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Carlos Handy

Physicists Carlos Handy was born on October 18, 1950, in Havana, Cuba, to a Cuban mother and an American father. His father, W.C. Handy, is known as “Father of the Blues.” Growing up in New York City, Handy attended George Washington High School where he was a top math student. In 1972, Handy earned his B.A. degree in physics from Columbia College in New York. He then continued his studies at Columbia university, earning is M.A. degree in physics in 1975 and his PhD degree in theoretical physics in 1978.

From 1878 to 1981, Handy worked as a postdoctoral research associate as Los Alamos national Laboratory focusing on the use of moment representations to relate large scale to local scale features of strong coupling problems. A related approach to this led to Wavelet analysis, as developed by others (i.e. Grossman, Morlet, and Daubechies). In 1983, Handy was hired by Clark Atlanta University as an associate professor of physics. During his time there, he received grant money from the National Science Foundation (NSF), which led to his discovery of the Eigenvalue Method (EMM) technique.

With a second grant from the NSF, Handy established the Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems at Clark Atlanta University, a research and student mentoring center. In 2005, Handy left Clark-Atlanta University and became the head of the physics department at Texas Southern University where assumed full responsibility for the development of the physics program.

Throughout his career, Handy published numerous research articles. The most recent of these was an extension of EMM to determining the symmetry breaking regime of an important pseudo-hermitian system, and application to Regge pole scattering analysis in atomic and molecular physics. His professional concerns include the need for modern facilities in physics education as well as student’s early mastery of calculus. Carlos Handy works in Houston, Texas.

Carlos Handy was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on [mm, dd, yyyy]

Accession Number

A2012.194

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/17/2012

Last Name

Handy

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

R

Schools

Columbia University

George Washington High School

Los Alamos National Laboratory

First Name

Carlos

Birth City, State, Country

Havana

HM ID

HAN04

Favorite Season

May

Favorite Vacation Destination

Costa Rica

Favorite Quote

Greatness comes from within.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

10/18/1950

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Houston

Country

Cuba

Favorite Food

Condensed Milk, Rice

Short Description

Research physicist and physics professor Carlos Handy (1950 - ) is the founder of the Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems at Clark Atlanta University, and the first Physics Department Chair at Texas Southern University.

Employment

Texas Southern University

Clark Atlanta University

AMAF Industries

Los Alamos National Laboratory

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:740,33:1845,45:3715,79:6952,122:18406,364:19236,376:24465,482:25876,510:26291,516:32939,528:35144,572:35396,601:35963,613:37916,646:38231,652:39239,664:39554,670:39995,679:41570,710:42263,723:42830,734:48124,771:50100,813:50708,825:52456,876:60121,978:60590,987:60858,992:65883,1113:66352,1122:66821,1131:73789,1266:79364,1296:79692,1301:85924,1421:86498,1429:87072,1437:87400,1442:91008,1528:101247,1651:107058,1730:114196,1921:124550,2007:132458,2158:137148,2258:138287,2284:146126,2474:152324,2514:164360,2652:164612,2666:165053,2713:165431,2742:168896,2807:169337,2817:170030,2831:174231,2858:177542,2925:182162,3016:182547,3022:191038,3105:193978,3184:197674,3269:198850,3281:201580,3405$0,0:5950,117:10213,180:34409,451:34967,459:37292,491:37850,498:41058,545:41488,551:52584,694:53010,701:53862,715:54359,724:57057,801:59684,856:61885,902:62382,915:62879,924:73996,1043:75772,1076:76068,1081:76512,1088:78510,1146:78954,1154:83394,1278:84356,1299:85244,1313:94882,1384:96194,1406:98654,1460:100048,1481:100458,1486:103000,1543:103574,1552:111085,1639:112789,1669:114706,1713:115274,1719:121384,1780:129640,1906
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Carlos Handy's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Carlos Handy lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Carlos Handy describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Carlos Handy talks about Cuban patriotism

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Carlos Handy talks about his mother's early life in the United States

