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Jean Boone

Newspaper executive Jean Boone was born on March 14, 1943 in Columbia, South Carolina to Helen Patterson and Daniel Patterson. Boone graduated from C.A. Johnson High School in Columbia in 1960, and went on to earn her B.A. degree in sociology and anthropology from Dillard University in New Orleans, Louisiana in 1962. She then received her M.S. degree in social work in 1966 from Boston University.

After graduating from Boston University, Boone moved to Richmond, Virginia, where her husband, Raymond Boone, Sr., was editor of the Richmond Afro-American. She became an adjunct professor of education at Virginia Commonwealth University. She also worked as the associate director for housing and economic development for the Urban League of Richmond. In 1981, Boone joined the Children’s Defense Fund as the director of state and local affairs, serving until 1989. In 1988, Boone also served as the manager of community affairs and marketing for the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra. When Boone’s husband established Paradigm Communications, Inc. in 1991, Boone joined him as advertising director. The following year, Paradigm Communications, Inc. published the inaugural issue of the Richmond Free Press on January 16, 1992. Boone was named publisher of the Richmond Free Press in late June 2014 by the board of directors of Paradigm Communications, Inc. after her husband’s death.

Under the leadership of Boone and her late husband, the Richmond Free Press’ accomplishments were recognized by the Virginia Press Association, the Virginia Trial Lawyers Association, the National Newspaper Publishers Association, the NAACP and the Virginia Legislative Black Caucus. In 2001, the newspaper was the recipient of the Best in Commercial Renovation Award in recognition of its leadership during a downtown revitalization project. Boone was honored by the YWCA of Greater Richmond with the 2004 Outstanding Women in Communications Award and at Hattitude 2016: Hats Off to Women, which was hosted by the American Business Women’s Association. Boone served on the board of Housing Opportunities Made Equal of Virginia, Inc.

Boone and her late husband, Raymond Boone, Sr., had two children, Regina and Raymond Jr., and a grandson named Raymond III.

Jean Boone was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 9, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.145

Sex

Female

Interview Date

12/9/2016

Last Name

Boone

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widow

Middle Name

P.

Schools

Dillard University

Boston University

Waverly Elementary School

C. A. Johnson High School

Bennett College for Women

First Name

Jean

Birth City, State, Country

Columbia

HM ID

BOO05

Favorite Season

Spring

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Favorite Quote

It's Opportunity Time.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Virginia

Birth Date

3/14/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Richmond

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chilean Sea Bass

Short Description

Newspaper publishing executive Jean Boone (1943 - ) founded the Richmond Free Press in 1992 with her husband Raymond Boone, Sr., serving as the newspaper’s advertising director until 2014 when she was named publisher following her husband’s death.

Employment

Children's Defense Fund

Virginia Commonwealth University

Baltimore Symphony Orchestra

Richmond Free Press

Baltimore Blueprint

United South End Settlements

Greater Washington Urban League

Greater Richmond Urban League

Favorite Color

Orange

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Jean Boone's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Jean Boone lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Jean Boone describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Jean Boone describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Jean Boone talks about her likeness to her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Jean Boone describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Jean Boone remembers the Waverly community in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Jean Boone describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Jean Boone remembers black street vendors in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Jean Boone remembers Waverly Elementary School in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Jean Boone recalls her influential teachers

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Jean Boone remembers C.A. Johnson High School in Columbia, South Carolina, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Jean Boone remembers C.A. Johnson High School in Columbia, South Carolina, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Jean Boone recalls her aspirations during high school

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Jean Boone remembers the Civil Rights Movement in Greensboro, North Carolina, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Jean Boone recalls her decision to attend Bennett College in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Jean Boone remembers the Civil Rights Movement in Greensboro, North Carolina, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Jean Boone recalls transferring to Dillard University in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Jean Boone remembers Professor Lester Granger

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Jean Boone remembers enrolling in the social work program at Boston University

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Jean Boone remembers the political events of the 1960s

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Jean Boone recalls her influences at Boston University

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Jean Boone remembers organizing for the United South End Settlements in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Jean Boone remembers Melvin King

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Jean Boone recalls her internship at the Greater Washington Urban League

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Jean Boone remembers meeting her husband, Raymond H. Boone

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Jean Boone describes her accomplishments at the Urban League of Greater Richmond

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Jean Boone remembers teaching at Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Jean Boone remembers her husband's role at the Richmond Afro-American

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Jean Boone describes her projects at the Baltimore Blueprint

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Jean Boone recalls working with the Children's Defense Fund in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Jean Boone describes her work with the Children's Defense Fund

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Jean Boone remembers her role at the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Jean Boone reflects upon her efforts to diversify the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Jean Boone describes her husband's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Jean Boone talks about the internment of her husband's father during World War II

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Jean Boone talks about the history of interracial marriage in Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Jean Boone talks about the prevalence of mixed black and Asian ancestry

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Jean Boone describes her husband's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Jean Boone describes her husband's upbringing and education

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Jean Boone describes Raymond H. Boone's vision for the Richmond Free Press

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Jean Boone talks about the facilities of the Richmond Free Press

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Jean Boone talks about the black community in Richmond, Virginia

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Jean Boone describes her role as the advertising director of the Richmond Free Press

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Jean Boone talks about the relationship between the Richmond Free Press and the Richmond Afro-American

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Jean Boone remembers the editorial stances of the Richmond Free Press

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Jean Boone talks about the Richmond Free Press' political endorsement process

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Jean Boone remembers the candidates endorsed by the Richmond Free Press

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Jean Boone talks about the future of the Richmond Free Press

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Jean Boone describes the staff of the Richmond Free Press

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Jean Boone talks about the political climate in Virginia

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Jean Boone reflects upon her husband's legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Jean Boone reflects upon her life

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Jean Boone describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Jean Boone describes how she would like to remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

5$2

DATitle
Jean Boone talks about the internment of her husband's father during World War II
Jean Boone remembers her role at the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra
Transcript
I don't know quite how he [Boone's father in law, Tsujiro Miyazaki] got to, to Suffolk [Virginia] but he did, and what's even more remarkable is that he opened a business, which was called the Horseshoe Cafe [Suffolk, Virginia] (laughter). And he served a, I'm sure he served more than just one, one fare, but he served something called yak and yaka mein. And I later learned actually from my daughter [Regina Boone] who spent three years in Japan after she finished college, and yak in Japanese means--had something to do with noodles. And I don't wanna say it means noodles 'cause I'm, I'm not proficient, but in the language, but at any rate, he served that and it was a huge success. And, and the restaurant was a huge success as I understand it, and to this day there are people in Suffolk who still make yak 'cause they learned it from him, or imitated him. So, he was there, my husband's mother [Leathia Boone] I think worked with and for him, and sh- and that's who they met. And they had a, a child him, Raymond [Raymond H. Boone] and then they had another child, Gerald [ph.], so it was Raymond and Gerald. What happened in the '40s [1940s] when the internment camps, the white peop- (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Yeah during World War II [WWII].$$World War II.$$The Japanese Americans were considered the enemy--$$The enemy.$$--or potential enemies by the U.S. government and were rounded up.$$Right--$$That's I just want to make sure people know that--$$Yes that, that's--and the relevance to today of course is that the President-elect Trump [President Donald John Trump] is saying he wishes to do something very similar to people of Muslim faith. And it was a very scary time then and it's even more scary for people who are Muslims in America now. So that's the relevance and that's the editorial slant if you will, or reason for the editorial in this week's edition of the Free Press [Richmond Free Press]. At any rate, what I know is and what my husband told me is that white people pointed him out; they were the ones who outed him in Suffolk. And he was taken to Arkansas, there were two internment camps there, he went to one and then another. And he wrote letters back, we have letters that he wrote asking about the boys, being concerned about people. Being concerned about his, his business in the, the inventory from the business, a relative of, and keep in mind my, my husband was a young child at, at the time. So he, what he knows is what you know what his elders told him in later years. He has the, the photographs that's in the Free Press this week is one that the owned. I think his mother gave it to him, his brother who he, he passed away in the, in the mid--mid to late--he passed away late '60s [1960s], early '70s [1970s], of a heart condition, he was young. And my husband never, you have to understand, I am telling his story because my husband was, I'm not sure what the right word is, embarrassed or uncomfortable with telling the story of who, who he was, of, yeah.$Yeah so this is eight, eight years. So the Baltimore Symphony [Baltimore Symphony Orchestra] now, you're the manager of community affairs and marketing for the Baltimore Symphony. Now what was--I mean I don't know if many symphonies worry about you know, you know--$$Inclusion?$$Yeah right, so how did this come about, and--yeah, um-hm (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Well how did that come about? Well, it actually came about because the symphony received significant funding from the State of Maryland. And a gentleman who passed away, whose name is, was Pete Rawlings [HistoryMaker Howard "Pete" Rawlings] was on the Appropriations Committee [of the Maryland House of Delegates]. If you recognize the last name, his daughter [Stephanie Rawlings Blake] is the outgoing mayor of Baltimore [Maryland]. But Pete was very concerned that the money was coming from taxpayers. But the symphony was essentially lily white, and he felt that that was not right, and indeed it wasn't. And so they decided to hire someone to deal with that issue, and I was selected. I had minimal knowledge of symphonic music, but I had, I had a lot of interest in inclusion and knowledge of how to get basically middle class people and not so middle class people into the symphony hall [Joseph Meyerhoff Symphony Hall, Baltimore, Maryland] and to feel comfortable. And I always said to myself when I went there, that I never wanted to get so comfortable there that I forgot what it was to be uncomfortable in a new situation. Because that's the way the people would be feeling that I was trying to bring in. We had a committee; a cross section of Baltimoreans who you know, advised and came up with programs. And then I sought to implement them and we had, you know we had all Baltimore--we had one that I was particularly proud of. It's called the All-Baltimore Concert, and what that did was, we did was we found twelve non-profit organizations. We asked, we gave them tickets to sell to the symphony, they sold them, we gave them the tickets at five dollars, and they sold them for ten. They kept the five and they got their constituents into this, into the symphony. So when you looked at the audience, it was a very cross--very much a cross section of Baltimore. Organizations such as Girl Scouts [Girl Scouts of the United States of America] as well as you know a church organization. You know you name it, so the, the, the, the visual, the optics were all Baltimore and it was a wonderful concert that people enjoyed. We had African American composers on the program; we had African American performers on the program. And it, it, it worked and I mean that's an example we, once we had the Boys Choir of Harlem come and perform. And then we had kids from the community to come and have dinner with them after the concert, again making people feel comfortable in the symphony hall.

Brig. Gen. Arnold Gordon-Bray

U.S. Army Brigadier General Arnold N. Gordon-Bray was born in Columbia, South Carolina. His parents were Felix Gordon and Martha McNeil, and his stepfather was Isiah Bray. He graduated from Waynesville High School in Waynesville, Missouri in 1973. Gordon-Bray became interested in pursuing a military career when his brother, Michael, began to collect information about the United States Army. Gordon-Bray enrolled at Central Missouri State University (now the University of Central Missouri) in the fall of 1973 as an art major where he joined the Reserve Officer Training Corps program. He graduated from Central Missouri State University with his B.S. degree in art in 1978. Gordon-Bray’s military education includes the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, the Combined Arms Services and Staff College the, the Naval War College, and numerous other military schools.

Gordon-Bray became chief of the training division at Joint Special Operations command at Fort Bragg, North Carolina in 1990. In 1996, he was named commander of the 1st Battalion of the 508th Airborne Combat Team in Vicenza, Italy. In 1999, he graduated from the Air War College in Montgomery, Alabama with his M.A. degree in military strategic studies; and, in 2001, Gordon-Bray graduated with his M.A. degree in operations management and supervision from the Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island. He then assumed command of the 2nd Brigade of the 82nd Airborne Division, known as the “Falcon Brigade.” He led the Falcon Brigade during the early months of the Iraq War in 2003, and then served a second tour of duty in Iraq from 2006 to 2007 as the principal advisor to the Iraqi Ground Force Commander. During 2007, Gordon-Bray became deputy commanding general of the United States Army Cadet Command in Fort Monroe, Virginia. In 2011, Gordon-Bray became deputy director of operations for the United States Africa Command (AFRICOM). He then retired in November of 2012 and then started his own consulting firm, ANGB Consulting, in Fayetteville, North Carolina in January of 2013.

Gordon-Bray military honors include the Legion of Merit (with Oak Leaf Cluster), the Bronze Star, and the Meritorious Service Medal.

Brigadier General Arnold N. Gordon-Bray was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 11, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.224

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/11/2013

Last Name

Gordon-Bray

Maker Category
Middle Name

N.

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

U.S. Naval War College

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Air War College

University of Central Missouri

Central Michigan University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Arnold

Birth City, State, Country

Columbia

HM ID

GOR05

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere

Favorite Quote

Bring your 'A' game.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

North Carolina

Birth Date

6/14/1955

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Raleigh

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Hot Dogs, Pork, Beans

Short Description

Brigadier general Brig. Gen. Arnold Gordon-Bray (1955 - ) , one of the top-ranking African American generals in the United States Army, held several commands during a thirty-four-year career, including leadership of the 82nd Airborne Division’s Falcon Brigade during the Iraq War.

