The Nation’s Largest African American Video Oral History Collection Mobile search icon Mobile close search icon
Advanced Biography Search
Mobile navigation icon Close mobile navigation icon

Dr. Christopher Leggett

Clinical interventional cardiologist Dr. Christopher J.W.B. Leggett was born on November 8, 1960, in Cleveland, Ohio, the tenth of eleven children to Willie and Ethel Leggett. At thirteen years of age, Leggett was awarded a three year academic scholarship by the A Better Chance organization to attend Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts. After his high school graduation, Leggett received a four year scholarship to attend Princeton University. While attending Princeton, Leggett was a campus leader and member of the Princeton University basketball team. In 1982, Leggett graduated from Princeton University with his B.A. degree in sociology.

In 1982, after attending the University of Cincinnati’s School of Medicine in Cincinnati, Ohio, Leggett attended Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in Cleveland, Ohio, where he received his M.D. degree. At Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Leggett was also chairman of the Student National Medical Association. In 1986, Leggett interned in internal medicine at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland; after completing his residency at Johns Hopkins in 1989, Leggett completed his cardiology fellowship at the Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia.

In 1992, Leggett became a physician at the Cardiovascular Laboratory in the Veterans Administration Hospital at the Emory University School of Medicine in Decatur, Georgia. In 1993, Leggett became an interventional cardiology fellow in the Department of Cardiology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine. During his fellowship, Leggett was under the tutelage of world leader and pioneer, Dr. Gary S. Roubin.

In 2002, Leggett was appointed by the United States Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services to serve on the National Practicing Physician Advisory Council in Washington, D.C. for a four year term. In 2002, a Georgia State Senate Resolution honored Leggett for his contributions to society; in May of that same year, Leggett was the recipient of the President’s Award at Oakwood College for being an exemplary role model for Alumni. Leggett is the Director of Cardiology at Medical Associates of North Georgia and practices medicine at Northside Hospital – Cherokee in Canton, Georgia; St. Joseph's Hospital of Atlanta, Georgia; and Gwinnett Health System in Lawrenceville, Georgia.

Christopher Leggett was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 11, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.253

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/11/2007 |and| 2/26/2008

Last Name

Leggett

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

Phillips Academy

Princeton University

University of Cincinnati

Mary M Bethune Elementary School

Harry E. Davis Junior High School

First Name

Christopher

Birth City, State, Country

Cleveland

HM ID

LEG02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

Itay

Favorite Quote

I Belong Everywhere I Go Because My Best Friend, Jesus Christ Owns The World.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

11/8/1960

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Salmon

Short Description

Cardiologist and healthcare executive Dr. Christopher Leggett (1960 - ) was the Director of Cardiology at Medical Associates of North Georgia and practiced at multiple medical institutions in the Southeastern region, particularly in Atlanta, Georgia.

Employment

Medical Associates of North Georgia

University of Alabama, Bimingham

Emory University School of Medicine

Johns Hopkins Hospital

Atlanta VA Medical Center

Piedmont Hospital

St. Joseph's Hospital, Atlanta

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:972,22:1539,30:3888,64:8679,194:13215,295:18312,353:23868,550:38678,724:39686,738:54625,926:55195,933:56050,943:56715,951:58995,982:62490,990:70390,1079:70838,1094:74038,1162:83564,1276:87959,1345:92050,1375:98346,1443:103220,1492:103645,1498:115538,1635:119360,1770:124104,1804:124408,1809:124788,1815:126992,1864:127296,1869:127980,1879:129044,1903:133178,1963:133958,1993:144270,2194$0,0:2940,48:15752,274:20043,305:27094,405:27422,410:30348,438:34602,485:40004,609:42267,688:57318,900:59718,937:72554,1055:73464,1132:74647,1149:75102,1155:75557,1162:84479,1255:89376,1333:89704,1338:90032,1343:90934,1360:97564,1446:98131,1454:98455,1459:105790,1574:106390,1581:111708,1641:113684,1681:115660,1695:115980,1704:119420,1833:121980,1920:137472,2125:142874,2211:146700,2234:157146,2443:162390,2499:163226,2514:163530,2519:175538,2649:177720,2655:178269,2667:180193,2678:181922,2705:183560,2727:184834,2747:196468,2875:196820,2880:199752,2899:200182,2905:200784,2914:205035,2981:212555,3100:215290,3161:215920,3173:220200,3245:220468,3250:221004,3263:221540,3272:221875,3278:232760,3463:233160,3474:236840,3534:238360,3575:238840,3582:239400,3591:243310,3613:243700,3620:245260,3652:246365,3673:265269,3950:270454,4034:275134,4089:276190,4136:289440,4286
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Christopher Leggett's interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Christopher Leggett lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Christopher Leggett talks about his maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his early experiences of religion

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Christopher Leggett lists his mother's siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his father

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his father's discipline

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his father's occupations

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his father's death

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his parents' relationship

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his likeness to his father

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls the aftermath of his father's death

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his mother's strength

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Christopher Leggett lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his brother, Robert Leggett

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers a lesson from his brother

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his neighborhood in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his early work experiences

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers Mary McLeod Bethune Elementary School in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Christopher Leggett talks about his early academic success

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his peers at Mary McLeod Bethune Elementary School

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remember a classmate at Harry E. Davis Junior High School in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his community in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his childhood activities

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his early aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his admittance to the Phillips Academy Andover in Andover, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his parents' attitudes about race

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his arrival at Phillips Academy Andover in Andover, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers John F. Kennedy, Jr., pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls the rigorous coursework at the Phillips Academy Andover

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his friends at the Phillips Academy Andover, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Christopher Leggett talks about his strength as a math student

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his exposure to white culture at the Phillips Academy Andover

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his teachers at the Phillips Academy Andover

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his friends at the Phillips Academy Andover, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his college aspirations

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Christopher Leggett's interview, session 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Christopher Leggett talks about the Phillips Academy Andover in Andover, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his project on the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes the A Better Chance program

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls befriending his peers at the Phillips Academy Andover in Andover, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his activities at the Phillips Academy Andover

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes the campus of the Phillips Academy Andover

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers John F. Kennedy, Jr., pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls playing basketball at the Phillips Academy Andover

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his decision to attend Princeton University

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his transition to Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his summer work experiences

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his religious life at the Phillips Academy Andover in Andover, Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his coursework at Princeton University

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his decision to pursue medicine

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls playing basketball for Princeton University

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his decision to attend the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers attending Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his mentors at the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers attending the University of Cincinnati

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers meeting his wife

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his residency at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes the challenges of his residency at Johns Hopkins Hospital

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his influences at The Johns Hopkins Hospital

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his experiences as a medical resident

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his wife's career

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers the mentorship of Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr.

