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Frances Maclin

Music administrator Frances Maclin was born on March 31, 1939 in Roanoke, Alabama to Annie Lawson and David Heard. Her family moved to Birmingham, Alabama where she attended elementary school and later settled in Detroit, Michigan where Maclin attended Garfield Intermediate School in Detroit, Michigan and graduated from Miller High School in Detroit, Michigan in 1956. Maclin later graduated from Rhema Bible College in Tulsa, Oklahoma with a certificate in pastoral studies in 1994, and received certificates in religious studies from Black Ministries in Los, Angeles California and West Angeles Four Square in Los Angeles, California in 1976 and 1977, respectively.

In 1956, Maclin worked as a file clerk for J.L. Hudson department store in Detroit, Michigan until 1959. She then moved to Los Angeles, California with her grandmother and secured a job in customer service and advertising at Bullocks department store. After a year, Maclin landed a job at May Company department store as assistant to the advertising manager. In 1961, Maclin returned to Detroit and joined the sales staff for the African American newspaper, the Michigan Chronicle, where she secured the first ad published by F.W. Woolworth’s Company in an African American newspaper. The following year, Maclin became the first tape librarian at Motown Records, and later managed the department. In 1972, when Motown relocated their headquarters to Los Angeles, California, Maclin moved and managed the organization and catalogued their California library. Maclin was entrusted with the care and storage of master recordings, along with demos, alternate takes and other footage from more than two decades of recording sessions. She also supervised and maintained the label’s photo archive. Maclin left Motown in 1986, after twenty-five years with the company and moved to Birmingham, Alabama with her husband, Charles Maclin. There, along with her husband, they managed the outreach department at the World of Life Christian Center, ministering to nursing homes, youth camps and prisons. In 1995, she became the manager of the World of Life Church bookstore until her retirement in 2014. In 2009, Maclin published her memoirs, titled I Remember Motown: When We Were Just Family.

Frances Maclin was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 1, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.093

Sex

Female

Interview Date

05/04/2017

Last Name

Maclin

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Sidney D. Miller Middle School

Rhema Bible Training College

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Weekends

First Name

Frances

Birth City, State, Country

Roanoke

HM ID

MAC05

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Seniors

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

No

Favorite Season

N/A

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Amen and praise the Lord

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Alabama

Birth Date

3/31/1939

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Birmingham

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Music administrator Frances Maclin (1939 - ) was the first tape librarian for Motown Records, where she served for twenty-five years. She published her memoir, I Remember Motown: When We Were Just Family in 2009.

Employment

J.L. Hudson Department Store

Bullocks Department Store

May Company

Michigan Chronicle

Motown Records

Beverly Nursing Home

World of Life Church

Favorite Color

Blue

Dr. N. Anthony Coles

Pharmaceutical executive Dr. Tony Coles was born on May 17, 1960 in Roanoke, Virginia to Neavelle Anthony Coles and Leona Rogers Coles. Coles graduated from DuVal High School in Lanham, Maryland and received his B.S. degree from Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, his M.S. degree in public health from Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and his M.D. degree from Duke University in Durham, North Carolina.

Coles was a research fellow at Harvard Medical School, and then worked as a physician at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, where he completed his cardiology and internal medicine training. Coles resigned from practicing medicine and in 1992, he was hired at Merck & Co., where he became vice president of the hypertension and heart failure business group and oversaw the marketing of the ACE inhibitor drugs to cardiologists. Two years later, he joined Bristol-Myers Pharmaceuticals, taking a more global role in introducing cardiovascular products, including the blockbuster anti-clotting agent clopidrogel (Plavix). Coles was then hired by Vertex Pharmaceutical in 2002, as the company’s senior vice president of commercial operations-pharmaceutical products. He then became president and chief executive officer of Onyx Pharmaceuticals. In 2014, Coles co-founded and served as the president and chief executive officer of Yumanity Therapeutics, a biotech startup company.