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Carlos Handy describes his childhood experiences of going back and forth between the United States and Cuba

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Carlos Handy talks about his mother's growing up in Cuba

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Carlos Handy describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Carlos Handy talks about his grandfather, W.C. Handy, a famous blues musician

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Carlos Handy describes his memories of his grandfather, W.C. Handy

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Carlos Handy talks about his paternal family's musical talents

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Carlos Handy talks about his father's growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Carlos Handy talks about his father's career as a businessman

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Carlos Handy describes how his parents met and got married

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Carlos Handy describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Carlos Handy talks about his siblings and his childhood household

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Carlos Handy describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Carlos Handy describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in New York City and Cuba

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Carlos Handy talks about being brought up by a Cuban mother

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Carlos Handy describes his childhood neighborhood in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Carlos Handy describes his experience in elementary school and junior high school in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Carlos Handy describes his experience at George Washington High School in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Carlos Handy talks about representing his high school on the NBC program 'It's Academic'

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Carlos Handy describes his freshman year at Columbia University and his work with Martin Gutzwiller at the Thomas J. Watson Research Center

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Carlos Handy describes the challenges that he faced during his freshman year at Columbia University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Carlos Handy describes his experience as a physics major at Columbia University

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Carlos Handy talks about physicist Martin Gutzwiller

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Carlos Handy talks about his parents' separation and his decision to pursue graduate studies at Columbia University

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Carlos Handy describes his experience as a first-year Ph.D. student at Columbia University

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Carlos Handy describes the challenges that he faced during his doctoral studies at Columbia University - part one

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Carlos Handy describes the challenges that he faced during his doctoral studies at Columbia University - part two

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Carlos Handy describes his doctoral dissertation research in the field of gauge theories, at Columbia University

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Carlos Handy describes his disappointing experience in the physics department at Columbia University and the lack of mentoring

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Carlos Handy talks about the broad applicability of a doctoral degree, and the problem with stringent expectations in academia

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Carlos Handy describes the way he was treated in the physics department at Columbia University

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Carlos Handy describes his work on the moment problem at Los Alamos National Laboratory

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Carlos Handy describes race relations in New Mexico

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Carlos Handy talks about getting married, and moving to AMAF in Baltimore, Maryland, and to Clark-Atlanta University in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Carlos Handy describes his research on the moment problem at Clark Atlanta University

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Carlos Handy describes his research collaboration with physicist Daniel Bessis - part one

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Carlos Handy describes his research collaboration with physicist Daniel Bessis - part two

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Carlos Handy describes his research with Daniel Bessie, on the neutron star problem

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Carlos Handy describes his work with Hermitian operators at Clark Atlanta University

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Carlos Handy describes his research at the Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems at Clark Atlanta University

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Carlos Handy describes his decision to accept a position at Texas Southern University

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Carlos Handy describes his experience as chair of the physics department at Texas Southern University, and the status of HBCUs in the state of Texas

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Carlos Handy describes the demographics of Texas Southern University

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Carlos Handy describes his involvement as chair of the physics department at Texas Southern University

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Carlos Handy describes the challenges faced by the physics department at Texas Southern University

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Carlos Handy discusses the graduation rate of African American students in the STEM fields in the Texas university systems

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Carlos Handy reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Carlos Handy reflects upon his life

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Carlos Handy describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community today

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Carlos Handy talks about his family

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Carlos Handy talks about how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

