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Reverend Julie Johnson Staples

Journalist, corporate executive and minister Reverend Julie Johnson Staples was born and raised in Des Moines, Iowa. In 1978, she received her B.S. degree in journalism from the William Allen White School of Journalism and Public Information at the University of Kansas.

Johnson Staples was first hired as a reporter for regional newspapers including the Orlando Sentinel and the Baltimore Sun, where she was a White House correspondent. In the late 1980s, Johnson Staples was appointed as a White House correspondent for The New York Times. A few years later she left The New York Times to work as the Supreme Court correspondent for TIME magazine, and then as the Justice Department correspondent for ABC News.

In 1994, Johnson Staples received her J.D. degree from Georgetown University Law Center. Also in the 1990s, she worked as a visiting professor in the School of Communication, Information and Library Studies at Rutgers University. In addition, she was a guest speaker and lecturer at such prestigious institutions as Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government, the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University, and the Ford Hall Forum in Boston, Massachusetts.

In 1998, Johnson Staples was named senior managing director and director of the U.S. Media Services practice for Hill and Knowlton. In the early 2000s, she joined the private equity firm of Warburg Pincus as a vice president. She was then promoted to managing director in 2003, and was later named the first African American woman partner at Warburg Pincus.

After almost a decade at Warburg Pincus, Johnson Staples returned to school and received her M.Div. degree in Biblical Studies/Hebrew Bible from the Union Theological Seminary in 2011 and was ordained as a Congregational minister at Plymouth Church in Brooklyn, New York. In 2012, she received her Th.M. degree in Religion, Literature and Culture at Harvard Divinity School and was named interim minister for education at The Riverside Church in New York City.

Johnson Staples serves as moderator of the New York-New Jersey Regional Association of the National Association of Congregational Christian Churches (NACCC), and is a member of the NACCC national ambassador team, executive committee and board of directors. She was a fellow of the Congregational Foundation for Theological Studies and has served on the Georgetown University Law Center board of visitors; the University of Kansas Journalism School's board of trustees; the board of the Congregational Library of the Congregational Christian Historical Society in Boston, Massachusetts; and the Peace Action of New York State board of directors. Johnson Staples is also former chair of the board of directors of healthywomen.org and Changing Women's Health Naturally (P.B).

Johnson Staples is married, lives in Brooklyn, New York, and has one son.

Reverend Julie Johnson Staples was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 16, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.240

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/16/2014

Last Name

Staples

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Johnson

Schools

University of Kansas

Georgetown University Law Center

Union Theological Seminary

Harvard Divinity School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Julie

Birth City, State, Country

Des Moines

HM ID

STA12

State

Iowa

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

1/11/1957

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Short Description

Journalist, corporate executive, and minister Reverend Julie Johnson Staples (1957 - ) is the minister for education at The Riverside Church in New York City. Prior to being ordained a minister in 2011, she was a managing director and partner at Warburg Pincus and senior managing director for Hill and Knowlton. From 1978 to 1998, she worked as a correspondent for the Baltimore Sun, The New York Times, TIME magazine and ABC News.

Employment

Orlando Sentinel

Baltimore Sun

The New York Times

TIME Magazine

ABC News

Rutgers University

Hill and Knowlton

Warburg Pincus

Riverside Church

Marcus McCraven

Electrical engineer Marcus R. McCraven was born on December 27, 1923 in Des Moines, Iowa to parents Marcus and Buena McCraven. After graduating from high school, McCraven enrolled at Howard University but was drafted into the U.S. Army during his first year of college. He was listed as an expert rifleman but went on to serve as a supply clerk with an engineering regiment in Papua, New Guinea and in the Philippines. Returning to the United States, McCraven continued his studies at Howard University and graduated with his B.S. degree in electrical engineering.

Upon graduation, McCraven was hired at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C. After six months, he was promoted to electrical engineer and became the project leader of the Nuclear Systems Branch. McCraven soon moved to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California where he worked on the hydrogen bomb. His area of expertise on the project was diagnostics and he was instrumental the early development of nuclear weapons, including nuclear tests on Bikini Island and in Nevada. McCraven then joined the research staff at the California Lawrence Radiation Laboratory; and, in the 1960s, he left California and moved to Connecticut where he began to work for Phelps Dodge. In 1970, he joined United Illuminating Co. as the director of environmental engineering and was later promoted to vice president.
McCraven has also served as trustee at Quinnipiac University in Hamden, Connecticut. In 2011, McCraven received an Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters degree from Albertus Magnus College in New Haven, Connecticut.

