The Nation’s Largest African American Video Oral History Collection Mobile search icon Mobile close search icon
Advanced Biography Search
Mobile navigation icon Close mobile navigation icon

Albert Dotson, Jr.

Attorney Albert E. Dotson, Jr. was born on June 9, 1960 in Detroit, Michigan. Dotson is the oldest of four siblings. Values of self pride and community development were instilled in Dotson and his siblings at very early ages. Dotson’s father, Albert E. Dotson, Sr., became the first African American store manager for Sears Roebuck & Company. His position required relocation to several Sears’ stores across the country. Thus, the Dotson family lived in Detroit, Chicago, and Atlanta. The family settled in Miami, Florida where Dotson, Sr. and his family formed personal relationships with various African American community leaders.

In 1978, Dotson, Jr. became the first family member to attend a four-year university. He enrolled in Dartmouth University majoring in economics and history. After his third quarter, Dotson took advantage of the foreign exchange programs at Dartmouth traveling to Morocco and Spain. Dotson graduated from Dartmouth in 1984. He then received a full scholarship to attend Vanderbilt University’s Law School in Nashville, Tennessee. During his academic tenure, Dotson was awarded the Bennett Douglas Bell Memorial Prize for academic achievement and high ethical standards. In 1987, Dotson completed his J.D. degree. He works in private practice as an equity partner with the Miami law firm of Bilzin, Sumberg, Baena, Price & Axelrod, LLP specializing in land use and zoning, and federal and local government procurement contracts and compliance.

In 1993, Dotson was the second African American to be voted on the Orange Bowl. Dotson’s father was the first African American to serve in this capacity. Dotson served as Vice President of 100 Black Men of America in 1996, later becoming Chairman in 2004. In March 2006, Dotson was sworn in to serve as President of The Orange Bowl Committee for the 2006-2007 Orange Bowl Festival and FedEx Orange Bowl Game.

Accession Number

A2006.020

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/16/2006

Last Name

Dotson

Maker Category
Middle Name

E.

Schools

Woodward Academy

Winston Churchill School

James Hart School

Mason Elementary School

Dartmouth College

Vanderbilt University

First Name

Albert

Birth City, State, Country

Detroit

HM ID

DOT01

Favorite Season

January in Miami

State

Michigan

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere With Family

Favorite Quote

You Make The Difference.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

6/9/1960

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Miami

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Sweet Potato Pie

Short Description

Association executive and administrative lawyer Albert Dotson, Jr. (1960 - ) is an equity partner at the Miami law firm of Bilzin, Sumberg, Baena, Price & Axelrod, LLP. Dotson is Chairman of 100 Black Men of America, and was president of the Orange Bowl Committee for the 2006-2007 season.

Employment

Bilzin, Sumberg, Baena, Price & Axelrod, LLP

State of Florida

Fine Jacobson Schwartz Nash Block and England

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:3781,41:4782,59:5874,74:6511,82:9969,130:15247,239:16521,269:30042,427:30802,439:31258,447:33310,487:35894,527:38478,576:39010,584:39466,593:42962,658:43266,663:45242,713:49746,742:52008,786:54114,894:58014,1102:76790,1218:77750,1234:78070,1239:81030,1296:81830,1307:82150,1312:85514,1321:90218,1417:90638,1424:92066,1466:93326,1486:97694,1589:98282,1603:106415,1733:111355,1818:111735,1823:112210,1829:117591,1845:118137,1854:118774,1867:119229,1873:122664,1928:128124,2061:134988,2189:135846,2201:141774,2291:149065,2341:149965,2362:151540,2407:154090,2454:154540,2462:155065,2471:155440,2477:156040,2490:156490,2498:160690,2588:161290,2598:167740,2650:169090,2673:169690,2684:170515,2701:170890,2707:171490,2727:172915,2741:173665,2752:173965,2757:185127,2917:185419,2922:187901,2958:188193,2963:191697,3062:197810,3174:198230,3181:198860,3193:200260,3226:201100,3239:201380,3244:205090,3332:205370,3337:207330,3370:209150,3411:210340,3446:211390,3465:218280,3510:218580,3515:223830,3645:225630,3678:225930,3683:227430,3720:228255,3733:228555,3738:233880,3838:235905,3892:237030,3927:237330,3932:247610,4029:252490,4123:253450,4139:253850,4145:254170,4150:262010,4337:262730,4351:275386,4525:277993,4582:282022,4661:283286,4691:284629,4713:285577,4737:292638,4801:294112,4856:295385,4879:297663,4939:303030,5001:303595,5006:304273,5014:305403,5024:310520,5068$0,0:7296,134:8448,148:9216,157:10272,170:13152,192:13728,213:16032,245:18060,252:20270,289:21120,302:22480,322:22905,328:23500,337:25200,356:26305,370:26985,379:27920,394:31065,452:31745,461:32340,469:35600,482:42725,578:43250,586:49272,640:50644,658:51526,668:56524,761:60048,772:65618,847:70154,943:73430,1010:79630,1047:80620,1086:82240,1114:82600,1119:90790,1248:91330,1255:92320,1268:100378,1331:100808,1337:102614,1360:105882,1410:106484,1418:114912,1549:116202,1586:121537,1629:121952,1635:123460,1641:124395,1652:124820,1658:125840,1671:130855,1769:131620,1779:132640,1806:138760,1883:139440,1896:139865,1902:145223,1930:150364,2005:151819,2031:154470,2039:155940,2068:156220,2073:159260,2118:160076,2143:161640,2180:164564,2242:166468,2288:171379,2336:173080,2362:174700,2418:175672,2434:179074,2506:179641,2514:180046,2523:180694,2539:181747,2581:183124,2606:184744,2649:186850,2730:187417,2738:197435,2890:203259,2988:203714,2994:204260,3001:205170,3012:210547,3053:211637,3068:212945,3086:217340,3120:217880,3128:221446,3184:222070,3198:224020,3236:227530,3316:233548,3387:238062,3490:238358,3495:240060,3522:244500,3615:252302,3679:252890,3687:253730,3704:254150,3717:268682,3988:269900,4003:273119,4046:273902,4057:279392,4112:281980,4124:287867,4202:291694,4258:292495,4275:292940,4281:295254,4313:309138,4502:309434,4517:309952,4525:310248,4530:313996,4562:314352,4567:314708,4572:315331,4584:316755,4605:318624,4631:319069,4637:322095,4701:322718,4710:323341,4718:323964,4726:335361,4843:336747,4868:337143,4873:338133,4887:338529,4892:345770,4988
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Albert Dotson, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Albert Dotson, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Albert Dotson, Jr. describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Albert Dotson, Jr. describes his father's career at Sears, Roebuck & Co.

