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Stacey F. Tisdale

Journalist Stacey F. Tisdale was born on November 10, 1966 in Bridgeport, Connecticut to Charles B. and Jettie S. Tisdale. Tisdale received her B.S. degree in international business and finance in 1988 from Marymount College, in Tarrytown, New York.

Tisdale worked on Wall Street as a cash manager for commodities firm Balfour Maclaine International, and worked on the trading floor of the Coffee Sugar Coca Exchange. Tisdale served as a writer for the Dow Jones newswire service, Telerate. She produced, wrote, reported and hosted programming for Wall Street Journal Television, which became CNBC (Consumer News and Business Channel). Tisdale served as business correspondent at CBS News, CBS MarketWatch, The Early Show, CBS Evening News, and CBS Radio from 1996 to 2000. She also hosted a show on Tech Live, TechTV’s daily news program and served as a financial reporter at CNN (Cable News Network) where she filed business and consumer reports for all of the CNN networks, including, CNN, CNNI and Headline News and Marketsource from 2000 to 2004. She reported for Inside Africa, a weekly news magazine show on CNN International and contributed reports to Money Talks, the nationally syndicated program created by BusinessWeek. Tisdale appeared on The Oprah Winfrey Show as a financial expert and in O, The Oprah Magazine. She wrote for Essence magazine, and co-authored the book, The True Cost of Happiness: The Real Story Behind Managing Your Money.

In 2010, Tisdale founded Mind, Money, Media Inc., a production company. Tisdale launched WinningPlay$, the curriculum and behavior-based financial literacy program, was awarded the U.S. Department of Education’s Excellence in Economic Education Award. In 2011, The National Association of Black Journalists awarded Stacey Tisdale its Community Service Award for the WinningPlays$ program.

Tisdale reported for PBSnational news magazine show Need to Know, and PBS Newshour Weekend. A financial expert on NBC’s Today Show, she was also a blogger for the Huffington Post – Black Voices platform, and business correspondent for Al Jazeera America from 2013 to 2014. She served as senior editor of personal finance at Black Enterprise.

Tisdale also created financial education and life skills programs customized for professional sports teams and corporations including the Washington Mystics of the WNBA, the New York Giants of the NFL, and the female employees of Microsoft. She served on the advisory committee for The Gloria Steinem Endowed Chair for Media, Culture, and Feminist studies at Rutgers University.

Tisdale has one son, Christopher.

Stacey F. Tisdale was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 29, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.137

Sex

Female

Interview Date

6/29/2018

Last Name

Tisdale

Maker Category
Middle Name

F.

Occupation
Organizations
First Name

Stacey

Birth City, State, Country

Bridgeport

HM ID

TIS01

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Connecticut

Favorite Vacation Destination

St. Martin

Favorite Quote

You Are Already Perfect. If You Don't Believe That, It Is Due To A Poverty Of Your Understanding. Get Rid Of That Understanding And You'll Be Rich.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

11/10/1966

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken and Macaroni and Cheese

Short Description

Journalist Stacey F. Tisdale (1966- ) served as a financial reporter for CNN, The Early Show, CBS Evening News, and CBS Radio.

Favorite Color

Blue

Father Darryl F. James

Father Darryl F. James was born on July 3, 1954 in Bridgeport, Connecticut to Laurayne Farrar James and Anthony James, Sr. His family grew up in both Richmond, Virginia and Spring Valley, New York. He earned his B.A. degree from Howard University in 1975, and his M.Div. degree from Yale University in 1979.

Upon graduation from Yale Divinity School, James was assigned to Trinity Cathedral in Newark, New Jersey, where he worked under the tutelage of Dean Dillard Robinson. He was then ordained as a deacon in 1984 at St. Matthew’s and St. Joseph’s Church, where he was also appointed Assistant for Youth and Young Adult Ministries. In 1985, James was ordained to the priesthood by the Reverend John M. Burgess in Detroit, Michigan. Later that year, James became the rector of the Messiah-St. Bartholomew Church in Chicago, Illinois, where he remained for twenty-one years. James was subsequently named to the Chicago School Board, serving from 1990 to 1995. Also in 1990, he was named the National President of the Union of Black Episcopalians. James then moved to leadership of the historic Grace Episcopal Church in Jamaica, Queens as Priest-in-Charge in 2007. Three years later, he assumed the role as church rector. A member of the Diocese of Long Island and the Queens community, James also joined the Investment Committee and the Episcopal Health Service Board of Managers, and co-founded the Downtown Jamaica Clergy. He later served as president of the Queens Federation of Churches.