McCraven lives in Hamden, Connecticut with his wife, Marguerite McCraven, a former social worker in the Hamden Public Schools. They have three children: Paul McCraven, the vice president of community development at New Alliance Bank; Stephen McCraven, a musician living in Paris, Carol McCraven.

Marcus McCraven was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 8, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.069

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/9/2013

Last Name

McCraven

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

University of Maryland

University of California, Berkeley

Bowman High School

Howard University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Marcus

Birth City, State, Country

Des Moines

HM ID

MCC14

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Iowa

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Connecticut

Birth Date

12/27/1923

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New Haven

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Southern Food

Short Description

Electrical engineer Marcus McCraven (1923 - ) is an electrical engineer who worked to develop the hydrogen bomb at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Employment

United Illuminating Co.

Phelps Dodge Electronics

University of California, Livermore

Naval Research Laboratory

Favorite Color

Blue, Gray

Timing Pairs
0,0:10795,70:11731,79:52100,293:52856,304:55895,316:58812,338:69982,477:70510,483:81578,640:86666,718:89474,747:90878,802:102840,890:103608,903:106782,912:113561,1003:117805,1064:118470,1093:128110,1206$0,0:535,3:3460,58:4955,68:14740,159:20185,210:24516,286:24846,292:25374,302:25902,308:26364,317:27816,344:28080,349:34190,387:39360,410:39640,415:41040,445:44222,507:44768,516:45080,521:45470,527:46250,539:48500,544:48850,550:49760,572:50460,586:50810,592:51090,597:52280,613:53400,643:59123,709:62738,749:66728,790:67184,795:73694,838:73998,843:74378,849:76768,864:77058,870:77406,878:77638,883:77986,890:81372,907:84187,926:84908,934:91842,945:92874,960:99972,1032:100382,1038:103088,1091:111000,1116:111630,1124:114134,1150:114544,1156:114954,1162:115282,1167:116594,1184:120933,1196:121788,1216:123850,1228:124870,1243:125210,1248:126400,1268:126825,1274:128440,1291:128865,1297:129460,1305:129800,1310:130650,1323:133285,1364:134560,1388:134900,1393:135665,1403:142100,1422:142504,1427:143211,1435:143817,1446:146050,1464:146298,1469:146546,1474:147042,1490:150788,1516:151397,1528:151919,1535:156206,1560:157026,1566:159990,1582:160782,1598:162739,1610:163640,1627:163852,1632:164329,1642:164647,1650:166385,1659:167335,1668:167715,1673:168190,1679:168665,1685:169235,1692:174543,1729:175035,1734:176388,1746:184441,1814:188860,1854:189409,1864:189836,1873:190263,1880:192138,1897:206450,2019:207278,2029:214508,2108:215712,2128:230778,2236:236140,2290:243036,2388:247620,2455:254730,2556:255555,2571:255855,2576:260030,2639:260450,2647:260750,2653:260990,2658:263162,2678:264410,2693:264794,2698:265370,2708:265946,2715:268620,2722:273377,2744:274445,2760:276047,2786:277560,2800:278094,2807:278539,2813:281465,2829:281717,2834:281969,2839:282410,2852:284552,2886:284930,2893:285434,2905:285875,2913:286820,2934:293410,2947:295250,2959:297160,2973:299160,3002:299480,3007:304310,3083
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Marcus McCraven's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Marcus McCraven lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Marcus McCraven describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Marcus McCraven talks about his mother's family

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Marcus McCraven talks Port Gibson, Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Marcus McCraven talks about his parents' occupations

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Marcus McCraven talks about his family during the Great Depression

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Marcus McCraven describes his father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Marcus McCraven talks about his father

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Marcus McCraven describes how his parent's met

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Marcus McCraven describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Marcus McCraven describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Marcus McCraven describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Marcus McCraven describes the beginning of his interest in engineering

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Marcus McCraven talks about his activities as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Marcus McCraven talks about his junior high and high schools

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Marcus McCraven talks about living with his aunt while in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Marcus McCraven talks about his interests in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Marcus McCraven talks about his time at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Marcus McCraven describes his time in the Army during World War II pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Marcus McCraven describes his time in the Army during World War II pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Marcus McCraven describes the racial prejudice he faced in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Marcus McCraven describes his time at Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Marcus McCraven describes meeting his wife Marguerite

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Marcus McCraven describes his patent on a high current photodiode pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Marcus McCraven describes his patent on a high current photodiode pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Marcus McCraven describes his work at the University of California at Berkeley Lawrence Radiation Laboratory pt.1

