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Deborah Prothrow-Stith

Dr. Deborah Prothrow-Stith is a nationally recognized public health leader with applied and academic experience ranging from neighborhood clinics and inner city hospitals, to serving as a state commissioner of public health, to being a dean and professor at the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) in Boston, Massachusetts. Prothrow-Stith is a pioneer in defining, researching, and treating violence, especially among youth, as a public health crisis/problem rather than as a law and order issue. Violence prevention via public health strategies is the hallmark of her work. Prothrow-Stith also serves as Associate Dean for Faculty Development at the HSPH.

Prothrow-Stith was born in Marshall, Texas on February 6, 1954. In 1959, she moved with her family to Atlanta and in 1969 back to Texas where she finished Jack Yates High School in Houston, Texas in 1971. Prothrow-Stith graduated from Spelman College in Atlanta in 1975 and went on to study medicine, graduating from Harvard Medical School in 1979.

Throughout her professional life, Prothrow-Stith has been involved with developing and implementing violence prevention programs ranging from local neighborhoods to statewide and national levels. Her interest in violence prevention was stimulated by her work as a resident at Boston City Hospital, where she discovered that street violence was as deadly to her patients as any disease or accident and led her to examine violence as a social “disease” that could be prevented by public health strategies. Prothrow-Stith developed and wrote the first violence prevention curriculum for schools entitled, Violence Prevention Curriculum for Adolescents.

Appointed in 1987 as the first woman and youngest-ever Commissioner of Public Health for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Prothrow-Stith expanded treatment programs for AIDS and drug rehabilitation, and oversaw a department of more than 4,500 employees. During her tenure as commissioner, she established the first-ever Office of Violence Prevention in a state department of public health. Prothrow-Stith was appointed by President Bill Clinton to the National Commission on Crime Control and Prevention in 1995.

In the 1990s, Prothrow-Stith was tapped to be part of a broad-based coalition in Boston that included leaders in government, education, health, law enforcement, religion, and civic life and business. Their collective work became known as the “Boston Model”. By the mid to late 1990s, Boston had gone almost three years without a single juvenile homicide. In Murder Is No Accident, co-authored with Dr. Howard Spivak, Prothrow-Stith describes the “Boston Model” as well as factors that affect youth violence, such as poverty and domestic violence, and the means for its prevention, such as conflict resolution programs.

Prothrow-Stith is married to Reverend Charles Stith, a former U.S. Ambassador to Tanzania (East Africa). They have a son, Percy, born in 1978 and a daughter, Mary Mildred, born in 1980. Prothrow-Stith and her husband also raised her two nephews, sons of her sister – Trey Edmondson, born in 1972, and Tony Franklin, born in 1975.

Accession Number

A2005.103

Sex

Female

Interview Date

4/20/2005 |and| 12/7/2005

Last Name

Prothrow-Stith

Marital Status

Married

Organizations
Schools

Collier Heights Elementary School

Jack Yates High School

Spelman College

Harvard Medical School

First Name

Deborah

Birth City, State, Country

Marshall

HM ID

PRO01

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

St. Martin, Bahamas

Favorite Quote

Don't let perfect get in the way of good.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

2/6/1954

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Gumbo, Pie (Lemon Meringue), Chocolate

Short Description

Academic administrator, state government appointee, and public health professor Deborah Prothrow-Stith (1954 - ) was appointed as the first woman and youngest Commissioner of Public Health for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. In 1995, she was appointed by President Bill Clinton to the National Commission on Crime Control and Prevention.