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes a lesson from Dr. Levi Watkins

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his experiences of discrimination at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his philosophy of mentorship

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers a lesson from his wife

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his decision to specialize in cardiology

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his decision to accept a fellowship at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes the field of interventional cardiology

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes the cause and treatment of a heart attack

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Dr. Christopher Leggett talks about the advancements in interventional cardiology, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his training under Gary Roubin

Tape: 8 Story: 10 - Dr. Christopher Leggett talks about the advancements in interventional cardiology, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 11 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers Gary Roubin

Tape: 8 Story: 12 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his decision to join the Medical Associates of North Georgia in Canton, Georgia

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his decision to join the Medical Associates of North Georgia

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls treating a heart attack in a pregnant patient

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Dr. Christopher Leggett lists the hospitals where he worked

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his appointment to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his organizational involvement

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Dr. Christopher Leggett talks about his hobbies

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his children

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Dr. Christopher Leggett reflects upon his life

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his mother's lessons

Tape: 9 Story: 10 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 9 Story: 11 - Dr. Christopher Leggett reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 9 Story: 12 - Dr. Christopher Leggett reflects upon his wife's influence

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Dr. Christopher Leggett narrates his photographs

DASession

1$2

DATape

4$8

DAStory

5$1

DATitle
Dr. Christopher Leggett talks about his strength as a math student
Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his experiences of discrimination at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland
Transcript
What were some of the courses that you took there that you know that you probably would not have been exposed to in Ohio (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) You know, a lot of English, math. I, I think for me, the thing that--and it wasn't all positive; don't get me wrong. I mean I had this one teacher who was a jerk; she told me I had to stop writing black English--whatever that was, and I said, "Okay, I'm not sure what that is, but if you can help me understand what it is, I'll be happy to try and modify it." But the one--the mainstay for me that let me know I belonged was, was math is objective. Whether you liked me or not, there was one answer. You couldn't read my essay and give me a C because you just felt like, I'm not giving this African American student an A because this just, you know, because I don't like the way it sounds. But if you got the answer right in math--so, when I initially went there, my grades initially fell in like subjects like English and biology because it's more subjective, (unclear) written it. But math let me know that I belong, because it was objective and I always got great grades in math, and I just--and it always let me know that I was smart, so that I, I said to myself, I, I'll get this other stuff together, and I'll figure out what I gotta do to raise that up. But it was kind of the mainstay for me educationally because it was, it was non-subjective, it was objective, and it was scientific and, and so it helped me through that first semester not get depressed about going from always being a straight A student to having, you know, some different grades. And then, you know, by eleventh grade and twelfth grade years [at Phillips Academy Andover, Andover, Massachusetts], they were back up to what I was used to. But, you know, you, you have these challenges and you gotta meet them and you gotta have something inside you to meet them with. And those are the lessons, like I told you, about my brother [Robert Leggett], and watching my mother [Ethel Leggett] and father [Willie Leggett, Sr.]; that's--those are the lessons they give you, the sort of undergirding, that when you're swimming upstream, that you just don't quit.$You were gonna tell me a story about one of the patients during your residency [at Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland] (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Yeah, well--you know, there, there are--I, I, I can think of two quick ones. I was on rounds one night with the other medical students--or one morning, and we had one African American dean, and he had admitted a patient and, on the rounds the next morning, just to give you a sense of kind of, you know, what students were used to, the students--well, the student who had worked this patient up--a medical student sent on rounds, he had given his presentation, then he said, you know, "Yeah, there was this, you know, there's this black guy sitting there by the patient's bed," and I said, "Well," I said, "did you ask him about his name yet?" He said, "Yeah, he said his name was Dr. Smoot [Roland T. Smoot]." I said, "Well, Dr. Smoot actually is the dean of this medical school." And the student then said, he said, "Well, he doesn't look like a dean." And I said to him, I said, "Well, what does a dean look like?" And, and, and, and, and basically, what he was saying is he had never seen a black dean, so all deans were white; it wasn't--he had a suit on, he looked intelligent, you know; it was his patient, but he just didn't look like a dean. And, and I, I just felt like I needed to take that opportunity to let him know that, "Frankly, you know, you know, you need to broaden your definition of what deans look like because this is a dean. He's the dean of this medical school and, and you, you should know that, being a medical student. But going forward, you know, you really need to guard yourself from comments that are fairly uninformed like this, so that you don't look so--just absolutely unintelligent when you say it." So, anyway, I mean I, I just felt like you gotta take opportunities. This is all about education because that same attitude can pervade another interaction with a patient and, and you just have to take opportunities to help people, you know, sort of be educated. But then there was another personal one that I had that I was taking care of this guy who was on a trach collar, which means he was on a respirator, an African American patient who had throat cancer, couldn't even talk, and I was going in to evaluate him 'cause I was--had to work him up, and he was gonna be on my service, and I kept, kept hearing him trying to mouth something through the respirator and, and I just leaned down and I got real close to him and he was mouthing out, in his words, "You--you ain't qualified," that's what he was saying. And, and I think, you know, what he was struggling with, which is an internal cultural pathology at times, is that, you know: I'm used to a white doctor taking care of me and, you know, I can't conceptually get my mind around having a black doctor take care of me, so--in other words, I want the qualified white guy. And, and it is funny, because I had just taken care of a Jewish individual earlier that day in the intensive care unit who had said the exact opposite; he said, "Dr. Leggett [HistoryMaker Dr. Christopher Leggett], I want you to take care of me," and I said, "Why?" He said, "Because if you're here, that means you're probably three times as qualified as some of the other doctors walking around, since the numbers are so low--it's only two of you." He said, "No, that--I want you to take care of me." So, you would have these social dynamic paradigms in, in care that would exist quite often and, and you'd have to have a very strong sense of self, and the resolve within yourself of, of who you are and what you represented intellectually so that you would not allow yourself to become angry or intimidated one way or the other. But there were sort of variety of experiences that, that you'd experience and, and quite frankly, people--you know, you would walk in rooms in, in that institution; they just did not--it is not commonplace, at that time, for them to interact with the--a physician of color; they, they would think that you're just a, a, you know, a transporter with a, you know, a doctor's coat on; I mean something--they just couldn't, couldn't grasp it, so--anyway, you just, you know, sort of work through that, kind of.

Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr.

Cardiologist Dr. Paul L. Underwood, Jr., was born on March 23, 1960 in Knoxville, Tennessee. After Underwood graduated from Austin-East High School in 1976, he received his B.S. degree in biology at Morehouse College with departmental honors and his M.D. degree from the Mayo Graduate School of Medicine in Rochester, Minnesota. Underwood completed his post graduate training at the Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, Michigan, the Cleveland Clinic Foundation and the Iowa Heart Center.