Favorite Color

Black

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Arnold Gordon-Bray's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Arnold Gordon-Bray lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about his name

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Arnold Gordon-Bray describes his mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Arnold Gordon-Bray describes his mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about his mother's education and her growing up in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about chasing chickens on his grandmother's farm in Ridgewood, South Carolina, and how this helped him in ranger school

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about his maternal family's education and service in the armed forces

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about his relationship with his father, Felix Gordon, and his death in 2010

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Arnold Gordon-Bray describes his father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about his parental family's presence in Edgefield, South Carolina, and their migration to the north

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about his father's service in the U.S. Navy during World War II, and African Americans not being recognized for their service

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about spending time with his father's family

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about how his parents met and married, his father's education, and the Gordon family's reputation for their good looks

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about his parents living in and around Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Arnold Gordon-Bray describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Arnold Gordon-Bray discusses his height, height requirements in the U.S. armed forces, and why he was disqualified as an aviator by the U.S. Army

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about his siblings and his childhood household

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Arnold Gordon-Bray describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about why he never went to kindergarten, winning an art contest in the first grade, and his mother's emphasis on education

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Arnold Gordon-Bray describes Christmas at his home while growing up

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Arnold Gordon-Bray recalls one particular Christmas from his childhood, and his parents' efforts to make Christmas special for the family

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Arnold Gordon-Bray describes how his childhood Christmas experiences have influenced his Christmas traditions as an adult

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about his familiarity with the city of Columbia, South Carolina, and how his parents were able to buy a home there

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Arnold Gordon-Bray describes his childhood neighborhood in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about his first grade drawing that won first place in an art contest

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about his interest in art, and reflects upon what it means to be an artist

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about his art supplies, and having to think outside the box

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about his experience in elementary school, and transitioning into an integrated school system in 1966

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about growing up under segregation in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Arnold Gordon-Bray describes his experience in the integrated school system in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about being stereotyped in college

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about his parents getting a divorce in 1966, and describes his family's tensions at the time

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about his mother remarrying, and his social experience in middle school

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about the positive influence of his friend, Kenny Davis, in middle school

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Arnold Gordon-Bray describes his experience at C.A. Johnson High School in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about attending Columbia High School in his junior year

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks his step-father and brother joining the Vietnam War, and his initial interest in joining the military

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about reading Malcolm X's autobiography while he was in high school

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Arnold Gordon-Bray recalls the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in 1968

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Arnold Gordon-Bray discusses the influence and impact of the civil rights era while he was growing up in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about how Malcolm X's autobiography impacted his political thoughts

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about his brother serving in a segregated Army in the Vietnam War, and his radical political leanings when he returned

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about his family moving to Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, and resuming his interest in playing basketball

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about the encouragement that he received from his step-father, Isiah Bray

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about his step-father's influence on him deciding to go to college

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about majoring in art, joining the ROTC, and playing on the basketball team at the University of Central Missouri

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about playing league basketball after graduating from the University of Central Missouri, and maturing as a player

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about his fan club while he was on the basketball team at the University of Central Missouri

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about the influence of his basketball coach, Tom Smith, from the University of Central Missouri

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Arnold Gordon-Bray describes his experience at ROTC camp in Fort Riley, Kansas and his goals after graduating from college

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about his decision to focus on his military career and sacrifice his interest in pursuing basketball in the U.S. Army

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Arnold Gordon-Bray describes his experience at Fort Jackson, South Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Arnold Gordon-Bray describes his assignment to a tour in Korea, and his experience there

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Arnold Gordon-Bray describes his experience on tour in Korea

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about his experience running into a mine field on tour in Korea

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Arnold Gordon-Bray describes his experience in advanced training at Fort Benning, Georgia

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about how he met his wife

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Arnold Gordon-Bray explains why he was disqualified from becoming a U.S. Army aviator, and describes his challenges at ranger school

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Arnold Gordon-Bray describes his medical challenges while at ranger school, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Arnold Gordon-Bray describes his medical challenges while at ranger school, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about Roscoe Robinson, Jr. and Julius Becton

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about his assignment to the 101st Airborne Division of the U.S. Army

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about his experience as a company commander in the 101st Airborne Division of the U.S. Army

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about his assignment as company commander of the headquarters company

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about his assignment as the operations officer of the 2nd Battalion, 502nd Infantry Regiment

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Arnold Gordon-Bray describes his experience in Somalia with the 2nd Battalion, 502nd Infantry Regiment

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about his service following the plane crash over Gander, Newfoundland in 1985, which killed 248 American soldiers, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about his service following the plane crash over Gander, Newfoundland in 1985, which killed 248 American soldiers, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Arnold Gordon-Bray describes his involvement in a joint operation training with the U.S. Marines in the Caribbean

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about his selection as aide to the corps commander in 1986

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Arnold Gordon-Bray describes his experience as the aide-de-camp to General James J. Lindsay, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Arnold Gordon-Bray describes his experience as the aide-de-camp to General James J. Lindsay, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Arnold Gordon-Bray describes his experience as the aide-de-camp to General James J. Lindsay, pt. 3

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Arnold Gordon-Bray talks about serving as the aide-de-camp to General John Foss, and his assignment to the 82nd Airborne Division

Randall Kennedy

Legal scholar and law professor Randall LeRoy Kennedy was born on September 10, 1954 in Columbia, South Carolina as the middle child of Henry Kennedy Sr., a postal worker, and Rachel Kennedy, an elementary school teacher. Kennedy has two siblings: Henry H. Kennedy, Jr., a former United States District Court Judge for the District of Columbia; and, Angela Kennedy, a lawyer in the District of Columbia Public Defender Service. Kennedy’s father often spoke of watching Thurgood Marshall argue Rice vs. Elmore, the case that invalidated the rule permitting only whites to vote in South Carolina’s Democratic primary. His family moved from South Carolina to Washington, D.C. where Kennedy graduated from St. Albans School in Washington, D.C. and then enrolled at Princeton University where he received his A.B. degree in 1977. In 1979, he became a Rhodes Scholar in the Balliol College at the University of Oxford. Kennedy went on to earn his J.D. degree in 1982 from Yale Law School.

Upon graduation, Kennedy was awarded an Earl Warren Civil Rights Training Scholarship for African American Law Students. He served as a law clerk for Judge J. Skelly Wright of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit from 1982 to 1983 and for Justice Thurgood Marshall of the United States Supreme Court from 1983 to 1984. Kennedy was admitted to the District of Columbia Bar in 1983. He was also admitted to the Bar of the United States Supreme Court. Kennedy is a member of the American Law Institute, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Association. In 1984, Kennedy joined the faculty at Harvard Law School as a full professor where he taught courses on legal contracts, freedom of expression, and the regulation of race relations.

Awarded the 1998 Robert F. Kennedy Book Award for Race, Crime, and the Law (1997), Kennedy has written for a wide range of scholarly and general interest publications. He has also served on the editorial boards of The Nation, Dissent, and The American Prospect. Kennedy is the author of Nigger: The Strange Career of a Troublesome Word (2002), Interracial Intimacies: Sex, Marriage, Identity and Adoption (2003), Sellout: The Politics of Racial Betrayal (2008), and The Persistence of the Color Line: Racial Politics and the Obama Presidency (2011). Kennedy was awarded an honorary degree from Haverford College and is a former trustee of Princeton University. He is also a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Randall LeRoy Kennedy was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 27, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.111

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/24/2013

Last Name

Kennedy

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

St. Alban's High School

Princeton University

Yale Law School

First Name

Randall

Birth City, State, Country

Columbia

HM ID

KEN06

Favorite Season

Summer

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

For Us There Is Only The Trying, The Rest Is Not Our Business. - T. S. Eliot

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

9/10/1954

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Ice Cream

Short Description

Law professor Randall Kennedy (1954 - ) , the Michael R. Kline Professor Law at Harvard Law School, was awarded an honorary Doctor of Laws degree by Haverford College. He was also a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Employment

United States Court of Appeals,D.C. Circuit

United States Supreme Court

Harvard University Law School

Favorite Color

Red

Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr.

Aerospace engineer and major general (ret.) Charles F. Bolden, Jr. was born on August 19, 1946 in Columbia, South Carolina. He graduated from C.A. Johnson High School in 1964. Both of his parents, Charles and Ethel Bolden, were teachers and stressed the importance of education. Bolden received his B.S. degree in electrical science from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1968, and earned his M.S. degree in systems management from the University of Southern California in 1977. He then accepted a commission as a second lieutenant in the U.S. Marine Corps following graduation from the Naval Academy and underwent flight training at Pensacola, Florida, Meridian, Mississippi, and Kingsville, Texas.

Between June 1972 and June 1973, Bolden flew more than 100 combat missions into North Vietnam, South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia in the A-6A Intruder while stationed in Nam Phong, Thailand. After returning to the United States, Bolden served in a variety of positions in the Marine Corps. He was then assigned to the Naval Test Pilot School at Patuxent River, Maryland, where he completed his training in 1979. While working at the Naval Air Test Center’s Systems Engineering and Strike Aircraft Test Directorates, he tested a variety of ground attack aircraft until his selection as an astronaut candidate in 1980. Bolden’s NASA astronautical career included technical assignments. He served as pilot on the Space Shuttle Columbia in 1986. In the wake of the Challenger disaster, he was assigned as the chief of the Safety Division. In 1990, he piloted the Space Shuttle Discovery during its mission to deploy the Hubble Space Telescope. Bolden served as the Mission Commander for Space Shuttle Atlantis in 1992 and the Space Shuttle Discovery in 1994. He logged more than 680 hours during these four flights. Bolden left NASA and returned to the U.S. Marine Corps in 1997, and was assigned as the Deputy Commandment of Midshipmen at the Naval Academy. During Operation Desert Thunder-Kuwait in 1998, he was assigned as the Commanding General of the Marine Expeditionary Force. He was promoted to Major General in 1998. In 2003, Bolden retired from the Marine Corps and served as president of the American PureTex Water Corporation. In 2009, President Barack Obama appointed Bolden as the top NASA administrator, making him the second astronaut and the first African American to serve in this position.

Bolden’s military decorations include the Defense Superior Service Medal and the Distinguished Flying Cross. NASA awarded him the Exceptional Service Award in 1988, 1989, and 1991. In May of 2006, he was inducted into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame.

Bolden and his wife, Alexis Walker, live in Alexandria, Virginia. They have two children: U.S. Marine Corps Lt. Col. Anthony Bolden, and Michelle Bolden, M.D.
Charles Bolden was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 28, 2012 and February 3, 2017/

Accession Number

A2012.229

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/28/2012 |and| 2/3/2017

Last Name

Bolden

Maker Category
Middle Name

F.

Schools

United States Naval Academy

University of Southern California

C. A. Johnson High School

Naval Air Test Center

First Name

Charles

Birth City, State, Country

Columbia

HM ID

BOL03

Favorite Season

Summer

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Japan

Favorite Quote

Do The Best You Can.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

8/19/1946

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Aerospace engineer and major general Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. (1946 - ) served in the United States Marine Corps and was a pioneering astronaut with NASA, where he also served as administrator.

Employment

United States Marine Corps

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

American PureTex Water Corporation

TechTrans International Corporation

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden. Jr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes his mother's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes his mother's Episcopal upbringing, and her career path

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes his father's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. reflects on his similarities to his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. talks about Charles Drew

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. talks about his brother and their childhood home

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes the neighborhood where he grew up

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes the house where he grew up

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. continues to describe the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes his earliest encounters with math and science

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes his earliest memories of watching sports on television

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. recalls his favorite science program on television

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes his experience in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes his earliest memories of the civil rights movement

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. recalls his experiences with segregation

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. shares his memories as a high school football player

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes experiencing segregation as a youth

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes his interest in the U.S. Naval Academy and the Marine Corps

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes his high school achievements

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes his experience at the U.S. Naval Academy

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes the influence of his mentor at the U.S. Naval Academy

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes the academic rigors at the U.S. Naval Academy

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes the tension following Dr. Martin Luther King's assassination

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. talks about the influences that shaped his decision to join the Marine Corps

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. talks about his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes serving in the Vietnam War

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes the A-6 Intruder attack aircraft and A-6 missions

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. discusses the new rules of war

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes his thoughts on being an astronaut

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. recalls 1969, when Neil Armstrong landed on the moon

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. talks about the time during and after the Vietnam War

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. obtains his master's degree at the University of Southern California

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes how he became a test pilot with the Marine Corps

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes Dr. Ronald McNair's role in wanting to be an astronaut

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. talks about the first African American astronauts in space

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes his acceptance into NASA's Space Program in 1980

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes his early days at NASA

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. discusses America's waning interest in space

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes his first project at NASA

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes preparing for his first mission into space

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes being aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Slating of Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr.'s interview, session 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. remembers seeing Earth for the first time from space

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes how he came to join the NASA space flight program

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. lists the crew aboard the STS-61-C mission

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes the various roles aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. talks about the reasons for Space Shuttle Columbia's extended flight

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes the landing procedures of the Space Shuttle Columbia

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. remembers NASA mathematician Katherine G. Johnson

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes the debriefing process following a space flight

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. remembers the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. talks about the causes of the Space Shuttle Challenger's failure

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. remembers the crew lost aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes his position as chief of the Safety Division at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. remembers his second space mission to launch the Hubble Space Telescope

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes the Hubble Space Telescope

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. talks about the different views of space

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes NASA's Shuttle Transportation System

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. talks about his flight aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. recalls the experiments aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. talks about his position as the assistant deputy administrator of NASA Headquarters

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. remembers the members of the Congressional Black Caucus

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. remembers his Russian crew mates aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery in 1994

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. talks about the Russian space program

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. talks about the scientific experiments aboard STS-60

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. recalls an incident aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes the influence of the Russian space program upon NASA

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. remembers travelling to Belgium and Russia

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. talks about his return to the U.S. Marine Corps

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes his promotions and various positions within the U.S. Marine Corps

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. talks about Operation Desert Thunder

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. talks about the U.S. military actions leading to the Iraq War

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. talks about the Iraq War

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes the regime of Josip Broz Tito in Yugoslavia

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. talks about the highest ranking African Americans within the U.S. Marine Corps

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes his positions immediately following his retirement

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. talks about the creation of Jack and Panther LLC

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. recalls his presidential appointment to NASA administrator

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes the support of NASA within the U.S. government

Tape: 8 Story: 10 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. talks about the debates concerning global warming

Tape: 8 Story: 11 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes his goals and objectives as NASA administrator

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. talks about the need for diversity within NASA

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. shares his hopes for the future of NASA

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. reflects upon the state of STEM education in the United States

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. talks about the effects of space travel