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Albert Dotson, Jr. describes his maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Albert Dotson, Jr. describes his paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Albert Dotson, Jr. recalls moving to Chicago, Illinois as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Albert Dotson, Jr. describes his grade school experiences

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Albert Dotson, Jr. reflects upon his family life during his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Albert Dotson, Jr. recalls befriending the King and the Abernathy families in Atlanta

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Albert Dotson, Jr. remembers working as a ball boy for the Atlanta Hawks

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Albert Dotson, Jr. recalls his activities as a teenager in Atlanta and Miami

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Albert Dotson, Jr. describes the political atmosphere of Atlanta in the 1970s, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Albert Dotson, Jr. describes the political atmosphere of Atlanta in the 1970s, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Albert Dotson, Jr. remembers moving to Miami, Florida in 1976

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Albert Dotson, Jr. recalls his aspirations during his high school years

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Albert Dotson, Jr. recalls his decision to attend Dartmouth College

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Albert Dotson, Jr. describes his experiences at Dartmouth College

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Albert Dotson, Jr. describes Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity at Dartmouth College

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Albert Dotson, Jr. describes his studies at Dartmouth College

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Albert Dotson, Jr. remembers studying abroad in Granada, Spain

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Albert Dotson, Jr. describes how his legal career began

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Albert Dotson, Jr. recalls his decision to attend law school at Vanderbilt University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Albert Dotson, Jr. describes his experiences at Nashville's Vanderbilt University

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Albert Dotson, Jr. describes his first summer job as a law student

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Albert Dotson, Jr. remembers beginning his legal career in Miami, Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Albert Dotson, Jr. describes his leadership of 100 Black Men of America, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Albert Dotson, Jr. describes the mission of 100 Black Men of America, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Albert Dotson, Jr. describes his legal career in Miami, Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Albert Dotson, Jr. describes his specialty in land use and zoning law

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Albert Dotson, Jr. describes his presidency of the Orange Bowl Committee

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Albert Dotson, Jr. talks about managing multiple priorities in his career

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Albert Dotson, Jr. reflects upon his life

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

2$5

DATitle
Albert Dotson, Jr. remembers working as a ball boy for the Atlanta Hawks
Albert Dotson, Jr. describes his leadership of 100 Black Men of America, Inc.
Transcript
We also got to meet Walt Bellamy, who at that time was the center for the Atlanta Hawks. And we met Walt Bellamy because he knew people who lived in Homewood, Illinois. And when he got traded to Atlanta, I forget what team he got traded from, he didn't know a lot of people. He talked to his friend in Homewood, Illinois, said, why don't you call my father [Albert Dotson, Sr.], he lives there. So he got to know me and my parents and just so happened it was his turn on the Atlanta Hawks to select or recommend someone to ball boy for the Atlanta Hawks. And not knowing anybody else, he recommended me. My parents, and again, there are certain things that happen in your life that you remember like it was yesterday. I come home from school and I was playing basketball at that time in Atlanta for Woodward Academy [College Park, Georgia]. I can't tell you I was all that good, but--$$Were you about as tall now? I mean then as you are now?$$I was tall for my age, but I was a little shorter than I am today. The--I came home. My parents said, "Albert [HistoryMaker Albert Dotson, Jr.], we have some good news for you." And I said, "Well what is it?" They said that Walt Bellamy called and they made all this drama, and said that he's recommended you to be ball boy for the Atlanta Hawks. At that moment I think, least I remember it, as a pregnant pause 'cause all I'm thinking is he's recommended me, what a great honor. Didn't think I was gonna be selected. And then they said, "And you've been selected." Now I've lost it. I've lost it as a child. I just completely lost it. And then my mother [Earlene Puryear Dotson] tells me, and they're gonna pay you. I said, "Wait a minute. They're gonna pay me to go downtown to be ball boy for the Atlanta Hawks, okay this is clearly a joke." Well a long story short, I did do that for three years, three seasons, ball boy for the Atlanta Hawks. It taught me that I did not wanna be a professional basketball player the rest of my life.$$Now, what did you see when you were there?$$Well as a child, what you see on television is just when they play the game. As a person who is behind the scenes, you learn and see the business of basketball. And you learn how difficult it is. As a ball boy, I remember Lou Hudson for example, getting a shot in his knee because of an injury. And you see them going through that. You see people get traded. And how that disrupts their lives and some of them are angry about it and some of them are not. You see the interaction between the inner--the private interaction between coach and player. And sort of how that works. I mean it was great. I met a lot of people. I remember my very first game, interestingly enough, was a exhibition game between the Atlanta Hawks and the Detroit Pistons. Excuse me, Atlanta Hawks and the, the New York Knicks. And the reason I say Detroit was because it was the very first and maybe the only rain--only game that was not played because of rain. And the reason it wasn't played because of rain, Atlanta had just built the Omni [Omni Coliseum, Atlanta, Georgia]. And the Omni had a leak in the roof. And the water was coming down on the court, and the game could not be played. And what happened, because no one--it had not been experienced before, they were determining how they were going to handle this. Were they gone try to fix it, were they gonna play with it, play around it. The players sat in the locker room. So I got to spend time--'cause when you're a ball boy for a team, you're a ball boy for both the visiting team and the home team. And I got a chance to just sit and talk to Dave DeBusschere who was from Detroit. And that's how we made the connection. Bill Bradley, Walt Frazier--$$Senator.$$Senator Bill Bradley. That's right, presidential candidate Bill Bradley. Willis Reed. These are the people I'm just talking to, and they were just the most gracious people. And I really, I mean Walt Frazier, he--every time they came in town, I started collecting shoes, and had them all sign it 'cause if a shoe didn't fit right or--and this was back before the major shoe contracts. But I started--they would throw them away and I'd get them to sign it. My mother was like, "Would you stop bringing these stinky shoes home?" And you know there was--it was before people were really into memorabilia. But--$$Tell me she didn't throw them all out.$$No, I still have them. I still have them to this day. Most of them, anyway. But Walt Frazier used to always bring me stuff signed. And he was just a great human being. And I started developing those same types of relationships with teams that would come in because if you're the ball boy, you're on the bench. For the most part, you get to meet those who don't play much 'cause they're on the bench too. And you're just talking and they wanna talk to you and it's a lot easier for them to converse with people they know and you know, have a relationship with. But that made an indelible mark in me, as well, having that experience.$I wanna jump in here. Can you give a little background on the history of 100 Black Men [100 Black Men of America, Inc.]?$$Okay. 100 Black Men was actually started as a entity in 1963 in New York [New York]. It grew out of naturally the civil rights struggle and movement. But the real focus of the group at that time, which were one hundred men in New York, was the criminal system and the injustice that African Americans were experiencing in the criminal justice system. And there was a desire to focus too on economic equality amongst persons of African descent and the general population. The concept of the one hundred grew as a member moved to a different locale. The second chapter was in New Jersey. And primarily out of the Newark [New Jersey] area. And that person who helped start that chapter then moved to California, to Los Angeles [California] and started a chapter there. A chapter sprung up in Atlanta [Georgia] and Indianapolis [Indiana] and Alton, Illinois, in Suffolk County, New York, and another chapter started in California in the Oakland [California] area. But we ended up with nine organizations, all 100 Black Men of the geographic region. And eventually decided that they should come together, approximately twenty years ago in October of 1996 [sic.], to form 100 Black Men of America. And those chapters then were the beginning of what we know now as 100 Black Men of America that is now as of today 105 chapters and a global organization, having chapters in the African continent, the Caribbean basin, and Europe and in the continental United States.$$Now let's see, you were born just three years before the first organization began.$$That's correct.$$So, but today you are the chairman.$$That's correct.$$Of this nation, or worldwide organization. Now how did that come to be?$$I wasn't in the room when they voted. When we started 100 Black Men of South Florida, I was the founding president. And we did not initially decide whether--that we were going to join the 100 Black Men of America because at that time the New York chapter, the New York organization was not a part of 100 Black Men of America. The--all the organizations except New York joined. New York eventually joined. But the reason I became aware of it, I have a--have a college friend who was a member of the New York organization. I spoke to Roscoe Brown [HistoryMaker Roscoe C. Brown], a--at that time he was the president of the New York chapter, he's a Tuskegee Airman. And we were talking about us starting and he said, "Look, you don't have to follow our model. You know we were around before there was a 100 Black Men of America." And we had people like David Dinkins [HistoryMaker David N. Dinkins], Charlie Rangel [HistoryMaker Charles B. Rangel], you know these were all founders of the 100 Black Men, the New York group. And they said, "You gotta make the decision for yourself whether you wanna join or not." So after we formed, I then traveled to the first annual conference that I attended, I believe it was in New Jersey at that time. And got to meet what I thought were an--they were an amazing group of men. They came, they were about doing business. It wasn't about egos. They were talking about how they were helping kids in their community. And really focused on the business of the 100. And these were men who were very accomplished in their communities. And you know, I was sort of in awe as a, as the young buck in the room, as to what they were doing. And so as the president of our chapter, I then went to the next conference. And I started volunteering to help do things. And eventually there was an election and I was elected secretary of 100 Black Men of America. This was in 1994, in Nashville, Tennessee of all places. In Opryland [Opryland Hotel; Gaylord Opryland Resort and Convention Center, Nashville, Tennessee], that's where we had the--Opryland Hotel.$$There at Opryland.$$At that time Opryland hadn't moved to its larger current location. And we were--a group of us were elected to office in 1994. And I stayed in that position for two years. And then in--where were we--in 1996, here in Miami [Florida]. Had the convention here in Miami. I convinced them to have the convention here, it was our tenth anniversary of 100 Black Men of America. And I think I said earlier that we started in 1996, if the tape may prove me wrong, but it was 1986.$$Okay.$$That we were formed, in October 1986. In 1996, we had the convention here and I was elected vice president of 100 Black Men. It just hard work in the organization. And I stayed vice president for eight years, or vice chairman, we changed the title to chairman. And then was elected without opposition to chairman of the board of the 100 two years ago.$$And how long does your tenure last?$$It lasts for two years. Well we have two year terms, but no term limits.$$Okay, so you could, you could be reelected.$$No--I guess theoretically that's possible.