6$1

DAStory

3$5

DATitle
Carlos Handy describes his research collaboration with physicist Daniel Bessis - part two
Carlos Handy talks about his mother's early life in the United States
Transcript
So, [Daniel] Bessis [physicist], this is now January of '85 [1985], comes back from his Christmas break. And he says, he says, you know, I tried to, I tried to solve this problem, but I, I couldn't come up with a solution. I said, well, I solved it. He says, what do you mean you solved it? Yeah, I solved it. So I showed him what I did. And his jaw dropped because not only had I solved the problem, I did something else. It turns out--and this is the other irony, it turns that he and Barnsley, a few years before, had tried it--because the method I came up, not just gave you an answer. It gave you an answer in a very special way. I could tell you, I could tell you that the true answer had to be between this number and that number. And depending upon how much I wanted to go, I can make those two shrink, and those are called lower and upper bounds. So I can tell you that the true answer must be between this and this, and I can make this arbitrary type. And they had been looking for a method like that. And, in fact, Barnsley came up with something called the "bathtub," "Barnsley's bathtub theorem" which is really a variation of something called the Barta's Bounds for ener--, for, you know, for eigenvalues, well, it's really for the ground state, the Barta Bounds. But that method can give you estimates, but there's no way to shrink 'em down. I could shrink 'em down, and so Bessis gets very excited because even though that's not what I was looking for, that's what I discovered. And then he says that there's a very famous problem, called the Quadratic Zeeman Effect for super strong magnetic fields. What is means is basically, you know, the earth's, the magnetic field of the earth is like, you know, one gauss or .4 gauss [unit of measurement of a magnetic field]. It's very, very small. But if you go on the neutron star, the magnetic field can be a billion, I mean huge, (unclear) billion gauss, very strong. And so what astronomers wanna do is, they'll measure the energy emitted by these hydrogen-looking atoms, and by doing the spectro-analysis, they can actually measure in magnetic fields. So it's a, you know, it's an involved, it's an inverse process. So if you have, if you have good--if you can accurately measure the energy levels from a hydrogen atom, you can then determine what the strength and magnetic field (unclear) neutron star. So it's an important pract--theoretical and practical problem. But the problem is that, this quadratic Zeeman effect is a strong coupling problem, all right. The boundary layer I think I told you, it's a strong coupling problem. And when people try to solve that problem, they, because the methods are not, they're not robust, they're not accurate enough, they can give answers that vary all over the place. But here I am coming with a solution that can tell you that the, what the true (unclear). There's no uncertainty. So, I remember in '85 [1985] Bessis looking at me, and, and you have to understand Bessis is the first collaboration I ever had in my life, okay, not at Columbia, not at Los Alamos, the first collaboration I ever had in my life. So I remember in '85 [1985] Bessis saying, we wrote a paper, a 'Physics Review Letters'[journal] paper which is the top publication still [C. R. Handy and D. Bessis, `Rapidly Convergent Lower Bounds for the Schrodinger Equation Ground State Energy', 1985].$Okay. Now, when she [Handy's mother, Leonor Maria Cartaya] was raised up, did she have a chance to go to, to finish school?$$Well, she, at the time, she, she--in fact, she met my father, she was, I think, in a doctoral program in pedagogy, but never finished, but she was close to getting a doctorate in education.$$Okay, was she in the United States or in Cuba?$$Well, she, she came on an academic, she came on an excursion in 1947. I guess it was like an academic excursion. She toured Howard University [Washington, District of Columbia], other places like that. And then she fell in love with the United States and stayed behind, rented an apartment and in that building, my father was living with his kids from his first wife. He was a widower.$$Is this in New York?$$In New York City.$$New York City.$$Okay, and little by little, they started a relationship, and, you know, one thing led to another, and they got married in 1950. So or 1949, 'cause I (laughter), heck, so I don't know. They married in 1949 or 1950, but I do know that, that we were, we popped up nine months after (laughter). So--.$$So, they, your mother had moved back to Cuba for a minute, I guess when you were born?$$Yeah, 'cause she taught. She was a school teacher.$$Okay.$$So she would go back and forth. She would fly--my mother hated to fly, and my father never flew. So my mother would fly from Havana [Cuba] to Miami [Florida] and then take either the train or the Greyhound Bus up the East Coast. And I do remember, she would, she, you know, she tells me that the bus driver would tell her, well, you know, you folks in the back. And so she says that on one occasion she said, or the only occasion she said, "Me no speak English," okay, so she stayed put. And my mother was of the character that she would not bow down. You know, she would find a way to (laughter) stay where she wanted to be, so--.$$Okay.