James launched several initiatives at Grace Episcopal Church, including the Bishop Thompson, Jr. Summer Music and Arts Workshop, the annual Father’s Day Men of Valor Luncheon, and the Volunteers Appreciation Dinner, among others. In 2005, James, in partnership with St. Luke’s Episcopal Church, assisted Hurricane Katrina victims in New Orleans, Louisiana, providing aid and performing mission work in the region. He also participated in a pilgrimage to Northern India, visiting the Diocese of Mumbai and North India in Delhi. James also sponsored college tours for prospective college students throughout the United States.

Father Darryl F. James was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 13, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.125

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/13/2016

Last Name

James

Maker Category
Middle Name

Farrar

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Howard University

Albert V. Norrell Elementary School

J. E. B. Stuart Elementary School

J. A. C. Chandler Junior High School

Armstrong High School

Absalom Jones Theological Institute

Yale Divinity School

Ramapo High School

First Name

Darryl

Birth City, State, Country

Bridgeport

HM ID

JAM08

Favorite Season

Late Spring, Early Summer

State

Connecticut

Favorite Vacation Destination

South Africa, Barbados

Favorite Quote

Grace Is The Place Where All God’s People Are Welcome To Participate In Ministry.$

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Interview Description
Birth Date

7/3/1954

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Pound Cake, Bread Pudding, Ice Cream

Short Description

Father Darryl F. James (1954 - ) was the rector of the Messiah-St. Bartholomew Church in Chicago, Illinois for twenty-one years, before becoming the rector of the historic Grace Episcopal Church in Jamaica, Queens.

Employment

Messiah St. Bartholomew Church

Grace Episcopal Church

Favorite Color

Blue, Earth Tones

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669890">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Father Darryl F. James' interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669891">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Father Darryl F. James lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669892">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Father Darryl F. James describes his father's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669893">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Father Darryl F. James talks about his father's education and occupation</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669894">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Father Darryl F. James remembers Camp Atwater in North Brookfield, Massachusetts, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669895">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Father Darryl F. James remembers Camp Atwater in North Brookfield, Massachusetts, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669896">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Father Darryl F. James describes his mother's family background, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669897">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Father Darryl F. James describes his mother's family background, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669898">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Father Darryl F. James recalls how his parents met and married</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669899">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Father Darryl F. James describes his earliest childhood memories</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669900">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Father Darryl F. James describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669901">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Father Darryl F. James recalls his parents' involvement in the Civil Rights Movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669902">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Father Darryl F. James describes his early experiences of religion</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669903">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Father Darryl F. James talks about the history of the Episcopal church</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669904">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Father Darryl F. James recalls his early experiences in the Episcopal church</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669905">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Father Darryl F. James recalls his early education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669906">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Father Darryl F. James remembers moving to Spring Valley, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669907">Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Father Darryl F. James recalls his extracurricular activities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669908">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Father Darryl F. James remembers his social life in Westchester County, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669909">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Father Darryl F. James recalls his time at Howard University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669910">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Father Darryl F. James remembers his activities at Howard University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669911">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Father Darryl F. James recalls his training to join the ministry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669912">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Father Darryl F. James recalls his experiences at the Yale Divinity School in New Haven, Connecticut</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669913">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Father Darryl F. James recalls his mentors at the Yale Divinity School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669914">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Father Darryl F. James remembers the women's liberation movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669915">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Father Darryl F. James recalls the development of his ideology at Yale Divinity School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669916">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Father Darryl F. James remembers his lay assistantships</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669917">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Father Darryl F. James remembers Orris G. Walker, Jr.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669918">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Father Darryl F. James describes the spiritual foundation of his priesthood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669919">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Father Darryl F. James talks about the ordination process</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669920">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Father Darryl F. James describes his ministry in Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669921">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Father Darryl F. James recalls his challenges in Chicago, Illinois, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669922">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Father Darryl F. James recalls his challenges in Chicago, Illinois, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669923">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Father Darryl F. James recalls his decision to leave his congregation in Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669924">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Father Darryl F. James recall joining the Grace Episcopal Church in Queens, New York, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669925">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Father Darryl F. James recall joining the Grace Episcopal Church in Queens, New York, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669926">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Father Darryl F. James talks about his duties at the Grace Episcopal Church in Queens, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669927">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Father Darryl F. James talks about the need for youth in the ministry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669928">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Father Darryl F. James talks about his activism through the church, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669929">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Father Darryl F. James talks about his activism through the church, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669930">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Father Darryl F. James reflects upon his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669931">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Father Darryl F. James reflects upon life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669932">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Father Darryl F. James shares his advice for aspiring African American ministers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669933">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Father Darryl F. James narrates his photographs</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