John J. Johnson

John J. Johnson was born on February 10, 1945, in Louisville, Kentucky. Johnson can trace his family history back to his maternal great-great grandparents, Prince Martin (1826-1908) and Evelyn Martin (1819-1908) and his paternal great grandparents, Alexander and Hester Johnson. Johnson grew up in Franklin, Kentucky where he experienced segregation and racism. While in high school, Johnson was involved in the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Youth Council and as a member of student government. At the age of seventeen, he became the youngest president of any Kentucky chapter of the NAACP.

Johnson worked in a factory after his high school graduation. He then worked for the Kentucky Institute for Community Development as coordinator of training services. In, 1969, Johnson accepted a position as director of operations for a national marketing and research firm based in New York. He returned to Kentucky and worked with several War on Poverty programs before assuming the position as associate director of the Louisville and Jefferson County Human Relations Commission. Johnson was later appointed director of community services for the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights. In 1984, he became the director of the Louisville and Jefferson County Community Action Agency until he joined the staff of the NAACP in Baltimore. While in Baltimore, Johnson received his B.S. degree from Sojourner-Douglass College in community development and public administration.

Johnson held the position of Chief Programs Officer for many years while working for the NAACP; he also directed a wide variety of programs, including Armed Services and Veterans Affairs; Voter Empowerment; Economic Outreach; Labor, Academic, Cultural, Technological and Scientific Olympics; the Prison Project; and the NAACP library. Johnson also worked internationally, including organizing a trip to East Germany in 1992 where he led the NAACP delegation to witness hearings on alleged discrimination against African American military workers. In 1999, Johnson returned to Germany at the United States Army’s behest to be a part of the ceremony for the 70th anniversary of Martin Luther King, Jr.’s, birthday. As part of the Freedom House Citizens Exchange Program, Johnson spent two weeks visiting East Africa to help promote global democracy. In 2002, during Zimbabwe’s Presidential Election, Johnson’s NAACP delegation was the only American organization invited to work as independent observers. Johnson eventually became the NAACP’s chief executive of operations, where he oversaw the executive office of the President and CEO.

Johnson spent a lifetime volunteering for worthy causes, but his volunteer and civic work has been faced with many challenges, from integrating the segregated swimming pool in his hometown of Franklin, to challenging issues such as divestment of Kentucky’s interest in South Africa. Johnson served as the Kentucky president of the NAACP for fourteen years, increasing Kentucky NAACP branches from four to forty-two. Johnson served as an elected member of the NAACP’s national Board of Directors where he was elected one of its vice presidents. Johnson served as chair of the Kentucky Coalition of Conscience; served as a member of the Urban League; and participated in the Kentucky chapter of the National Association of Human Rights Workers and Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Johnson also moderated a weekly radio program entitled Louisville Forum and wrote a column in the weekly newspaper, The Louisville Defender, entitled Advocacy Line. Johnson’s work in civil and human rights led to a street being named after him, John J. Johnson Avenue, in his hometown in 1993.

Johnson received numerous awards and honors, including an honorary doctorate degree from Simmons University for his civil rights and community development work; a distinguished service award from Kentucky State University; the Kentucky SCLC Annual Civil Rights Leadership Award; and the Medgar Evers Award for Outstanding Service, Sincere Devotion, and Commitment to the NAACP. Johnson served on the National Board of Directors for the A. Philip Randolph Institute; the Board of Directors of the National Committee on Pay Equity; and the National Board of Directors of the National Coalition on Black Civic Participation. He also chaired the advisory board of the National Great Blacks In Wax Museum, Inc.

Johnson and his wife, Courtrina, raised seven children.

Accession Number

A2005.220

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/21/2005

Last Name

Johnson

Maker Category
Middle Name

J.

Organizations
Schools

Lincoln High School

First Name

John

Birth City, State, Country

Louisville

HM ID

JOH22

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Kentucky

Favorite Vacation Destination

Virginia

Favorite Quote

They Who Wait On The Lord Will Renew Their Strength.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Kentucky

Birth Date

2/10/1945

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Prospect

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pasta, Hamburgers

Short Description

Association executive John J. Johnson (1945 - ) served as the Kentucky president of the NAACP for fourteen years, and also as chief programs officer and chief executive for operations for the national NAACP. He has participated in numerous struggles for national and international struggles for human and civil rights.