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Marcus McCraven describes his work at the University of California at Berkeley Lawrence Radiation Laboratory pt.2

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Marcus McCraven talks about the hydrogen bomb test on Bikini Atoll pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Marcus McCraven talks about the hydrogen bomb test on Bikini Atoll pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Marcus McCraven describes nuclear testing pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Marcus McCraven describes nuclear testing pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Marcus McCraven describes Operation Plowshare

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Marcus McCraven talks about the Phelps Dodge Corporation

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Marcus McCraven describes being hired by the Phelps Dodge Corporation

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Marcus McCraven talks about the politics of nuclear weapons

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Marcus McCraven talks about being a charter member of the advisory committee for establishing the Environmental Protection Agency

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Marcus McCraven describes the licensing of a low-sulfur coal burning plant for United Illuminating Company

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Marcus McCraven talks about his involvement in several organizations

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Marcus McCraven talks about the work of painter Rudolph Zallinger

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Marcus McCraven talks about William Strickland and Carlton Highsmith

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Marcus McCraven talks about his family

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Marcus McCraven describes his travels pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Marcus McCraven describes his travels pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Marcus McCraven reflects on his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Marcus McCraven describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Marcus McCraven talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Marcus McCraven describes his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

6$3

DATitle
Marcus McCraven describes the beginning of his interest in engineering
Marcus McCraven describes his patent on a high current photodiode pt. 2
Transcript
Other thing I had influence for going into engineering because in the extended family, my father's sister--my father's sister's husband's sister married Archie Alexander. And Archie Alexander was a noted civil engineer. He had the company Alexander and Repass, and they built, while I was a student at Howard, his company built the big cloverleaf intersection, you know, where you go off the highway in all different directions.$$In D.C.?$$Yeah.$$Okay.$$So I--$$So this is a black construction company?$$--Yeah. It's a black construction. The senior partner, they had two partners, Alexander and Repass, Repass was white, Alexander was black, he finished Iowa State [sic, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa]. So that was, you know, being at Howard [University, Washington, D.C.], having that job when I was at Howard, I was certainly in a position where I took classmates down to the construction site. I knew them. So I had a little in--I knew the extended family type person there who was the president of the company. It kind of makes you feel kind of good-$$Yes, yes sir.$$--as a student, but that was one of the reasons I said I was going into engineering, but I decided not to go into civil.$So what you patented was not only just a photodiode but a process?$$Most of these units give only various little current. It exists. A flash of light that's lasting for so many nanoseconds, how much light is that, you know, you can see it. The photodiode can see it, but it's such a small amount of light that the signal that's generated is very small and if you were going to record that, you have to have very sensitive recording material, even if you got an oscilloscope on the end. But when you got ready to test these devices you were miles away. So that little signal that's going back through coaxial cable all the way back can be wiped out. So you needed, you needed something that was going to give you big currents. So this was, so this photodiode that I patent was called high current photodiode. That means it was one that would deliver-- you could look at very bright lights and get a signal and see the coaxial cable, the fifty ohm type cable just one foot had so much attenuation, two feet, and here you are miles back, because your equipment got to be away from the blast. So we had device sitting here monitoring equipment right there with miles of coaxial cable going back to a recording station and this is not an easy thing to do, to get those signals and it's those signals that gave you the reaction history of the device. This is what the physicists who were designing them, they come up with certain design and configuration and said they think this will work. What we did in the testing and system division was to take the first design, take it into the field, fire it and look at actually what happens. Look at what the reaction that takes place during that explosion, and we can then feed that information back to the physicists and they said, "Oh, now we know we should do this and make corrections." That's one advantage that the United States had on in this whole development program, we did--we got a lot of information from testing and though you had to have detectors and recording equipment, and that's how I got involved with the Naval Research Lab, I worked with developing the detector. And the ones I designed we used for one of the detonations. I was--$$Now, did you have to go to California to do that?$$I had-- I built them at Naval Research in Washington, D.C. and now they want them, got them and say we're going to ship them to California. Well, they were hand-carried. I mean when I say hand carried, these were too big to carry all these detectors but I was the person. This was my project, these were the ones that were accepted to be used and kept in a test. So I was to deliver those from Washington, D.C. to California and they hired the Flying Tigers Airline, me and these detectors. And this was so secret at the time that the Flying Tiger pilots couldn't know what they had and where they were going. I changed pilots three times between Washington, D.C. and California. That was my first big job there. After that I went to work directly for the University of California [at Berkley, Berkley, California].