5$4

DATitle
Father Darryl F. James recalls his experiences at the Yale Divinity School in New Haven, Connecticut
Father Darryl F. James talks about his activism through the church, pt. 2
Transcript
So what's going on in our country at the time that you are at Yale [Yale Divinity School, New Haven, Connecticut]? You know, what's happening socially that is informing your study?$$It's kind of hard to say because I was so busy in my studies (laughter) (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) So much so that you weren't paying attention to what's going on outside--$$No, not that I wasn't paying attention, but, 'cause let me see, '77 [1977] to '79 [1979], I was, I was really involved with what was called the black church at Yale. And so there was, you know, there was still that black consciousness for me. And I don't know, I mean I felt like I was in a cocoon again, you know, that, you know, because you're, you're in an environment where you're not dealing with, you know, mostly racial issues and that kind of thing, except when I was in the--it was in one class called the, called the, oh, Dr. Allen [David F. Allen]. He was a, he was a psychiatrist. It was called the social something for ministry. It was, it was like a, it was like a psychology, a psychology of ministry. It was like that. And I remember in one class--you know, you never know what people are thinking. But there was one girl in the class who said--and we were talking about race, or something (unclear) on nature. And she said, so anyway, it came up that, you know, well, "What do you think about black people?" She says, "Well, my experience has been that when they were in school, they would always cheat and steal." She said this.$$Did she know that you were black?$$There were, there were like four or five of us in the class who were black. (Laughter) And, man, before we--well, we let her have it. We, we gave her, we gave her--we talked to her from like from 'Amazing Grace' to a floating opportunity (laughter), and she--I think she'll never forget that conversation. We said, "You know what? Just look at all the, the, you know, the people who are in, in these positions of leadership who are lying and cheating and stealing in politics," (laughter). "They're not black," (laughter). So, you know, we, we had that conversation. So that was an eye opening experience, you know, at that time.$$That she said this--$$She said it.$$--in front of (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) She said it in front of us.$$--multiple black people--$$People, yes, she did.$$--who she knew were black.$$Yeah, she did. She said it.$$Unconscionable.$$Yeah.$$So what--did you sway her, I mean in your--in all of you spoke to her, but--$$We all spoke to her.$$--what happened through that conversation? Did, did you open her eyes to what she was saying?$$I don't know if we opened her eyes or not, but I think she was, she went away really thinking, you know, differently about the situation. I, I believe she did. She was like a little puppy dog with, you know, her tail between her legs when she was leaving. But, I mean, but, but this is the--I think the media has, you know, has done disservice to people of color in that--$$In what particular way did you mean?$$Well, like, you know, for example, you know, always showing, you know, like whenever there's an issue of, of someone doing something, you know, which is, you know, of a criminal act or something of that nature in the community, you know, they always seem to showcase someone of color, you know. It seems to be that way. So, just trying to show that, you know, people are people. There're good people and (laughter) there're bad people.$And then I wanna address the political for, for a moment. While churches are not supposed to be directly involved in politics, the, the congregations are dealing with whatever is coming up, and so we've had this election in 2016. How--what has been the interaction with your congregation [at Grace Episcopal Church, Queens, New York] and you as clergy during this time?$$Well, pre-election, one of the things I did was, I, I spoke to my congregation about the importance of their civic responsibility and duty of voting. And I spoke to them from a historic perspective, as people of color in this country. And I think that it really worked because I had a few people come up to me and said, "Father, I've never voted," and these are people from the Caribbean, you know, mostly. She said, "I've never voted before." She said, "But father," she said, "I'm going to register." And I--so if one person, if it made a difference for one person, I'm sure somebody thought about it. The other thing was that I invited one of the organizations here to do a voter--I was gonna do it with my group, but since other people were doing voter registration. So I had them here, and, and I just, and I just told people, I said, "Listen," I said, "you know, you have a responsibility to get to your--to get to the people in your family, you know, to make your, your vote known and, and to be counted." Now, post-election, would you like to know what I had to say about that?$$Yes.$$Post-election, some of my members were, you know, they were angry. Some were really despondent, and, you know, saddened and the kind of thing like that. My sermon that Sunday was, we have been here before. And I said to my congregation, and I raised my hand, I said, "On this day, just remember Father James [HistoryMaker Father Darryl F. James] told you, God is in charge. God is in charge. So there's a reason why everything happens. We've been here before. We've been here for Reaganomics, we've been here historically, you know." So I've just--I just mentioned all the things--I gave them the road of all the things that have happened. I said, "And we will survive because we're a people of hope." I went to Micah, I think it's Micah 6:8 [sic.], that we are people who live as though--we, we do not live as though we do not have hope. We hope for the future.