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. reflects upon his life

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. shares his advice for younger generations

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. talks about his family

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. shares the advice he received from Robert L. Gibson

Tape: 9 Story: 10 - Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden, Jr. describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

7$10

DATitle
Charles Bolden recalls his experiences with segregation
Charles Bolden describes being aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia
Transcript
Okay. Now do you remember segregation vividly--$$Very well, yeah.$$--in growing up?$$Yeah, that was all I knew.$$Yeah, well, what was it like going into downtown Columbia--$$I've--it was okay 'cause you knew where you, you knew where you could go and where you couldn't. And you knew where you better not go. And, and so you just kind of governed your life that way. It was, in many ways it was a lot easier than when I got to the Naval Academy where, you know, Baltimore and other places were recently integrated to be quite honest, but they weren't. And so even then there was de facto segregation. And you could really get yourself in, in, in a bad way going into some places in and around Annapolis, for example, and not know that you weren't supposed to be in there. You went in there because that's where all the other midshipmen went. But they made it very clear when you came in that, you know, you were not welcome. And that, that lasted all the way--I graduated in 1968. And I remember one of the, the worst experiences I had at the Naval Academy was, was just before my graduation when we were told we couldn't--there were, there were three of us, three, three of my friends got in--Buddy Clark, who turned out to be my best man in my wedding and was from Chicago; Frank Simmons, who was from Birmingham, Bessemer, Alabama; and, and me. And we went into a, a place in, on the outskirts of Annapolis in Maryland and, and we were told that they wouldn't serve us, that, you know, we had to go around the back. And we, we were not inclined to do that so we (chuckle), we, we finally left after some time. But it was not, it was not nice, yeah. So I, I've, I remember segregation very, very, very vividly, yeah.$Alright. Now, okay, as you were ready to fly then this is, this is January you said of '86 [1986]?$$When I flew?$$Yeah.$$It was January--well, we started in December. We were scheduled to fly in December. And we went to the launch pad--I can't remember the date. But we got down to fourteen seconds, no, no, no, yeah, we got down to fourteen seconds and, and the system aborted because it detected a, some problem in the right-hand side rocket booster. And they, they didn't know whether it was real or not. And so it, it was in the hydraulic power unit that, that moves the nozzles around. And so they decided that we would scrub for the day. And as they got into it, they realized they had to get in and actually change out a box. And so that caused us to slip completely through the Christmas holidays and into the new year. So then we came back, I want to say we came back down on the 3rd of January and attempted to launch and didn't. We got down to thirty-one seconds and didn't get off because we had a problem with one of the main engines. Then the next time we went out we got down to thirty-one seconds and this time not only did we, did--well we had problems with a, with a main engine valve and it wouldn't close properly. And when they, when they did the troubleshooting after we got out of the vehicle and it turned out as they were detanking the time before a, a thermal probe had broken off. And it jammed one of the, one of the valves. So, turned out to be a good day not to fly because couple of things could have happened, the, the worse being the back end of the shuttle would have blown off because it would have gotten an uncontrolled shutdown because the valve couldn't close carrying the liquid oxygen, liquid oxygen. And the motor, the engine would have over spun and (indicates explosion)! So, so it was a good thing we didn't fly that day. Then the fourth time we went out, we, we laid out there on our backs for two hours in a thunder storm, in a driving thunderstorm with lightening and stuff going on. And we finally talked our way out of the vehicle. We, we started talking among ourselves and--because we knew the flight surgeon was listening in on the, on the intercom. And so we started talking about being worried about getting hit by lightening, laying out there on the metal, on, on top of four million pounds of propellant. So they finally said, okay, we're gonna scrub for the day, and they came and got us. And, and then the next day we went out, which was the 12th of January--flawless. Everything, I mean, everything went like clockwork. And we launched and then came back. Originally we were only gonna fly four days and then the weather at, at the Kennedy Space Center [on Merritt Island, Florida] just kept getting worse and worse and worse. So, so we got an extra three days tacked on. So we ended up with a seven-day mission, but we landed in the middle of the night out at Edwards Air Force Base [in East Kern, California] because the weather just never improved at, at Kennedy [Space Center]. And so that was the 18th of January and in--$$Now what was the flight like? I mean, what--$$It was awesome. I mean it was, you know, my first time in space. Just getting, just getting yourself adapted to being weightless and moving around and, and, and that kind of stuff. And then we had a lot of work to do. We had a lot of, we had a lot of very small experiments plus we had, we had one satellite, one RCA satellite, communication satellite called SATCOM KU-3, KU-2, that serves today. It's a, it's a KU band satellite that's used to get television imagery down. I think it had--HBO was one of the channels it was gonna be on this particular satellite. And then we did a lot of medical experiments, which I enjoyed quite a bit. And then we had the infrared imaging camera on that, that I got a chance to play with quite a bit with Bob Cenker.$$Okay.$$And then, you know, we landed, like I said, on the 18th of January. And we're in the closing phases of our debrief on--what was to have been the last day of our debrief we were sitting in, in, in a debriefing room at, at the Johnson Space Center when we took a break to go watch Challenger launch. And, and seventy-three in sec-, seventy-three seconds in the flight it just disintegrated. And so life changed after that.

Albert N. Thompson, Jr.

Chemist and chemistry professor Albert N. Thompson, Jr. was born October 31, 1946 to Martha Furgess Thompson and Albert Thompson, Sr. in Columbia, South Carolina, (Richland County). His mother was an elementary school teacher and his father was a college professor. After attending Savannah Kay Elementary and William Miller Jr. High Schools, Thompson attended and graduated from Phillis Wheatley, Sr. High School in Houston, Texas in 1964. He received his B.S. degree in chemistry and his M.S. degree in inorganic chemistry from Texas Southern University in 1973 and 1975, respectively. Thompson served as an instructor of physical science and chemistry at Houston Community College and Texas Southern University between 1974 and 1975. He earned his Ph.D. degree in inorganic chemistry from Howard University in 1979. He then became an assistant professor of chemistry at Fisk University.

Thompson served as an assistant professor of chemistry at Fayetteville State University in North Carolina. In 1981, he did a faculty research fellowship at the USAF School of Aerospace Medicine at Brooks Air Force Base, Texas before being hired as a professor at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia. Thompson served as a visiting professor of chemistry at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1990. In 2011, Thompson earned a promotion to chair Spelman College’s Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics.

Thompson has received funding and co-funding from several research and educational grants from organizations such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Science Foundation (NSF), United States Air Force, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Department of Energy and the United States Army. Thompson has also served as a research and program proposal consultant to the NSF, NASA, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), NIH, Quality Education for Minorities (QEM) and Project Kaleidoscope organizations. A member of the University of Chicago James Franck Institute NSF Materials Research Center Visiting Advisory Committee, Thompson is an advocate for minority student training in science and research careers. He organized and is involved with the American Chemical Society’s sponsored summer research program for Atlanta area high school students, Project SEED.

Thompson is a member of the American Chemical Society Beta Kappa Chi Scientific Honor Society and the Sigma Pi Sigma Physics Honor Society. He was also featured in an Ebony magazine article on Spelman College. In 2011, he received a distinguished alumni award from the School of Science and Technology at Texas Southern University. Thompson has two children, Amber and Tayloir. He resides in Atlanta, Georgia.

Albert N. Thompson, Jr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 20, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.072

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/20/2012

Last Name

Thompson

Middle Name

N.

Schools

Texas Southern University

Blackshear Elementary School

Kay Granger Elelemtary School

Phillis Wheatley High School

Howard University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Albert

Birth City, State, Country

Columbia

HM ID

THO17

Favorite Season

Fall

Sponsor

National Science Foundation

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

If you knew the answers, you couldn't call it research.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

10/31/1946

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Shrimp

Short Description

Chemistry professor and chemist Albert N. Thompson, Jr. (1946 - ) is chair of Spelman College’s Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics. He has garnered several research grants from prestigious organizations in the field of porphyrin chemistry such as the National Science Foundation.

Employment

Spelman College

University of Wisconsin, Madison

Fayetteville State University

United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine

Fisk University

Texas Southern University

Houston Community College

Main Sponsor
Main Sponsor URL
Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
0,0:650,3:1460,40:8080,133:9752,151:10368,159:11248,181:11776,187:14800,207:15540,221:16872,248:18870,291:22770,350:27390,481:28230,560:36363,643:37674,669:38433,682:38916,691:39468,700:39882,707:53355,989:54030,999:57855,1065:58230,1071:59055,1084:62430,1159:62730,1164:72360,1267:94384,1497:94798,1505:95626,1524:98662,1570:99076,1577:99421,1583:99835,1590:102526,1641:102871,1647:106090,1668:108090,1690:115766,1759:117131,1773:118132,1789:123683,1866:125958,1935:128598,1953:130515,2008:131580,2032:136621,2162:136905,2167:142260,2225:143050,2240:145736,2298:146289,2306:148422,2358:152925,2440:159900,2504:160320,2511:160740,2518:171674,2684:177450,2835:177906,2842:189069,3034:189464,3040:192020,3104:199140,3268:200993,3289:208164,3357:210018,3394:211610,3409$0,0:3944,31:4476,40:5008,49:5768,57:7972,104:8656,114:9340,124:10328,177:10784,184:11924,193:12836,277:14280,338:14584,343:20830,387:24508,403:29408,513:38510,705:38918,712:39190,719:39870,729:40142,734:40958,747:41502,756:45786,871:60250,1060:61729,1086:62512,1099:62860,1104:64513,1136:78128,1230:79848,1258:80880,1275:82514,1307:83546,1324:85352,1350:86384,1359:89566,1417:89910,1422:94730,1432:107414,1647:108195,1661:108621,1668:109118,1678:113570,1726:113874,1731:115546,1760:117218,1789:119194,1842:119954,1857:128815,1962:140580,2136:142380,2225:152692,2492:152976,2497:154041,2520:154751,2533:155461,2549:155958,2557:161283,2673:161993,2688:168980,2776
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Albert Thompson, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Albert Thompson, Jr. shares his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Albert Thompson, Jr. discusses his mother's family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Albert Thompson, Jr. discusses his father's family history

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Albert Thompson, Jr. talks about his father's education and involvement in a Civil Rights lawsuit

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Albert Thompson, Jr. talks about his parents and his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Albert Thompson, Jr. describes his earliest childhood memory of moving to Houston, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Albert Thompson, Jr. explains the Green Book and African American travel

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Albert Thompson, Jr. shares the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Albert Thompson, Jr. talks about the advantages of growing up near Texas Southern University

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Albert Thompson, Jr. talks about his father as a professor at Texas Southern University

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Albert Thompson, Jr. talks about his social and academic experience in elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Albert Thompson, Jr. discusses his exposure to science and chemistry

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Albert Thompson, Jr. discusses different junior high schools and high schools in Houston, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Albert Thompson, Jr. talks about his experience at Phyllis Wheatley High School in Houston, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Albert Thompson, Jr. relates his experience with the Civil Rights Movement growing up in Houston, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Albert Thompson, Jr. discusses his early college and military experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Albert Thompson, Jr. talks about his mentor Ray Wilson

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Albert Thompson, Jr. talks about Dr. Lloyd Ferguson and his decision to attend Howard University for his Ph.D. degree

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Albert Thompson, Jr. talks about his experience as a doctoral student at Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Albert Thompson, Jr. talks about his path to becoming a professor at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Albert Thompson, Jr. describes his experience as a faculty research fellow at the United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Albert Thompson, Jr. talks about Spelman College's reputation and his National Science Foundation proposal

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Albert Thompson, Jr. discusses his visiting professorship at the University of Wisconsin, Madison

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Albert Thompson, Jr. talks about his involvement with minority serving STEM programs

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Albert Thompson, Jr. explains his publication,'Effect of Halogenations of the Nonlinear Optical Properties of Porphyrin and Substituted Porphyrins'

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Albert Thompson, Jr. discusses various publication, grants and awards

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Albert Thompson, Jr. discusses Spelman College's 'Ebony Magazine' feature and its resources

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Albert Thompson, Jr. discusses his STEM philosophy

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Albert Thompson, Jr. relates his appointment to department chair at Spelman College back to his high school experience in Houston, Texas

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Albert Thompson, Jr. discusses his vision for Spelman College and his hopes and concerns for African Americans in the STEM fields

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Albert Thompson, Jr. talks about his career legacy and his family

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Albert Thompson, Jr. shares how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Albert Thompson, Jr. describes his photos