In addition to his professional career, Coles was active in multiple community and national organizations, including as a member of the board of trustees at Johns Hopkins University and Johns Hopkins Medicine, NPS Pharmaceuticals, Inc., the Smithsonian’s National Museum of African American History and Culture, the board of trustees for the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, and the Council of Foreign Relations. Coles also served as a director of Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings, Campus Crest Communities, Inc., the U.S. Olympic and Paralympic Foundation, McKesson Corporation, and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. President Barack Obama also named him to the Precision Medicine Initiative in 2015. He also served as chairman of the board of directors of CRISPR Therapeutics AG since October 2015 and served on its Compensation Nomination and Corporate Governance Committee.

Coles and his wife, Robyn, have three sons.

Tony Coles was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 3, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.097

Sex

Male

Interview Date

05/03/2017

Last Name

Coles

Maker Category
Organizations
First Name

Tony

Birth City, State, Country

Roanoke

HM ID

COL31

Favorite Season

Summer

Sponsor

Dorothy Terrell

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Kiawah island, South Carolina

Favorite Quote

There's always room for one more.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

5/17/1960

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Hot dog

Short Description

Pharmaceutical executive Dr. Tony Coles (1960 - ) was president and CEO of Onyx Pharmaceuticals and co-founded Yumanity Therapeutics and served as its president and CEO.

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Blue

Florence Farley

Politician and university professor Florence Saunders Farley was born on May 28, 1928 in Roanoke, Virginia to Neoda and Stacious Saunders. She attended Harrison Elementary School in Roanoke. After graduating as the salutatorian of her class from Lucy Addison High School in 1946, Farley graduated from Virginia State College (now Virginia State University) with her B.S. degree in psychology and her M.S. degree in educational psychology in 1950 and 1954, respectively. In 1951, Farley was commissioned in the United States Women’s Army Corps (WAC) as a second lieutenant, and became the first African American female training officer at Fort Lee, Virginia.

Farley served as Chief Psychologist at Central State Hospital in Petersburg, Virginia, and was the first African American clinically licensed, by examination, psychologist in the state of Virginia. Farley then joined the faculty at Virginia State where she taught graduate and undergraduate students for over forty years and also served as the chair of the department of psychology. Farley obtained her Ph.D. degree in psychology in 1977 from Kent State University in Kent, Ohio. Farley also began her political career in 1973 when she was the first woman elected to the Petersburg City Council and became a member of Virginia’s first majority black city council. Farley won re-election in 1978 and 1982. In 1984, after the resignation of Mayor R. Wilson Cheely, Farley became the first female mayor of Petersburg and the first African American woman to become mayor of a Virginia city.

From 2002 to 2006, Farley served on the Petersburg School Board and held the post of vice chair during her time on the school board. Farley has also received acclaim as a textile artist, exhibiting her needlework in libraries and museums across the state. In 2010, Farley was recognized by The Library of Virginia as an “African American Trailblazer in Virginia History.” Farley maintains an independent psychology practice in Petersburg.

Florence Farley was interviewed was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 10, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.019

Sex

Female

Interview Date

2/10/2012

Last Name

Farley

Middle Name

S.

Schools

Kent State University

Virginia State University

Harrison School

Lucy Addison High School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Florence

Birth City, State, Country

Roanoke

HM ID

FAR06

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Casinos

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Virginia

Birth Date

5/28/1928

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Petersburg

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Beans (Pinto)

Short Description

Visual artist, psychology professor, and mayor Florence Farley (1928 - ) was the first woman to be elected to a city council seat in Petersburg, Virginia and the first African American woman to become mayor of a Virginian city.

Employment

Virginia State University

Petersburg (Va.)