Employment

Potter & Brumfield, Inc., American Machine and Foundry Co.]

Kentucky Institute for Community Development

Southern Kentucky Economic Opportunity Council

Community Action Agency for Louisville and Jefferson County

Louisville and Jefferson County Human Rights Commission

Kentucky Commission on Human Rights

Louisville and Jefferson County Community Action Agency

NAACP

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:1050,19:8890,250:9240,256:9520,261:11830,307:12390,317:12670,322:13370,338:20650,469:21000,475:21280,480:32109,603:32838,613:38832,710:39885,722:40290,728:40938,737:41667,749:45555,836:45960,842:46527,850:47742,875:50253,908:54559,951:55070,960:65775,1112:80156,1270:80440,1275:81150,1286:82286,1314:83209,1332:83848,1357:90167,1478:91516,1505:93717,1533:94072,1540:99390,1561:106320,1698:117592,1835:123784,1964:124216,1974:127970,2005$0,0:10249,160:10604,166:10959,172:11598,182:13160,312:13870,323:16000,372:16355,378:18911,462:19266,468:19905,478:30549,598:32357,616:39484,682:39814,688:43114,775:43708,787:47272,851:51298,935:52090,949:52420,955:53938,988:54532,998:55654,1021:55984,1027:70337,1210:70739,1217:71275,1226:71610,1232:78444,1409:78712,1414:78980,1419:90330,1577:91030,1589:97120,1714:97400,1719:97960,1728:98590,1739:98870,1744:109094,1832:114253,1944:116563,1997:118180,2019:127805,2250:128267,2257:128575,2262:142010,2451:150688,2590:150984,2596:153740,2628
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of John J. Johnson's interview, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - John J. Johnson lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Slating of John J. Johnson's interview, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - John J. Johnson describes his mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - John J. Johnson recounts the legacy of his cousin, John Purdue

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - John J. Johnson talks about his maternal great uncle, Frank Johnson

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - John J. Johnson describes his mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - John J. Johnson recalls living with his relatives in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - John J. Johnson recalls his fascination with Morse code as a young boy

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - John J. Johnson recalls moving back to Franklin, Kentucky at the age of three

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - John J. Johnson recalls his family's involvement with Alpha Baptist Church

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - John J. Johnson describes his great aunt's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - John J. Johnson recalls his childhood activities and playmates

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - John J. Johnson describes his influential elementary school teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - John J. Johnson remembers his elementary school teacher's radio program

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - John J. Johnson recalls his introduction to student council

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - John J. Johnson talks about integration in Franklin, Kentucky

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - John J. Johnson remembers Walter H. Story's termination

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - John J. Johnson remembers his time in elementary and high school

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - John J. Johnson recalls his factory job after graduating high school in 1963

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - John J. Johnson remembers working at the Potter & Brumfield factory in Franklin, Kentucky

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - John J. Johnson describes discriminatory lending practices in Franklin, Kentucky

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - John J. Johnson remembers being denied entry into the United States Junior Chamber

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - John J. Johnson describes his early community involvement

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - John J. Johnson recalls his first project with the Franklin, Kentucky chapter of the NAACP

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - John J. Johnson remembers integrating the swimming pool in Franklin, Kentucky

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - John J. Johnson remembers leaving his factory job at Potter & Brumfield

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - John J. Johnson talks about his family

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - John J. Johnson remembers being one of the first blacks promoted at Potter & Brumfield

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - John J. Johnson describes his advocacy for equal employment opportunities in Franklin, Kentucky

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - John J. Johnson talks about police intimidation

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - John J. Johnson describes fellow members of the Franklin Simpson County Branch of the NAACP

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - John J. Johnson recalls meeting Lawrence Rainey, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - John J. Johnson recalls meeting Lawrence Rainey, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - John J. Johnson describes joining the Southern Kentucky Economic Opportunity Council

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - John J. Johnson retells an instance of discrimination toward the NAACP

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - John J. Johnson describes his experiences in marketing research

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - John J. Johnson describes his marriages and his children

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - John J. Johnson describes the professional experience he gained in New York City

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - John J. Johnson recounts his hiring as training director for the Community Action Agency

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - John J. Johnson remembers directing Louisville's Park DuValle neighborhood services center

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - John J. Johnson remembers becoming Louisville's associate director for crisis intervention and community relations

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - John J. Johnson recalls violent opposition to desegregation in Louisville, Kentucky

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - John J. Johnson describes the growth of Kentucky's NAACP during his tenure as state president

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - John J. Johnson describes working for the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - John J. Johnson recalls supporting the NAACP as assistant director for the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - John J. Johnson reflects upon heroism within the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - John J. Johnson describes his involvement with the NAACP's national board

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - John J. Johnson talks about the 1979 NAACP Annual Convention

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - John J. Johnson outlines his trajectory at the NAACP

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - John J. Johnson reflects upon civil rights issues within the Labor Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - John J. Johnson describes the AFL-CIO's support of the NAACP in Port Gibson, Mississippi

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - John J. Johnson describes his work for the armed services and veterans' affairs division of the NAACP

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - John J. Johnson reflects upon his contributions to the NAACP

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - John J. Johnson describes his work with Historymaker Bruce Gordon

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - John J. Johnson thanks those who work in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - John J. Johnson reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - John J. Johnson talks about his children

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - John J. Johnson narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - John J. Johnson narrates his photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