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$3

DAStory

5$3

DATitle
Albert Thompson, Jr. talks about his father's education and involvement in a Civil Rights lawsuit
Albert Thompson, Jr. describes his experience as a faculty research fellow at the United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine
Transcript
My father [Albert Nelson Thompson, Sr.] finished Tuskegee Institute [now Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, Alabama] in 1940. He was in education, and he started teaching in Columbia, South Carolina. Not long after, he was very young when he went to college, I think fifteen. He was probably nineteen when he came out. He had difficult finding a job because he looked young, very young, but I remember my grandmother [Ella Evelyn Lewis Thompson] telling me that the superintendent would not hire him because he looked like a boy. And my grandmother also said that this superintendent didn't even have a college degree himself (laughter). My father ended up getting a teaching job with the Columbia school system. That's how he and my mother [Martha Viola Furgess Thompson] met. But in 1944, my father, with the assistance of the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People], filed a lawsuit because there was unequal teacher pay during that period. And this was happening around the country. Their counsel was Thurgood Marshall, but the local attorney who handled it was Lawyer [Harold R.] Boulware. And I always heard my parents talk about him. Well, anyway--$$What was his name again?$$Boulware, B-O-U-L-W-A-R-E. I can't think of his first name, but he handled a lot of Civil Rights cases.$$B-O-W--I'm sorry.$$No, B-O-U-L-W-A-R-E.$$U-L--$$It might be an "E" in Boulware, something. I don't think it's W-E-L-L. I think it's Boulware, right. And whenever we went back to South Carolina--we left in 1950, late '49 [1949], '50 [1950], my father would always take us up there to the courthouse and tell us the story about his court case that he did win. The judge was J. Waites Waring, who was the same judge in South Carolina that ruled on that '54 [1954] decision, 'Briggs versus Clarendon County,' you know, and then there was the Topeka [Brown versus Board of Education, 1954] case and the Virginia case. And we all know that the South Carolina case should have been the first one on the docket because Briggs comes before Brown alphabetically. And the story goes that Strom Thurmond [James Strom Thurmond], you know, cut a deal because he didn't want South Carolina to be known. Well, some, some, by default, my father and mother had to leave South Carolina because they could no longer get employment there, probably because my father was a member of the NAACP. And, you know, that was outlawed at that time. And, you know, I've heard my grandmother say, well, things always happen and you have to move on. So my father went, taught for a year in rural South Carolina. Again, we lived in Johnston, South Carolina, right in the same county where Edgefield [South Carolina] is, Strom Thurman's county (laughter), Edgefield County, Edgefield, South Carolina. Then he went on to get a masters degree from NYU [New York University, New York, New York] in the late '40s [1940s]. My sister was actually born in New York City [New York] at Harlem Hospital. And then he took the teaching job at Texas Southern [Texas Southern University, Houston, Texas]. And then some years later, he eventually finished his doctorate degree at the University of Pittsburgh [Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania]. And he retired from Texas Southern after teaching there fifty years (laughter). So in 19-, I guess '99 [1999], somewhere in that time period was when he retired from Texas Southern.$Okay, we also have a note here that you became a faculty research fellow at the United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine [San Antonio, Texas]. Is that--$$Yes, that summer before I left Fayetteville [Fayetteville State University, Fayetteville, North Carolina] and came to Spelman [Spelman College, Atlanta, Georgia], I spent that summer in San Antonio, Texas. And so I did research with a Texas Southern [Texas Southern University, Houston, Texas] grad who did his masters under Lloyd Woods and Ray Wilson was his teacher also. His name was Dr. Lovelady, which is very interesting (laughter).$$(Laughter) Dr. Lovelady.$$Lovelady, yes, and--$$Is there a story behind his name?$$No, that's a family name. He's from very close to Dr. Wilson's area, Giddings, Texas. That's where Dr. Wilson is from. There is a Lovelady, Texas, but it's in East, Texas. In fact, when he would call me at Spelman, we had a switchboard operator. We didn't have direct calls, and the switchboard operator stopped me one day. And she said, "There's a Dr. Lovelady calling you and leaving a message. Is that really his name?" I said, yes, that is his name. So were looking at porphyrins as a detector for Hydrazine. Hydrazine is a chemical that's used in jet engines. If the engine flames out, they need to start it up very quickly, and Hydrazine is there to start it up very quickly instead of the fuel. But it's a very toxic and possibly a carcinogen. So they needed a way to detect leakages. And so we were looking at different compounds that could maybe form colors, and they could know if the Hydrazine was leaking or something 'cause the people on the flight path, you know, were exposed to that. So, and, you know, they also looked at other medical research there. There was a centrifuge, 'cause, you know, the pilots had to come there every so often and get retraining and experience, you know, several G's of force, things of that nature. And, in fact, I met a German scientist there, and I can't think of his name, but he was a German from World War II who came over and helped set up that School of Aerospace Medicine, just like [Wernher] Von Braun [German born rocket scientist/aerospace engineer] did, you know, come in Huntsville [Alabama].$$Hermann Oberth [Austro-Hungarian-born German physicist and engineer considered one of the founding fathers of rocketry and astronautics]and--$$Yes, so I met him, and I actually have a book where he signed his name, you know. But that place is shut down. I think it was taken over by a private company in San Antonio [Texas]. But I know the Air Force no longer runs it. Brook Air Force Base was a non-flight place. It was just a research facility. They had some old flight paths there, but they never used it.

Tyrone Hayes

Biologist and biology professor Tyrone B. Hayes was born on July 29, 1967 in Columbia, South Carolina, to Romeo and Susie Hayes. In the forests near Columbia, Hayes first became interested in the way that frogs morphed from tadpoles to their adult form. He graduated from Dreher High School in 1985 and then earned his B.A. and M.A. degrees in biology in 1989 from Harvard University. His dissertation on the genetic and environmental mechanisms determining the gender of the wood frog would be indicative of the research he would pursue later. After graduating from Harvard University, Hayes continued his studies at the University of California, Berkeley, where he received his Ph.D. degree in integrative biology in 1993 for his study of the role of hormones in mediating developmental responses to environmental changes in amphibians.

Hayes worked as a National Science Foundation postdoctoral fellow at the University of California, Berkeley before he became an assistant professor at the University in 1994. He was appointed to a full professorship position in 2003. Hayes’ scientific research continues to focus on the potential of genetic adaptation and the role of hormones in the development of the amphibian. His investigations have shown that chemical agents, such as a commonly used herbicide, have the ability to negatively impact the sexual development of the amphibian, even when such toxins are present in low concentrations. Hayes has taken an interest in the hormonal regulation and development of aggressive behavior. Hayes has also been active with the National Science Foundation Review Panel since 1995, and he has served on several other advisory boards as well.

Hayes has won several awards for his teaching and his research, including the Distinguished Teaching Award from University of California, Berkeley in 2002 and the President’s Citation Award from the American Institute of Biological Science in 2004. He was also awarded the National Geographic Emerging Explorer Award and the Jennifer Altman Award in 2005.

Hayes lives in California with his wife, Kathy Kim, and their two children, Tyler and Kassina.

Tyrone Hayes was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 7, 2011.

Accession Number

A2011.001

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/7/2011

Last Name

Hayes

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

B

Organizations
Schools

Greenview Elementary School

Hand Middle School

Dreher High School

Harvard University

University of California, Berkeley

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Tyrone

Birth City, State, Country

Columbia

HM ID

HAY11

Favorite Season

Christmas

Sponsor

National Science Foundation

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

7/29/1967

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/Oakland

Country

United States

Favorite Food

All Food

Short Description

Biology professor and biologist Tyrone Hayes (1967 - ) is a leading researcher in amphibian endocrinology. Professor at the University of California, Berkeley, Hayes’s work has shown the herbicidal chemical Atrazine to act as an endocrine disruptor in the sexual development of frogs.

Employment

University of California, Berkeley

Main Sponsor
Main Sponsor URL
Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
0,0:2132,27:2492,33:3572,55:4796,82:5228,89:6020,108:6308,114:13070,267:13730,304:14450,321:15230,347:15530,353:17090,379:17570,396:18890,437:19130,442:19370,447:19850,457:24350,603:24710,610:24950,615:25790,658:26810,693:27230,701:27950,719:28250,725:28970,739:29330,746:32630,844:32930,850:33170,855:40478,892:43742,992:44354,1003:44762,1011:45034,1016:46530,1050:47074,1071:48434,1116:49726,1153:50950,1182:52650,1219:53330,1226:53670,1235:56050,1306:56662,1317:57478,1343:58226,1362:58770,1371:60334,1408:68134,1435:68470,1442:69590,1470:76418,1634:81856,1708:82084,1713:84022,1786:84706,1801:85162,1811:85447,1817:90400,1888:90895,1913:92470,1924:97800,2067:99685,2124:100855,2151:105275,2294:106965,2327:107485,2341:108070,2354:108915,2373:115775,2434:117315,2481:117865,2496:118580,2516:118910,2524:119900,2561:121605,2634:122870,2674:123475,2686:129228,2755:129564,2762:133804,2870:137856,2939:138116,2945:139000,2971:140820,3042:146355,3134:146810,3143:147395,3155:148240,3170:149215,3204:149735,3216:150320,3227:151035,3244:151360,3250:156974,3323:157953,3335:158665,3344:164840,3452$120,0:552,10:930,19:1146,24:1524,71:1848,79:4008,125:4332,132:4656,139:7050,171:7400,179:7750,188:8700,217:8950,223:10250,258:10600,267:11150,280:11750,294:12050,301:12350,308:12550,313:12850,320:13250,330:13650,339:13950,349:14450,361:17100,370:17429,379:17758,387:18134,403:18886,427:19074,432:25977,479:26221,489:26892,503:29454,591:34029,746:34395,753:36103,808:36408,814:38177,858:38665,868:42840,878:43024,883:44450,934:44634,939:44818,945:45186,954:45600,965:45968,975:46658,1000:47072,1014:47256,1019:47670,1030:49530,1043:49730,1048:49930,1053:50480,1069:50930,1079:51280,1089:55014,1200:57636,1262:57912,1267:58395,1276:59154,1291:62706,1320:62930,1325:63714,1354:63938,1359:64330,1367:65786,1403:66290,1414:66570,1420:66906,1427:68754,1448:69218,1458:69682,1467:71470,1477:72575,1500:74005,1553:76410,1622:78035,1647:80920,1658:81340,1667:82720,1706:83440,1724:83740,1730:84160,1739:84640,1748:85240,1761:88630,1784:89485,1806:89713,1811:92400,1861:92834,1870:95190,1919:95624,1927:98724,1991:99096,1999:100336,2017:103848,2090:104103,2096:107420,2138:108140,2156:110240,2195:111440,2224:113360,2260:113600,2265:118504,2312:118732,2317:119188,2327:123235,2456:123862,2470:124603,2489:125515,2509:126940,2548:127282,2555:128080,2579:128479,2588:128764,2594:129448,2615:133268,2636:133738,2651:134067,2660:134819,2682:135007,2687:135994,2720:140690,2771
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Tyrone Hayes's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Tyrone Hayes shares his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Tyrone Hayes talks about his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Tyrone Hayes recalls his mother's childhood memories of Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Tyrone Hayes discusses his paternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Tyrone Hayes describes his father's memories of growing up in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Tyrone Hayes describes his father's career path

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Tyrone Hayes shares the story of how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Tyrone Hayes talks about his parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Tyrone Hayes talks about his childhood neighborhood in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Tyrone Hayes talks about his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Tyrone Hayes shares his earliest childhood memories of growing up in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Tyrone Hayes reflects on his interest in the outdoors and wildlife

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Tyrone Hayes considers his family's role in his interest in science

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Tyrone Hayes talks about his parents' views on toy weapons

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Tyrone Hayes recalls his dreams of becoming an explorer

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Tyrone Hayes shares memories of elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Tyrone Hayes discusses learning about science outside of the classroom

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Tyrone Hayes describes his early fascination with frogs and reptiles

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Tyrone Hayes discusses his role models and the zoo as key influences during his junior high school years

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Tyrone Hayes talks about his musical influences

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Tyrone Hayes discusses attending a middle school for artistically talented and gifted students

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Tyrone Hayes describes his first interactions with white people

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Tyrone Hayes recounts his experiences with focusing and being tracked in school

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Tyrone Hayes remembers his high school experience

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Tyrone Hayes describes the difference between a vocational and an academically enriched program

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Tyrone Hayes describes his high school classes and teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Tyrone Hayes discusses youth including his breeding of lizards and locusts

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Tyrone Hayes discusses the global decline of amphibians

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Tyrone Hayes describes the effects of industrialization on the environment

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Tyrone Hayes describes his interest in science fiction

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Tyrone Hayes discusses dating in high school and college

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Tyrone Hayes talks about his laboratory work during college

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Tyrone Hayes talks about applying only to Harvard University

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Tyrone Hayes describes his difficult transition in college

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Tyrone Hayes recalls his Harvard University experience

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Tyrone Hayes recalls some of the African American individuals and organizations of Harvard University

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Tyrone Hayes describes meeting his future wife

Tape: 3 Story: 13 - Tyrone Hayes explains the importance of control and discipline for college success

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Tyrone Hayes discusses the importance of having the experience working in a laboratory during college

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Tyrone Hayes describes the title of endocrinologist

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Tyrone Hayes explains how he chose to do his graduate studies at the University of California, Berkeley [Berkeley, California]

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Tyrone Hayes describes the atmosphere of the endocrinology groups at the University of California, Berkeley

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Tyrone Hayes describes the declining amphibian population and the role of frogs as environmental indicators

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Tyrone Hayes explains the role of hormones in amphibian metamorphosis

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Tyrone Hayes explains the term "endocrine disruptor"

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Tyrone Hayes responds to the question about the black presence on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley [Berkeley, California]

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Tyrone Hayes talks about his dissertation

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Tyrone Hayes discusses the problems of the African clawed frog, an invasive species

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Tyrone Hayes describes his research studies in Kenya

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Tyrone Hayes discusses his post-graduate studies

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Tyrone Hayes talks about his work for the Environmental Protection Agency and Ecorisk, part 1

Tape: 4 Story: 14 - Tyrone Hayes talks about his work for the Environmental Protection Agency and Ecorisk, part 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Tyrone Hayes discusses his views on pharmaceuticals and herbicides

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Tyrone Hayes discusses the results of his tests on the effects Atrazine on frogs

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Tyrone Hayes discusses the effects of Atrazine on human health

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Tyrone Hayes reveals companies that sell chemicals to cause and cure disease

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Tyrone Hayes discusses the reactions of Novartis in response to his publishing his findings, part 1

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Tyrone Hayes discusses the reactions of Novartis in response to his publishing his findings, part 2

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Tyrone Hayes explains how he has funded his research

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Tyrone Hayes explains his patent, the Hyperolius Argus Endocrine Screen [HAES]

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Tyrone Hayes details the work in his laboratory

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Tyrone Hayes explains that his lab has studied fish in the past

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Tyrone Hayes discusses how others have become involved in the fight against the use of Atrazine

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Tyrone Hayes describes the importance of blind sampling

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Tyrone Hayes describes his scientific philosophy

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Tyrone Hayes describes the balancing of his personal and professional lives

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Tyrone Hayes discusses his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Tyrone Hayes addresses the problem of education in the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Tyrone Hayes describes the importance of exposing nonscientists to the scientific professions