Godfrey Gumbs

Research physicist and physics professor Godfrey Gumbs was born on September 7, 1948 in Georgetown, Guyana to Mary Teresa Gumbs, a homemaker and Charles Alexander Gumbs, a postal worker. After graduating from Queen’s College of Guyana, he received a Guyana scholarship to attend Trinity College, Cambridge University where he earned his B.A. degree in applied mathematics in 1971. From 1971 to 1972, he sat Part III of the Mathematics Tripos which is a natural first step for the doctoral degree at Cambridge. Gumbs went on to earn his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in theoretical condensed matter physics from the University of Toronto in 1973 and 1978, respectively.

From 1978 to 1982, Gumbs served as a Research Associate at the National Research Council of Canada in Ottawa. Then, from 1982 to 1989, he worked as a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada Fellow, a Canada University Research Fellow at Dalhousie University and the University of Lethbridge. As an NSERC Fellow, Gumbs held the position of Assistant Professor of physics at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia and as Professor of Physics at the University of Lethbridge in Alberta, Canada. In 1992, he was hired by Hunter College, City University of New York and was duly appointed the Chianta-Stoll Chair and as a University Distinguished Professor. Gumbs received the Eugene Lang Student-Faculty Research Fellowship at Hunter College in 1993 and the Presidential Award for Excellence in Research from Hunter in 2003. He has served as a vising professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a J. William Fulbright Senior Scholar and a visiting fellow at his alma mater, Trinity College, Cambridge University. His research interests in theoretical condensed matter physics include: nanoscale semiconductor structures and electronic properties of mesoscopic systems. He has over 300 publications in leading scientific journals and co-wrote the textbook Properties of Interacting Low-Dimensional System, in 2011.

Gumbs is a fellow of the Institute of Physics, the New York Academy of Sciences and the American Physical Society (APS). He was an Alexander von Humboldt Fellow, a United States Air Force Faculty Fellow and a Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics Scholar (KITP) at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Gumbs is a member of the Sigma-Xi Honorary Scientific Research Society. In 2005, he received APS’ Edward A. Bouchet Award for his significant contributions to physics and his mentoring of students. Gumbs and his wife, Jean have three adult sons.

Godfrey Gumbs was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 17, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.106

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/17/2012

Last Name

Gumbs

Marital Status

Married

Schools

University of Toronto

Queen's College of Guyana

University of Cambridge, Trinity College

Rumveldt Anglican School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Godfrey

Birth City, State, Country

Georgetown

HM ID

GUM01

Favorite Season

Christmas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Panama

Favorite Quote

That's all it takes.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

9/7/1948

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

Guyana

Favorite Food

Curry

Short Description

Research physicist and physics professor Godfrey Gumbs (1948 - ) is a distinguished professor at Hunter College of the City University of New York and an expert in the field of nanophysics.

Employment

CUNY- Hunter College

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

University of Lethbridge, Canada

Dalhousie University

National Research Council (NRC)