Lt. Col. Roger Walden

Pioneering paratrooper Roger Stanley Walden was born on May 21, 1922 in Des Moines, Iowa. Attending St. Anselm’s School in Chicago and Barber Intermediate School, Munger School, and Chadsey Schools in Detroit, Walden graduated from Eastern High School in 1941.

A tool apprentice at Ford at the onset of World War II, Walden enlisted on December 7, 1942. Assigned to the 365th Infantry Regiment, Walden volunteered for the first black test platoon of 20 paratroopers. At Parachute School in Fort Benning, Georgia, Walden and fifteen others earned their parachute wings as the Sweet Sixteen in February of 1944, becoming the first African American paratroopers in United States military history. Promoted to sergeant in the 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion, Walden and his group were transferred to Camp Mackall, North Carolina. Walden received his commission as a second lieutenant of infantry in March of 1945 when he finished Officer Candidate School at Fort Benning. After receiving special training to combat Japanese balloon bombs at Camp Pendleton, Oregon, the 555th was soon deployed as Army fire jumpers. Shipped to Gifu, Honshu, Japan in 1949, Walden served as commander of Company A of the 24th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division of the Far East Command. In 1950, Walden as a captain commanded Company F in Pusan, Korea and he was made a Battalion S4 before being rotated back to the United States. Promoted to Major, Walden served in Europe from 1957 to 1960 with the 3rd Armored Rifle Battalion, 51st Infantry, 4th Armored Group.

Earning his B.A. degree in social studies from San Francisco State University under the Army’s Bootstrap Program, Walden was promoted to lieutenant colonel. He taught military science at Central State University until his retirement in 1966. Walden worked as manager of the City of Detroit’s Vacant Housing Rehabilitation Program until 1984.

Walden passed away on September 17, 2013.

Accession Number

A2005.102

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/8/2005 |and| 6/29/2007

Last Name

Walden

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

Eastern High School

St. Anselm's Catholic School

Barbour Magnet Middle School

Munford High School

Chadsey High School

Martin Luther King Jr. Sr High School

Munger Middle School

San Francisco State University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Roger

Birth City, State, Country

Des Moines

HM ID

WAL07

Favorite Season

Spring, Summer

State

Iowa

Favorite Vacation Destination

Upper Peninsula, Michigan

Favorite Quote

Do The Best You Can.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Michigan

Birth Date

5/21/1922

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Detroit

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Eggs

Death Date

9/17/2013

Short Description

Paratrooper Lt. Col. Roger Walden (1922 - 2013 ) was a member of the “Sweet Sixteen,” the first African American paratroopers in United States history. He also served in the 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion, the “Triple Nickel," and was later promoted as a Major.

Employment

United States Army

City of Detroit

Ford Motor Company

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:267,18:3293,66:4183,77:4539,82:6586,103:7031,109:8010,119:11926,174:13172,192:15753,221:16376,230:22190,240:22570,245:22950,250:34166,320:41688,372:43184,393:45208,423:49114,454:49659,460:50095,465:62270,618:62837,623:64943,639:65915,655:67859,684:69560,710:78636,781:78972,786:79392,792:79728,797:81744,864:96318,978:97338,985:98562,998:99276,1009:101214,1034:116694,1131:117373,1141:117761,1146:118246,1152:119992,1177:120380,1182:120768,1187:126100,1230:127720,1235:128196,1244:128536,1250:128876,1256:131786,1272:135034,1296:135916,1308:137582,1323:140510,1337:152363,1465:152818,1471:153273,1477:154547,1496:155093,1504:155548,1510:156185,1519:163955,1582:164295,1587:164720,1593:165230,1600:173136,1664:173544,1669:174054,1675:174462,1680:179192,1706:183986,1756:185119,1785:190806,1822:198032,1881:199180,1886:208012,2104:208380,2109:217108,2150:219540,2163:224034,2192:227235,2241:228011,2252:238584,2354:248128,2447:248936,2456:251074,2465:253963,2514:263090,2585:263495,2591:263819,2596:273070,2720:282640,2834:286550,2857:287194,2866:288206,2889:289310,2904:296056,2963:299196,2982:299868,2991:300456,2999:310388,3102:320919,3213:321749,3228:325800,3281$0,0:222,4:666,14:3108,86:5770,98:7200,111:7860,122:8850,133:13334,208:14310,217:28630,327:30574,342:31465,352:82223,1002:83213,1015:84599,1025:94900,1149:95325,1155:96855,1190:100085,1257:102720,1288:103315,1294:104335,1305:104675,1310:113582,1361:114198,1370:114506,1375:117050,1383:123323,1447:123809,1455:124619,1469:134281,1590:134743,1597:135051,1602:138790,1620:146189,1670:156620,1720:158915,1751:160275,1768:161295,1783:162995,1802:163335,1807:164100,1821:165545,1846:169838,1867:170170,1872:170502,1877:174296,1906:175526,1925:176428,1937:177084,1946:179300,1969:179828,1976:183524,2037:184228,2046:195344,2097:210849,2294:211244,2300:211560,2305:211876,2310:212666,2323:216634,2333:217002,2338:219210,2364:220038,2374:225310,2432:226670,2442:236456,2508:238760,2541:239432,2548:240488,2564:241256,2575:241640,2580:242120,2587:242504,2592:245572,2605:246292,2619:262386,2793:263042,2804:263780,2816:266992,2832:267616,2842:268552,2856:272296,2926:278014,2968:278944,2980:279595,2988:282470,3007:283009,3016:283317,3021:292095,3185:293250,3204:293635,3210:302617,3270:303114,3278:306090,3289:307220,3302:309706,3324:310384,3331:313590,3344:318604,3391:319630,3397
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Lt. Col. Roger Walden's interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden relates his memories of his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden relates his memories of his father

