1961, renaming the group the Marvelettes.

Please Mr. Postman became the number one song in the nation after thirteen weeks. As a Marvelette, Schaffner received Motown training in voice, etiquette and fashion. Soon, the Marvelettes were touring with the Motown Review. They performed at Washington, D.C.’s Howard Theatre, Harlem’s Apollo Theatre, Chicago’s Regal Theatre and other African American and teen venues. The Marvelettes went on to record hit singles such as Playboy and Beachwood 4-5789, which became the most popular phone number in America. Supported by the songwriting talents of Brian Holland, Lamont Dozier, Marvin Gaye and Smokey Robinson, the Marvelettes were an essential female part of Gordy’s “sound of young America,” along with Martha Reeves and the Vandellas and The Supremes. During the 1960s, the Marvelettes recorded hit after hit, including Too Many Fish in the Sea in 1964, Don’t Mess with Bill in 1965, The Hunter Gets Captured by the Game in 1967, My Baby Must Be a Magician in 1968 and That’s How Heartaches are Made in 1969.

Schaffner, now retired from show business, is the mother of two adult children, Keisha and Kalaine Schaffner. She is also the grandmother of one grandson, Toure Schaffner.

Schaffner was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 5, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.074

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/5/2007

Last Name

Schaffner

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Inkster High School

Carver Elementary School

Ford Junior High School

Fellrath Junior High School

George Washington Carver Elementary School

First Name

Katherine

Birth City, State, Country

Ann Arbor

HM ID

SCH02

Favorite Season

Spring, Summer

State

Michigan

Favorite Vacation Destination

Ocho Rios, Jamaica

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Michigan

Birth Date

1/16/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Detroit

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken

Short Description

Singer Katherine Schaffner (1944 - ) was an original member of the musical group, The Marvelettes.

Employment

The Marvelettes

Favorite Color

Yellow

Timing Pairs
0,0:255,8:680,14:1105,20:1615,28:8245,116:9350,131:9775,137:10115,142:11305,168:23296,281:31944,371:32382,378:32674,383:35156,426:35667,434:38149,476:39171,494:39463,499:40777,531:41434,543:41799,550:47906,576:48868,593:49164,598:49460,603:52105,621:52485,629:56380,689:59618,712:60242,721:71327,874:71722,880:75356,932:76304,948:77094,959:88010,1079:90467,1122:90922,1128:91286,1133:91650,1138:92287,1146:93015,1156:98800,1200$0,0:304,6:684,12:2736,45:3040,50:3572,58:5396,89:12820,127:15520,165:18940,206:23348,232:23783,239:26567,289:38612,441:41400,484:43368,519:44024,529:46894,578:47222,584:47550,589:48042,597:48370,602:48944,611:49518,619:55176,789:55586,798:56570,815:57144,825:64245,893:70335,1017:74928,1032:75712,1041:76496,1050:77056,1056:87211,1170:90310,1189:100400,1255:103358,1277:114462,1404:116420,1448:119930,1477
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Katherine Schaffner's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Katherine Schaffner lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Katherine Schaffner describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Katherine Schaffner describes her mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Katherine Schaffner describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Katherine Schaffner describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Katherine Schaffner describes her parents' migration to Ann Arbor, Michigan

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Katherine Schaffner describes her likeness to her parents

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Katherine Schaffner talks about her father's move to Ann Arbor, Michigan

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Katherine Schaffner describes her father's occupation

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Katherine Schaffner describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Katherine Schaffner recalls the Carver Homes community in Inkster, Michigan

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Katherine Schaffner remembers her early personality

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Katherine Schaffner remembers the music of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Katherine Schaffner remembers her early musical activities

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Katherine Schaffner remembers 'The Ed Sullivan Show'

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Katherine Schaffner recalls the exclusion of African Americans from the media

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Katherine Schaffner recalls her early education

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Katherine Schaffner remembers the amateur singing groups of her youth

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Katherine Schaffner recalls her early aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Katherine Schaffner describes her neighbors' occupations

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Katherine Schaffner remembers Inkster High School in Inkster, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Katherine Schaffner remembers a lesson from her father

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Katherine Schaffner recalls her early activities

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Katherine Schaffner talks about The Casinyets

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Katherine Schaffner remembers auditioning for Motown Records