Keith Clinkscales

Media executive and magazine publishing entrepreneur Keith T. Clinkscales was born on January 7, 1964 in Bridgeport, Connecticut. He received his B.S. degree in accounting and finance from Florida A&M University in 1986, and his M.B.A. degree from Harvard Business School in 1990.

In 1988, Clinkscales co-founded Urban Profile magazine and served as publisher and editor-in-chief until 1992, when he sold the publication to Career Communications Group. He then helped Quincy Jones establish Vibe magazine in 1993 and was named president and chief executive officer. He also founded the publication's digital counterpart, Vibe.com, in 1994, and helped launch Vibe’s Blaze magazine in 1998. From 1999 to 2003, Clinkscales co-founded and served as chairman and chief executive officer of Vanguarde Media, publisher of Honey, Heart & Soul and Savoy magazines.

In 2005, Clinkscales was hired to work for ESPN as senior vice president and general manager of ESPN Publishing. In 2007, he was named ESPN’s senior vice president of content development and enterprises, where he served as executive producer for ESPN Films’ documentaries, and scripted and unscripted projects including the 2011 launched Year of the Quarter Back; the acclaimed and Emmy-nominated 30 for 30 documentary series, Black Magic; Ali Rap; Kobe Doin’ Work; Renee; Catching Hell; A Race Story: Wendell Scott; The Tribeca Sports Film Festival; Elite 24; and the highest rated documentary in ESPN’s history, The Fab Five. Clinkscales was co-creator of ESPN’s award-winning TV magazine show E:60, the Homecoming with Rick Reilly show, and the adapted SportsNation show. He also oversaw the ESPN Classic network, ESPN Books, the ESPYs, and the X Games.

In 2011, Clinkscales founded and became chief executive officer of Shadow League Digital, a multi-platform sports news organization in partnership with ESPN. Under Shadow League Digital, he developed Shadow League Films and co-produced the 2012 Muhammad Ali 70 Special which aired on ESPN, as well as executive produced the ESPN documentary Benji. In 2013, Clinkscales was named chief executive officer of Sean “Diddy” Combs’ REVOLT Media.

His honors include two National Association of Black Journalists (NABJ) Excellence in Journalism Awards, two Peabody Awards, the National Magazine Award, and an Emmy nomination. In 2008, he was named one of Diversity MBA Magazine’s “Top 100 under 50 Diverse Corporate Executives.” In 2007 and 2009, Clinkscales was listed among the “Top 50 Minorities in Cable” by Cableworld Magazine; in 2014, he appeared on the CableFax Magazine “Top 100 Executives in Cable” list. Clinkscales has served as treasurer of the Apollo Theater Foundation Board of Trustees, as a member of PepsiCo’s Multicultural Advisory Board, and a member of the Advisory Board at UrbanWorld Media, Inc. Since 2012, he has served on the Board of Directors for Florida A&M University (FAMU) Foundation and the Board of Visitors for Howard University’s School of Communications.

Keith Clinkscales was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 18, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.150

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/18/2014

Last Name

Clinkscales

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Terrence

Schools

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

Harvard Business School

Hillcrest Middle School

Center School

St Joseph High School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Keith

Birth City, State, Country

Bridgeport

HM ID

CLI05

State

Connecticut

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

1/7/1964

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Short Description

Magazine publishing entrepreneur and media executive Keith Clinkscales (1964 - ) , CEO of REVOLT Media & TV and Shadow League Digital, co-founded Urban Profile magazine in 1988 and Vanguarde Media, publisher of Honey, Heart & Soul and Savoy magazines, in 1999. He also helped establish Vibe magazine, serving as president and CEO of Vibe Ventures from 1993 to 1999.

Employment

Urban Profile

Vibe Magazine

KTC Ventures

Vanguarde Media, Inc.

ESPN, Inc.

The Shadow League

Revolt TV

Geraldine Johnson

Geraldine Johnson is a distinguished retired educator, community activist, and volunteer. She was born on April 11, 1919, in Bridgeport Connecticut – the third in a family of seven children. She grew up in the East End of the city where she attended McKinley, Harding, and Bridgeport Normal Schools, which she later went on to lead as Superintendent of Schools. Johnson received her B.A. degree in teacher education at New Haven Teachers College (now SCSU) in 1940 and her M.A. degree at New York University in 1959. Following graduate school, she went on to earn her sixth-year professional certificate at the University of Bridgeport in 1969.