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood in Des Moines, Iowa

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden recalls moving around during his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden describes his relationship with his father during his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden talks about being raised by his father's relatives as a young teenager

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden describes his intermediate and high school experiences in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden describes his experiences at Eastern High School in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden talks about enlisting in the U.S. Army during World War II

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden describes his U.S. Army unit during his training

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden explains how he came to join the 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion during World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden reflects on the pressure of being part of the 555th Parachute Infantry Company

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden describes the 555th Parachute Infantry Company's impetus for success

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden details the training regimen for the 555th Parachute Infantry Company, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden details the training regimen for the 555th Parachute Infantry Company, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden recalls the first time he jumped out of a plane

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden talks about the first seventeen men who qualified for the 555th Parachute Infantry Company

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden talks about his specialized training for the 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden describes the specialized equipment he used as a U.S. Army paratrooper during World War II

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden talks about being assigned to the northwestern United States during World War II

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden talks about defending against Japanese fire balloon attacks on the United States during World War II

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden talks about his promotion to captain during the Korean War

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden describes his combat experience in the Korean War, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden describes his combat experience in the Korean War, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden talks about his career in the U.S. Army during the late 1940s and early 1950s

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden remembers being accused of communism during the Second Red Scare, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden remembers being accused of communism during the Second Red Scare, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden remembers being accused of communism during the Second Red Scare, pt. 3

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden talks about serving in the U.S. Army's 4th Armored Group in Germany during the Cold War

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden recalls being one of the first black officers at the Sixth U.S. Army Headquarters in San Francisco, California

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden talks about retiring from the U.S. Army in 1966

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Slating of Lt. Col. Roger Walden's interview, session 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden talks about his job with the Detroit Housing Commission

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden describes his work for the City of Detroit's Vacant Housing Rehabilitation Program

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden talks about the impact of the Vacant Housing Rehabilitation Program on the Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden talks about collaborating with community organizations while working for the Detroit Housing Commission

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden talks about his family life

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden offers advice for future generations

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Lt. Col. Roger Walden narrates his photographs, pt. 2