Employment

Harvard School of Public Health

State of Massachusetts

Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
0,0:4505,99:5270,109:6120,117:6885,129:7480,138:8160,149:9520,173:10030,200:11815,218:24518,386:28454,460:29356,477:31406,507:31898,516:51910,724:57435,811:58030,819:61600,879:62195,891:66362,897:66674,902:69872,968:71666,993:71978,998:72524,1007:73070,1013:74630,1048:75800,1072:76658,1089:78530,1124:79466,1141:80246,1154:83132,1210:84224,1228:86486,1263:110178,1570:118006,1695:118918,1709:130231,1838:131241,1849:136260,1928:136816,1945:156252,2090:160140,2193:160464,2230:162003,2245:162570,2254:163785,2271:164109,2276:183000,2508$0,0:2986,102:3688,114:5014,138:6184,160:6730,168:7276,177:7978,187:8368,193:19780,344:21262,365:21808,373:22354,382:37902,598:38832,610:49560,723:52660,740:53300,750:54100,761:56900,813:57220,818:57940,834:66349,941:66721,946:69139,999:72115,1045:73138,1058:76858,1131:79183,1174:88535,1254:88923,1259:89796,1269:90669,1279:94452,1337:94937,1343:104002,1534:104437,1540:107917,1606:108874,1619:109396,1626:109744,1631:112093,1708:114442,1739:115225,1749:127690,1844
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Deborah Prothrow-Stith's interview, session 2

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith lists her favorites, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes her mother's upbringing, pt. 3

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes her mother's teaching career, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes her father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes her father's personality, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes her father's experiences of segregation

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes her family life in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes Collier Heights in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes Atlanta's Warren United Methodist Church and her older sister

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith remembers Anderson Park Elementary School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes her teachers at Anderson Park Elementary School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes Collier Heights Elementary School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith recalls integrating Therrell High School in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith recalls integrating Therrell High School in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith recalls the impact of school integration in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith recalls political assassinations from her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes her aspiration to be a doctor

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes Jack Yates High School in Houston, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes her stint at Madison High School in Houston, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith recalls Atlanta's Spelman College and her decision to attend medical school

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes her medical school application process

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes her courtship with HistoryMaker Reverend Charles Richard Stith

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes her impression of Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith recalls HistoryMaker Alvin Poussaint's support

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes her residency options

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes beginning her family with HistoryMaker Reverend Charles Richard Stith

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith shares an anecdote from her surgery rotation at Boston's Brigham and Women's Hospital

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes her medical focus

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes formative clinical and research aspects of her career

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes becoming commissioner of public health for Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes her contributions as commissioner of public health for Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith reflects upon her service as commissioner of public health for Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes joining a for-profit hospital management company

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith recalls joining the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes her first book, 'Deadly Consequences'

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes her public health interest in violence prevention

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes the Blueprint for a Safer Philadelphia Initiative

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes media coverage of violence prevention efforts in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes antecedents to violent behavior

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes the PeaceZone curriculum

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes her Violence Prevention Curriculum for Adolescents

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes 'Sugar and Spice and No Longer Nice: How We Can Stop Girls' Violence'

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes similarities between girls' and boys' violent behaviors

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes alternating between Tanzania and Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes her medical contributions in Tanzania

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes new strategies for faculty development at Harvard School of Public Health

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes public health issues she hopes to explore

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith considers the relationship between medicine and public health

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith shares advice for young people aspiring to a medical career

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes her non-career goals

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith reflects upon her life

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 13 - Deborah Prothrow-Stith narrates her photographs