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:1254,17:1788,27:11843,104:18775,192:36180,290:36990,301:41185,360:42181,374:42928,403:56646,512:57576,523:66790,600:67240,606:68140,617:89621,887:90331,898:97986,995:102121,1033:103363,1047:105157,1080:108624,1101:109086,1109:109350,1114:116104,1219:116464,1225:122296,1330:133754,1430:137200,1444:139048,1488:139378,1494:139972,1504:140698,1521:141424,1535:141952,1544:150100,1625:150444,1630:156136,1682:158440,1739:160424,1777:165635,1847:167858,1859:171580,1888:172872,1907:178952,2004:179560,2013:187680,2101:188310,2110:189210,2122:189660,2129:192020,2138:196637,2218:197690,2237:199634,2277:202388,2315:203603,2334:208870,2356$0,0:3120,11:3876,32:7041,59:9018,74:10550,82:12200,103:15974,132:18200,141:22589,232:23205,241:23744,249:28587,316:30433,349:30717,354:31001,359:32066,379:32492,387:32918,395:34835,430:35474,441:44111,527:44775,532:47431,575:49340,604:54964,635:55276,640:55588,645:55900,651:56212,656:62859,747:63151,752:66290,801:66582,806:67020,814:68918,845:70597,870:75310,898:77310,934:80350,981:80670,986:80990,991:81550,1000:82670,1020:83150,1028:97776,1219:102936,1246:103332,1251:104223,1305:110416,1338:110764,1343:112243,1361:113287,1374:113635,1379:114505,1391:116767,1437:117376,1442:128213,1596:128797,1605:129308,1614:129600,1619:130257,1629:134199,1709:138423,1714:138990,1722:140124,1737:141015,1755:148595,1843:150128,1864:151953,1898:152245,1903:153559,1924:154070,1932:154362,1937:163201,2161:182976,2368:183366,2374:183990,2384:185628,2407:189528,2478:191244,2505:198392,2574:198736,2579:199080,2584:199682,2593:201746,2721:211838,2829:219700,2863:220420,2875:221212,2892:224164,2918:226828,2969:232348,3038:235310,3055:235690,3060:236450,3071:244432,3173:244822,3179:251270,3242
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Godfrey Gumbs' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Godfrey Gumbs lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Godfrey Gumbs describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Godfrey Gumbs talks about trade in Georgetown, Guiana

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Godfrey Gumbs describes his mother's upbringing in Georgetown, Guiana

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Godfrey Gumbs describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Godfrey Gumbs describes his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Godfrey Gumbs describes how his parents met and their personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Godfrey Gumbs describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Godfrey Gumbs describes his neighborhood in Georgetown, Guiana and the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Godfrey Gumbs talks about his days at St. Thomas Moore Roman Catholic School

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Godfrey Gumbs talks about his childhood illnesses

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Godfrey Gumbs talks about Wrungfield Anglican School

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Godfrey Gumbs talks about his early education

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Godfrey Gumbs talks about his childhood interests and activities

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Godfrey Gumbs talks about the social and political climate of Guiana

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Godfrey Gumbs talks about his family's educational background

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Godfrey Gumbs talks about his graduation from Queen's College

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Godfrey Gumbs describes the influence of religion on his family

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Godfrey Gumbs describes his experience going to London for the first time

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Godfrey Gumbs describes the student body of Cambridge University

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Godfrey Gumbs talks about the faculty at Cambridge University

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Godfrey Gumbs talks about solid state physics and his decision to attend the University of Toronto

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Godfrey Gumbs describes how he met his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Godfrey Gumbs talks about the University of Toronto

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Godfrey Gumbs describes his doctoral research

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Godfrey Gumbs describes his postdoctoral research

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Godfrey Gumbs talks about his work at the University of Lethbridge

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Godfrey Gumbs talks about his work during his sabbatical

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Godfrey Gumbs talks about the use of carbon and carbon nanotubes

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Godfrey Gumbs talks about his move to Hunter College

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Godfrey Gumbs discusses the future of nanotechnology

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Godfrey Gumbs describes the discovery of graphene

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Godfrey Gumbs talks about honors he has received

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Godfrey Gumbs describes Trinity College and his work with single electron transfer

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Godfrey Gumbs talks about his research on graphene

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Godfrey Gumbs describes the challenges of attracting more minority students to physics

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Godfrey Gumbs talks about the future of nanotechnology

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Godfrey Gumbs describes his experience in Toronto as a minority STEM student

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Godfrey Gumbs discusses New York's efforts to attract minority students to physics

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Godfrey Gumbs describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Godfrey Gumbs reflects upon his career

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Godfrey Gumbs describes his efforts to help students in Guiana

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Godfrey Gumbs talks about his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Godfrey Gumbs talks about his family

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Godfrey Gumbs talks about how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