DASession

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DAStory

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DATitle
Lt. Col. Roger Walden recalls the first time he jumped out of a plane
Lt. Col. Roger Walden describes his combat experience in the Korean War, pt. 2
Transcript
Tell us about the first time you went up in a plane, and--$$Well, because my last name began with W, I think there was only one other W behind; I was usually the next to the last, or near the last to jump whenever we got ready to jump, and what they would do, you would line up and then you would stand in the door, get ready; the sequence of it was to stand up, hook up, check equipment, and when you checked equipment up there, the man in front of you would turn around and you would check him off, then you would pat him and then tell him he was over--you'd hit him on the leg. The last man had to turn around for this next man to--in front of him to have him check him out to be sure he was hooked up, be sure he had all his equipment on there, and he was ready to go. Then, they would come over and make--the initial jump was made on individual basis. The jump master would be on the floor of the plane, and he would tell you, "Stand in the door," while the rest of the people were sitting down. The first man, "Stand in the door," and had you throw your ankle line snap fastener, throw it past the door--this is the door here, and then you'd stand in the door--stand with your hand out, then you're ready, and you would exit when the green light came on. You'd look over here and--but only on the command of the jump master. Jump master would tap you on the inside of your--just below your knees there, and he'd say, "Go!" And you would go. Then, the plane would circle around, and then he would take the next man and he would say, "Stand up! Hook up!" So, it would make about twenty circles like that see? And so you jumped individually and--the idea being that this is the--will make or break; either he goes or he doesn't go, and if he doesn't go, he's gonna balk; he's gonna stand there, and maybe he says, "Go," and you don't wanna go, so you balk, and he'll just tell you, "Go on back in there and sit down on the right"--you're rejected (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Okay, so they never, they never push you out anyway, huh?$$No, don't push you out, they don't push you; not at this stage. This--pushing out is--usually is caused by an individual who hesitates; he hesitates in the door, and if he hesitates, then either the next man may push him out if the whole stick is going, or the jump master may push him out if they're jumping individual basis, as we did on the first one. Individual basis is, that's a part of breaking down the system of whether the guy is gonna really make a paratrooper, or not. That would--that's usually when--some of 'em may break down before that because of--allergic to heights or something like that and they didn't know it.$$Now, how did you feel when you first jumped out? Did you--were you glad to go, or--$$Oh, yeah, I was eager; I was an eager beaver, ready to go, 'cause I was going to, going to make it. There was no question in my mind about it, see? And plus, there's an incentive for it because fifteen or more had already gone out there; what am I gonna do? 'Course you can quit anyplace along the line, see, and some would quit that don't get up; they don't get up. They aren't gonna go, or they might say, "I'm not gonna go." They transfer those people out and get 'em out; they get orders that day.$Was this your first big combat, I mean, in the (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Yeah, this was my first combat there, the baptism of fire. We pulled down at Kunu-ri [Kaechon, North Korea], and at Kunu-ri, I remember running into a colonel, a battalion commander; I think he was white, he had commanded the Third Battalion. I can't think of that left element of the 2nd Infantry Division, and those people were catching hell, and he was--asked me the question, where was his battalion. I didn't know where his battalion was, I didn't--"Have I seen any of 'em?" (Laughter) I wouldn't know 'em if I saw 'em (laughter). Well, if I saw their patch up here; they had Indian [Native American] heads on their patches up here, but I could see he was kind of out of it; next thing he was gonna be is evacuated, but I had to leave him and go apart because I crossed the Chongchon River and regrouped to go join my unit [Company F, Second Battalion, 25th Infantry Division, 24th Infantry Regiment], and I was lucky to get back just myself (laughter), and the few men I had with me there.$$So, this--I know you read about Korea--the Korean War, you hear of human wave attacks where there's a lotta people coming at you at one time. Was this the kind of--$$Well, I guess it was, to a--up in that stage there, but they talked about--it was a human wave; machine gunners wouldn't fire because nothing but men did they see--enemy down there, but eventually, when he fired, it was just too much; he wasn't gonna knock out everything--well, it would have run over the top of him, see? Those things did happen like that. Now, I had that experience where they hid us after we pulled south, several lines--positions we'd pull to, but what it did to me, it caused a disruption of my company and so forth, down to the only thing I could control were the few men around me, and I got back with them, and I got a long route withdrawal, and we established blocking positions, and then we stayed there for a while and we moved back to the--further south to blocking positions, and this continued but it was a--really confusion, real confusion. Part of my element--they said, "Well, get on any transportation going out." Well, the infantry unit given a command to get on infantry--to get on any vehicle going out meant that they would get on trucks of this unit or that unit, get on artillery pieces. Some units were going way over to the coast. We were in a position; we were to go to the next route leading south. Well, I just had a band of people there, just a small band, and when I got back there, they were pulling people off of trucks and they set up check points and things, and they asked people, "What outfit are you in?" They'd tell 'em where they would go; it was confusion, real confusion. And when I got back to the regiment, I was given the assignment of protecting the CP [command post], the regimental CP, with the few men that I had, before we got down--as we got further and further back, we'd pick up more and more people, see--stragglers that said, "Check point,"--MPs [military police] and things, and check points would unload the people off the artillery, unload 'em off the trucks and things, check them and see where they were supposed to go because, in the initial confusion, there was no effort to try to keep people together, to keep a unit together--not until we got further south.