In 1987, Underwood began working at St. Croix Hospital in the U.S. Virgin Islands. During his three year stay there, Underwood eventually became the Director of the Emergency Department and Intensive Care Unit for the hospital. He also became the Physician Advisor for the Peer Review Organization at the Virgin Islands Medical Institute.

In 1997, Underwood acted as a consultant among a sixteen member multidisciplinary medical team that traveled to Dakar, Senegal to provide cardiovascular medical care for the community. The venture, Project MEDHELP, led by Albert F. Olivier, consisted of cardiothoracic and general surgeons, anesthesiologists, cardiologists, internists, public health experts, dermatologists and gynecologists.

In 2004, Underwood was appointed as the tenth president of the Association of Black Cardiologists, where he served until 2006. Under Underwood’s leadership, the organization developed various community based programs including Changing Health Outcomes by Improving Cardiovascular Education and Screenings (CHOICES), and the Center for Continuing Education and Professional Development (CCEPD), which is ranked in the top five percent of accredited providers. Underwood also developed Project Hope, a project that provided Hurricane Katrina evacuees with medical care and refurbished medical records.

Also in 2004, Underwood led the Association of Black Cardiologists to manage and unveil the results of the African American Heart Failure Trial (A-HeFT), the first study conducted in a heart failure population in which all of the participants identified themselves as black. The results of the study led to the production of the drug, BiDil, the first ever heart medication specifically geared towards African Americans—the racial demographic with the highest percentage of heart disease.

In 2006, Underwood joined the North Phoenix Heart Center, before joining his wife at Sonoran Health Specialists in Scottsdale, Arizona. Underwood serves on several boards and organizations including the Black Board of Directors Project and the Use of Force Disciplinary Review Board of the Phoenix Police Department.

Underwood lives with his wife, Dr. Hollis Underwood, a physician in private practice, and their three sons, in Scottsdale, Arizona.

Underwood was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 14, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.207

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/14/2007

Last Name

Underwood

Maker Category
Middle Name

Lester

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Austin-East Magnet High School

Morehouse College

First Lutheran School

Ft Sanders Education Development Center

Webb School Of Knoxville

Mayo Medical School

First Name

Paul

Birth City, State, Country

Knoxville

HM ID

UND01

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Tennessee

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martinique

Favorite Quote

Look Forward And Keep Climbing On Each Experience.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

3/23/1960

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Greens (Turnip)

Short Description

Cardiologist Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. (1960 - ) is a former president of the Association of Black Cardiologists. Underwood spearheaded the African American Heart Failure Trial that led to BiDil, the first ever heart medication specifically geared towards African Americans.

Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
0,0:1020,12:5595,121:11520,274:13470,308:24925,462:27334,509:27918,518:29816,549:30400,558:31349,573:32371,591:33174,604:33466,609:33758,614:34050,619:35802,656:47398,816:50368,884:51094,899:54592,984:56638,1030:75448,1375:76868,1402:85616,1499:88199,1547:88640,1554:89963,1580:90656,1593:90971,1599:94877,1700:109162,1880:111394,1969:112258,1979:114130,2015:114634,2027:127554,2167:128016,2175:129996,2217:138840,2394:140226,2420:142404,2479:142800,2487:161832,2728:162820,2743:166468,2830:173903,2957:174187,2962:174826,2972:175891,3010:176175,3078:176814,3106:190900,3251$0,0:13207,194:20726,360:37876,618:42913,726:43327,733:44431,754:47743,823:50365,875:57925,924:61435,1007:61760,1013:62020,1018:62280,1023:72225,1237:86485,1463:91210,1604:115864,2056:116554,2068:127962,2221:136676,2350:138806,2395:140013,2421:144202,2577:152952,2703:155366,2743:155721,2749:160336,2889:161685,2941:163957,2980:171390,3036:171810,3043:175170,3095:177550,3149:177970,3156:178600,3166:178880,3171:180560,3216:183640,3279:197190,3492:197490,3497:202365,3627:202965,3637:207660,3707
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. describes his mother, Jacqueline Martin Underwood

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. talks about his father, Paul Underwood, Sr.

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. describes his maternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. talks about his paternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. describes his earliest memories of childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. recalls his childhood neighborhoods in Knoxville, Tennessee

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. talks about his limited experiences of racial discrimination as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. describes the Underwood household during his childhood years

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. talks about his religious background

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. talks about his elementary school years at First Lutheran School in Knoxville, Tennessee

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. recalls his years at Ft Sanders School in Knoxville, Tennessee, pt.1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. recalls his years at Ft Sanders School in Knoxville, Tennessee, pt.2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. talks about his experience at Webb School of Knoxville in Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. talks about his transition into Austin-East High School, an all-black school

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. talks about race relations in the Knoxville, Tennessee community

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. recounts his experiences in white homes while playing on a traveling ice hockey team in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. recalls how his father influenced his decision to pursue math and science

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. recalls his decision to attend Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. describes his experience at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. describes his experience living off-campus of Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. describes HistoryMaker Dr. David Satcher

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. continues to talk about HistoryMaker Dr. David Satcher

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. describes working as a nurse's aide at Grady Memorial Hospital and meeting Dr. J. Willis Hurst

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. describes his decision to attend the Mayo Medical School in Rochester, Minnesota

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. describes his experience at the Mayo Medical School in Rochester, Minnesota

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. describes the black and white communities in Rochester, Minnesota

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. recalls experiencing racial discrimination at the Mayo Medical School in Rochester, Minnesota

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. talks about equal opportunity and African American professors at Mayo Medical School in Rochester, Minnesota

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. talks about dating his wife, HistoryMaker Dr. Hollis Underwood

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. recalls his year-long internship at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. describes Detroit, Michigan during the mid-1980s

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. describes his interactions with African American patients while interning at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. talks about his tenure in St. Croix as the director of the emergency room and the intensive care unit at St. Croix Hospital

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. recalls the aftermath of Hurricane Hugo in St. Croix

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. talks about his fellowship at the Cleveland Clinic in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. talks about entering the field of cardiology while at the Cleveland Clinic in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. talks about his father's death

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. talks about his time at the Iowa Heart Center in Des Moines, Iowa

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. remembers his decision to move to Advanced Cardiac Specialists in Gilbert, Arizona

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. talks about his work with the American Heart Association through HistoryMaker Marvin Perry's Black Board of Directors Project

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. recounts his travels to Dakar, Senegal with Project MEDHELP

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. talks about the Association of Black Cardiologists and his presidency of the organization

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. talks about the Association of Black Cardiologists' response to Hurricane Katrina

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. talks about BiDil, a prescription drug for African Americans with heart disease

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. talks about winning the 2006 Lincoln Ragsdale Award and Ragsdale's legacy in Phoenix, Arizona