Women's Army Auxiliary Corps

Central State Hospital

Favorite Color

Pink

Timing Pairs
0,0:747,9:1909,42:7138,176:13530,279:13860,286:23140,442:28036,502:29071,520:30589,551:30865,556:34246,673:49491,851:50915,887:53478,901:68116,1083:68845,1094:69169,1099:70546,1124:75130,1153:75850,1195:79168,1233:79573,1239:80464,1252:84514,1329:86377,1362:87430,1379:87754,1384:88888,1401:96928,1453:97396,1461:101950,1512:102350,1518:104750,1548:105790,1563:107870,1603:110350,1659:115493,1691:115801,1696:118034,1728:118496,1735:121499,1802:121961,1809:122269,1814:130567,1905:133390,1919:139299,1983:139931,1998:141195,2023:141827,2034:148634,2139:152372,2191:163910,2370$0,0:800,20:1840,40:3040,60:7040,146:7360,151:10800,208:12320,290:19869,335:20760,396:21084,401:22542,427:26154,456:26569,462:27994,472:28379,478:32229,553:38076,668:38622,676:39012,682:39636,713:40182,721:40572,727:42600,792:45486,846:45876,852:46266,858:46578,863:55110,939:56510,969:56930,976:58820,1010:63160,1124:64140,1141:64700,1152:66100,1189:70340,1200:76643,1265:77820,1278:78783,1290:79211,1295:83664,1324:85932,1356:86337,1362:88767,1452:89172,1458:91602,1476:92088,1483:100888,1574:105400,1670:110584,1739:110968,1744:118120,1783:122232,1816:123365,1830:124086,1836:124807,1845:127955,1865:128480,1874:142684,2070:143316,2082:144422,2098:144817,2104:145212,2110:148970,2129:150330,2156:151290,2169:151690,2175:159050,2358:164545,2404:168172,2424:168916,2435:170497,2455:176821,2548:181238,2584:182894,2607:183538,2616:183906,2621:184550,2630:184918,2635:185562,2643:189865,2691:190205,2696:190545,2701:191225,2710:196410,2817:196835,2823:197345,2830:198790,2846:199300,2854:203870,2894:204255,2900:204717,2908:205410,2922:205718,2930:206719,2950:207874,2973:215652,3056:219864,3109:221646,3153:222051,3159:222456,3165:222861,3171:232540,3299:235005,3360:235430,3367:235940,3375:237750,3380
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Florence Farley's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Florence Farley lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Florence Farley describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Florence Farley talks about the origin of her maternal relatives' names

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Florence Farley describes her mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Florence Farley talks about her family's homeownership

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Florence Farley describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Florence Farley recalls her father's militant views of the South

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Florence Farley describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Florence Farley describes her relationship with her maternal grandmother

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Florence Farley talks about her community in Roanoke, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Florence Farley remembers the Harrison School in Roanoke, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Florence Farley talks about her academic experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Florence Farley remembers Lucy Addison High School in Roanoke, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Florence Farley remembers the segregated movie theaters in Roanoke, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Florence Farley talks about her favorite films

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Florence Farley describes her early interest in reading

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Florence Farley recalls her aspiration to attend college

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Florence Farley remembers her influential teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Florence Farley describes her graduation from Lucy Addison High School in Roanoke, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Florence Farley talks about Negro History Week at Lucy Addison High School

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Florence Farley recalls working part time at Burrell Memorial Hospital in Roanoke, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Florence Farley talks about the relocation of Virginia State College

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Florence Farley describes her first impressions of Petersburg, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Florence Farley recalls changing her major to psychology

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Florence Farley describes her favorite psychology professors

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Florence Farley talks about her job prospects after graduating from Virginia State College

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Florence Farley describes her social activities in Petersburg, Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Florence Farley remembers the presidents of Virginia State College in Petersburg, Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Florence Farley recalls teaching at the Bellevue School in Hollins, Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Florence Farley recalls joining the Women's Auxiliary Army Corps

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Florence Farley describes her experiences in the Women's Auxiliary Army Corps

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Florence Farley recalls her master's degree program at Virginia State College

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Florence Farley remembers Vernon Johns, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Florence Farley remembers Vernon Johns, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Florence Farley talks about the public school shutdown in Prince Edward County, Virginia, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Florence Farley talks about the public school shutdown in Prince Edward County, Virginia, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Florence Farley remembers the Crownsville State Hospital in Crownsville, Maryland