In 1961, Johnson became a principal after achieving the number one score on Bridgeport’s civil service examination. She served in many other educational capacities as well and taught first, seventh, and eighth grade, as well as a music class. She also worked as a Director of Title I Programs in Bridgeport, assisting disadvantaged pupils with achievement in school programs. In 1969, she served as the Assistant Superintendent of Bridgeport Public Schools, the second largest school system in Connecticut. She went on to become Superintendent of Schools in 1976, notably working through the 19-day teachers’ strike over salary contracts in 1978. She became Interim Superintendent of Schools in Fairfield, Connecticut in 1986, after her retirement in 1981.

Governor Ella Grasso listed Johnson as one of Connecticut’s 100 Most Distinguished Women in 1976. The Girl Scouts also named her a “Woman of Distinction.” She was bestowed Honorary Doctorate Degrees from Fairfield University, Sacred Heart University, and the University of Bridgeport. To honor her work as a superintendent and her commitment to education, in 2008 a new elementary school was dedicated to her and named the Geraldine W. Johnson School.

Geraldine Johnson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 29, 2010.

Johnson passed away on November 28, 2015.

Accession Number

A2010.004

Sex

Female

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

4/29/2010

Last Name

Johnson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Occupation
Schools

Harding High School

Southern Connecticut State University

New York University

University of Bridgeport

McKinley Elementary School

Sacred Heart University

Fairfield University

Archival Photo 2
First Name

Geraldine

Birth City, State, Country

Bridgeport

HM ID

JOH36

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Connecticut

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Hurry Up!

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Connecticut

Interview Description
Birth Date

4/11/1919

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bridgeport

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Steak (Filet Mignon)

Death Date

11/28/2015

Short Description

Teacher Geraldine Johnson (1919 - 2015 ) was the first African American woman to serve as superintendent of the Bridgeport Public Schools.

Employment

Bridgeport Board of Education

Fairfield Board of Education

Greater Bridgeport Adolescent Pregnancy Program

Connecticut Symphony

Connecticut Parole Board

Favorite Color

Blue

DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611409">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Geraldine Johnson's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611410">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Geraldine Johnson lists her favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611411">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Geraldine Johnson describes her mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611412">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Geraldine Johnson talks about her mother's upbringing</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611413">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Geraldine Johnson remembers her mother's career as a beautician</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611414">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Geraldine Johnson talks about her mother's organizational activities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611415">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Geraldine Johnson describes her father's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611416">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Geraldine Johnson remembers her father's storytelling</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611417">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Geraldine Johnson talks about her father's career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611418">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Geraldine Johnson describes how her parents met</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611419">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Geraldine Johnson recalls her relationship with her father</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611420">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Geraldine Johnson talks about her family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611421">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Geraldine Johnson describes the East End of Bridgeport, Connecticut</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611422">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Geraldine Johnson talks about the integration of the public school faculty in Bridgeport, Connecticut</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611423">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Geraldine Johnson describes her experiences in a majority-white school district</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611424">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Geraldine Johnson describes her childhood activities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611425">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Geraldine Johnson recalls a discriminatory teacher at Warren Harding High School in Bridgeport, Connecticut</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611426">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Geraldine Johnson remembers her social life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611427">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Geraldine Johnson remembers her first cello recital</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611428">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Geraldine Johnson recalls her enrollment at the Bridgeport Normal School in Bridgeport, Connecticut</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611429">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Geraldine Johnson recalls her mentor at the Bridgeport Normal School in Bridgeport, Connecticut</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611430">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Geraldine Johnson remembers graduating from the New Haven State Teachers College in New Haven, Connecticut</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611431">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Geraldine Johnson remembers joining the faculty of the Prospect School in Bridgeport, Connecticut</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611432">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Geraldine Johnson reflects upon the changing attitudes towards educators</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611433">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Geraldine Johnson describes her transition to school administration</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611434">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Geraldine Johnson recalls her start as a school principal</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611435">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Geraldine Johnson remembers developing programs for low-income students in the Bridgeport Public Schools</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611436">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Geraldine Johnson recalls her nomination as superintendent of the Bridgeport Public Schools</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611437">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Geraldine Johnson remembers meeting with the Bridgeport Board of Education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611438">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Geraldine Johnson talks about her marriages</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611439">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Geraldine Johnson recalls her challenges as the superintendent of the Bridgeport Public Schools</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611440">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Geraldine Johnson remembers a teachers' strike in the Bridgeport Public Schools</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611441">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Geraldine Johnson talks about her tenure as superintendent of the Bridgeport Public Schools</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611442">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Geraldine Johnson recalls serving as the interim superintendent of the Fairfield Public Schools</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611443">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Geraldine Johnson talks about her retirement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611444">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Geraldine Johnson describes her international travels</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611445">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Geraldine Johnson talks about the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611446">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Geraldine Johnson talks about her membership in The Links</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611447">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Geraldine Johnson describes her organization activities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611448">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Geraldine Johnson reflects upon her life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611449">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Geraldine Johnson describes her daughter</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611450">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Geraldine Johnson reflects upon her legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611451">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Geraldine Johnson talks about her family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/611452">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Geraldine Johnson narrates her photographs</a>

Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts

Reverend Calvin Otis Butts III was born on July 19, 1949, in Bridgeport, Connecticut; his mother worked as an administrative assistant and his father was a chef and butler. During his early childhood, Butts’s family moved to New York City, where he received his primary education; in 1967, he earned his high school diploma from Flushing High School, where he was a member of the track team and president of the senior class.

In 1972, Butts received his B.A. degree from Morehouse College; while a student, he pledged Kappa Alpha Psi fraternity and was active in civil rights. After the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., Butts and several other Morehouse students took to the streets in anger. After graduation, Butts returned to New York where he earned his master of divinity degree in church history in 1975 from Union Theological Seminary and later his doctorate of ministry in church and public policy from Drew University. While still in graduate school, Butts was hired to work at Abyssinian Baptist Church where he began as an office assistant and worked his way up to assistant pastor, eventually being named head pastor in 1989.

While serving as pastor of one of Harlem’s largest churches, Butts has been committed to the church’s goal of creating a viable and dynamic community in central Harlem. In 1989, he established the Abyssinian Development Corporation, a non-profit community-based housing and commercial development organization; the corporation raised $2.8 million to purchase and renovate property to be used as a homeless shelter. In addition to the shelter, during Butts’s tenure as pastor a large apartment complex for senior citizens and apartments for moderate income households have been renovated in conjunction with the Partnership for New York City program.

In addition to his activities with the Abyssinian Baptist Church, Butts hosts a weekly radio show, and serves as president of the Council of Churches of New York and vice-chair of the Board of Directors of the United Way. In 1999, he was appointed president of the State University of New York College at Old Westbury. Butts also serves as chairman of the National Affiliate Development Initiative of the National Black Leadership Commission on AIDS.

Accession Number

A2005.036

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/1/2005

3/7/2005

Last Name

Butts

Maker Category
Middle Name

O.

Occupation
Schools

Flushing High School

P.S. 97 Mangin School

P.S. 92 Harry T Stewart Senior

Jhs 190 Russell Sage

Morehouse College

Union Theological Seminary

First Name

Calvin

Birth City, State, Country

Bridgeport

HM ID

BUT02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Connecticut

Favorite Vacation Destination

Brazil

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Interview Description
Birth Date

7/19/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Pork Chops

Short Description

Pastor Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts (1949 - ) is pastor of the Abyssinian Baptist Church in New York City, one of the largest churches in Harlem. He also hosts a weekly radio show and serves as president of the Council of Churches of New York, and vice-chair of the Board of Directors of the United Way.