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. talks about working with his wife, HistoryMaker Dr. Hollis Underwood, at Sonoran Health Specialists

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. talks about his professional hopes for the future

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. describes his hopes for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. shares his advice for aspiring African American medical students

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. concludes his interview

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

3$9

DATitle
Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. continues to talk about HistoryMaker Dr. David Satcher
Dr. Paul Underwood, Jr. talks about BiDil, a prescription drug for African Americans with heart disease
Transcript
How did you feel when you found out that he'd been made Surgeon General, appointed Surgeon General?$$I was really elated because I knew him [HM Dr. David Satcher] and I, I already had a lot of respect for him, certainly if someone that you know becomes the surgeon general, it's a very, very rewarding. But also because he was very impactful in terms of the Healthy People 2010, which we still work on, that was his, his document, you know, and, and so to know that not in terms of just, I mean, all surgeon generals have impact, but he had fairly profound impact and his ability to garner resources to make sure that things are--go into place, and to be able to codify aspects of like Healthy People 2010, is very well written, you won't be able to, to argue with it very much, all you gotta do is just follow the document and then, even if he's not the surgeon general anymore, we still use that document and it's actually the basis for say, The American Heart Association and our goals are drawn, many organizations goals are drawn off that Healthy People 2010 document. When he left there to go to the Centers for Disease Control, I said, you know, this is just wonderful, I mean, he, he does everything. I think, in fact, there was a period of time when he was actually both, he was the surgeon general and head of CDC, and during his time, CDC has, has been held in high esteem. For example, that was when Ebola became about and his attitude was why don't we send a team over to Africa to study Ebola because even though it's not in the United States, we can extend our resources to other countries, because we don't want these illnesses to actually end up in the United States, so why not meet them there. Which was the first that the Centers for Disease Control had actually left the American boundaries. Recently, you see other surgeon generals, and I, I mean, not that it relates to this particular interview per se, but the--Dr. [Richard Carmona], his attitudes about his to--his tenure as surgeon general and interaction with the administration, the, the president and how he's, he's--relates how he felt as he was stifled. You see the Centers for Disease Control and this person with the multiple resistant TB when they come back. So these agencies can fall very quickly in disfavor, but with Dr. Satcher, it was not that way. The, the CDC was flourishing and the surgeon general actually set up a national policy that we're still following to this day, so that of course makes me feel very good.$$Great.$$I've had a chance also to see Dr. Satcher. He came here to, to celebrate a ceremony of relationship between Morehouse College [Atlanta, Georgia] and T-Gen which is a large translational genomics lab that's here in Phoenix [Arizona] and so I had the opportunity to have my son, who was sixteen at the time, meet Dr. Satcher and I said, and he's a, he's a Morehouse [College, Atlanta, Georgia] student as well, so I said this is just wonderful that, you know, at about the same age that I was to meet Dr. Satcher, you know, you're meeting him at the same age and he still seems that he hasn't aged at all and (laughter) obviously that's not the, the case, but it's just, it's extremely rewarding to be around him, honestly.$Now in 2005, the FDA [Food and Drug Administration] approved a drug, can you tell me what that drug was called?$$BiDil.$$BiDil, tell us about BiDil.$$That was another very rewarding experiences that we had during my tenure at the Association of Black Cardiologist. There was a large multi-site, multi-center, clinical trial, so it was across the nation trial that looked at a particular drug called BiDil, isosorbide dinitrate and hydralazine combination, fixed dose combination. And it was used exclusively in African American patients.$$Was it designed for that purpose totally?$$No, the, the combination had been used in the veterans' heart failure trials in the '70s [1970s] and '80s [1980s], in all populations, but it seemed that combination had more benefit in African Americans and so the desire was to use it in solely African Americans to see if that benefit was real or not. So, on top of standard therapy, it wasn't, it didn't replace any therapy for another, but on top of standard therapy, using this drug combination or just using this drug led to a 40 percent improvement in mortality in African--but it was all African Americans. And with that data, the company NitroMed went to the Food and Drug Administration and asked them to approve the drug and because it's a trial, the pivotal trial, this landmark trial was for African Americans, it was indicated, it was written for use for African Americans, although it's--if non-African American takes it, I doubt it's gonna make them sick, in fact, I've used it on non-African Americans, and they seem to respond equally as well. But, that was very rewarding in several ways, for one, there was a close interaction between the Association of Black Cardiologists and NitroMed in terms of exploring the aspects of, cultural aspects of African Americans, heart failure in African Americans, so the communities, a need came out, the issue of race and medicine was very prominent and the Association of Black Cardiologists had a prominent spot in being able to help define for the country or educate the country some of the issues on race and medicine. We had interactions with the Food and Drug Administration and the Office of Minority Health, you know, testimonials and what not on the interaction and the opportunity to have African American investigators conduct a clinical trial that was very well conducted and to--brought back important scientific information for everybody to use, and we've learned, we're still learning from the A-HeFT [African-American Heart Failure Trial] trial that had the largest number of women in any heart failure trial involved with it and so for--there's a condition called peripartum cardiomyopathy, which it's a strange illness that gives young women heart failure after they've delivered, directly after they've delivered, we have the largest registry of that. So, just, just for an example, so there's a lot of scientific information that we're all gonna benefit from that came out of this particular trial and so, as I've told people that often times the community at large would think that, that African Americans and health are basically taking something away from them, that you have to give the African Americans this, this is one chance where there's actually been some good that's come--they're many other instances, but this one clear instance where there's been good for the overall community that's been based on African Americans in our, in our experience here and so it's very rewarding to be involved with the group and getting that through.$$And you were president at this time?$$I was president when the trial was reported at the American Heart Association in New Orleans [Louisiana].

Dr. Paul Knott

Cardiologist, inventor and nautical entrepreneur Dr. Paul Knott was born Albert Paul Lowe Knott, Jr. on March 23, 1935 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. His ancestors include his paternal great grandfather, A.M.E. Bishop Gaston Knott of Eastern Tennessee (founder of Gaston, Tennessee), his grandfather, Albert Knott, a Morristown College graduate (Class of 1898) and the first Black police officer in Pittsburgh, his father, Albert Paul Knott, Sr., a physician and social activist, his mother, Fannie Meredith Scott Knott, a teacher and her father who was a physician. Knott’s parents were friends of Pittsburgh Courier editor, Robert L. Vann, and entertained Eleanor Roosevelt, George, Jody and Philippa Schuyler and other notables in their Hill District home. Knott attended the University of Pittsburgh’s Frick School and graduated from Schenley High School, where he swam and was co-captain of the track team in 1952. Entering Yale University at age seventeen, Knott, one of four blacks in his class, co-founded and joined the campus NAACP, the largest university chapter of the organization at that time. He graduated with his B.A. degree in human behavior and cultural anthropology in 1956. Pursuing medicine, Knott earned his M.D. degree from Seton Hall College of Medicine in 1960. That same year, he did an internship at Georgetown University.