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Florence Farley describes her experiences at the Central State Hospital in Petersburg, Virginia, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Florence Farley describes her experiences at the Central State Hospital, in Petersburg, Virginia, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Florence Farley describes the psychiatric hospitals of the 1950s

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Florence Farley describes the conditions at Central State Hospital in Petersburg, Virginia

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Florence Farley recalls her reason for resigning from Central State Hospital

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Florence Farley remembers her early teaching experiences at Virginia State College in Petersburg, Virginia

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Florence Farley talks about the founding of the Association of Black Psychologists, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Florence Farley talks about the founding of the Association of Black Psychologists, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Florence Farley describes the early accomplishments of the Association of Black Psychologists

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Florence Farley talks about the civil rights protests in Petersburg, Virginia, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Florence Farley talks about the civil rights activities in Petersburg, Virginia, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Florence Farley remembers the black elected officials in Petersburg, Virginia

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Florence Farley recalls obtaining a doctoral degree at Kent State University in Kent, Ohio

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Florence Farley talks about her experiences as mayor of Petersburg, Virginia

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Florence Farley describes the community of Petersburg, Virginia

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Florence Farley remembers her mayoralty of Petersburg, Virginia

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Florence Farley describes her introduction to city politics in Petersburg, Virginia

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Florence Farley recalls serving as a professor during her mayoralty of Petersburg, Virginia

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Florence Farley talks about her students at Virginia State University in Petersburg, Virginia

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Florence Farley describes the history of psychiatric drugs, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Florence Farley describes the history of psychiatric drugs, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Florence Farley talks about the prevalence of mental illness in the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Florence Farley describes her concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Florence Farley reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Florence Farley reflects upon her life

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Florence Farley recalls learning to cross stitch

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Florence Farley describes her family

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Florence Farley recalls her mother's reaction to her dismissal from Virginia State College

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Florence Farley talks about her pendant necklace from Africa

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Florence Farley recalls the challenges of integrating higher education in the State of Virginia

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Florence Farley narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$5