6$5

DATitle
Godfrey Gumbs describes his doctoral research
Godfrey Gumbs describes the challenges of attracting more minority students to physics
Transcript
All right, well, tell us. What was your dissertation title and what was it about in the simplest terms that you can describe it in?$$Okay, so, I was doing a couple of problems for my, for my dissertation but then decided to write just one of them. One was on the phase transitions in, in restricted systems, in low dimensional systems in films. And a phase transition is something as follows, namely that, if you have a piece of ice and you, you place it out in the, in the sun, then it melts. So there is a transition from solid, the ice phase, to a liquid phase or if you boil water, there's a phase transition from the liquid phase to the gaseous phase which is steam. And this is a very complicated problem. I mean phase transitions occur, for example, if you, if you have a magnet, and you, you heat, you warm the magnet up, then it could lose its magnetization. So the, the transition from being magnetized to not being magnetized, that's known as a phase transition. And so I was considering phase transitions and the behaviors of, what plays a role? The thing is what plays a role in causing this transition. And so I was, I did, I did a couple of problems on this, but my thesis advisor wanted me to write something up for the dissertation, so I can defend it (laughter), to become a doctor. And so I wrote up something on, on the second problem which is entitled, 'Surface Spin Wave Modes.' So if you have a surface, then it's quite, the behavior of the material is quite different from if you look inside of the material itself. So that's one. That's the operative word, "surface". A spin wave is a wave which involves a spin, and the spin in an intrinsic property. For example, you know that the electron has a charge, you know. There's a positive charge or a negative charge. The electron has a negative charge, but also it has something which is due to an internal degree of freedom known as its spin, like a spinning top. And this spin is what couples the electron to a magnetic field. For example, if you do an MRI, when there's only, the only way you could get an image is because you have a material which couples to this external magnetic field. And the material must have this internal degree of freedom known as the spin. So I did my work on this, on this extra degree of freedom and how it behaves in, on a film.$Okay, now, what are some of the challenges in bringing new students along today?$$Money. It's usually funding, funding. So, it is expected that if you are in physics, and you take a graduate student, then you should help, help at least to support that student. The only way you can support that student is if you have external funding or funding from some source. And so you have to write a proposal, get it reviewed, get the funding to support a student. And it is vital, I think, as you are, as you're getting older, to have students who you can mentor and with their energies be able to complete some of the projects which you have some idea, some vision how to do it, but, you know, you need man power. So this is a challenge which, not only faces me, but as a theorist, an experimentalist, even more so because then they have to find funding for equipment or supplies and they must have multiple hands, you know, doing the research. So it's a struggle, it's a struggle from that point of view. But when the work is done, and the results are, and the results are out, then it's very rewarding because then, you know, you get to share your knowledge. And you're able to contribute and, and participate in a very dynamic field.$$Is it more difficult to attract funding for theoretical research than for--$$Well, you need a lot more funding for doing experimental work because you need equipment, and you need supplies and you need students to help you out. And theory, if you, if you are out of funding, then you could still make do for a while until you get funding. But funding is becoming more and more difficult because there's less and less funding available. So you have to spend a lot of time forming alliances with people who are in research labs, who know about funding or just, you just have to keep looking. So it's, it's difficult, it's difficult now, but it was, it was also difficult when I got started many years ago.$$Okay, is part of the difficulty educating a funding source as to what you're actually doing?$$Say it again. I'm sorry.$$Is part of the difficulty educating the funding sources of what--$$Identifying the funding sources?$$I mean, well, yeah, well, not just identifying, but educating them in terms of what you're actually gonna do with the money?$$Oh, (laughter), yes. So you have to write a proposal, telling how you would spend the money and telling them what problems you will do. So the problems must be of interest to the referees or to the funding agency. So you must write a good proposal which would tell them how your work would be able to contribute in the, to the field. So in some way, you're educating them or trying to.$$Right, that's what I would guess that--$$Yeah, yeah.$$--make some of the projects not be as easily understood in physics as they would be in some other field.$$Well, they are supposed to send them out to experts in the field. So you're not really working alone in the field. You have all the competitors or you have colleagues or so, and they--the proposal must be such that it is interesting for funding. So you must write it in a way which they understand and appreciate, and the topic must be worthwhile funding because, you know, it's money, yeah.