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Tyrone Hayes describes the additional effects of Atrazine

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Tyrone Hayes discusses the problem of putting his scientific findings in a social context

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - Tyrone Hayes reflects on the honors he has received

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Tyrone Hayes describes his fitness regime

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Tyrone Hayes reviews his life decisions

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Tyrone Hayes responds to questions about his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Tyrone Hayes talks about how he wants to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$5

DAStory

13$4

DATitle
Tyrone Hayes reflects on his interest in the outdoors and wildlife
Tyrone Hayes reveals companies that sell chemicals to cause and cure disease
Transcript
Now, when you explored the woods around there, did you have any, did anybody--was anyone around to tell you like, this is the type of tree you were looking at or to explain or decode what the what the different animals and trees(unclear) (simultaneous)--$$No, but my grandmother [Agnes Elizabeth Bailey] gave me a lot of books. So I had a lot of field guides, and they had, you know, they had I guess what you'd call sort of folk stuff that they would say about the lizards. I think, you know, if the toad pees on you, you'll get warts. I mean my grandmother and great grandmother taught me a lot of things like that, "don't let it pee on you, you'll get warts". And, you know, there were certain things they'd say about fireflies and making wishes and that kind of thing. So, and my grandmother--and it had been a farm, and so there were still some remnants of the farm. So there were some plum trees and my grandmother had a peach tree that grew over the well. And I remember it was still this kind of wild asparagus that grew. So she knew things kind of about farming. And my grandmother was really into flowers. So she was always planting flowers, and we'd talk about fertilizers. And I remember I had a little guide to insect pests, and I would go around and inspect the flowers and try to figure out what pests she had on her flowers, you know, Japanese beetles on her roses and things like that. But not, I mean not really hardcore science stuff, but just sort of--$$Interests, keen interests.$$Yeah, and then there were some things like snakes. Every snake was bad. I mean, and so--and in fact, I was because of that, sort of afraid of snakes until I was in college. And that's when I just decided, you know, this is silly 'cause I loved all animals. And I just really made an effort to learn about how to handle snakes and all that. But it was, you know, and my father [Romeo Hayes] was more of a, anything on his property was dead, you know, I mean lizards, I mean he killed everything (laughter), insects, lizards, everything was a threat somehow, you know, In fact, I remember my neighbor with these big skinks, actually interesting story, these big, you know, these blue-tailed skinks, these big lizards, my neighbor used to shoot them with a twenty-two [rifle], just pow, pow, blow 'em up. And people in the South, black people called them scorpions. In fact, my grandmother told me this story. She said that if you stepped on them, when she was working in the fields when she was little, that they would sting you with their tail. You know the lizard I'm talking about? They're big and they have bright, blue tails.$$Big blue--$$So the interesting thing is--$$You call them a skink?$$It's a skink, yeah. It's a, the family that the lizard belongs to, and they're ground-dwelling lizards. And when they turn adults, they turn into adults, they turn into the bright gold with a bright, red head. And black people in South call them scorpions. So here's an interesting story. When I started working in Kenya, the Swahili word that they use for a similar lizard in Kenya means scorpion and they tell the same story, that if one of them bites you on the toe in your field, then you'll get sick for a week, exact same story. So I don't know the root of it or how, you know, how it got transferred into the story that black people tell in the South, but obviously, it has an origin in Africa somewhere.$$Hmmm. Okay.$Turns out that the same company [Novartis, sister company of Syngenta] sells a chemical to block aromatase that they sell to breast cancer patients. So to me, that's the biggest piece of evidence. How are you gonna argue that Atrazine turning on aromatase does not increase the likelihood of breast cancer when you're selling a chemical that does exactly the opposite with the promise that it's gonna keep your breast cancer from spreading or occurring.$$This is amazing.$$And they, you know, I'm not sure what their argument is, but they write these letters to my dean. And, you know, I joke all the time. I told them, my Daddy [Romeo Hayes] lives in South Carolina. Writing letter to my dean ain't gonna get you nowhere (laughter). If my father calls me up and says, son, do something else, then I'd think about it. But writing to my dean, no. So, because I published that relationship. I published a paper called the "One Stop Shop, Chemical Causes and Cures for Cancer". And you'll see this. If you look across the board, okay, that same company under a different name, for example, sold DDT [dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, a pesticide], Cepegigge or gigge (ph.). DDT we know is an estrogen mimi. You know, it's like getting in this room. It fits into the estrogen lock, even though it's not. Okay, they sold an estrogen mimic. The same company sold Tamoxifen which is an estrogen blocker to treat breast cancer. So you have these big chemical companies really getting paid on both ends so to speak. And whether or not there's a conspiracy and anybody's doing, that's not what I'm saying. But the case of Atrazine, in the year 2000, January, that guy, John Giesy I was telling you about published a paper where he actually wrote in the paper, John Giesy, the former advisor of the vice president of Novartis [Gary Dixon], wrote a paper where he said, the induction of aromatase by Atrazine may explain some of the tumor-promoting properties of Atrazine. They wrote that in January 2000. In July 2000, they applied to the FDA [U.S. Food and Drug Administation] to start selling their aromatase blocker, just six months later. In November 2000, Novartis spins off this company, Syngenta, who keeps selling Atrazine. And now Novartis only sells the aromatase blocker. But come on. At some point you have to know there were two men in the same room who went, "Oh, shit" (laughter), right, but, you know, but treat it how it is. Those are the facts. All in one year, they discover that Atrazine turns on aromatase. Six months later, they start--they apply to start selling an aromatase blocker, and then by November, they spin off another company--they keep selling Atrazine, and they start selling the aromatase blocker. Come on. (laughter)

June M. Perry

June Martin Perry was born on June 10, 1947, and raised in Columbia, South Carolina. She received her B.A. degree from North Carolina Central University. Perry attended graduate school at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and received her M.S. degree in social work in 1971. She has also completed her course work for a Ph.D. in urban studies at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

Perry and fellow social worker Geri McFadden started New Concept Development Center, Inc., in 1975 to address what they saw as a lack of local social services, specifically those for African Americans. New Concept is a non-profit social services agency that targets African Americans. Services include family counseling, housing, and employment assistance, as well as case management for HIV patients. In the 1980s, New Concept expanded into a greater set of social services by starting a mentoring program for girls at the Hillside Housing Project, providing a Youth Motivation Seminar for Role Models and Youth, and developing its first youth-managed and operated business through its youth entrepreneurship program. In 1986, New Concept authored a Blue Ribbon report on Teen Pregnancy Prevention for the City of Milwaukee. New Concept developed the first Prenatal Care Program which soon became the model for Title XIX benefits. In the 1990s, New Concept Development Center again expanded its services by opening Milwaukee’s first Father’s Resource Center and developing a First-time Juvenile Offenders Program which became a model for Milwaukee County. What began as a two-woman operation has grown into a 50-employee business serving more than 7,000 families a year operating a budget of $2.5 million. After retiring from New Concept Development Center in 2006, Perry created Access 2 Success, an organization which acts as a technical assistance intermediary between business, government and non-profits to expand the capacity for non-profit sustainability and strategic planning.

Perry is the recipient of many awards including the Sacajawea Trailblazer Award, the Woman of Influence Award, Mentor of the Year, the Black Women’s Network Lifetime Leader Award, the Kraft Foods - Essence Award, the Black Administrators in Child Welfare Long Term Leaders Award, and the Community Service Award from SET Ministries. Perry’s current volunteer involvement includes being a founding member of the African American Women’s Fund, membership on the board of directors of the Aurora Health Care Metro Region, and the oversight and advisory committee for the Healthier Wisconsin Partnership for the University of Wisconsin School of Public Health. Perry is also an independent travel agent for Keystone Travel. She has recently traveled to Australia, New Zealand, Greece, Turkey, France, Italy, and Mexico.

Perry has two adult children and enjoys spending time with her life partner, Bill Stevens.

Accession Number

A2008.133

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/17/2008

Last Name

Perry

Maker Category
Middle Name

Martin

Schools

W A Perry Middle

C. A. Johnson High School

Carver-Lyon Elem

North Carolina Central University

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

First Name

June

Birth City, State, Country

Columbia

HM ID

PER05

Favorite Season

Fall

Sponsor

John and Irma Daniels and the Fellowship Open

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Italy

Favorite Quote

If It Is Going To Be, It Is Up To Me.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Wisconsin

Birth Date

6/10/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Milwaukee

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Grits

Short Description

Social worker and nonprofit executive June M. Perry (1947 - ) started New Concept Development Center, Inc., a non-profit social services agency that targets African Americans, in 1975. In 2006 Perry created Access 2 Success to expand the capacity for non-profit sustainability and strategic planning.

Employment

Wisconsin Department of Public Welfare

New Concept Self Development Center

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:7910,151:39005,504:39905,517:40805,537:43805,603:44780,620:45830,641:48455,687:49430,701:49730,706:54245,728:55745,745:63030,793:64980,822:66630,846:67455,855:68055,865:68430,871:68805,877:69705,895:70605,909:71130,921:71505,927:72030,935:76176,956:76668,963:76996,968:77324,973:79210,1004:79784,1013:82326,1058:85196,1130:85606,1138:86426,1161:90510,1189:99645,1377:100776,1396:101298,1415:106352,1463:107122,1480:107815,1491:108508,1501:112666,1585:116516,1687:117440,1707:117902,1715:119981,1751:128090,1838:129455,1852:130295,1861:130820,1867:131240,1872:131660,1877:134510,1882:136656,1921:138358,1965:138728,1972:139172,1979:154160,2209:156032,2238:156422,2244:161492,2364:166562,2490:176641,2604:180791,2690:187029,2753:188108,2767:188689,2776:189436,2787:190515,2804:191179,2814:193500,2822:193860,2827:196560,2861:197910,2885:198630,2896:199080,2902:200070,2919:211890,3044:212226,3049:214494,3084:217434,3141:218358,3153:237470,3464$0,0:6039,201:6732,210:7227,216:10230,233:10950,251:11590,260:12710,346:21990,451:22425,458:23295,469:23643,474:23991,479:26949,507:27297,512:31377,543:34694,580:35229,586:35657,591:41828,666:42238,672:47110,714:47979,736:48453,743:49243,755:49559,760:49875,765:53430,830:54931,857:58500,867:60866,909:68146,1031:68783,1039:75500,1093:78662,1146:79580,1156:82130,1184:87652,1243:90116,1286:99920,1398:101270,1426:101795,1434:102245,1446:103145,1494:104795,1523:109716,1544:110086,1550:114600,1604:115251,1613:119796,1687:120693,1700:123144,1780:123788,1789:128020,1853:128572,1860:129032,1866:130320,1885:133908,1948:140455,1985:140835,1990:142070,2009:142545,2015:143685,2037:144255,2045:147964,2068:152760,2130:153390,2145:154920,2163:158290,2201
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of June M. Perry's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Slating of June M. Perry's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - June M. Perry describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - June M. Perry describes her maternal grandfather's career as an electrician

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - June M. Perry talks about her family's roots in Africa

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - June M. Perry describes her paternal ancestry in Jenkinsville, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - June M. Perry describes her mother's upbringing in South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - June M. Perry describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - June M. Perry describes her parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - June M. Perry describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - June M. Perry describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - June M. Perry describes the role of religion in her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - June M. Perry describes her community in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - June M. Perry describes her grade school experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - June M. Perry recalls experiencing racial discrimination in the late 1950s

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - June M. Perry remembers C.A. Johnson High School in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - June M. Perry recalls her brother's sit-ins in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - June M. Perry remembers North Carolina College at Durham

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - June M. Perry recalls meeting Howard Fuller in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - June M. Perry recalls her decision to study at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - June M. Perry remembers moving to Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - June M. Perry describes her community organizing work in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - June M. Perry describes the Organization of Organizations' role in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - June M. Perry recalls her community at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - June M. Perry recalls her work at the Wisconsin Department of Public Welfare

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - June M. Perry describes racial segregation in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - June M. Perry describes her work as a child abuse investigator in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - June M. Perry recalls the psychological toll of child abuse casework

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - June M. Perry recalls founding the New Concept Self Development Center

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - June M. Perry describes her parental counseling services

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - June M. Perry describes the problems in the Milwaukee Public Schools

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - June M. Perry describes the Each One Reach One mentoring program

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - June M. Perry describes her work with teenage parents

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - June M. Perry describes her preparations for retirement

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - June M. Perry describes the programs at the New Concept Self Development Center

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - June M. Perry describes her work to decrease childhood incarceration

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - June M. Perry reflects upon her career at the New Concept Self Development Center

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - June M. Perry reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - June M. Perry describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - June M. Perry reflects upon her family life

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - June M. Perry describes her plans for the future

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - June M. Perry narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