Pookie Hudson

Thornton James “Pookie” Hudson was born on June 11, 1934 in Des Moines, Iowa. Hudson received his nickname from an aunt who babysat him. He was the only child of Ardath Robinson. His father, who he never knew, was rumored to be a gypsy. James Hudson married his mother while she was pregnant and shortly after his birth the family moved from Iowa to Gary, Indiana. Hudson attended Roosevelt School from first grade until he graduated in 1953. He developed a love for music and singing at a young age and shares the bloodline with famous performers Josephine Baker and Fats Waller. In 1948, while only in junior high school, he formed his first Doo Wop singing group, The Four Bees with fellow members Billy Shelton, Gerald Gregory and Calvin Fossett. The group eventually broke up when one of the members graduated.

The Spaniels were created in 1953 at Roosevelt High School. The teenage celebrities included Hudson as the lead singer, first tenor Ernest Warren, second tenor Willie C. Jackson, baritone Opal Courtney, Jr and bass Gerald Gregory. Upon graduation in 1953, the group became the first artists to sign with Vee Jay Records, the first large, independent African American-owned record company. The group’s initial release Baby It’s You reached number ten on Billboard’s Rhythm and Blues chart. In the spring of 1954 that The Spaniels reached the height of their Doo Wop success when Goodnight Sweetheart Goodnight hit number twenty-four on Billboard’s Top 40 and rose to number five on the R & B chart. The multi-million dollar single was just one of hundreds of songs written by Hudson. To date, the song continues to be a popular favorite among Doo Wop, classic rock and R & B music fans.

In the 1950s, The Spaniels were the top selling vocal group for Vee Jay records. When the label went bankrupt in 1966, Hudson embarked on a solo career and began recording for several other labels. In 1969, the group reunited and returned to the music of their youth. Their song Fairy Tales became a national hit in 1970. Hudson continued to perform with various Spaniels groups until he reassembled the original group.

In 1992, Hudson was inducted into the Rhythm and Blues Hall of Fame. He continued to perform with two Spaniels groups, one in Washington, D.C. and the original group still based in Gary. Hudson raised money to open a Doo Wop museum in Washington, D.C. where he resided with his wife, Delores.

Hudson passed away on Tuesday, January 16, 2007.

Hudson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 2, 2004.

Accession Number

A2004.010

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/2/2004

Last Name

Hudson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

James

Organizations
Schools

Theodore Roosevelt College and Career Academy

First Name

Thornton

Birth City, State, Country

Des Moines

HM ID

HUD02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Iowa

Favorite Vacation Destination

Las Vegas, Nevada

Favorite Quote

I Love You.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

6/11/1934

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Barbecue

Death Date

1/16/2007

Short Description

R & B singer and doo wop singer Pookie Hudson (1934 - 2007 ) Pookie Hudson was the the lead singer of the musical group, The Spaniels.

Employment

General American

Favorite Color

Brown

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Pookie Hudson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Pookie Hudson lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Pookie Hudson describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Pookie Hudson describes his stepfather

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Pookie Hudson describes his mother's side of the family and early exposure to music

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Pookie Hudson talks about his earliest memories

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Pookie Hudson describes his childhood community in Gary, Indiana

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Pookie Hudson describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Gary, Indiana

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Pookie Hudson describes his childhood personality and his elementary school years

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Pookie Hudson talks about attending church as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Pookie Hudson speaks about his friends at Theodore Roosevelt High School in Gary, Indiana, and forming his band, The Spaniels

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Pookie Hudson describes developing a love for singing while listening to 'Randy at Night' on the radio

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Pookie Hudson talks about the music acts at his great aunt's home in Davenport, Iowa

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Pookie Hudson talks about visiting his grandmother and great aunt in Davenport, Iowa

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Pookie Hudson talks about his role models growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Pookie Hudson describes his first performance with the Three Bees

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Pookie Hudson talks about the formation of Pookie Hudson and the Hudsonnaires

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Pookie Hudson describes the origins of the 1952 song 'Goodnight Sweetheart'

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Pookie Hudson talks about auditioning with Pookie Hudson and the Hudsonnaires at the Chicago Theater in the early 1950s

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Pookie Hudson describes being approached by Vee-Jay Records in 1953

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Pookie Hudson talks about his experiences at Theodore Roosevelt High School in Gary, Indiana

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Pookie Hudson describes his personality as a performer and writing 'Goodnight Sweetheart' for a girl he liked

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Pookie Hudson talks about supporting himself financially as an entertainer

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Pookie Hudson describes first hearing his songs on the radio

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Pookie Hudson describes his experiences with segregation in Chicago, Illinois and in the South while travelling with Pookie Hudson and the Hudsonnaires

Tape: 2 Story: 14 - Pookie Hudson describes touring with Pookie Hudson and the Hudsonnaires during the 1950s