5$4

DATitle
John J. Johnson recalls his first project with the Franklin, Kentucky chapter of the NAACP
John J. Johnson describes working for the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights
Transcript
But those are just some of the experiences you, you went through. We, when we organized, or when I became president of the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Franklin-Simpson County, Kentucky], well, what'll you do? There were several issues that we wanted to confront but there was real resistance even among some of the black community. You had a core group of people who were willing to address issues but by and large there was a great fear factor in a small town like that of being overly identified with the NAACP. One of the projects we initiated was a little community park, and so we agreed that maybe we can do some things for ourselves, let's start there, and so people gave fifty cents, a dollar, two dollars and we went around and took up some money. We raised six hundred [dollars] or seven hundred dollars and brought some playground equipment. Mrs. Lula Bradley [ph.], a very elderly lady owned a piece of land and I went to ask Ms. Bradley could we use that land. She said well if you want to clean it off. It had grown up in bushes and (unclear), and so several guys James Bailey, O'Neal Torrance--I can't--there are three or four of them. They came over and mowed off the land and leveled it off and we bought some playground equipment and made a little playground in the community. The truth is that playground now was moved, the city ran a street through there and it's become one of the nicer facilities where the city funds it and keeps it operational now, but it was just a small effort but the word got out, the pictures got in the newspaper. I can show you a copy of some of the pictures, and the powers that be thought it was a great thing that the NAACP had organized its playground and so the folk who had--were doing domestic work and talking to the their white employers were--discussed well the NAACP's doing--are you all a part of this (unclear)? And so everybody became wanting to be a part of a success story you know?$$Right.$(Simultaneous) Right after you had assumed the role there at Louisville [Kentucky]?$$Yeah.$$Okay. Good, you know.$$Yes, uh-huh, and when I took the job at the local human relations commission [Louisville and Jefferson County Human Relations Commission; Louisville Metro Human Relations Commission], some of the commission members felt like that I should not serve as the state president of the NAACP [Kentucky Conference of the NAACP] and as an employee of the Human Relations Commission and so that became kind of an in-house battle and I gave up the presidency for a year and the following year took a job as the director of--an assistant director for the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights.$$Okay.$$Which was right up the street, but that was a statewide agency. There they had no problem with me being the state president of the NAACP and so I continued then to serve as president of the state NAACP and worked for the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights. There was some fourteen different cities where we set up human relations commissions. We worked with black people to try to encourage them to run for elective office in the state. We had very few black elected officials and I never will forget having meetings after meetings about trying to get blacks to run for the school board. The people were just reluctant to do it, didn't think they could do it and we would say, "Well, look don't you know some people in that school that you think you could represent folks just as well as they are?" and over a period of time we were able to get that done, but so for roughly ten years or so I worked for the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights.$$Okay.$$And setting up human relations commissions dealing with problems related to race relations in the state; worked on a multitude of things. We thought during that period that Klan [Ku Klux Klan (KKK)] activity was a thing of the past, and I never will forget getting a call one day from an NAACP chapter in the rural part of the state about Klan signs that were being circulated in the community. I thought this guy was just over-reacting. He said, "No, John [HistoryMaker John J. Johnson], there are Klan signs." I said, "Klan is outdated, nobody's in the Klan." I mean now the Klan people walk around boldly telling you who they are, but we thought that actually it was something of our past, that we would not have to deal with. So I drove down to this little city and sure enough there were Klan signs being posted all around and before long they were having meetings all over the state, but again it's just one of the many, many issues we dealt with there.

Barbara L. Thomas

Barbara Louise Thomas was the president and CEO of the Chicago based National Black Master of Business Administration Association (NBMBAA). Thomas was born on December 5, 1947, in Dublin, Georgia, one of Jerrie Lee Tart and Horace Sanders’s thirteen children. Thomas was raised by foster parents Georgia and George Monroe in Dublin, where she attended segregated public schools and graduated from Oconee High School. In 1965, Thomas moved to New York City with her birth mother and took a job at Harlem Youth Opportunities Unlimited - Associated Community Teams (HARYOU-ACT) where she met her husband. Thomas went on to receive her B.A. degree from New York's Bernard Baruch College in 1970 and her M.B.A. degree from Columbia University in 1973.

While a university student, Thomas clerked at CBS’s Radio Division. After completing her education, Thomas moved into the CBS television division and managed network cut-ins, a position she credits with opening the door to her twenty-five year career at CBS. Eventually Thomas was the first African American woman to attend CBS’s School of Management. Thomas later became director of finance and administration for CBS, and left the network in 1989 after serving as the first African American woman to act as a senior vice-president.

Moving on from CBS to function as chief financial officer for various health care organizations and other non-profit groups, Thomas moved to Chicago in 2001 and spent two years as the chief financial officer for the NBMBAA. The board of directors of the NBMBAA appointed Thomas as president in 2003.

Citing her faith as a major sustaining force in her life, Thomas remained active in her church. Thomas raised two daughters and had five grandchildren.

Accession Number

A2005.169

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/21/2005

Last Name

Thomas

Maker Category
Middle Name

L.

Schools

Oconee High School

City University of New York

Baruch College

Columbia University

Susie Dasher Elementary School

CBS School of Management

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Barbara

Birth City, State, Country

Dublin

HM ID

THO09

Favorite Season

All Seasons

Sponsor

The Jay Pritzker Foundation

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Favorite Quote

I'm Blessed.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

12/5/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Donuts (Krispy Kreme)

Short Description

Association executive and broadcast executive Barbara L. Thomas (1947 - ) was appointed president of the National Black Master of Business Administration Association in 2003.

Employment

National Black MBA Association

Harlem United Activists for Community

CBS Radio

CBS Television Division

CBS Television Finance Division

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
0,0:1144,11:2728,30:3080,35:9504,161:13376,225:13816,230:14168,236:15312,253:16104,264:24130,319:25850,343:26796,359:27398,368:33645,429:34375,440:35251,458:35616,464:37076,496:40221,524:41094,534:44370,564:47450,614:47978,621:52202,719:53698,744:54578,755:55458,769:56338,780:57482,797:63210,841:67185,929:67560,935:78164,1101:81042,1117:81862,1128:83092,1150:83830,1161:91935,1284:93660,1306:93960,1311:95985,1358:100767,1417:105240,1526:109704,1585:110644,1598:111490,1609:111960,1615:112806,1632:115234,1653:120994,1792:127618,1959:128122,1968:133700,2031:137832,2084:138180,2089:138963,2101:146097,2230:151737,2273:152664,2285:153282,2292:156475,2370:157093,2378:161218,2394:165310,2428$0,0:736,13:8224,214:9004,226:10174,243:10486,248:14542,319:14854,324:15166,329:16180,350:17740,380:18520,395:24134,422:26420,442:27122,452:28136,463:29306,484:31022,511:31568,520:32894,549:33518,559:38888,593:39455,604:39707,609:40085,616:40526,627:40778,632:42542,668:43172,680:44558,704:45629,731:46385,748:50417,844:50669,849:51236,861:51488,866:52433,892:52874,901:62054,983:62678,992:62990,997:67124,1076:82140,1159:83850,1180:84420,1187:90595,1279:95373,1301:95870,1311:96722,1325:97006,1330:98142,1353:98710,1362:99278,1372:113246,1498:114311,1517:121624,1657:122121,1665:122831,1680:123967,1708:124393,1715:125600,1734:126097,1743:126807,1756:127091,1761:127801,1776:128440,1788:129079,1798:130073,1815:134590,1828:134998,1835:135406,1842:136086,1858:137514,1883:140266,1919:140994,1929:142268,1961:146523,1975:147020,1984:147446,1991:151990,2048:153130,2073:153662,2082:153966,2087:158222,2192:158526,2197:160046,2232:160578,2240:161414,2263:161794,2276:168163,2317:168678,2323:182633,2494:183712,2591:184376,2601:188674,2614:189514,2628:196250,2705:199860,2740
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Barbara L. Thomas' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Barbara L. Thomas lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Barbara L. Thomas describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Barbara L. Thomas describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Barbara L. Thomas describes her parents' occupations

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Barbara L. Thomas describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Barbara L. Thomas describes her father and how she resembles him

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Barbara L. Thomas describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Barbara L. Thomas recalls Susie Dasher Elementary School and Oconee High School, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Barbara L. Thomas recalls Susie Dasher Elementary School and Oconee High School, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Barbara L. Thomas recalls her experiences at Oconee High School

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Barbara L. Thomas describes her extracurricular activities in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Barbara L. Thomas recounts her civil rights activity in Dublin, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Barbara L. Thomas recalls her favorite television shows growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Barbara L. Thomas talks about attending college and moving to New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Barbara L. Thomas recalls working for HARYOU-ACT