DAStory

6$5

DATitle
Florence Farley talks about her family's homeownership
Florence Farley describes the psychiatric hospitals of the 1950s
Transcript
Did your grandmother [Lula Ware] and your mother [Neoda Ware Saunders] own their own land? I mean, did they, I mean did your grandmother own the land that she--?$$Oh, when my grandmother, as I said, she moved to Roanoke [Virginia], and she brought the family to Roanoke. So my mother grew up in Danville [Virginia] until she was I guess maybe ten or twelve years old, and then she came to Roanoke--okay, my mother moved to Roanoke. And my grandmother bought--and my uncle [Alfred Ware], see, and my grandmother lived together. So, my uncle worked full time for the railroad [Norfolk and Western Railway]. So he bought his home, he bought the home, and that's where my grandmother and he lived. And then right around the, on the next block--well, her house was on the corner, and if you go around the block, that was where my--she bought another house, and in that house she put my mother on the first floor and my aunt and uncle on the upstairs. So, she had her two families there, and she was right on the corner. She could watch the house, you know. We could as we--as my mother had more children and all, but my mother, after she married my father [Stacious Saunders], they moved to Pittsburgh [Pennsylvania]. And so my older brothers and sisters, some of my older brothers and sisters, were born in Pittsburgh. My grandmother, of course, was very unhappy, but she just couldn't get her back to Roanoke. And so my mother and father had a home in Pittsburgh and it caught fire and it burned all of their possessions. So that gave my grandmother an opportunity to get her hands back on my mother. So she brought her back, it was supposed to be temporary, to Roanoke, and they came back to Roanoke and stayed, and that's where the rest of us were born, and that's where we lived. So she bought this house and as I said before, initially the two families lived in it. As the family started expanding, my grandmother bought another house, and my uncle and his wife and children moved from the second floor of that house into the second house that my grandmother--it was the third house then--that she bought, which was again right there in the neighborhood. But, you know, my mother and father finished paying for the house, but she was the, she was the one who started both of those houses.$$Okay.$$So, so we always lived in a house that was owned by us.$These were the days when you could, you were committed to a hospital if you were supposed to be insane or something?$$Yes, yes.$$And just kind of talk about it a little--because people don't often understand that now (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Okay. This--basically, you know I forget that, I do. I forget time. It was, Central State [Central State Hospital, Petersburg, Virginia] was the only hospital in Virginia that blacks could go. Usually in every state you would have a psychiatric facility or a hospital for the severely mentally ill in that region. So we had Southwest Hospital [sic. Southwestern Virginia Mental Health Institute, Marion, Virginia], Western State Hospital [Staunton, Virginia], Eastern State Hospital [Williamsburg, Virginia]. So whites had, could go to a hospital that more or less was close in their region, which meant that their relatives could come and visit them and so forth. Blacks all had to come to Central State. So no matter where you lived, if you lived far west, southwest Virginia, you had to come all the way down to Petersburg [Virginia] if you had a relative who was committed to the hospital. When I was there, the last day I was there, the patient population was about forty-five hundred. It was, at the time before, this is the time before tranquilizers. I was working at Central, Crownsville State Hospital [Crownsville Hospital Center, Crownsville, Maryland] when the first drugs came. There were no drugs for mental illness. The patients were given electroshock therapy, they were given lobotomies--it was like if you ever saw the movie 'Snake Pit' ['The Snake Pit'], it was 'Snake Pit', okay. And we worked, we were there, we worked. The odors--like it was not clean, they were not clean. Patients were hurdled into rooms and just seated, just there all day long, very few things going on. I will say this: before I left, I had some of the newsletters. We'd even gotten newsletters out. And it described the activities that we were able to do. I stayed at Central State seven years and we were able, I was able to pull in young black psychologists from different, who had gone to historically black schools [historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs)], who were not trained as clinicians. But I trained them on the spot, and trained them how to be clinical psychologists right there at the hospital. And so we made, things changed, but this was a transitional period also where they were moving from what I would call a snake pit kind of environment to a more hospital like environment. And the patients now, I think, they may have three or four hundred patients at the hospital. But they had, it was over four thousand patients the last day I was there. That was the census report, we got a census report every day. But all black people came there, and some of them, they were in locked wards. I was there when we first decided that we would have what you call unlocked wards. Some patients hadn't touched the ground in twenty-five years, but when we unlocked those wards, we let them be able to walk on the dirt surface. They didn't even know, see, how a human being would walk on the ground when they had never walked on anything but those wooden floors in those buildings. They had to change their whole gait, their whole way of walking, you know. So it was quite, quite a time.

Elyse White

Medical social worker and travel agent Elyse White was born on October 1, 1908 in Roanoke, Virginia to Julia Johnson, a school teacher, and William D. Woods, a minister. Graduating from Dunbar High School in Washington, D.C. in 1926, White graduated with her B.A. degree from Howard University in 1930. In 1942, White received her post graduate degree from Catholic University in Washington, D.C.

White went on to become a social investigator for the New York City Department of Welfare. In 1950, White began working as a medical social worker at Fordham Hospital in New York. Continuing her education, White received a degree from the New School of Social Research in New York in 1952, and then worked at Lincoln Hospital until 1965. White then took a job with the New York Board of Education as an attendance teacher.

In 1970, White started a third career as a travel agent, and in 1973, she and her sister embarked on a thirty day trip around the world, visiting Europe, Turkey, Israel, India, Japan and Hawaii. Her main love, however, has always been Africa. In 1975, White became a founding member of the African Travel Association (ATA) and began organizing and leading tourist expeditions to Africa. Over the next thirty years, White (who traveled to twenty-five African nations and over eighty countries around the world) made it possible for countless Americans to visit Africa and understand African culture. In 1998, the government of Ghana “enstooled” her as an Ashante Queen Mother for her dedication and promotion of the African continent.

White passed away on May 4, 2008 at the age of 99.