Favorite Color

Brown

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103207">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts' interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103208">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103209">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts talks about his mother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103210">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts talks about his father, Calvin Butts, Sr.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103211">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts describes his grandparents</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103212">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts describes his earliest memories of growing up</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103213">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts recalls family discussions as a child, pt.1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103214">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts recalls family discussions as a child, pt.2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103215">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts describes his childhood in New York's Lower East Side Lillian Wald housing projects</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/102624">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts describes the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood in New York City</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/102625">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts talks about Ms. Jackson, an elementary school teacher</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/102626">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts remembers his childhood ambition of becoming the Mayor of New York City</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/102627">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts recalls his elementary school years</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/102628">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts talks about those who influenced him during his junior high years</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/102629">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts recalls major influences during his high school years</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/102630">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts describes his religious upbringing</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/102631">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts talks about his decision to attend Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/102632">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts describes his experience at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/102633">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts remembers rioting after the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and choosing nonviolence</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/102634">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts recalls the influence of Bill Strickland</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/102635">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts describes his decision to attend Union Theological Seminary in New York City, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/102636">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts recalls the support of others on his decision to enter the ministry and being hired at Abyssinian Baptist Church</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/102637">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts describes his mentors at Union Theological Seminary as C. Eric Lincoln, Lawrence Jones, Leon Watts, and HistoryMaker James H. Cone</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/102638">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts talks about the history of the Abyssinian Baptist Church in New York City, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/102639">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts describes Harlem, New York in the 1970s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/102640">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts recalls his short-lived attempt to run for school board</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/102641">Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts remembers church member Ernestine Brown and the deteriorating housing stock in Harlem</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/102900">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts describes the founding of the Abyssinian Development Corporation in Harlem, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/102901">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts recalls his strained relationship with Mayor Ed Koch</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/102902">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts describes his relationship with HistoryMaker David Dinkins, the former Mayor of New York City</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/102903">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts talks about HistoryMaker David Dinkins' tenure as the Mayor of New York City</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/102904">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts talks about black leaders and HistoryMakers Charles Rangel and Reverend Jesse Jackson</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/102905">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts talks about the racially motivated police brutality cases in New York City of Abner Louima and Amadou Diallo</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/102906">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts talks about black leaders during the late 1980s and early 1990s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/102907">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts remembers speaking out against Reverend Henry Lyons</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/102908">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts recalls his first sermons as pastor of the Abyssinian Baptist Church in Harlem, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103234">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Second slating of Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts' interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103235">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts recalls how the media sensationalized his pulpit comments after the police acquittal in the Amadou Diallo case</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103236">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts talks about a failed attempt to work with then-Mayor of New York, Rudy Giuliani</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103237">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts talks about his political endorsements and his belief in HistoryMaker Jesse Jackson's viability as a vice presidential candidate</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103238">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts continues to talk about political endorsements and why he chose to endorse Ross Perot</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103239">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts shares his thoughts on the George W. Bush Administration</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103240">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts talks about the reticence of large, black churches in New York City to receive Malcolm X's body after his assassination in 1965</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103241">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts remembers Black Muslims in his childhood neighborhood in East Elmhurst, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103242">Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts remembers his hesitations about joining the Nation of Islam and the ministry of HistoryMaker Minister Louis Farrakhan</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103243">Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts talks about how the legacy of Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. is memorialized at Abyssinian Baptist Church</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103244">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts talks about Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103245">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts talks about the people who influenced his theology</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103246">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts talks about megachurches</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103247">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts describes his role as President of State University of New York College at Old Westbury</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103248">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts talks about recruiting students to State University of New York College at Old Westbury</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103249">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103250">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts talks about what he would do differently</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103251">Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts reflects upon his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103252">Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts shares his future aspirations</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103253">Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts talks about his family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/103254">Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts talks about how he would like to be remembered</a>