Appointed a cardiovascular research fellow at Chicago’s Michael Reese Hospital from 1961 to 1963, Knott became senior medical resident at Hines V.A. Hospital from 1963 to 1965, becoming board eligible in internal medicine and cardiology. Serving in the U.S. Navy, Knott was chief of cardiology at the United States Naval Hospital at Great Lakes, Illinois from 1965 to 1967. There, he wrote a white paper on racial discrimination in public facilities servicing military installations. As a result, a federal law was passed making racial discrimination illegal in public facilities. Knott attended the First World Black Festival of Arts and Culture in Dakar, Senegal in 1966. From 1966 to 1981, he was a cardiology consultant for Daniel Hale Williams Health Center in Chicago, while teaching medicine at Loyola University, the University of Illinois and Rush Medical College. Knott also served on the staff’s of Rush Presbyterian St. Luke’s Medical Center, Mile Square Community Health Center, Louise Burg Hospital, Provident Hospital and Bethany Hospital. At Tabernacle Community Hospital, he was associate medical director from 1972 to 1977. From 1977 to 1981, Knott served as chief medical and administrative officer for Bethany and Garfield Park Hospitals and Clinics. He was chief medical officer and medical administrator for Illinois’ Stateville Correctional Center from 1981 to 1983 where he implemented and directed the development of sick call procedures. Knott was medical director of Chicago’s Metropolitan Correctional Center from 1984 to 1986. Founding Correctional Healthcare Administrators in 1985, Knott has consulted on numerous medical projects. In 1988, he completed a feasibility study and plan for a 50,000 square foot facility at Chicago’s O’Hare International Airport. Through the 1990s, Knott worked as an emergency room and trauma physician. He also earned certification in advanced trauma life support.

In the 1980s, Knott established a successful charter boat business with six boats, the largest being a 220 passenger dinner boat. In the early 1990s, he invented and manufactured the Knott Lock, security device for automobiles. Knott, a member of Sigma Pi Phi for over forty years, lives in Chicago with his wife, Lynda and their two children.

Knott passed away on July 20, 2018.

Knott was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 14, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.007

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/14/2007

Last Name

Knott

Maker Category
Schools

Schenley High School

Henry Clay Frick Training School of Teachers

Yale University

University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey

First Name

Lynda

Birth City, State, Country

Pittsburgh

HM ID

KNO02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

What's Up?

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

3/23/1935

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chili

Death Date

7/20/2018

Short Description

Cardiologist and hospital executive Dr. Paul Knott (1935 - 2018) dedicated his career to medical administration, was founder of the Correctional Healthcare Administrators, and invented the Knott Lock security device for automobiles.

Employment

Michael Reese Hospital

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:17262,208:22566,331:26466,468:32378,530:35330,610:46440,783:47240,800:51000,812:51765,824:53120,834:53850,850:54215,856:55383,891:62099,1054:62610,1062:64289,1095:88819,1385:91311,1443:93269,1525:104220,1703:113184,1847:113592,1855:113864,1878:114408,1888:115360,1907:115836,1916:116448,1928:134016,2074:149268,2429:172683,2682:183036,2870:183732,2879:196350,3044:196959,3056:202644,3107:204320,3144$0,0:3060,20:23095,303:32926,446:33883,471:34231,476:37711,526:67770,953:81290,1156:99040,1406:107693,1532:111327,1600:116476,1631:116944,1638:121078,1714:125368,1782:126070,1793:137690,1946:147290,2058:151790,2138:156012,2165:156882,2176:160188,2225:162450,2281:164886,2344:170476,2386:189516,2644:213424,3059:271914,3776:310668,4322:315120,4378
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Paul Knott's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Paul Knott lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Paul Knott describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers his maternal aunt and uncle

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Paul Knott describes his mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Paul Knott describes his father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Paul Knott describes his father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Paul Knott describes his parents' marriage

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers his community in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Paul Knott describe his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Paul Knott describe the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers the prominent guests to his parents' home

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Paul Knott recalls his interest in the news of World War II

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers Jessie Matthews Vann

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Paul Knott talks about his early interest in reading

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers the Henry Clay Frick Training School for Teachers in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Paul Knott describes his extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers Schenley High School in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers his early influences

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Paul Knott recalls his decision to apply to Yale University

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Paul Knott talks about the faculty of Schenley High School in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers his admission to Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Paul Knott recalls his election as student council president

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers arriving at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Paul Knott talks about his social life at Yale University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Paul Knott talks about the NAACP chapter at Yale University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers his interest in anthropology

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Paul Knott recalls his medical school applications

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers race relations at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Paul Knott recalls his classmates' apologies at their fifty-year reunion

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers the background of his peers at Yale University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Paul Knott recalls the impact of the Korean War

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers moving to Jersey City, New Jersey

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Paul Knott recalls his experiences on segregated trains

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Paul Knott describes his medical residency and fellowship

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Paul Knott talks about the Playboy Mansion in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers the community of black physicians in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Paul Knott describes the Tabernacle Community Hospital and Health Center in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Paul Knott describes his early medical career

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Paul Knott talks about the opportunities for black doctors in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Paul Knott talks about his medical career in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Paul Knott recalls his study of blood pressure in African American patients

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers his childhood vacations in Canada

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dr. Paul Knott describes his boat charter business

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dr. Paul Knott recalls closing his boat charter business

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers Mayor Harold Washington

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dr. Paul Knott describes the Knott Lock

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dr. Paul Knott talks about his involvement in the Boule, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dr. Paul Knott talks about his involvement in the Boule, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dr. Paul Knott describes the Boule

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers the founding of the Percy Julian Luncheon

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Dr. Paul Knott describes the changes in the Boule organization

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Dr. Paul Knott talks about the political influence of Yale University alumni

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Dr. Paul Knott describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Dr. Paul Knott reflects upon his life

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Dr. Paul Knott talks about his health

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Dr. Paul Knott reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Dr. Paul Knott talks about his family

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Dr. Paul Knott describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Dr. Paul Knott narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$6