Tape: 2 Story: 15 - Pookie Hudson talks about his life as an entertainer in the 1950s

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Pookie Hudson talks about his first marriage

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Pookie Hudson talks about returning to singing and Vee-Jay Records after the end of his first marriage

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Pookie Hudson talks about his relationship with deejay Alan Freed

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Pookie Hudson talks about the doo-wop genre and his 1960s music career

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Pookie Hudson describes changing labels, the end of the Spaniels and evolving music genres in the 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Pookie Hudson talks about the Civil Rights Movement's impact on music during the 1950s and 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Pookie Hudson talks about securing royalties for 'Goodnight, Sweetheart' in the 1970s

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Pookie Hudson describes reconnecting with Vee-Jay Records founder Vivian Carter at her home in the 1970s

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Pookie Hudson talks about his career and activities in the 1970s

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Pookie Hudson describes his most valuable lesson

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Pookie Hudson describes his hopes for doo-wop musicians and similar artists

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Pookie Hudson speaks about the doo-wop genre, including its future

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Pookie Hudson shares advice for younger artists interested in doo-wop, and compares the genre to rap music

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Pookie Hudson talks about his experience performing for a European audience and being inducted into the Rhythm and Blues Hall of Fame in 1992

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Pookie Hudson reflects on both his accomplishments and regrets in terms of his music career

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Pookie Hudson talks about his ongoing relationship with the Spaniels

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Pookie Hudson shares his hopes for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Pookie Hudson reflects on how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Pookie Hudson expounds upon his definition of the doo-wop genre, including its and the Spaniels' contribution to the music industry as a whole

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Pookie Hudson talks about 'Peace of Mind' as another song he would like to be remembered by and his songwriting process

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Pookie Hudson reflects on the best decade of his life

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Pookie Hudson narrates his photographs

DASession

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DATitle
Pookie Hudson describes his first performance with the Three Bees
Pookie Hudson describes the origins of the 1952 song 'Goodnight Sweetheart'
Transcript
Do you remember your first performance in front of an audience, how old were you?$$You mean professionally?$$No, just the first time you sang in front of an audience, whether it was at church or--$$Well the Three Bees we used to sing, we had a place called the neighborhood house, we used to sing for the YWCA [Young Women's Christian Association]. We didn't do any talent shows, we just sang in the hallways and things, you know. But they put us out of school because we made all the noise, they called all the noise. But basically, really the first real, I guess, audience was when we first formed Pookie Hudson and the Hudsonnaires, and we did the talent shows, so we had a very big, you know, school [Theodore Roosevelt High School, Gary, Indiana] audience at that time.$$When you were singing in hallways and at church, do you ever remember being nervous. What were those performances like, what was it like?$$I don't know, I enjoyed it, you know, I didn't find it to be nothing to be scared about, you know. Yeah, we always had butterflies and things what you're doing because you hit the wrong the note you don't sound bad and whatever 'cause we didn't have instruments. We had to use our voices so. As long as we got the right note and you could see the reaction on people, they was enjoying what you were doing, and that just helps build you up more.$So at the time you were in the Three Bees, you all spent a lot of time singing songs that had already been written and produced.$$Right.$$When did you start making the transition into not only singing, but writing as well?$$That happened just as we were getting ready to record we would sing other people's songs, so the people (unclear) say, "You can't sing other people's songs, you have got to have your own material."$$So was this after high school [Theodore Roosevelt High School, Gary, Indiana]?$$Yeah, uh-huh. See we came out of high school recording, so we had to finish school. And so we were trying to put a song called 'Baby It's You' together which was our first release. 'Goodnight Sweetheart' I had written back in '52 [1952] and it was not really writing a song, it was for a young lady name Bonnie Jean. I used to be in love with Bonnie Jean, and I used to go to her house and I stayed and stayed, and her mama got tired of me staying so she told me one night, said, "Son, your mama may not care about you being out after twelve o'clock, but she didn't mean for you to be here after twelve o'clock." So walking home I put together 'Goodnight Sweetheart', but we did that in '52 [1952]. We didn't even want to record 'Goodnight Sweetheart' because we thought it was a childish song. I took it to the group and we put it together. So when the company tried to get us to do 'Goodnight Sweetheart' it took us almost eighteen hours to do the song 'cause we didn't want to do it. We thought it was a childish song, we thought it was something that you would do in a nursery rhyme, or something. And see how much we know about it-- the biggest thing we ever had was 'Goodnight Sweetheart.'