DASession

1$2

DATape

3$6

DAStory

2$2

DATitle
Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts remembers rioting after the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and choosing nonviolence
Reverend Dr. Calvin O. Butts talks about the people who influenced his theology
Transcript
And you know, at the time you went to Morehouse [College, Atlanta, Georgia], it was at that the height of the Civil Rights Movement. Did you become involved in civil rights activities?$$Absolutely. A number of things: we organized. One of our most vigorous organizing activities was around Horace Tate when he was running for mayor of Atlanta. But you know, I worked with [HM] Bernice [Johnson] Reagon, who was in "Sweet Honey and the Rock." She used to have gatherings down at the Magnolia Ballroom in Vine City. And I remember playing the role of the Smoke King. I am the Smoke King. I am black. (Laughter) It was great, [W.E.B.] DuBois. And we talked a lot about--we had the Soul Roots Festival. And you know, I remember Stokely Carmichael coming through, H. Rap Brown, Cleve[land] Sellers. I remember going down to South Carolina State [University, Orangeburg, South Carolina] after the [Orange] massacre, so very much so. But of course, '67 [1967]--[Reverend Dr. Martin Luther] King [Jr.] was dead in April of '68 [1968], I remember rioting.$$What happened, specifically?$$Well, we were watching "Shane" in Sale Chapel. And they turned off the movie, which almost started a riot 'cause it was right at the best part of "Shane," "Shane." Say what? And the movie went (unclear). They had already announced that Martin King had been shot, so that had sort of sent a reverberation. But then they put the movie back on, so we said, well. And then they announced that he was dead. The movie went off, and we went off. I remember going across to Canterbury House and meeting with some fellows that I had been working within an organization called PRIDE, People Ready In Defense of Ebony. Earlier PRIDE had gone to the infirmary there. Dr. [James B.?] Ellison had said you know, what would happen if we had some gunshot wounds. And I said get out of here. We guys--(unclear)--revolutionaries. But now it was serious business. We, we dug up all of our preplans and we went to another location and made a bunch of Molotov cocktails. We bought the gasoline, filled up the, the bottles and stuff, the rags, and then we put them in bags. And then we went out that evening, and we burned several stores to the ground. We firebombed a local church. The fire caught in the basement. They got to it before it raged throughout the church. The church is still there. We terrorized cars with whites in them. And we were on a good roll. I had about, I started out with about seven of these Molotov cocktails, and I had about two left. And at that time, there was a friend of mine and I, and we were walking across this open field. I think the Morehouse School of Medicine may be sitting there now or just across the street from them. It was right in that area. And I remember as we were walking, we heard this whir, and we looked around and it was an armored car, like a, an Atlanta police, like a half-track truck or something. And I tell this story, I said the only thing I can see was a guy sitting on top with a neck that was very red, and he had a shotgun in his hand. And the moonlight reflected off the shotgun, so you could see this long silver barrel and this guy with a red neck holding this gun, and this half-track truck, and this big light flashing. I guess they were looking for us. And I remember telling the audience, I looked down at one of these Molotov cocktails, and I looked up at this half-track truck and this guy with this big shotgun and his very red neck. And all of a sudden I understood that non, that violence was not the way (laughter); nonviolence was the way. So I remember casting off the bag with the cocktails in it and running and just running, running, running, running, running and my friend doing the same thing. But in this open field someone had a clothesline, and I ran smack into that, and it snatched my head back, bam. I landed flat--[cough]--excuse me--flat on my back. Well, my friend was gone, he swoop--[cough]--excuse me. And eventually I got up and ran, and of course, he was already at the place where we started. And I met him there, and we decided that we would approach this another way. But, that's one of the things that happened.$Okay. You touched on the theology of Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. and his father. Can you share with us your own philosophy of theology and how it fits into this, this Harlem setting?$$My theology is shaped largely by three people in terms of reading and understanding. Two of them have passed on, and one is still living: Howard Thurman, Benjamin Mays, [HM] James Cone. Howard Thurman's writing--and I'm a Morehouse [College, Atlanta, Georgia] man, and he's a Morehouse, was a Morehouse man--Jesus and the disinherited, the relationship of this young rabbi from a Palestinian ghetto to his people and his understanding of God as representing the power and the force that would free them from the oppression of Rome but also from the oppression of Rome's puppet leaders like Herod. Benjamin E. Mays, in "The Negro's God [: As Reflected in His Literature]," talking about how our religion was once a religion of compensation. And now it was evolving into something that was pressing us forward in terms of our own struggle for freedom, and liberty, and justice--and James Cone, really, and C. Eric Lincoln, but Jim Cone in "Black Theology, Black Power," Black Power, Black Theology ["Black Theology & Black Power"]. And I tell Jim Cone, Dr. Cone whenever I see him now that, you know, it was his book and his teachings that sort of propelled me into ministry and helped me to be about the struggles that I'm involved in against police brutality, in community development, fighting racism, and encouraging young black men and women to a sense of excellence in their studies and in their work, because God is on the side of black people in their struggle, because we have the conscience of America. We are the ones who continue to save America all the time. And, and those who agree with us are black. That's ontological blackness. This is Jim Cone too, you know, so it doesn't really cast white people aside. He says but if you are part of the struggle that we're in for freedom, justice, and equality, you know, you're black too, you know. And if you don't believe it, you go out there and talk that stuff, they'll lynch you right (laughter) along next to us. So, but C. Eric Lincoln and E. Franklin Frazier, Frazier did a little sociological study of the black church called the Negro church in America, and that informs me, said that the church is the first place of social cohesion, the first place of political empowerment, the first place of economic empowerment, and the first place of education for black people, and that was right when you study its history. And then Lincoln did a little book called "The Black Church Since Frazier," where Lincoln reflects on Frazier, said he was right. But in that sense, the church was the symbol of freedom. And then Lincoln says but now, at the end of the 20th century as we moved into the 21st, the black church became the tool. And so we take, you know, the early embryonic stage of economic development, education, political empowerment, social cohesion, and now through things like OIC [of America], development corporations, etc., etc., we have become the real tool, you know. [Reverend Dr.] Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcolm [X], if you will, as an expression of the black religious experience, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. and Sr. We are really building now. And so these are the men who have informed my theology and the writings that have informed my theology.