DAStory

7$5

DATitle
Dr. Paul Knott recalls his experiences on segregated trains
Dr. Paul Knott describes the Knott Lock
Transcript
It was Montgomery [Alabama] that was hell, so I was in Montgomery in 1950. I was fifteen, and I was in Montgomery; I remember Montgomery--pretty rough place, but anyway (laughter).$$Okay. Did you have--was that the first time you'd been down south like that, in Montgomery, in those days?$$No. At first I was a little kid; I, I used to go with my mother [Fannie Scott Knott] and my two sisters [Patricia Knott and Sylvia Knott Simmons]; we'd go visit my [maternal] grandmother [Lula Allen Scott] in the summertime, so that was interesting. We'd get--we--my father [A. Paul Knott, Sr.] put us on a train in Pittsburgh [Pennsylvania], and we'd go to Cincinnati [Ohio], then we'd get on a train in Cincinnati, and the train would go across the Ohio River, and it would stop halfway over on the Ohio River going across into Kentucky, because all the black people had to go to the black car, which was not air conditioned, and I can remember that ride in that car. It was terribly hot in the summertime--no air conditioning, nothing, and they'd have the windows open and dust would be flying in there. And what my mother used to do is always pack us lunches in shoe boxes, and so we'd eat and--because she refused that we--that she was subjected to eating in the dining car, because in the dining car, they had a green cloth where blacks would sit in the corner, and they'd pull this green curtain around 'em. I don't know you ever heard of that, but I, I mean I even remember the color of it; it was green. They'd pull a green curtain. Have you heard, have you heard of that (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) And you'd be separated. I've, I've heard similar things, yeah.$$Yes, and pull that little green curtain around you (laughter). And my mother would never go for that, and then we'd be so thirsty because in those days, you didn't have cans of Coke [Coca-Cola], or a bottle of Coke, or something that you could carry with you, and there was no ice. So, the, the guys on the train that would serve us sandwiches and drinks, they were called butcher boys, and the butcher boys would get on one stop, and then get off on the other, and they'd bring their stuff. And the butcher boys--it was like, I don't know, I guess equivalent to Kool Aid nowadays; it was this red punch they'd mix up, but they'd mix it in the sink in the bathroom (laughter).$$In a train (laughter)?$$Yeah (laughter), 'cause we'd be sitting across from the bathroom, and we'd watch--'cause I--when you're kids, we want something to drink. My mother would say no. She'd have a thermos bottle, you know, but that wouldn't last very long and--'cause you had thermos bottles in those days, but then the butcher boy would be mixing stuff up in the sink and then dip it out into us, to us, then they go throughout the car selling to the black people (laughter).$$In the bathroom sink.$$In the bathroom sink, yeah. Now, I, I remember that's--that happened. But see, I don't know how many times we traveled to Chattanooga [Tennessee], but it's been far more than one time in the summertime since, you know, I was five, six--four, five, six years old going down there.$Well, tell us about your invention. You invented a--well, this is one invention I know about; there may be more, but the Knott Lock.$$Well, it may seem kind of funny (laughter). I've always just done a lot of things, and one of the, one of the things I, I would say, I'm a pretty good mechanic, well, working on these boats at all times, and I'm a good diesel mechanic and a good mechanic, and I've had several cars stolen so I just thought of this and--this lock, and also working with some fellows that had developed--did various kinds of locks, then I developed this one and got a patent on it. Which, it's just a brick-locking device and also there's a starter-interrupt switch, so when you turn the key to lock the, lock the brakes, it interrupts the starter so you can't start it. If you can't start it, you can't move it; you can't move it anyways because the brakes are locked.$$Right.$$Only thing you do is lift it up.$$That's unusual that most of these devices lock the steering wheel now, right?$$Yeah.$$I've seen--we've seen The Club that they advertise.$$Well, yeah, well this, this beat The Club. I mean The Club, The Club--most of--you can't show me a Club I can't get off. So whether you manipulate--either that or you cut it, or cut the steering wheel, so The Club is no big deal. The Knott Lock, as I call it, you can get it off, but it's so time consuming and hard and you need a blowtorch and--to really get it off. People would pass up on it and go to something else that's easier to steal. But why it wasn't a success--actually, outside of the country--you got it into Australia and Germany. It was pretty successful over there because--but here in the United States, everybody was already tuned into the, the chirp like when you--electronically you would lock your doors and you hear that beep, beep, beep, beep, and everybody was--every housewife--everybody was tuned into that, so that's what killed us there. That, that just made it very difficult to--and the price we had to sell it to make any profit out of it, it was difficult to do it here because of the, the competition of an electronic device which was nowhere near and protecting your car that the--that our lock would.$$Did you still some of 'em available? Are they--$$Yeah.$$Do you still sell any of 'em?$$No, no, no.$$Okay, all right.$$We have some available, yeah.$$Okay.$$Yeah, I got some in storage, yeah.$$Okay.$$It's the kind of thing, you say, "Well, maybe someday." Oh, I, I tried to sell it and we went to car manufacturers and all, but the truth of the matter, what I found out, believe it or not, they didn't want anything like that because you couldn't steal a car, and that would help their sales and also help their repair--I mean getting, getting their cars repaired and restored afterwards, yeah, so--no (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Sounds like the Tucker situation or something, you know.$$Yeah, like the Tucker car [Tucker 48], yeah, same thing, yeah. That's big business--United States, and that's big business; that's the way things work. So, they, they didn't want--I mean even to incorporate--they could have very inexpensively incorporated it into their cars--in the manufacturing (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) As a design for the--yeah.$$Yeah, yeah in, in terms of when they manufacture it, because the key chips and everything today that you have, they could be defeated. Any of these electronic locks I can show you how to defeat in less than a minute.$$Okay. So, that venture lasted from the early '90s [1990s] until--$$Yeah, that was several years--around, around 1990, yeah.$$Okay. Do you have any other--have you invented anything else?$$Yeah, I never got a patent on it. I'm just thinking. One was--back in the early '60s [1960s], which they do it a lot now, and somebody else, I'm sure, has got the patent on it 'cause they do it a lot now, was putting--taking an electrocardiogram in back of the heart by putting electrode down into the esophagus--esophageal electrode. I was the first to do that; that was back in the early '60s [1960s]. I published that. But no, I'd say I've only got one patent.$$Okay (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) And this other stuff, just creative stuff. I was always the kind of guy that always just liked to do a lot of things; I mean a lot of different kind of things, not satisfied to do one thing.

Dr. Clyde Yancy

Professor of internal medicine and cardiologist, Dr. Clyde Warren Yancy, was born January 2, 1958, in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Yancy's parents, Clyde Yancy, Sr., and Hilda V. Jones Yancy moved the family to Scotlandvillle, near the campus of Southern University, where his mother taught in the elementary and secondary lab schools. As a teenager, Yancy became an Eagle Scout, and played the saxophone with Southern University’s marching band at the Sugar Bowl. Yancy attended Southern University’s lab schools through his Southern High School graduation in 1976. Staying at Southern, Yancy earned his B.S. degree in 1978 and went on to Tulane University Medical School, where he graduated with his M.D. in 1982.