DASession

2$2

DATape

1$3

DAStory

10$8

DATitle
Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes Collier Heights in Atlanta, Georgia
Deborah Prothrow-Stith describes her medical focus
Transcript
Interestingly, my father [Percy Prothrow, Jr.], when we moved to Atlanta [Georgia], we lived in an apartment complex until I was seven or eight, and then we moved on Hermer Circle [Atlanta, Georgia], which was an area developed by Mr. Russell [HistoryMaker Herman Russell], a black--$$Herman Russell?$$Yes, Herman Russell, a black development and contractor, and I mean, they owned the land and built the houses and everything. So we lived on a cul de sac of basically middle class black families and, you know, my father was the community treasurer, so he went from door to door collecting the dues for the neighborhood association. And what made me think about it was when you asked about Halloween. Halloween was a big production on Hermer Circle. We not only trick or treated, but we trick or treated at certain times. So, it was divided by age groups, and then each age group had a house that represented the end of trick or treating and the parties. So for instance if you were you know three to five, then you probably trick or treated from three to five, and then at five you went to certain house and had your party and if you were five to eight you trick or treated the next you know and it was just the level of organization the--the neighborhood also had themes to Christmas. So everybody had an angel on their yard or everybody--that was cut out in wood and that you had to paint--or you got somebody to paint or a toy soldier, whatever the theme was. So every house would have that and a spotlight in front of the house.$$Where was this neighborhood located in Atlanta in terms of the sections of the city?$$It's in northwest Atlanta and it's actually right at the border of northwest and southwest Atlanta. It is, it was called Collier Heights [Atlanta, Georgia], so it was the Collier Heights area and that was the elementary school [Collier Heights Elementary School, Atlanta, Georgia] that I attended. It's the divider from northwest and--oh and the new street is Holmes, Hamilton--no the--with [HistoryMaker] Charlayne Hunter-Gault and Henry Hamilton Holmes, who desegregated the University of Georgia [Athens, Georgia]--$$Georgia.$$--they renamed what was Linkwood Road [Hamilton E. Holmes Dr.] after, after him. He became a cardiologist and died recently. And so the streets were re- the street was renamed, but it's in that area.$$Um-hm, okay.$$And the major divider north-south used to be Gordon Road and is now MLK [Martin Luther King Jr. Drive], so that's sort of the area.$I went to medical school [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts] to serve urban adolescents. That was my passion. And I learned that homicide was the leading cause of death for young black men, but not in medical school. I think I learned it from Ebony magazine. And the leading cause of death--second leading cause of death for all teenagers, so the--a leading cause of death for the population I wanted to serve had not even been raised in medical school. Not only that, you know, we were stitching people up and sending them out--without any prevention effort. So my inadequacy and feelings of inadequacy fueled a real passion that made me want to change this. It didn't make any sense to me. I think the system was built around an assumption that violence was just inevitable. That there were some people who were just going to fight and kill each other and that that was the way it was. And I just happened to know too many black men who were not violent at all. And so I knew that wasn't the way it was. So it--in a very personal and professional way, because my son [Percy Stith III] was born--that was in January of '78 [1978] my son was born that September, you know, I just did a very, you know, personal and professional way this became an important issue for me to address, and that was, that's twenty-five years later, now twenty-seven of '78 [1978], how long ago is that, twenty-seven years (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Seventy-seven [1977], yeah.$$You know, I am still working to prevent violence, still looking at it as a public health problem. And obviously during my residency at Boston City Hospital [Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts] having the, the vast experience with trauma and the emergency room, it just, you know, further, you know, further made me committed to figuring this one out.

Felton James Earls

Dr. Felton James “Tony” Earls is a professor of social medicine at Harvard Medical School and Professor of Human Behavior and Development at the Harvard School of Public Health. He is noted for his pioneering research on violent crime reduction in urban neighborhoods, the causes and pathways of juvenile delinquency, the consequences of children’s exposure to community and family violence and the psychological impacts of HIV/AIDS pandemic on children in sub-Saharan Africa.

Earls was born in January 1942 in New Orleans, Louisiana – the oldest of four born to Ethlyn and Felton Earls II. In 1953, his family moved to Memphis, Tennessee, where his father worked for the U.S. Postal Service, and where Earls graduated from Booker T. Washington High School.

A 1963 graduate of Howard University with a degree in chemistry – four years later, Earls received a medical degree from Howard University School of Medicine. Being interested in the science of medicine rather than caring for sick people, he pursued post-graduate training in neurophysiology at the University of Wisconsin.

Earls left Wisconsin to do a residency in pediatrics at New York Medical College. He went on to study adult psychiatry at Massachusetts General Hospital, public health at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and child psychiatry at the Hospital for Sick Children in London. He joined the faculty of Harvard Medical School in 1974, became Professor of Child Psychiatry and Director of the Division of Child Psychiatry at Washington University in St. Louis in 1981 and returned to Harvard University in 1989.