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Barbara L. Thomas recalls meeting her husband and their marriage in 1967

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Barbara L. Thomas recalls studying finance and obtaining her M.B.A. degree from Columbia University

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Barbara L. Thomas recalls her various promotions at CBS

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Barbara L. Thomas recounts her experiences at the CBS School of Management

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Barbara L. Thomas describes her retirement from CBS and subsequent roles

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Barbara L. Thomas recounts the history of the National Black MBA Association

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Barbara L. Thomas describes the activities of the National Black MBA Association

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Barbara L. Thomas describes the current climate for young black people with M.B.A.s

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Barbara L. Thomas details the National Black MBA Association's future plans

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Barbara L. Thomas describes her involvement with her church

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Barbara L. Thomas describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Barbara L. Thomas reflects upon her life

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Barbara L. Thomas reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Barbara L. Thomas reflects upon her family

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Barbara L. Thomas describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Barbara L. Thomas describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

3$1

DATitle
Barbara L. Thomas recounts her civil rights activity in Dublin, Georgia
Barbara L. Thomas recounts her experiences at the CBS School of Management
Transcript
Okay. And when you, well, in that part of Georgia was there any civil rights activity going on there?$$Oh, yeah, I was a naughty little girl (laughter). I did have one experience and it was really an accident. And Georgia gets very, very hot and you walk every place. I mean, you know, teenagers didn't drive their parents' cars, you, you walked. And we were not allowed to go into any of the white restaurants. And in the department stores there is a water fountain and it would say what, white and colored. But our water was always hot and it would never come up to high but the white fountains water was always high and icy cold.$$In the cooler--$$And, yeah.$$--or water cooler.$$Oh, yeah. And so one day we were cutting through the department store, Belk's Department Store on our way home and it was hot and I wanted a drink of water and I just figured no one was watching so I thought I'd steal some water from the white fountain and next thing I know the sheriff had me by the shoulders (laughter).$$The, the sheriff himself?$$The sheriff, right. He just happened to be in the, in the store. Like, I really got quite a lashing. But because he knew my father [Horace Sanders] I didn't get thrown in jail but I probably would have. So I thought since I got away with that I could get away with something else. So then there was, we used to have a drugstore and it had a soda fountain but we weren't allowed, I mean, we could go in and order if we wanted to but you had to stand over in the back, you weren't allowed to sit. And I decided one day to sit down. Well, that was the time I got taken down to the jail house. I didn't get locked up but it frightened me enough to know that I dare not do those things again. But there was a lot of picketing, you know, a lot of protesting and it started back in the '60s [1960s].$$Now did you keep up--$$In Dublin [Georgia].$$--with civil rights activity?$$Yeah, you know, as far as reading and what was going on. And I was, of course, very anxious to, you know, to participate in it but, you know. You didn't have as much going on in Dublin as you did in Atlanta [Georgia] or Macon [Georgia], the larger cities that surrounded us, you know. But our voices were, their voices were heard, you know. But my parents and foster parents [George Monroe and Georgia Monroe], you know, at that time I was back with my parents, didn't allow us to participate, you know.$Well tell us about the CBS School of Management [New York, New York]. You know, is CBS the only network to have its own school of management?$$I, I don't know. I don't know if other networks had it. But I, I, I remember us going to the old Ford mansion up in upstate New York, I can't even remember where, but I was just very surprised that I was selected and again it was the same gentleman Donald Bryan [ph.] who had watched me. And he basically said to me that he saw a lot of potential in me and he was going to help me, you know, learn the ropes and make my way up the ladder. And I received a memo saying that I had been selected to go to the CBS School of Management, which was a total shock because first of all I was black, and to me that was a very prestigious place and you didn't, you know, you didn't get to go in there. But what they did is they selected people that they felt had potential and the company wanted to invest in because they saw you as a long term employee that they could truly see the return on their investment. CBS School of Management basically taught you how to dress, how to speak, which pieces of silverware to use when you're out on a client meeting, you know. We did simulations, but with the simulations then back, if you were the president of CBS, you know, how would you run this company. So you had a full day where you were the president. These are things people are doing now that CBS was doing way back, you know, in the '60s [1960s]. It, I guess, in its, one could say that it brainwashed you because I went out and bought more pinstripe, black and blue pinstriped suits than I ever knew in my life because that was what, that was the dress. But it really prepared you to be ready to step out and meet with their key clients and negotiate business for the company. So that's really what it was all about, preparing you for that.$$Okay. So, so an emphasis on style and culture and how to--$$Exactly. Exactly. But very few people were selected to attend this, go through this. So I was very, very privileged to have had that opportunity. And it was a, you know, it was much, much more intense and I'm sort of giving you the, the high level of it but there was a lot of intense time. We were up very early in the morning, you know, to very late at night going through trainings that they had provided for us.$$How long did it last?$$I think it was about two and a half weeks of--$$And--$$--just intense. And you didn't go home to your family.$$And about what, what year was this (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) That's what I'm trying to remember. I believe, if I remember it was in 1973, I have to look at my, my award, my, that I received from them.$$All right.$$My diploma.

Mildred Bond Roxborough

NAACP executive Mildred Bond Roxborough was born on June 30, 1926, in Brownsville, Tennessee, one of three daughters of college sweethearts Ollie and Mattye Tollette Bond. Roxborough’s family background included a tradition of African American empowerment; her mother’s family founded Tollette, Arkansas, which was a post-Reconstruction, all-African American town, while her own parents chartered Brownsville, Tennesee’s first chapter of the NAACP. At the age of nine, Roxborough began selling subscriptions to The Crisis, the official publication of the NAACP.

Roxborough and her family moved to Kansas City after her father’s involvement in civil rights activities forced her family to leave Tennessee; it was there that she graduated from Charles Sumner High School in 1943. Roxborough worked towards her college undergraduate degree at Howard University and Washington Square College of New York University, finishing in 1947; she received her M.A degree from Columbia University in 1953, and attended the University of Paris extension at Marseilles and the University of Mexico at Cuernavaca.

Roxborough’s career at the NAACP began with her position as national staff field secretary in 1954; she became the executive assistant and the administrative assistant to executive director in 1963, and in 1975, she became assistant director. Between 1978 and 1984, Roxborough became director of operations for the NAACP. Between 1984 and 1986, Roxborough moved up to become director of programs; she was the first woman to serve the organization in that role. Roxborough served as director of development from 1986 until her retirement in 1997. Despite her retirement, Roxborough, a mainstay of the organization, remained intimately involved with the planning and core operations of the annual NAACP National Convention and the organization’s New York Bureau.

In addition to her service to and lifetime membership in the NAACP, Roxborough served as vice chairman of Intergroup Corporation, and on the boards of America's Charities and Morningside Retirement and Health, Incorporated. Roxborough’s honors and awards included the James Weldon John¬son Medal; the Medgar Wiley Evers Award; and America's Charities Distinguished Service Award.