4$8

DATitle
June M. Perry recalls experiencing racial discrimination in the late 1950s
June M. Perry describes her work as a child abuse investigator in Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Transcript
Now, the country was really getting into the Civil Rights Movement in the late '50s [1950s], you know (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Yeah.$$--Little Rock [Arkansas], and you had, you know, the Montgomery Bus Boycott and--$$Yes.$$And so were things starting to heat up in--$$Yeah.$$--South Carolina?$$I remember when we went to the movies, we, you know, had to sit upstairs and I remember, you know, the news talking about segregation and the--kind of an escalation of the fear--well not fear, but just conversation about you shouldn't drive alone at night because, you know, the Ku Klux Klan [KKK] is around and we'll never see you again, just those kind of things being a part of the conversations that were prevalent in the community in the school. Yeah, so I remember the difference and more attention to the things that we had lived with, like the black and white water fountains and the different bus station and train waiting rooms and all of the things that were segregated. I remember that.$$When you first encountered--can you remember when you first encountered that kind of thing or took notice of it?$$As a little girl, I remember my [maternal] grandmother [Rosena Martin] taking me to ride the bus and the fact that we had to sit in the back. And I would ask her, "Why do we have to go to the back," and she would say, "That's just the way it is." Yeah, and like I said, being with my [maternal] grandfather, and knowing that he had to collect money from white people and sometimes they wouldn't pay him, and also recognizing the difference of he always called them mister and they always called him Uncle Willie [Will Martin]. So, you know, I always--you knew those things happened and also my family would travel, drive, when my father [Mark Martin, Sr.] was alive. I remember we drove to Canada, to Quebec, and we would stay in people's homes that they knew because we couldn't stay in hotels and stop on the side of the road and, you know, have a picnic because we couldn't go in hotels or--you know, in restaurants. So, I--yeah, I remember those things.$$Once you got to Quebec, was it still segregated?$$No. I remember staying in the hotel in Quebec and I think that's, you know, probably why we wanted to go there because it was a different country with different rules, but I remember that.$$It's interesting in those days, a lot of places in the North, black people couldn't stay in hotels either, yeah, I know so--$$Yeah, that's true.$$Yeah.$$The North was just as segregated. It just wasn't talked about as much, you know, but it was. It was--Baltimore [Maryland] was awful, you know, and where--the Mason-Dixon Line, it was supposedly after you crossed that, everything was okay, but I don't think so. And I had my grandmother's sisters, several of them went to New Jersey to work in very wealthy homes, so they worked for people who had a lot of money, for white people, and they lived in a neighborhood in New Jersey, I think it was Newark [New Jersey] then, that was not a bad neighborhood. People had very nice homes and--excuse me--all the people who lived there worked, but it was a--certainly a distinction between what white people and what black people and how they lived.$$Okay.$$Yeah.$$So--usually the pattern is South Carolina goes to New York, and--$$D.C. [Washington, D.C.]$$D.C., too (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous0 Uh-huh.$$Okay.$$Yeah, a lot in D.C. I have one aunt in D.C., one in New Jersey.$$Okay.$$Yeah.$So you were organizing on the North Side of Milwaukee [Wisconsin], the black (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Yeah.$$--part of town?$$Yeah, uh-huh.$$All right.$$Yeah.$$So, were you still investigating cases of child abuse?$$That was when I got out of graduate school [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin].$$Okay.$$That was my first job, was investigating child abuse, yeah, and mostly in the central city and the North Side. But, again, that was a very rude awakening to me of poverty, very different than in the South, I think. The things that I saw, I had never seen before.$$Like what, for instance?$$The level of poverty, how people lived, homes where there was no food, where, you know, people were living in actual squalor and kids were neglected, didn't have food to eat, you know. I--there are poor people in the South, but I never saw that level of poverty and mistreatment of children before, so that was a rude awakening to me of kind of a difference. And I was thinking, some friends and I were talking about growing up. In the South, everybody lived in a house and had a yard--a yard. People didn't live in high-rise apartments or--the projects were one level, you know, maybe three or four units joined together. But, I think the difference was people were more independent but connected. There were neighborhoods where, like I said, my family--people--no child would go without food because people were around you that knew if you were poor, you lost your job, they were going to help you. So, I had never seen the kind of poverty and mistreatment of children before I came here. That was new. And that was really kind of the motivation for starting the agency [New Concept Self Development Center, Inc., Milwaukee, Wisconsin].$$Now, what was your analysis of I guess the child abuse problem?$$Yeah, it was before crack cocaine, so it was some drugs, but not real prevalent. It was poverty and it was frustration, not having--people were most often referred for child neglect, children who came to school with, you know, very dirty clothes or who--the abuse was I would say maybe 20 percent of the time, but neglect because of poverty was more prevalent.

B. B. De Laine

Educator Brumit Belton De Laine or B.B. De Laine was born on October 1, 1937 in Columbia, South Carolina to Mattie Belton De Laine, a teacher, and Joseph Armstrong De Laine, a minister, teacher, and community activist. De Laine attended segregated elementary schools, and during his childhood, his father spearheaded a civil rights protest against the segregated school and transportation systems in Clarendon County, South Carolina. As a youth, De Laine witnessed the protests and social tensions that led to the Briggs v. Elliott school desegregation case that was eventually bundled with Brown v. Board of Education. Following the U.S. Supreme Court decision, De Laine witnessed widespread vandalism and terror perpetrated by the Ku Klux Klan. He witnessed the burning of his father’s church and the escape of his family to New York City.

De Laine graduated from Carver Public High School in 1955. He attended Howard University for one half of a year and then transferred to Johnson C. Smith University where he got involved in and was one of three primary organizers of the lunch counter sit-in demonstrations in Charlotte, North Carolina. He earned his B.A. degree in psychology and economics from Johnson C. Smith University in 1960.

De Laine accepted a job as a bus driver in New York City. In 1964, he graduated from New York University with a master’s degree in safety, and in 1965, De Laine began teaching in the Chappaqua, New York schools. The following academic year, De Laine moved back to North Carolina with his wife, Edith Strickland De Laine, and three children where he accepted a teaching position in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School System at Garinger High School in 1965. De Laine was the first African American teacher at Garinger High School. In 1969, De Laine became Director of Driver Education for the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School System. In 1977, De Laine completed a sixth year certificate from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, earning him advanced certification in school administration. After more than thirty years in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School System, De Laine retired in 1996. Soon after, he joined the Board of Directors for the Swann Fellowship.

De Laine resides in Charlotte, where he serves on the Board of Directors for the Briggs-DeLaine-Pearson Foundation.

De Laine was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 21, 2007.

B.B. De Laine passed away on June 14, 2012.

Accession Number

A2007.183

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/21/2007

Last Name

De Laine

Maker Category
Schools

Scotts Branch High School

Liberty Hill Elementary School

Carver High School

Allen University

Johnson C. Smith University

New York University

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Howard University

First Name

B.B.

Birth City, State, Country

Columbia

HM ID

DEL08

Favorite Season

Spring

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

Tell A Person To Go To Hell In Such A Way That They'll Enjoy The Trip.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

North Carolina

Birth Date

10/1/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Charlotte

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Ice Cream

Death Date

6/14/2012

Short Description

High school administrator B. B. De Laine (1937 - 2012 ) spent more than thirty years working for the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools.

Employment

New York City Human Resources Administration

Garinger High School

Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools

New York City Transit Authority

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:1440,27:1824,32:2208,37:2784,46:9353,88:9677,93:11826,106:12298,111:13930,118:14680,129:14980,134:20699,163:21308,171:21743,177:22613,189:26876,291:27398,298:32618,375:33488,386:34900,393:35248,398:35857,403:39424,472:45272,536:45967,542:49370,555:49670,561:50570,579:50930,585:51710,598:55690,649:56490,660:57210,671:57530,676:69284,793:70799,811:71405,817:74334,846:81512,883:88122,1022:88690,1031:92680,1077:98715,1167:99225,1174:99565,1179:105600,1258:106192,1267:106562,1273:107376,1287:110336,1328:113176,1338:120310,1456:124486,1528:128430,1536:128754,1541:129078,1546:130374,1570:150412,1794:154900,1810:171335,1957:172610,1991:177410,2081:177710,2086:186722,2192:187026,2197:191738,2289:200960,2409:203600,2455:204216,2463:205800,2522:209584,2562:210200,2570:219616,2661:252382,3073:252886,3081:264303,3194:264675,3199:265047,3204:267010,3215:267502,3223:267830,3228:272750,3304:273652,3317:275620,3357:276522,3371:277014,3376:277752,3407:278080,3412:288816,3510:290230,3535:291038,3552:292351,3575:299058,3618:302754,3712:303194,3720:305746,3771:306186,3777:306626,3783:308914,3811:314168,3843:314603,3850:320267,3897:320655,3902:325311,3969:325699,3974:331795,4020:332404,4028:335420,4060$0,0:1188,13:1452,18:2046,28:3102,83:6940,117:7325,123:12400,177:17167,227:19390,249:20720,265:22050,281:27342,347:27834,358:33756,407:34680,415:35604,423:40634,486:40978,491:43644,558:45794,600:59982,708:60486,716:61242,731:61914,740:68476,823:68772,828:74940,915:76940,927:88577,1024:91069,1061:91514,1067:92760,1080:101732,1224:104768,1299:105688,1310:111240,1357:113960,1404:114520,1413:125654,1506:130970,1538:131843,1549:134753,1584:143010,1689:144860,1703:152780,1842:153100,1847:157898,1890:173507,2116:173903,2122:175091,2138:175982,2149:185752,2249:186445,2260:186984,2268:195496,2339:210694,2595:212416,2626:217063,2663:217935,2674:218698,2682:232615,2853:233550,2868:244680,2931:246840,2980:251320,3040:252520,3063:260810,3172:270468,3272:272492,3307:279260,3402:282872,3455:283646,3527:284162,3535:284764,3543:286054,3565:287688,3596:294319,3624:294823,3633:297028,3675:297595,3690:297847,3695:298162,3701:298477,3707:311238,3868:312064,3876:329890,4042
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of B. B. De Laine's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - B. B. De Laine lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - B. B. De Laine describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - B. B. De Laine describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - B. B. De Laine talks about his homes in South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - B. B. De Laine describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - B. B. De Laine lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - B. B. De Laine describes his upbringing in Summerton, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - B. B. De Laine remembers traveling with his father

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - B. B. De Laine describes his father's discipline

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - B. B. De Laine describes his childhood pastimes

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - B. B. De Laine remembers the Liberty Hill School in Summerton, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - B. B. De Laine remembers his maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - B. B. De Laine recalls the Scotts Branch School in Summerton, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - B. B. De Laine remembers segregation in Summerton, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - B. B. De Laine describes the segregated movie theaters in South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - B. B. De Laine recalls the segregated restaurants in Summerton, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - B. B. De Laine remembers the lynchings in Summerton, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - B. B. De Laine describes his father's activism

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - B. B. De Laine recalls the transportation available to black students in Clarendon County, South Carolina, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - B. B. De Laine remembers the family of Levi Pearson

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - B. B. De Laine recalls the transportation available to black students in Clarendon County, South Carolina, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - B. B. De Laine describes the white community of Summerton, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - B. B. De Laine describes his father's values

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - B. B. De Laine describes the case of Pearson v. Board of Education

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - B. B. De Laine describes his father's role in the community

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - B. B. De Laine talks about the inequalities of school segregation

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - B. B. De Laine remembers Carver High School in Lake City, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - B. B. De Laine recalls the results of the Briggs v. Elliott case, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - B. B. De Laine describes his father's reaction to Brown v. Board of Education

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - B. B. De Laine describes the results of the Briggs v. Elliott case, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - B. B. De Laine recalls his decision to attend Allen University in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - B. B. De Laine recalls his decision not to attend a private high school

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - B. B. De Laine describes the white reprisals against his father

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - B. B. De Laine remembers attending Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - B. B. De Laine remembers leaving Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - B. B. De Laine describes segregation in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - B. B. De Laine recalls his start at Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - B. B. De Laine describes Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - B. B. De Laine recalls his start as a civil rights leader in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - B. B. De Laine talks about his father's influence

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - B. B. De Laine describes the student sit-ins in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - B. B. De Laine describes the results of the student protest movement in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - B. B. De Laine shares his protest philosophy

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - B. B. De Laine recalls working for the welfare department in New York City

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - B. B. De Laine remembers meeting and marrying his wife

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - B. B. De Laine remembers his graduate studies at New York University

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - B. B. De Laine describes race relations at New York University

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - B. B. De Laine talks about his civil rights activities

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - B. B. De Laine describes his children

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - B. B. De Laine describes how he became an educator

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - B. B. De Laine describes his position at Garinger High School in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - B. B. De Laine remembers Principal Ed Sanders

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - B. B. De Laine recalls a white parent's reaction to school integration

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - B. B. De Laine recalls a prejudiced coworker at Garinger High School

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - B. B. De Laine describes the changes in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - B. B. De Laine describes his religious involvement

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - B. B. De Laine describes his role at the Education Center in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - B. B. De Laine remembers the leadership of Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - B. B. De Laine recalls the white protests against busing

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - B. B. De Laine describes the school busing process in Charlotte, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - B. B. De Laine remembers the death of his father

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - B. B. De Laine reflects upon his father's accomplishments

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - B. B. De Laine recalls earning a certification in school administration

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - B. B. De Laine remembers the busing crisis in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - B. B. De Laine describes the resegregation of the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - B. B. De Laine describes his retirement

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - B. B. De Laine remembers the death of his mother

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - B. B. De Laine reflects upon his father's legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - B. B. De Laine reflects upon his family's legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - B. B. De Laine narrates his photographs with his brother, Joseph A. De Laine, Jr.