Yancy was a resident at Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas from 1982 to 1985; he was a University of Texas (U.T.S.W.) Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas fellow in cardiology from 1986 to 1989, and U.T.S.W. fellow in transplant cardiology from 1990 to 1991. From there, Yancy went on to become the Carl H. Westcott Distinguished Chair in Medical Research, and an associate professor in internal medicine and cardiology. A recipient of the Internal Medicine Outstanding Teacher Award in 1991, Yancy was also awarded the 1998 U.T. S.W. Outstanding Teacher Award by the class of 2001. Also in 2001, Yancy won the Outstanding Research Award and the Daniel Savage Award for Scientific Achievement from the Association of Black Cardiologists. The American Heart Association, for which he is an often-quoted spokesman, named Yancy National Physician of the Year in 2003. In 2006, Yancy became the medical director of the Baylor Heart and Vascular Institute in Dallas, and the head of the center's heart and lung transplant program.

The editor of Congestive Heart Failure, Yancy served on the editorial board of the Journal of Cardiac Failure. Having observed an emerging database of genetic variations in African Americans, which could explain their lower response to traditional heart-failure therapies, Yancy and others in the Association of Black Cardiologists proposed that in African Americans heart-failure is linked to chronic hypertension and should be treated in a different way than in whites. Yancy authored the Role of Race in Heart-Failure Therapy (2002). A widower, Yancy remained in Dallas where he raised two daughters.

Accession Number

A2004.220

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/29/2004

Last Name

Yancy

Organizations
Schools

Tulane University

Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Southern University Laboratory School

First Name

Clyde

Birth City, State, Country

Baton Rouge

HM ID

YAN01

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

Santa Fe, New Mexico

Favorite Quote

Intelligence Plus Character Is The Value Of A Real Education.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

1/2/1958

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Tomatoes

Short Description

Medical professor, cardiologist, and hospital chief executive Dr. Clyde Yancy (1958 - ) serves as the medical director of the Baylor Heart and Vascular Institute in Dallas, as well as the head of Baylor's heart and lung transplant program.

Employment

Parkland Memorial Hospital - Dallas, Texas

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (U.T.S.W.)

Baylor Heart and Vascular Institute - Dallas, Texas

Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
0,0:868,16:2662,62:14894,251:15206,256:15596,262:16142,270:26828,560:27296,565:27608,575:45520,858:54970,1056:55345,1062:55870,1070:56170,1075:56695,1083:58945,1124:59545,1133:68710,1213:69284,1222:83390,1397:95801,1615:97079,1631:97363,1636:97931,1645:100132,1686:100558,1697:105173,1787:117152,1985:117464,1990:121208,2054:121520,2059:121910,2065:125500,2088:127275,2133:127630,2140:131890,2231:132245,2238:136647,2316:137499,2331:137996,2340:152008,2492:154039,2510:157450,2549:157875,2556:160000,2595:164080,2659:168096,2715:168967,2730:170441,2781:172116,2826:194377,3208:195167,3228:195957,3239:198406,3274:200855,3305:201171,3310:201645,3318:206622,3427:207175,3436:207491,3441:209150,3467:210493,3490:210809,3495:211678,3509:212389,3519:213100,3529:227538,3710:227918,3716:233694,3839:234226,3847:235746,3870:241682,3927:242683,3943:243222,3952:244916,3981:247226,4035:250306,4079:250768,4086:251461,4096:252000,4106:255696,4158:259931,4239:264859,4364:270970,4391:272090,4409:275030,4469:279090,4565:285390,4690:291830,4771:292362,4779:292742,4785:295630,4842:295934,4847:296998,4865:298898,4897:301330,4951:305282,5029:307562,5084:311438,5160:315960,5169$0,0:11230,147:13994,185:16782,231:17520,241:18094,246:18422,251:18832,257:20226,289:22686,329:31393,398:33463,440:38707,579:38983,694:41536,745:46462,781:46734,788:47958,812:48230,817:48502,822:51086,944:66248,1112:66668,1118:72968,1217:74816,1256:80150,1288:80510,1293:82040,1318:82850,1331:88496,1423:88928,1430:93968,1546:98792,1667:99080,1672:100016,1686:100376,1692:101024,1703:105920,1803:112553,1865:113106,1873:113580,1881:114054,1888:115792,1923:116424,1934:116977,1945:118004,1958:118952,1972:119584,1982:119979,1988:121954,2021:123376,2051:124166,2062:126457,2103:127168,2113:131760,2126:132520,2137:134572,2175:142264,2270:142756,2278:143822,2290:144396,2298:151530,2431:163670,2598:164710,2617:169510,2681:169910,2687:173190,2732:173590,2738:173990,2744:174630,2759:175510,2772:176230,2791:176630,2797:178710,2832:179510,2843:183912,2867:184208,2872:184874,2883:185244,2889:188574,3027:194642,3107:198342,3201:205250,3269:208466,3332:208801,3338:213759,3435:218315,3539:218918,3551:219722,3570:221732,3625:232630,3764:234530,3789:245711,3968:247039,3988:249695,4033:253770,4074
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Clyde Yancy's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Clyde Yancy lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Clyde Yancy describes his maternal ancestry

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Clyde Yancy describes his mother's personality and scholastic achievements

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Clyde Yancy describes his paternal background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Clyde Yancy remembers the ends of his parents' lives, and his paternal family's achievements

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Clyde Yancy describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood in Scotlandville, Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Clyde Yancy talks about his family's connection to Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Clyde Yancy describes his childhood personality

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Clyde Yancy describes his time in the Boy Scouts of America

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Clyde Yancy talks about the nature of his journey into medicine

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Clyde Yancy recalls his experience in the summer program at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Clyde Yancy talks about juggling early acceptance into Tulane University School of Medicine with finishing his undergraduate degree

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Clyde Yancy remembers his early relationship with and subsequent marriage to his wife

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Clyde Yancy remembers talks about his internship, residency and early career

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Clyde Yancy talks about his wife and family

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Clyde Yancy describes his the effect of his wife's battle with cancer on the family, pt.1

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Clyde Yancy describes his the effect of his wife's battle with cancer on the family, pt.2

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Clyde Yancy describes his early research on heart failure in African Americans

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Clyde Yancy describes his research from 2001 to 2004 on heart failure in African Americans,

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Clyde Yancy discusses theories about African American susceptibility to heart disease

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Clyde Yancy talks about the various factors that impact racial disparities in heart disease

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Clyde Yancy talks about preventing congestive heart failure and the importance of health in the African American community, pt.1

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Clyde Yancy talks about preventing congestive heart failure and the importance of health in the African American community, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Clyde Yancy shares advice for African Americans seeking a healthy lifestyle

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Clyde Yancy describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Clyde Yancy reflects upon his life

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Clyde Yancy reflects upon contemporary lifestyles and family structures