Earls’ Chicago research project, “The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods,” funded by the National Institute for Mental Health and the MacArthur Foundation, is perhaps his signature work – a ten year, $51 million study. It was a large-scale epidemiological project examining causes and consequences of children’s exposure to community and family violence. Earls and his team of researchers studied the physical health, educational and occupational achievement, and the social relationships of children from birth to adulthood. He gave detailed attention to the social and physical characteristics of the neighborhoods in which they lived and the schools they attended. The project represents one of the largest and most comprehensive (over 8,000 people in 343 Chicago neighborhoods) of child and youth development ever undertaken. Theories drawn from his finding derailed older theories of community violence and crime. His “collective efficacy” theory puts emphasis on a practice of having neighborhood residents solving the problems of crime, violence and substance abuse. In another project in Tanzania, East Africa, Earls used his Chicago study methods to analyze the role of community attitudes and perceptions about HIV/AIDS and its impact on children.

Earls is the Director of the Harvard South Africa Fellowship Program at Harvard University, established to address the needs of South Africans denied access to advanced education by apartheid. Another major and significant activity in his life is serving on the Board of Directors of Physicians for Human Rights at the National Academy of Sciences.

Earls met Mary Carlson, who was studying neurophysiology at the University of Wisconsin when he was doing the same. They were married in Boston in 1971 and are the parents of two daughters, Leigh, born in 1967, and Tanya, born in 1974.

Earls has been devoted to scientific research with a commitment to social change in the spirit and memory of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Accession Number

A2005.259

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/9/2005

Last Name

Earls

Maker Category
Middle Name

James

Schools

Booker T. Washington High School

Howard University College of Medicine

John McDonogh No. 6 School

Samuel J. Green Junior High School

First Name

Felton

Birth City, State, Country

New Orleans

HM ID

EAR03

Favorite Season

None

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

1/20/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Medical professor and public health professor Felton James Earls (1942 - ) is a professor of social medicine at Harvard Medical School and Professor of Human Behavior and Development at the Harvard School of Public Health. Earls’ Chicago research project, “The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods,” led to theories that derailed older ones of community violence and crime.

Employment

Washington University in St. Louis

Harvard Medical School

Harvard School of Public Health

University of Wisconsin-Madison

Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Felton James Earls' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Felton James Earls describes his maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Felton James Earls describes his maternal grandfather's work and his mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Felton James Earls describes his maternal grandmother, his mother and his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Felton James Earls describes his father's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Felton James Earls describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Felton James Earls describes his early educational experiences

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Felton James Earls recalls his teachers in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Felton James Earls recalls segregation in New Orleans and his early interest in science

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Felton James Earls remembers moving from New Orleans to Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Felton James Earls remembers applying to college

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Felton James Earls describes his time at Howard University

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Felton James Earls remembers applying for and attending medical school

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Felton James Earls remembers William Montague Cobb

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Felton James Earls recalls his laboratory work at the University of Wisconsin-Madison

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Felton James Earls recalls Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Felton James Earls describes his impression of Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Felton James Earls describes his wife and his two daughters

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Felton James Earls describes his work and research in London, England

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Felton James Earls describes his research in Boston and on Martha's Vineyard

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Felton James Earls recalls his time at the Washington University in St. Louis

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Felton James Earls describes his return to Boston, Massachusetts in 1989

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Felton James Earls describes the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Felton James Earls describes the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Felton James Earls describes the impact of his study on public policy

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Felton James Earls defines collective efficacy

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Felton James Earls describes his research on collective efficacy and HIV/AIDS

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Felton James Earls describes his involvement in the Anti-Apartheid Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Felton James Earls describes his musical interests

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Felton James Earls describes his hero, Charles Darwin, and his aspirations

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Felton James Earls reflects upon his life

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Felton James Earls describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Felton James Earls describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Felton James Earls narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