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

2$4

DATitle
B. B. De Laine recalls the results of the Briggs v. Elliott case, pt. 1
B. B. De Laine describes the student sit-ins in Charlotte, North Carolina
Transcript
What year did you graduate from high school?$$Nineteen fifty-five [1955].$$And how were race relations at that time?$$Still very much segregated. The 1954 [U.S.] Supreme Court decision in Brown [Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 1954] was--came down at the end of my junior year. The second decision in Brown, the one that required the schools to desegregate with all deliberate speed, came down either the day before I graduated or the day after, I don't remember which it was, but it was one day separation there. So, it were still segregated. There were no whites in South Carolina, to speak of, that even would entertain the thought of integrated schools at that time. But, because of the Briggs case, we did have the new high school. That was a part of the equalization effort that the State of South Carolina went into to try to stave off the integration issue.$$So this was one of the concessions in the Briggs v. Elliott case and your father [Joseph A. De Laine, Sr.] was instrumental in that case, and Thurgood Marshall argued the case?$$Right.$$One of the concessions to avoid seg- desegregation was to build the high school you attended, Carver public high school [Carver High School] in Lake City [South Carolina]?$$Right. In--in the district court hearings, the state conceded that the schools were not equal and that the governor had proposed, and it was rushed through to get a $75 million bond to equalize schools. The bulk of that money went to equalizing black schools. But there were some white schools that were brought up to standards also. And in 1952, I think it is--was, a new school was built in Summerton [South Carolina] and transportation provided for black students. Lake City, they were not as far behind so it took a little longer to get a school there. When we went to Lake City, they had--the elementary building was a cinderblock building. I think it had central heat in it also and then they had another brick building, that was the high school wing. Those--both of those buildings were not too old as schools went during that time because it had not been too very long that the high school--that the school, a black school had burned in Lake City and that's when the cinderblock building was built.$$Tell me about the burning of that school, when did that happen?$$I--I'm not sure what happen--what year that was. But, I don't think it had been fifteen years. In fact, it probably wasn't that long because some of the people I know that said they were in school at that time would not have been in school fifteen years back. But--$$You were alive when this happened?$$Yeah, I didn't know anything about that because it was before we moved to Lake City. But when we got there, they did have a building that had indoor restrooms, and they had central heat. Did not have a cafeteria. But it--it was--it was a pretty nice building as far as black folk were concerned. And--$$This was the 1952--$$This was 19--$$--construction?$$No, this was 1950 and in Lake City, the new school did not come until 1953. So it was about a year after--ni- yeah, the end of 1953, '54 [1954] school year we moved into the new building.$$Was there a sense that your father was part of this movement, a big part of this movement?$$Yeah. People knew where or why the schools were being built. Now in other parts of the state I'm not sure that they were as aware of why they were getting new buildings, as they were in the Clarendon County [South Carolina] area.$$How many buildings? How many new schools, colored schools?$$All over the state. Yeah, I don't know how many, but I know all over the state they were built.$$And this all began in Clarendon County?$$Right. In fact, I spoke at a school in Aiken County [South Carolina] about three years go and one--they--the school where I was speaking had been a black school and it was one that came from the bond issue. And the staff there, the principal and the teachers didn't know until I told them that that was a part of the state's program to equalize the schools.$So what were race relations like in Charlotte [North Carolina] at the time, at the time of the sit-ins?$$Things were still segregated, but Charlotte was much more moderate than most southern towns. I think that's good and bad because Charlotte has always tried to keep the lid on problems and resolve them before they get the negative press that some other places have gotten. But then after they get the initial problem resolved, I don't think Charlotte has stuck with it to get the root causes corrected. And because of that, I think some of the issues that we are still struggling with now are still here and they could've been resolved in my opinion. But during the lunch counter demonstrations, the City of Charlotte, the official policy was, that if we did not val- if we as the demonstrators did not violate any city ordinances they would not hassle us. Now if some individual policeman did underhanded things, but that was not the official policy of the city. And we did not have the violence that other towns experienced during the sit-ins.$$Now which restaurants, stores did you target as activists?$$All of them downtown.$$Name a few?$$Kress [S.H. Kress and Co.]--Kress, Woolworth [F.W. Woolworth Company], Grants [W.T. Grant Co.], Ivy's [J.B. Ivey and Company], Belk's. Ivy's is a department store, you would probably have called that the most upstale- upscale store we had. Belk's is still in existence, Ivy's is--that was a family owned store that's not in existence now. But we--you could not eat anywhere downtown except one place, and that was a little stand known as Tanner's [Tanner's Snack Bar]. And if you remember Harry Golden's vertical integration theory, that's why he came up with that because Tanner's had no seats. You could go in and buy--they specialized in orange juice but you could get a hotdog and some delicious orange juice. And they were not segregated, because they didn't have any seats. You just stand up and eat it.$$It was white owned?$$It was white owned. But all of the other downtown eateries we targeted and they closed for the duration of the sit-in.$$And what, what did you do exactly as activists?$$Initially, when Charles Jones and the other student, Heyward Davenport, he lives in New York now. Charles Jones is here in Charlotte. When they came and asked me about joining that was a Sunday night. We had a mass meeting Monday night and we started the demonstrations Tuesday morning.$$Was this SNCC [Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee] or SCLC [Southern Christian Leadership Conference]?$$SNCC was organized--during that year Charles was active in the organization of SNCC. But basically that was a student movement. We--once we got started there were some adults who, you know, provided guidance. There were some who would come by and assist with transportation. There were people sending donations to cover bail if--should we need it.$$And you would, boycott? What did you do?$$We--we went into the restaurants and once we took a seat generally they closed. Because it had already started in Greensboro [North Carolina] so they had a little idea of what they were gonna do. And they would close and we would keep them closed.$$They wouldn't throw you out?$$No, there were always policeman around. We picketed, we would get students get the counters full and we had pickets outside. Initially, we started off with the largest number, I believe, at that time. The Levine Museum [Levine Museum of the New South, Charlotte, North Carolina] here said we started with over two hundred students. And that's probably right. Because without the school's permission I took the bus and transported students and I made about three trips initially with fifty to sixty kids on the bus. And then there were the students who walked. Some caught rides. Some rode the city bus downtown. But we started with Kress, Woolworth and Grants. Those were five and ten cent stores. And once we closed those, then we moved onto Ivy's and Belk's, and the other stores downtown.

Reverend Joseph Darby

Reverend Joseph Anthom Darby, Jr., was born on August 7, 1951, in Columbia, South Carolina, to Eloise and Joseph A. Darby, Sr. Darby was raised in the Wheeler Hill community of Columbia, South Carolina. An excellent student, Darby attended Booker T. Washington High School where he was in the honor society and was elected class president; he graduated in 1969 and enrolled in South Carolina State University. Darby transferred to the University of South Carolina and received his B.A. degree in sociology in 1973.

Darby held positions as an adult eligibility worker for the Department of Public Welfare and an employment counselor for a youth opportunity program. Darby was a juvenile probation counselor for thirteen years for the South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice.

Darby was called to the ministry and prepared himself by attending the Lutheran Theological Southern Seminary; he was a fourth generation minister in the African Methodist Episcopal Church.

In 1998, Darby became the Senior Pastor of Morris Brown A.M.E. Church in Charleston, South Carolina, which had the largest congregation in the Seventh Episcopal District of the A.M.E. Church. He later became the Presiding Elder of the Beaufort (SC) District of the A.M.E. Church.

Darby formerly served as President of both the Greater Columbia Interdenominational Ministerial Alliance and the Greater Columbia Interfaith Clergy Association. Darby also served as a board member of the Family Court of the Ninth Judicial Circuit’s Drug Court Program; a member of the State Superintendent of Education's African-American Achievement Committee; a member of the Racial Cultural Advisory Council of the South Carolina School Boards Association; and a member of the Daniel J. Jenkins Institute for Children. Darby was also a board member for the Reid House of Christian Service and was the former first Vice-President of the South Carolina Conference of Branches of the NAACP.

Darby’s numerous honors and awards include a Top Achiever Award in the 1993 South Carolina Black Male Showcase, and South Carolina Business Vision magazine’s 1997 South Carolina’s 25 Most Influential African Americans Award.

Darby was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 3, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.043

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/3/2007

Last Name

Darby

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

Booker T. Washington High School

South Carolina State University

University of South Carolina

Florence C. Benson Elementary School

First Name

Joseph

Birth City, State, Country

Columbia

HM ID

DAR03

Favorite Season

Winter

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Near Water

Favorite Quote

We'll Work It Out.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

South Carolina

Birth Date

8/7/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Charleston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Pastor Reverend Joseph Darby (1951 - ) was the Senior Pastor of Morris Brown A.M.E. Church in Charleston, South Carolina; a juvenile probation counselor for thirteen years for the South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice; and was involved with numerous educational, social, and religious organizations in South Carolina.

Employment

Employment Security Commission

Richland County Family Court

Piney Grove A.M.E. Church

Pleasant Spring A.M.E. Church

Pine Grove A.M.E. Church

St. Phillip A.M.E. Church

Morris Brown African Methodist Episcopal Church

South Carolina Department of Public Welfare

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Reverend Joseph Darby's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Reverend Joseph Darby lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Reverend Joseph Darby describes his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Reverend Joseph Darby describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Reverend Joseph Darby remembers his relationship with his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Reverend Joseph Darby describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Reverend Joseph Darby recalls his neighborhood in Columbia, South Carolina, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Reverend Joseph Darby recalls his neighborhood in Columbia, South Carolina, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Reverend Joseph Darby describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Reverend Joseph Darby recalls his summer activities in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Reverend Joseph Darby remembers Florence C. Benson Elementary School in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Reverend Joseph Darby describes his early education in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Reverend Joseph Darby talks about integration

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Reverend Joseph Darby recalls Booker T. Washington High School in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Reverend Joseph Darby reflects upon desegregation

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Reverend Joseph Darby describes his activities at Booker T. Washington High School

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Reverend Joseph Darby recalls the March on Washington

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Reverend Joseph Darby describes figures from the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Reverend Joseph Darby remembers his high school trip to Washington, D.C., pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Reverend Joseph Darby recalls divisions in the African American community of Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Reverend Joseph Darby remembers his high school trip to Washington, D.C., pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Reverend Joseph Darby describes the music of his childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Reverend Joseph Darby describes his experiences in the African Methodist Episcopal church

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Reverend Joseph Darby remembers his religious conversion

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Reverend Joseph Darby talks about the African Methodist Episcopal tradition

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Reverend Joseph Darby describes the importance of African American churches

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Reverend Joseph Darby recalls his decision to attend South Carolina State Collegein Orangeburg

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Reverend Joseph Darby remembers South Carolina State College

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Reverend Joseph Darby remembers the University of South Carolina in Columbia

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Reverend Joseph Darby recalls his experiences of discrimination in South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Reverend Joseph Darby recalls meeting his wife, Mary Bright Darby

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Reverend Joseph Darby recalls his career in social work

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Reverend Joseph Darby remembers the Vietnam War

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Reverend Joseph Darby describes his experiences as a social worker

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Reverend Joseph Darby recalls pastoring Piney Grove A.M.E. Church in Gaston, South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Reverend Joseph Darby describes his ministry at Pine Grove A.M.E. Church

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Reverend Joseph Darby recalls becoming an African Methodist Episcopal minister

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Reverend Joseph Darby remembers St. Phillip A.M.E. Church in Eastover, South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Reverend Joseph Darby remembers his trial sermon

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Reverend Joseph Darby recalls his outreach programs at St. Phillip A.M.E. Church

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Reverend Joseph Darby talks about Christian denominations

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Reverend Joseph Darby recalls his assignment to Morris Brown African Methodist Episcopal Church in Charleston, South Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Reverend Joseph Darby describes the history of Morris Brown African Methodist Episcopal Church

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Reverend Joseph Darby describes the governance of the African Methodist Episcopal church

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Reverend Joseph Darby describes community outreach at Morris Brown African Methodist Episcopal Church

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Reverend Joseph Darby describes the perception of AIDS in the church

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Reverend Joseph Darby describes the church's response to AIDS

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Reverend Joseph Darby talks about the prosperity gospel, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Reverend Joseph Darby talks about advocacy in the church

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Reverend Joseph Darby talks about the prosperity gospel, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Reverend Joseph Darby talks about the finances of Morris Brown African Methodist Episcopal Church

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Reverend Joseph Darby talks about tithing

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Reverend Joseph Darby describes his plans for the future

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Reverend Joseph Darby talks about the role of women in the African Methodist Episcopal church

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Reverend Joseph Darby talks about class discrimination in Charleston, South Caroline

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Reverend Joseph Darby describes his political activism

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Reverend Joseph Darby talks about his family

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Reverend Joseph Darby describes his concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Reverend Joseph Darby talks about President Barack Obama

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Reverend Joseph Darby reflects upon his life

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Reverend Joseph Darby describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Reverend Joseph Darby narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