Accession Number

A2005.129

Sex

Female

Interview Date

6/8/2005 |and| 8/24/2005

Last Name

Roxborough

Maker Category
Schools

Charles L. Sumner High School

Northeast Middle

Haywood County Training School

Columbia University

New York University

Howard University

First Name

Mildred Bond

Birth City, State, Country

Brownsville

HM ID

ROX01

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Tennessee

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

6/30/1926

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Crab Cakes, Tropical Fruit, Veggies

Short Description

Association executive Mildred Bond Roxborough (1926 - ) served as director of development for the NAACP and continued to work for the New York Bureau of the association long past her retirement.

Favorite Color

Blue, Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:1584,21:2952,74:8928,241:9288,247:9792,255:14328,354:14832,363:15336,374:15768,382:16056,387:16632,396:23132,429:31824,545:32152,598:44862,840:57198,898:58870,930:59174,935:59706,944:60466,956:61150,968:61454,973:67218,1030:76616,1077:76900,1082:77184,1087:79030,1111:79456,1118:79953,1127:82864,1170:83148,1175:84355,1190:84639,1195:85136,1203:85704,1212:96618,1302:98202,1326:104376,1375:105066,1387:105549,1398:106308,1411:113694,1483:114366,1501:115962,1535:116802,1571:120750,1639:121926,1655:122346,1661:123606,1680:125034,1704:128394,1757:128814,1763:135458,1795:136942,1807:137274,1812:139017,1836:139432,1842:140179,1853:141673,1879:145438,1949:145822,1954:147262,1973:151765,1995:152800,2005:153260,2010:153835,2016:156825,2030:160720,2045:164126,2080:164650,2085:167925,2116:172352,2141:172676,2146:173486,2158:174053,2167:175025,2183:177365,2195:178135,2207:179290,2230:179829,2239:180599,2251:181138,2260:181600,2267:181908,2272:184449,2320:184834,2326:186990,2380:187298,2385:201822,2631:206984,2694:209387,2723:214446,2734:219024,2824:220172,2833:221484,2844:222304,2850:222960,2856:223780,2863:228940,2925:229360,2932:229640,2937:236820,2992$0,0:476,7:884,15:14688,281:15096,288:15708,298:15980,303:16388,313:16660,318:19312,368:19584,373:37693,617:38383,632:39073,642:39418,648:41350,685:44524,751:44800,756:45076,761:45559,766:45904,773:46456,783:47008,793:53888,824:54344,831:58752,971:59512,984:59816,989:60728,1017:61336,1022:62020,1033:69772,1169:71368,1192:80381,1247:83230,1294:89698,1404:90930,1424:91392,1432:91854,1439:93317,1462:95627,1503:96243,1513:96859,1522:97706,1537:98245,1546:112747,1697:114134,1726:117054,1785:117930,1798:118295,1804:118879,1815:119244,1821:123478,1888:129947,1916:137970,2082:138893,2097:141875,2158:142301,2166:145638,2222:146206,2232:146632,2239:147058,2247:147768,2261:156660,2332:157540,2345:159220,2377:160100,2387:160740,2399:161140,2405:162260,2417:163860,2438:164260,2444:164820,2453:168340,2504:173970,2535:176210,2562:177010,2570:177410,2576:177970,2585:178850,2600:179250,2606:184770,2683:186770,2711:190610,2761:191170,2769:197190,2782:197902,2794:199059,2813:201761,2840:202631,2851:206111,2899:206720,2909:209869,2919:210161,2924:210453,2929:210818,2935:211110,2940:212497,2970:212789,2975:214468,3002:216220,3033:216512,3038:217169,3049:217680,3057:218556,3071:219067,3079:222060,3154:224469,3188:232535,3257:234260,3301:234674,3308:235157,3316:235709,3324:239573,3453:239918,3460:240401,3468:243230,3478
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Mildred Bond Roxborough's interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Mildred Bond Roxborough lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Mildred Bond Roxborough describes her maternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Mildred Bond Roxborough recounts how her maternal grandfather founded Tollette, Arkansas

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Mildred Bond Roxborough describes her mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Mildred Bond Roxborough describes her paternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Mildred Bond Roxborough talks about her father's childhood and U.S. military service

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Mildred Bond Roxborough tells the story of how her parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Mildred Bond Roxborough describes her parents' teaching careers at Haywood County Training School in Brownsville, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Mildred Bond Roxborough lists her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Mildred Bond Roxborough describe her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Mildred Bond Roxborough describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Mildred Bond Roxborough recalls why her parents established an NAACP branch in Haywood County, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Mildred Bond Roxborough remembers the backlash from the white community when her father tried to register to vote

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Mildred Bond Roxborough explains how she was affected by the violent response to her parents' voting rights activism

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Mildred Bond Roxborough remembers a threat to her father's life

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Mildred Bond Roxborough remembers her father's narrow escape from an attempt on his life in Brownsville, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Mildred Bond Roxborough remembers her father's return to Brownsville, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Mildred Bond Roxborough recalls enrolling at Howard University in Washington, D.C. after her graduation from high school at age fifteen

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Mildred Bond Roxborough remembers her time at Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Mildred Bond Roxborough describes scholars at Howard University in Washington, D.C. during the 1940s

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Mildred Bond Roxborough explains her decision to transfer to New York University in New York, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Mildred Bond Roxborough recalls her introduction to leadership of the NAACP

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Mildred Bond Roxborough describes her recruitment to the NAACP

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Mildred Bond Roxborough explains her first assignment at the NAACP

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Mildred Bond Roxborough remembers working for Dr. Lillie May Carroll Jackson

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Mildred Bond Roxborough recalls working with notoriously difficult NAACP leaders

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Mildred Bond Roxborough recalls the first NAACP Freedom Fund Dinner in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Mildred Bond Roxborough describes the reaction to the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka decision at the NAACP

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Mildred Bond Roxborough remembers organizing in Arkansas following the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka decision

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Mildred Bond Roxborough talks about Daisy Bates

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Mildred Bond Roxborough talks about NAACP community meetings in Arkansas in 1954

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Mildred Bond Roxborough remembers a funny story from her time traveling for the NAACP

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Mildred Bond Roxborough recalls going to Mississippi after her NAACP work in Arkansas

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Mildred Bond Roxborough elaborates on her experience as an NAACP fieldworker in the 1950s

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Mildred Bond Roxborough describes the gender dynamics of being a female NAACP fieldworker in the 1950s

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Mildred Bond Roxborough recalls highlights from her NAACP fieldwork

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Mildred Bond Roxborough remembers Medgar Evers

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Mildred Bond Roxborough talks about the relationship between the NAACP Youth Council and NAACP leadership

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Slating of Mildred Bond Roxborough's interview, session 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Mildred Bond Roxborough remembers NAACP leaders who were assassinated in Mississippi

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Mildred Bond Roxborough explains the importance of attaining the right to vote in primaries in 1948

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Mildred Bond Roxborough talks about her role as an NAACP field secretary

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Mildred Bond Roxborough traces how the NAACP's legal strategy for educational integration culminated in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 1954

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Mildred Bond Roxborough talks about the relationship between the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and the NAACP

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Mildred Bond Roxborough describes life on the road as an NAACP fieldworker