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Katherine Schaffner recalls signing a contract with Motown Records

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Katherine Schaffner remembers recording 'Please Mr. Postman'

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Katherine Schaffner remembers leaving school to tour with The Marvelettes

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Katherine Schaffner describes her tours with The Marvelettes

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Katherine Schaffner talks about naming The Marvelettes

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Katherine Schaffner talks about 'Please Mr. Postman'

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Katherine Schaffner remembers the 'Motortown Revue'

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Katherine Schaffner talks about The Marvelettes' greatest hits

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Katherine Schaffner remembers the growing popularity of Motown Records

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Katherine Schaffner recalls her experiences of racial discrimination on tour

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Katherine Schaffner recalls the members who left The Marvelettes

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Katherine Schaffner reflects upon her musical career

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Katherine Schaffner remembers her return to Inkster, Michigan

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Katherine Schaffner recalls disbanding The Marvelettes

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Katherine Schaffner reflects upon the legacy of Motown Records

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Katherine Schaffner talks about her approach to performance

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Katherine Schaffner describes the changes at Motown Records

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Katherine Schaffner remembers performing with The Marvelettes

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Katherine Schaffner talks about her children

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Katherine Schaffner describes her hesitation to reunite the Marvelettes

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Katherine Schaffner recalls being mistaken for Freedom Riders while on tour

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Katherine Schaffner recalls the early days of Motown Records

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Katherine Schaffner describes the growth of Motown Records

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Katherine Schaffner describes her lack of recognition from Motown Records

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Katherine Schaffner describes the play 'Now That I Can Dance'

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Katherine Schaffner reflects upon her life

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Katherine Schaffner describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Katherine Schaffner talks about the music of the 1960s and today

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Katherine Schaffner reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Katherine Schaffner talks about her family

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Katherine Schaffner describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Katherine Schaffner narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

7$9

DATitle
Katherine Schaffner describes her tours with The Marvelettes
Katherine Schaffner talks about 'Please Mr. Postman'
Transcript
And the first place that we went to performing, not doing a record hop, was to Washington, D.C. And we tried doing schoolwork and stuff like that. But then again, we were doing four and five--four shows through the week, and we were doing five shows on the weekends. And if the house was really sold out, we would do six shows. And so I often marvel at the fact that people were talking about--well, the artists today are talking about how they have worked and stuff like that. I said you know what: they don't even know what work is all about, because the veterans, the pioneers are the ones that really worked and made it available to the artists out there nowadays that they don't have to. Two shows is probably like their max.$$Per week, you say, or, or what, or per--$$Two shows per perfor- performance.$$Oh, okay, two, okay.$$But see, we used to have to do four shows every day until the weekend. And then we'd five on Saturdays. And Sundays we would do six if, if the crowd was there we would do six.$$Six shows?$$Yeah. Soon as we get off stage, we take and send somebody to go get us something to eat and stuff like that because before we knew it, it was time to go back on, so yeah.$And I think that 'Please Mr. Postman' did so well because that was during the era of the Vietnam War. And a lot of ladies, in particular, and maybe gents too, were waiting on letters from whoever was over there in the war. And so then I think that that's the reason that it did so well, because it was right--$$Okay.$$--during the, the Vietnam War.$$Now, go to the lyrics for us. It's--$$Uh, please (laughter). Well, I know that it says something to the effect of--, "Please, Mr. Postman, look and see if there's a letter in your bag for me" because they had been waiting a long, long time to hear from the special person of theirs (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) And this boyfriend of mine.$$Right.$$Yeah, that's what--$$And so, that's the gist of it. But ah, I can't repeat all the words to that. It's been over, how many years (laughter)?$$Can you sing any of it at this--$$Well, you know what: no.$$Did you, now did you sing lead, lead on that one?$$No, I didn't sing--$$Okay.$$--lead on any. Later in our careers, I was going to begin to start singing lead [for The Marvelettes], but I remember there's a song that I think Bobby Womack had. My voice wasn't commercial enough, because I have--I had first soprano-type voice. And I could sing second, but it wasn't commercial enough to sing lead on any of the songs, not really.$$Okay, so you sang background, basically, and--$$Yeah, I had a ball back there (laughter).$$Okay.$$I had a ball in the background, yeah.