3$5

DATitle
Reverend Joseph Darby describes his experiences in the African Methodist Episcopal church
Reverend Joseph Darby describes community outreach at Morris Brown African Methodist Episcopal Church
Transcript
Well, let's talk about the church. Were you--well you told me that in your community everybody went to church. What was your religious experience like?$$Well, I was born up, born in the A.M.E. [African Methodist Episcopal] church, went into ministry in the A.M.E. church. If I had made any other choice, there would have been three, four generations, of Janerettes and Darbys just spinning in their graves probably and coming back to haunt me. I don't remember life without the church, quite frankly. I grew up in St. James A.M.E. Church in Columbia [South Carolina]. I grew up on the Sunbeam Choir and then onto the junior choir and then onto a couple of adult choirs before I went into ministry. I grew up going to church school and Vacation Bible School. I grew up going to church with my mother [Eloise Janerette Darby]. I grew up listening to the bad, the good and the sometimes bad of church because churches are filled with people. That was always a part of my life. It got to be what, I believe, religion best is, not something that you compartmentalize but something that kind of runs like a thread through all of life, and regulates all of life. I think that as I grew that got to be more and more the case until I actually entered the call to ministry against my better judgment, you know, so.$$What do you mean?$$I didn't want to preach. I mean, this is not where I saw myself. My wife [Mary Bright Darby] still teases me if we ever have any dispute or if I'm congratulating her on our thirty plus years of marriage, she'll always say, "You know, you told me you were going to be a lawyer." I say, "Yeah, I know that's what I planned to do." I did not want to be a minister. I had two [maternal] uncles [Ivy W. Janerette and Verseal Janerette], I had seen the best and the worst of that because being that close to two preachers, you got to see the official and public face of the church and then you got to appreciate the undercurrent, that drive, that's driven by human nature, not only in individual congregations but on larger governmental entities in the church as well and up to the denominational level. I grew up, really, having my teen years in what was something of a tumultuous time for the A.M.E. church in South Carolina. I saw my uncles ride that out, I didn't want any part of that, you know, and I came out--$$Well, tell me what, what was it that they were riding out?$$We had, what's a nice way to put it? 'Cause all of the parties are not gone to glory yet. There were concerns about the way that the district was operating, the Episcopal district was operating, concerns about the bishop who was the then bishop of the district. Those concerns caused some very hard and fast lines to be drawn, political lines, and you had some people who were able to work across those political lines in the church and some people who drew up those sides and went after things with a my side I must win at all cost kind of mentality, even if it means doing material damage to you and your side, my side must win at all cost. And I saw how that affected people and I really wanted no parts of it. I had really planned to be a lawyer. I rejected the idea of ministry. What really had me into ministry, my mom passed when I was about twenty-one years old, had been married for about a year and that kind of, even though I was in the church, that pulled me a little further into the church, looking for meeting. As a part of that pull into the church, I started to actually attend, be active in, church activities beyond the local church, A.M.E. church is marvelously structured so we have a presiding elder district structure and a conference structure and an Episcopal district structure, started to attend things and get involved in activities at that level and the more I went to those things and the more I looked at some of the clergy, quite frankly, I just kept saying to myself, "Geez, I can do better than some of these guys are doing." And the more I said that, the more there was just that still small voice they talk about on the inside saying, "Well if that's the case, then why don't you?" And that's how I ended up here, that's how I ended up here. So, this was not my career choice but I love it to death.$We talked earlier, and you were saying there were three components and the church is really the only one that's left. What outreach programs are available here for the community (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Oh my goodness. Let's see what all we do. One of the things we do, because we are a large church [Morris Brown African Methodist Episcopal Church, Charleston, South Carolina], with facilities, is host some things in the area--in the community, free of charge. We host monthly NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] meetings, we host a substance abuse group, an AA [Alcoholics Anonymous] group. We host a group called, Second Chance [Second Chance Recovery, Inc., Charleston, South Carolina], for folk who have run afoul of the law with drugs and are trying to recover. We host a parenting group for fathers who are behind in their child support and trying to get that right. We host a group for homicide survivors. We host an Alzheimer's support group and the congregation has a link into all of those things. There are some things as well that are exclusive to the church. We do feeding at a couple of the community ministries, crisis ministry, and one of the other ones that escapes my name right now, on a monthly basis. We do mentoring at Burke High School [Charleston, South Carolina]. We've adopted two of the community elementary schools and, and provide them, hopefully, with volunteers, as well as, own, in-kind contributions. We have a computer literacy class that is free for grown folk who are terrified of the computer so that they can learn to maneuver in this age of technology. We have a tutorial mentoring program for the kids, free, that provides after school care as well as after school instruction, as well as those little lessons in civics and in government to help them to be responsible citizens. We do that during the summer in what's called, a summer enrichment program that ends with them taking a trip somewhere in South Carolina, on the site of historical intellectual significance. We are about to kick off that same program that I told you about with the young ladies, that rite of passage program. We do a bunch of stuff.

Bishop John Hurst Adams

Bishop and college president John Hurst Adams was born November 27, 1927 in Columbia, South Carolina to Charity Nash Adams, a homemaker and Reverend Eugene Avery Adams, an African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.) minister and educator. Adams graduated from Booker T. Washington High School in Columbia, South Carolina and in 1947 earned an A.B. degree in history from Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte, North Carolina. Subsequently, he earned his Bachelor of Sacred Theology (S.T.B.) degree and Master of Sacred Theology (S.T.M.) degree from Boston University School of Theology in 1952 and 1956, respectively. Adams also studied at Harvard University and Union Theological Seminary, as well.

As a seminary student, Adams was assigned to the pastorate of Bethel A.M.E. Church in Lynn, Massachusetts. Upon graduating, he served on the seminary teaching faculty at Payne Theological Seminary, Wilberforce University in Ohio. In 1956, Adams was selected to serve as President of Paul Quinn College, Waco, Texas during which time he also served as campus pastor to all the students. In 1972, Adams was selected as the 87th Bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal Church after a prophetic ministry at First A.M.E. Church in Seattle, Washington and Grant A.M.E. Church in Los Angeles, California. At the time of his retirement in 2004/2005, Adams had served as Bishop of five separate Episcopal Districts to include his home district of South Carolina from 1992 to 2000. He was Senior Bishop of the A.M.E. Church from 1988 until his retirement.

Adams served as Chairman of the Board of Trustees at the Interdenominational Theological Center (ITC), Allen University, Edward Waters College and Morris Brown College. In addition, he served as transitional Chairman of the Board of Trustees at the Atlanta University Center. He founded and was the Chairman Emeritus of the Congress of National Black Churches, Inc. (CNBC). Moreover, Bishop Adams is the initiator of Executive Management Training for Black Church Leaders and Chairman of the Institute of Church Administration and Management (ICAM) Board of Trustees. He was active with the Joint Center on Political and Economic Studies, Transafrica, National Black United Fund, King Center Development Board and Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity.

Adams was the husband of Dr. Dolly Deselle Adams of New Orleans, Louisiana. They had three adult children and eight grandchildren.

Adams passed away on January 10, 2018 at age 90.

Accession Number

A2005.249

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/29/2005

Last Name

Adams

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Hurst

Occupation
Schools

Booker T. Washington High School

Wilberforce University

Johnson C. Smith University

Boston University School of Theology

Case Western Reserve University

First Name

John

Birth City, State, Country

Columbia

HM ID

ADA08

Favorite Season

Spring

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

We Pray Much Your Strength.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

11/27/1927

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Sweet Potatoes

Death Date

1/10/2018

Short Description

Bishop Bishop John Hurst Adams (1927 - 2018 ) served as Bishop for the African Methodist Episcopal Church for thirty-two years and rose to national prominence as a religious and civil rights leader.

Employment

Bethel AME Church

Payne Theological Seminary

Paul Quinn College

First A.M.E Church

Grant Memorial A.M.E Church

87th Bishop, African Methodist Episcopal Church

Tenth Episcopal District

Second Episcopal District

Sixth Episcopal District

Seventh Episcopal District

Eleventh Episcopal District

Emory University Candler School of Theology

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Bishop John Hurst Adams' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Bishop John Hurst Adams lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes his father

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes his mother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes his family's land ownership

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes his paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes his maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Bishop John Hurst Adams lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Bishop John Hurst Adams talks about his family name and his ancestry

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes his wife and family

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Bishop John Hurst Adams recalls his father's confrontation of the Ku Klux Klan

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Bishop John Hurst Adams remembers hearing Thurgood Marshall argue a case

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes his childhood in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Bishop John Hurst Adams recalls his early influences

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes notable individuals from Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes the Waverly neighborhood of Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes the changes to the Waverly neighborhood

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Bishop John Hurst Adams remembers Waverly Elementary School in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes his early interests

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Bishop John Hurst Adams remembers Carver Junior High School in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes his early religious experiences

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes his early employment

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Bishop John Hurst Adams recalls Booker T. Washington High School in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes his activities at Booker T. Washington High School

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Bishop John Hurst Adams remembers Johnson C. Smith University, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Bishop John Hurst Adams remembers Johnson C. Smith University, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes his decision to attend Boston University School of Theology

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes his experiences of racial discrimination

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Bishop John Hurst Adams recalls his decision to attend Boston University School of Theology

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Bishop John Hurst Adams recalls notable theologians at Boston University School of Theology, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Bishop John Hurst Adams recalls notable theologians at Boston University School of Theology, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes his early experiences as a pastor and teacher

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Bishop John Hurst Adams recalls his election as president of Paul Quinn College in Waco, Texas

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes his role as a pastor at Paul Quinn College

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Bishop John Hurst Adams remembers his civil rights activism in Waco, Texas

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Bishop John Hurst Adams talks about the legacy of the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes his role in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes the history of activism in the African Methodist Episcopal church

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Bishop John Hurst Adams recalls his pastorate of First A.M.E. church in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Bishop John Hurst Adams remembers the Central Area Civil Rights Committee

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Bishop John Hurst Adams remembers Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Bishop John Hurst Adams remembers Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Bishop John Hurst Adams recalls his pastorate of Grant A.M.E. Church in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes his ministry

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes his election as a bishop

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes his role as bishop of the Tenth Episcopal District, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes his role as bishop of the Tenth Episcopal District, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes the Congress of National Black Churches

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Bishop John Hurst Adams remembers the Vietnam War

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Bishop John Hurst Adams talks about the military industrial complex

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Bishop John Hurst Adams recalls serving as bishop to the Second Episcopal District

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes his time as bishop of the Sixth Episcopal District

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Bishop John Hurst Adams talks about Morris Brown College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes the legacy of the African Methodist Episcopal church, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes the legacy of the African Methodist Episcopal church, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Bishop John Hurst Allen talks about biblical history, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Bishop John Hurst Adams talks about biblical history, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Bishop John Hurst Adams remembers serving as bishop of the Seventh Episcopal District, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Bishop John Hurst Adams remembers serving as bishop of the Seventh Episcopal District, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Bishop John Hurst Adams talks about female clergy in the African Methodist Episcopal church

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes the role of technology in the African Methodist Episcopal church

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Bishop John Hurst Adams recalls serving as the bishop of the Eleventh Episcopal District

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Bishop John Hurst Adams remembers his retirement as a bishop

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Bishop John Hurst describes the Institution of Church Administration and Management

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Bishop John Hurst Adams talks about The HistoryMakers project

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Bishop John Hurst Adams reflects upon his values, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 11 - Bishop John Hurst Adams shares advice for those pursuing the ministry

Tape: 7 Story: 12 - Bishop John Hurst Adams reflects upon his career

Tape: 7 Story: 13 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes his missionary work in Africa

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Bishop John Hurst Adams talks about affirmative action and civil rights

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes the role of religion in the African American community

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes the role of sports in the African American community

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Bishop John Hurst Adams reflects upon his life

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Bishop John Hurst Adams reflects upon his values, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Bishop John Hurst Adams describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Bishop John Hurst Adams shares a message to future generations

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Bishop John Hurst Adams reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Bishop John Hurst Adams narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$5

DAStory

5$7

DATitle
Bishop John Hurst Adams remembers hearing Thurgood Marshall argue a case
Bishop John Hurst Adams describes his ministry
Transcript
And of course, one of my other sparkling memories was that when he [Adams' father, Eugene Avery Adams, Sr.] and others--and I give Columbia [South Carolina] credit. They had some clergy who were real serious about justice issues. My father, there was a Reverend Carl Klug [ph.] who was a C.M.E. [Colored Methodist Episcopal; Christian Methodist Episcopal], and Reverend Rita [ph.] who was a Baptist. There was a Reverend Jenkins [ph.] who was a Baptist, and a Reverend Hinton [James M. Hinton] who was in addition to being a preacher was the president of Pilgrim Insurance Company [Pilgrim Health and Life Insurance Company].$$Okay.$$And they had stuff going on. And they brought Thurgood Marshall to Columbia to file two suits. One was for equal teachers pay in the State of South Carolina. And the second one was for the right of blacks to vote in the Democratic primary. When Thurgood Marshall came to argue those cases, there was a Yankee judge who moved to Charleston [South Carolina] who heard the cases. His name was Judge Waring [Julius Waties Waring]. I remember all this like it happened yesterday, because it was, it was a pivotal part of my growing up experience. And my father took me out of school and took me to the court, because he wanted me to hear and see Thurgood Marshall argue the cases for equal teachers pay and the right to vote in the Democratic primary in South Carolina. Both cases he won, because Judge Waring ruled in his favor. And of course, the appeals court held it up.$$Praise God.$$Now, those are the kind of memories which I was privileged to have, not because of me, but because of my parents, my father in particular, and the kind of community in which I lived. Because he was one of many clergy and activists in that community at that time who sort of created this ferment, which influenced me greatly. So, if you want to explain why I'm branded as a militant, it's because of these childhood events (laughter).$$We thank God for your childhood events.$What are some of the highlights of your pastorate at Grant A.M.E. [Grant A.M.E. Church, Los Angeles, California] and First A.M.E. [First A.M.E. Church] in Seattle [Washington]? After all, these two pastorates would propel you to be the eighty-seventh bishop in the A.M.E. [African Methodist Episcopal] church.$$Well, I think the focus of my ministry has always been on two things. One is the empowerment of people. I'm not much of a builder of buildings, although I have shared in doing that several times. But that was not what I was about. I tried, more than that, to build opportunities for people, and to equip people to take advantage of the opportunities that might come their way. So, that has always been the focus of my ministry. Even the focus of my ministry as a bishop has been the enabling and empowering of young pastors to achieve as much as their talent and nerve would allow them to achieve. And so at both places, the second focus of my ministry has always been causes that are not unique to the church community, but unique to the community in which the church functions. Let me illustrate what I mean by that.$$Yes, sir.$$In Los Angeles [California], the church I pastored was at 103rd and South Central--105th [Street] and South Central [Avenue]. We took a survey of our membership, only to discover that within a mile of our church, in every direction, we had only three families that attended our church. Our church was a commuter church. Watts [Los Angeles, California] was the port of entry into Los Angeles. And as the people came and succeeded, they moved out of that area to nicer areas, allegedly nicer areas. I found nothing wrong with the Watts area--nice houses, nice people. But, that troubled me. Now, there's something wrong with this church if we're sitting in this residential community and none of the residents attend our church but two or three. There's something, something missing. So we designed a program which we call the Saturday ethnic school. And we went that same mile in every direction around our church and recruited children between the ages of four and twelve to come to the ethnic school on Saturday--$$Okay.$$--from nine to one [o'clock]. Now, first of all, we were providing parents with first-class babysitting services. So, the parents of these children could have four hours of free time on Saturday to shop, to run their errands. Secondly, we taught three subjects--reading, arithmetic, and black history. So the Saturday ethnic school taught competence and African American history, in supplement to the Sunday school, which taught Hebrew Christian history.$$Yes.$$And we couched it in how to teach black pride without teaching white hate.$$Okay.$$And that was designed to respond to what I thought was an important need for us--the need for the children to have an affirmation of their ego and know who they were, and to be prepared to do well in school. At the same time, it was a recruiting device for their parents to bring them to that church they went to on Saturday.$$Yeah.$$And both worked.$$Amen.$$So, the business of reaching for people at the point of their need is sort of the kind of emphasis my ministry had, both as a pastor and as a bishop.