5$5

DATitle
Felton James Earls remembers William Montague Cobb
Felton James Earls describes the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, pt. 1
Transcript
How do you remember Dr. Cobb [William Montague Cobb], he was a friend and he was a friend and colleague of mine. I knew him well (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Oh, now, now, well--$$How do you remember him?$$Well, I remember him as an actor more than an anatomy teacher. And one of the reasons that the class didn't believe him--you see what happened is that the messenger ran down the steps and gave Cobb a, a message, you know, just to read and Cobb, you know, and Cobb did one of these, you know, Shakespearean poses and we said, here he goes again, you know, he's about to break into some, you know, soliloquy from 'Hamlet' or something like that to teach us some anatomy lesson, so when he announced to the class that it, John Kennedy [President John Fitzgerald Kennedy] had been assassinated, our first reaction was that, damn, he's gone too far. I mean this (laughter)--what play did this come from, you know. But that's--I mean, I remember this guy teaching anatomy in a way that was way up here, you know; that it was so eloquent and penetrating and thoughtful. Let me just give you one rhyme that he would say: he would say, "Why does a polar bear sit on a cake of ice?" Now, that, that forever, forever teaches a medical student that spermatogenesis occurs at somewhat lower temperature than body temperature, which is why one has descended testes. And he would just do that all the time, you know (laughter), teaching you very important principles through metaphors, through soliloquies, through--he played the violin in class at times, what a wonderful teacher.$$Oh, he was a beautiful man, interesting man.$Let's talk about your major current research, the Chicago [Illinois] project [Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods]. We'll talk some of the other research activities, but let's talk about that one.$$Well, it was a major event, you know, that I got involved in this research, I mean, partly because I was an accomplished scientist. There was a concern in the late '80s [1980s] and early '90s [1990s] that crime and violence in particular, were out of control, too many homicides, the crack cocaine epidemic was driving a lot of this, and that people started talking, people in criminal justice system, police and parole officers, and that sort of thing, started talking about tough kids unlike they had ever seen before. And, and the term super predator cropped up as a label, you know, on the kinds of crimes and the kinds of people, usually young black men who were committing these crimes. So I decided I wanted to get into this, you know, because that's not the way I saw it and I, I wanted to get into this mix, and an incredible opportunity arose, partly because of my connections at Washington University [Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri] to, to do what would be a landmark study that the justice department [U.S. Department of Justice] and the MacArthur Foundation [John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation] and the National Institute of Mental Health combined interest and said, we would like to find the most outstanding scientist--social scientist in the United States or the world for that matter, to conduct a study someplace in the United States that would set it right, you know, to say what really are the contributions of individuals, families and, and communities to this problem that we have, so that ten years from now we would be in a position to have knowledge, not just opinions about what causes violence and how to address it. So from 1989 really, to now, gradually over a period of time I organized groups of scientists, chose to work in Chicago after moving around the whole United States and thinking about, you know, Baltimore [Maryland] and Philadelphia [Pennsylvania] and Los Angeles [California] and whatever, and from '94 [1994] to 2002 we did a landmark study.$$In Chicago?$$In Chicago.$$Why Chicago and not Boston [Massachusetts]?$$Well, Chicago is big and as a city it represents so many crucial elements of American society. It's--it's got a large black population that is organized at the neighborhood level in terms of income. So you have wealthy black neighborhoods as well as lots of poor black neighborhoods. You have lots of immigrants from Mexico. You have Puerto Rican neighborhoods. In fact, it's the only city in the United States that has both Mexican and Puerto Rican neighborhoods, at least that was the case when we started. And it has whites who represent various stages of immigration to America, from Germans and Polish, to Italian and so forth. So, Chicago is America and in a sense we really wanted to dig in and understand one place, rather than doing a national study and trying to study the--every place. Chicago was sort of paradigmatic of what America is, what it's been and what it's becoming. And, and the--that demographic picture of Chicago has served us very well. In other words, I think, we think we made the right decision by going to Chicago.