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Mildred Bond Roxborough remembers women who were the backbone of the NAACP

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Mildred Bond Roxborough recalls her marriage to John W. Roxborough

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Mildred Bond Roxborough talks about the value of African American history

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Mildred Bond Roxborough remembers the assassination of Medgar Evers

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Mildred Bond Roxborough reflects upon changes in Mississippi following the assassination of Medgar Evers

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Mildred Bond Roxborough talks about conditions that led to riots following the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Mildred Bond Roxborough explains how the NAACP approaches civil rights issues in the 2000s

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Mildred Bond Roxborough talks about the proliferation of African American organizations

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Mildred Bond Roxborough explains Roy Wilkins' response to the Black Power movement

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Mildred Bond Roxborough responds to African American nostalgia for segregated education

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Mildred Bond Roxborough explains how the NAACP was a model for later activist organizations

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Mildred Bond Roxborough remembers assaults withstood by the NAACP

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Mildred Bond Roxborough talks about the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party and the Democratic Party in 2005

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Mildred Bond Roxborough describes her concerns for the future

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Mildred Bond Roxborough talks about her stepsons' accomplishments

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Mildred Bond Roxborough explains the importance of history

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Mildred Bond Roxborough reflects upon the history of the NAACP

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Mildred Bond Roxborough talks about the NAACP's founding

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Mildred Bond Roxborough lists the African American executive directors of the NAACP

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Mildred Bond Roxborough explains how Bruce S. Gordon was appointed director of the NAACP

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Mildred Bond Roxborough describes how NAACP leadership changed during the early 20th century

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Mildred Bond Roxborough lists recent directors of the NAACP

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Mildred Bond Roxborough explains the organizational structure of the NAACP

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Mildred Bond Roxborough reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Mildred Bond Roxborough describes her hopes for the African American community

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Mildred Bond Roxborough recalls her father's principles

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Mildred Roxborough recalls the NAACP's support of Ambassador HistoryMaker The Honorable Andrew Young

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Mildred Roxborough recalls being convinced to participate in The HistoryMakers by HistoryMaker Paul Brock

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Mildred Roxborough explains why Gordon S. Parks was appointed NAACP president in 2005

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Mildred Roxborough narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$5

DAStory

7$5

DATitle
Mildred Bond Roxborough remembers the backlash from the white community when her father tried to register to vote
Mildred Bond Roxborough describes the gender dynamics of being a female NAACP fieldworker in the 1950s
Transcript
Anyway, they got the charter, and so many people white people didn't know what NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] was, you understand. And they invited for the charter ceremony or meeting, they had it at the First Baptist Church [Brownsville, Tennessee]. And they invited the sheriff and the mayor and the somebody-else from the city. And some of them actually came and spoke, and it was later that they found out what they had--the NAACP was. They were calling it NAPC and AWC or whatever. But the--"It's a good thing for you coloreds," you know, that kind of thing.$$They actually tried to-they took it as a chance to compliment black people on doing it.$$Yes.$$They didn't know what it was (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) They didn't know what it was. But, when he [Roxborough's father, Ollie Bond] went up to register to vote, with the group. Went to the courthouse to register, so that they would be eligible to vote in the next election. And he said, "Now, you know you don't have no business up here," you know. But it was about that time when the blacks started coming back and asking for the right to register for vote, that they realized, they started learning about the NAACP. It didn't take them long. And as a result, they were threatening--they started threatening the members. They wanted--they could identify, in a small town, they could identify the people who were willing to go and do this. So, they could identify the members, and they started threatening them. And my mother [Mattye Tollette Bond] was a teacher. She was fired from her job, at that point. And they were threatening the other people. One was a shoemaker, and they had different kinds of vocations. And there were two or three teachers in the group. And, of course then they started threatening the black people for using my father's funeral business [Rawls Funeral Home, Brownsville, Tennessee], you know. And they arrested him a few times on charges like violating some local ordinance, or trespassing or jaywalking. And a couple of times they arrested him, and they--he was pretty badly beaten. So they brought him home one night and I was there. And brought him home, opened the front door and brought him into the living room where I was. And he was beaten. They had used brass knuckles to beat him. And said, "Here's your pa, you take care of him now." And put him in there on the couch and left him. So, those are childhood pictures, you know, that kind of thing.$$So what--you know, what a horrible thing to happen (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) He was a very gentle man. He wasn't very literate. You know he wasn't a--his militancy was determination, not overt and physical.$$What a horrible thing to happen as a child, to see your father beaten like that, and--$$I guess by then I was about nine; eight, nine. And he--and they told him that, that, "You should, you should know better. After all, you come from one of us, you know."$Did it make it easier for you to travel from--through those [southern] states, being a young woman rather than a young man?$$It made it easy in some respects and more difficult in other respects. Prior to--you have the situation, also, the social side of it, where people saw you freely traveling like this. At that time, that they would also think, "Well, she's an easy mark." This is the male thought now, you know, in terms of young, attractive woman, and respectable men. They--you all--let me back up and talk, say it again. The men will look at young, attract--what they call attractive women, and they're unfettered and free, and think that, "Well, it won't hurt for me to make a pass at her, or see how far this will go." Well, I had to deal with that like a young man would not have to do at that point. The female constituents of NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] weren't aggressive, and they weren't reaching out to the young men in that sense, as it was. That was that duality of treatment. Still, the dual standard occurred there. And apparently, to them, I was a young attractive woman. So, I have been in some places, I awakened one night and to have a--I just happened--just woke up for some reason, and there standing over me was my host in the bedroom, in the guest bedroom. And well, anyway. So (laughter), and you had to be very careful, because you did not want to insult people or offend them, because then they would complain, find a reason to complain about the fact that the work of the NAACP wasn't being done properly. And I've had branch presidents--like an idiot, one night out in Denver, Colorado, I went to let the man help me carry stuff from the meeting up to the hotel room. This is a long time ago, of course. I'm going back to my early days. And he came in to put the papers all--the garbage--the junk that we have left over from meetings, the important documents I should say. And, we deal in paper. So, the next thing I knew, he was chasing me around the hotel room (laughter). It caught me completely off guard. And he--now this one wasn't an old man, either. And some of them were the older ones who had less inhibitions. But these are things that go with the job, that went with the job. And, so you had that in the '50s [1950s], and probably the early '60s [1960s] too. It was still not usual for a young woman to go freely and travel in these kinds of circumstances. So, it was an extraordinarily good education for me, but I had to learn to follow a line, so that we would still be friends, and I could still go to that dinner the next day, and sit there at the dais, on the dais with him next to me, and we were friends, and there was no animus between us, because that was the thing. The volunteers are our bosses. And, that was one ingredient which was on the debit side of the ledger. But travel, I could get away with doing more things than a fellow could in many instances in the course of traveling. And being--getting into places and getting audiences and talking with mayors, or whatever my assignment would be at that time, because they would say, "She's inoffensive and she's--." You know, it's a matter of their having the power and the control, and they didn't feel threatened by having someone like me come in and talk with them. Then they would go out and see me leading a demonstration somewhere, and they would decide they had made a mistake after all.