White was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 22, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.071

Sex

Female

Interview Date

2/22/2007

Last Name

White

Maker Category
Schools

Lucretia Mott Elementary School

Paul Laurence Dunbar High School

Catholic University of America

New School for Social Research

Howard University

First Name

Elyse

Birth City, State, Country

Roanoke

HM ID

WHI12

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

Don't Let Anything Defeat You.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

10/1/1908

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chitterlings

Death Date

5/4/2008

Short Description

Travel agent and medical social worker Elyse White (1908 - 2008 ) was a founding member of the African Travel Association (ATA) and was ‘enstooled’ as an Ashante Queen Mother by the Ghanaian government for her dedication and promotion of the African continent.

Employment

African Travel Association (ATA)

Fordham Hospital

Lincoln Hospital

New York City Board of Education

New York City Department of Welfare

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:930,16:2232,34:3441,51:4278,60:22460,350:25860,414:41424,619:43096,647:48816,755:56178,817:62871,956:63841,967:74873,1083:75358,1090:84667,1166:85690,1179:91354,1229:93894,1257:112224,1440:113126,1450:113536,1456:114028,1463:115258,1485:115586,1493:117964,1538:118374,1544:127906,1631:129451,1650:139852,1767:148125,1848:148465,1853:148805,1858:149145,1863:153140,1901:153840,1909:154540,1918:155040,1924:168616,2047:169020,2052:169828,2061:174668,2121:185056,2284:189386,2388:189791,2393:194732,2494:227074,2863:230140,2884$0,0:3685,66:4025,71:4620,81:5130,88:9550,162:10655,176:12440,198:20156,251:22478,285:23338,297:23682,302:24198,310:36410,499:36840,505:43371,524:43816,530:57255,744:61450,776:62250,794:89586,1170:91154,1180:99688,1348:105230,1412:138370,1782
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Elyse White's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Elyse White lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Elyse White describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Elyse White describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Elyse White talks about her maternal and paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Elyse White describes her mother's childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Elyse White talks about her father's rental properties

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Elyse White describes her childhood neighborhood in Roanoke, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Elyse White recalls moving to Washington, D.C. as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Elyse White describes Henry Street in Roanoke, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Elyse White recalls attending High Street Baptist Church in Roanoke, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Elyse White remembers her father's death from influenza in 1920

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Elyse White recalls her father's involvement in the Independent Order of Red Men

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Elyse White talks about being mistaken for white

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Elyse White recalls her classmates at Lucretia Mott Elementary School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Elyse White talks about the Howard University Players

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Elyse White remembers attending Lucretia Mott Elementary School

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Elyse White talks about her experiences of travelling abroad

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Elyse White remembers her childhood aspiration to teach

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Elyse White remembers her experiences during the Great Depression

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Elyse White describes her scholarship to Howard University

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Elyse White recalls her mentors at Paul Laurence Dunbar High School

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Elyse White remembers pledging Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Elyse White describes her graduation from Howard University

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Elyse White talks about her first teaching position after graduation

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Elyse White talks about the Works Progress Administration

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Elyse White describes New York City's Greenwich Village neighborhood in 1935

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Elyse White describes her work at the City of New York Department of Welfare

Tape: 2 Story: 14 - Elyse White remembers City with Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Elyse White recalls her temporary discharge from the City of New York Department of Welfare

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Elyse White recalls the entertainment and nightlife of New York City's Harlem

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Elyse White describes her career in medical and educational social work

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Elyse White remembers meeting her husband, Clarence White

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Elyse White describes her friendship with Thurgood Marshall

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Elyse White recalls protesting the U.S.S. Nautilus at Groton, Connecticut

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Elyse White remembers her desire to travel after retirement

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Elyse White recalls attending The Catholic University of America after her divorce

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Elyse White talks about her position as a medical social worker

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Elyse White talks about founding the Africa Travel Association

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Elyse White reflects upon her travels in Africa

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Elyse White describes her challenges at the Africa Travel Association

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Elyse White reflects upon integration in the United States

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Elyse White reflects upon the changes that she witnessed in her lifetime

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Elyse White recalls her mentors at Howard University and Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Elyse White reflects upon her life and achievements

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Elyse White lists the honors she has received

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Elyse White reflects upon how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Elyse White describes her hopes for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Elyse White describes her hopes for African countries