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Clyde Yancy reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Clyde Yancy describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Clyde Yancy narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

1$5

DATitle
Dr. Clyde Yancy describes his early research on heart failure in African Americans
Dr. Clyde Yancy talks about preventing congestive heart failure and the importance of health in the African American community, pt.1
Transcript
So probably the most important thing, kind of fast forward to where we are now, is that I basically had to start my career over. Because I had to decide what kind of physician, what kind of work I would do. And with a lot of blessings, serendipity, hard work, support from others, we have been able to kind of reinvent ourselves. And so what I do right now is have a little bit of dichotomized life. Part of my life is all about supporting my two daughters [Kristin Yancy and Nina Yancy] and providing every possible opportunity I can for them, and giving them that same sense of connectiveness [ph.] and family that I had growing up, but doing it as an end of one, instead of as an end of many in the kind of extended family networks that that lifestyle and that timeframe provided. So that's part of my life, but the dichotomy in my life is that as a professional, I have been really focused. I'm trying to do as much as I can to make a difference. And the area that I have the greatest interest in is just not cardiology or heart disease, but is heart disease that affects patients at the advanced stages. So the specific illness that I focus on is congestive heart failure and heart transplantation. That has been my professional label since 1990. Since 1993, I've directed the heart transplant program here at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas [Texas]. From 1996 through the year 2002, I overlapped with that appointment with the same responsibility of Baylor University Medical Center [at Dallas] here in Dallas. So I ran two heart transplant programs concurrently. I immersed myself into clinical research and started working with others across the country to help identify new treatment strategies that would improve the outcomes for all patients. But somewhere in the mid-1990s I had identified that there seemed to be something a little bit different about the African American patient who showed up that had more advanced disease. They were typically younger. They usually had a previous history of high blood pressure and they were pretty sick when they showed up. And it was such a consistent observation that I began to try to look at my own experience to see if we could make a statement to sensitize the rest of the physician community that maybe there's something else going on here. And I vividly remember my first efforts at trying to bring this information to the community's attention. Got completely shot it down and I was almost castigated from my circle of peers because it was such a contentious thing to suggest that as a function of race a certain disease process could be so uniquely different. But we stuck with it.$$That's right, 'cause you're talkin' about years of--we're lookin'--we're talkin' about years of people speculating on the--what the differences are between black folks and white folks?$$Well are there real physiologic--$$In the 19th century people wrote about it over and over again, mostly white people sayin' that black folks were not--the differences all made us inferior.$$Right. And so there was a lot of sensitivity about bringing an issue like this up and there was a strong effort to put that aside. But working through the scientific process and again looking at data, somewhere around 1996 where we were able to obtain data from one of the bigger initiatives I'd been involved in and I'm actually still involved with it, that was very encouraging. Because not only could I use it to show that there is something different about the African American that has advanced heart disease, but in the same breath I could say, oh by the way when exposed to the right therapies they do just as well. So it was a great message to say you need to be sensitized to the patients that are African American because they may have a more aggressive disease presentation, but with this treatment strategy, they do equally as well. Since that timeframe, that has continued to evolve until we were able to get definitive statements in the medical literature at the highest tier in 2001, and really establish this as a concept. And again, I pay deference and respect to others in my professional discipline that provided opportunities for me. So for example, I was a keynote speaker for the national meeting of heart failure experts [Heart Failure Society of America] in the year 2000 and that was the first opportunity that someone had to bring these issues to our population of physicians in general. And I was invited to write editorials and to share the research that we were doing that all culminated into a definitive statement in the New England Journal of Medicine, which said yes there is a difference, but we can treat these differences and patients do reasonably well. Shortly after that, we got involved in yet another initiative that was even more provocative, which was to specifically start testing the treatment approach exclusively in African Americans. This too was contentious, because it had not been done before for this kind of heart disease. Well, we said, "We are no longer going to be handicapped by the way clinical research is done in this country."$Okay. Now the cure side of this, how to cure congestive heart failure--$$You know what, Larry [Crowe], there is no cure.$$Okay.$$The only cure is prevention. And that gets you into a totally different dynamic. That if we are so convinced that high blood pressure is so important in the development of heart disease in African Americans, then that gives us all the leverage we could ever hope to have. To look at this patient population that has high blood pressure, this silent, innocent, epidemic killer in the African American race. So you know what guys, you have to get your blood pressure checked and if you have high blood pressure, you have to treat it and you have to stay on that treatment consistently and change your lifestyle. Because if you don't, then you will have a reduced longevity. You will have decreased productivity, less time with your family. You will not be able to realize all the benefits of life. I mean, I will be very candid and very personal and tell you that I know what's like to lose a spouse prematurely. I don't think our situation could have been avoided. But for those people that are alive and are at risk and are not taking the steps to avoid premature death, it is just unacceptable, they have to take a different approach.$$Okay. And this different approach would consist of?$$Awareness, knowing that you're at risk, getting yourself screened for high blood pressure. Paying attention to your diet, having a weight that is appropriate for your height. Working with a healthcare provider to know what your ideal weight should be and doing something about it to get to the point, exercising a little bit, staying away from tobacco, using alcohol in moderation. These are things that work for preventing heart disease, preventing stroke, preventing cancer, preventing depression. These are important lifestyle lessons that go beyond just congestive heart failure, but have to do with being functioning, contributing, awake and alert citizens in our community. So I think that's where you start, prevention with these very generic, straightforward lifestyle adjustments, heightened awareness, getting disease identified early and doing something about it.$$It seems to me that, that prevention would have to--you'd have to have like a massive education campaign for prevention to really work. Because people are not gonna.$$But why not, Larry? Why not? Think about what I'm responsible for causing in terms of expenditures in the healthcare budget as a physician who takes care of advanced heart disease. I run a heart transplant program. Every time we do a successful heart transplant, we spend no less than $300,000 the first year, probably $100,000 over the next two or three years after that. A half million dollars spent over three years to save one life. That's if everything goes well. Now imagine what happens if those resources are redistributed on the front side of the disease process so that more people are aware they have high blood pressure and more people are treated for that high blood pressure. So I don't back away from the challenge. Does it need a massive public education campaign, you bet. Does it need a lot of resources to be successful, you bet. But what's the alternative, a workforce that is cannibalized because people die early. That whole social network, that whole family network that was so instrumental in my success is at risk when people die prematurely and you don't have the parents, you don't have the uncles and the aunts there to pick up the pieces. You don't have the role models there to show you how to love one another, how to behave, how to respect each other. There is a fundamental price we pay and I want to be very clear about this, there is a fundamental price we pay because of the poor health in the African American community. It is realized in work productivity; it is realized in economic productivity; and it is important to realize in our social fabric. Our social fabric is at risk because of the poor health in the African American community.