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Elyse White reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Elyse White talks about her civic involvement in New York City's Harlem

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Elyse White recalls being arrested in Tunis, Tunisia

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Elyse White narrates her photographs

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Elyse White talks about being mistaken for white
Elyse White recalls her temporary discharge from the City of New York Department of Welfare
Transcript
When you were a child in Roanoke, Virginia, do you remember segregation?$$I do remember well. I was very fair, compared to my sisters [Lucille Woods and Evelyn Woods] and brothers [William Woods, Jr. and Gregory Woods]. They were light-skinned, but I looked like white. And so the--I remember when my friend, we would go to deliver laundry in the white neighborhoods. They'd say, "What are you doing with that white child? Why don't you take her back to her folks?" (Laughter) And she, and my friend would say she's--of course they didn't use the term black then; they used the term Negro: "She's Negro." "Oh no, she's not." And they would start fighting, and I would run and hide (laughter). I was a real coward (laughter).$$Now how old was your friend, and how old were you?$$Well, she must have been about nine. I was about seven. But I, I was not going to stay until the bitter end (laughter).$$Did you understand what was going on? Did you understand that you were (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Well--$$--light-skinned black?$$Not really. I--that was the closest that I came to--because, actually, as you know, there are many very fair blacks in Virginia, in Washington [D.C.], wherever, so that it was not a revelation. And many of my relatives, they ranged in color from snow white to jet black (laughter). So I had a very close association with the color, not in an unfriendly way, but I was not fazed by it.$$Were there any other family members who, that you know of that passed for white who went off and lived their lives in an--$$Actually--$$--easier way?$$--in, in, in later years, some members of my family are passing right now for white (laughter). But they, they married white; their children are white; and to all intents and, and purposes they are white because that's how they look, and that's the association that they have grown up with. It's not a purposeful removal from the black race, but it's like a, what shall you say (unclear) the state of the art that brought about this state of things.$$Did you ever consider living white?$$I really did not. It never occurred to me. Because many times I have been mistaken for white, and they say, "Oh, you know, those other people--," (unclear) oh, and when I went to work for the Department of Welfare [City of New York Department of Welfare; City of New York Department of Social Services] in New York City [New York, New York], I was asked, "Do you object to working with--," at that time it was Negro people. I said, "Well, I can hardly object. I'm a Negro myself," (laughter). And the lady turned about twenty colors (laughter). So it's been a source of, of amusement I think more than anything else. But I don't--it never occurred to me that that--because all of my friends--I mean I, I was black. I grew up black. My traditions were black. I knew very little about the white race.$You're going to just complete the story you were telling me about your days as a social worker in Williamsburg, in Williamsburg, Brooklyn [New York].$$Yes, I was assigned to a territory in Brooklyn known as Williamsburg. And I did not have any black people on my caseload, which is a surprise to many people, because they thought that blacks were the primary recipients of, of welfare. I had Polish; I had Italian; I had Jewish; and I, I think I had may, out of seventy-five, I might have had one black family. But among other people, I had a Mr. Newman [ph.], and Mr. Newman looked very able bodied to me. So I said, "Mr. Newman, why aren't you working?" And he grumbled and mumbled something. So I said well, "I'm gonna close your case because I think you are able to work, and you are unlawfully on welfare." So I closed his case, and all hell broke loose (laughter). I think Mr. Newman was with Murder, Incorporated [Murder, Inc.] and politically well-connected. And then the supervisor came to me, and she was trembling; she was white and trembling, and she said, "Oh, you shouldn't have closed his case." And so the--I think the political group demanded that I be fired, so temporarily she let me go [from the City of New York Department of Welfare; City of New York Department of Social Services]. But they investigated, and they found that I had not accepted bribes, and therefore they had to reinstate me. But anyway, it was--and so later someone told me, another supervisor who inherited my caseload, she said, "You know you were servicing Murder, Incorporated (laughter), and the man whose case you closed was a member." See, they would get on welfare to substantiate their way of live, living, that they were all, that they were indigents, blah, blah, blah.