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Eric Benét

R&B singer and actor Eric Benét was born on October 15, 1966 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He attended the Milwaukee Trade and Technical High School. In 1990, Benét formed a group with his sister, Lisa Jordan, called Benét. After a hiatus, Benét signed a record deal with Warner Bros. Records in 1994 and released his first studio album, True to Myself, in 1996. In 1999, Benét released his sophomore album, A Day in the Life, with the single “Spend My Life with You,” featuring the Canadian artist Tamia. During this time, Benét also began his career in film when he guest starred on the sitcom For Your Love in 1999 and appeared in the film Glitter in 2001. Benét then signed a new record deal with Reprise Records and released his third studio album, Hurricane in 2001. In 2005, he portrayed Reece Wilcox on the series Half & Half. In 2007, he had a recurring role on the MTV scripted show Kaya. In 2008, he released the album Love & Life. Two years later, Benét released Lost in Time, which included the single “Sometimes I Cry.” In 2011, his second feature film role in Trinity Goodheart premiered at the American Black Film Festival. Benét released his 2012 album The One and his 2016 album Eric Benét under his newly-formed independent record label, Jordan House Records. He also signed the artists Goapele and Calvin Richardson to his label, and helped produce their records. In 2016, Benét guest starred in the show, Real Husbands of Hollywood.

After the devastation of Hurricane Katrina, Benét performed the song “Heart of America” with Wynonna Judd, Terry Dexter, and Michael McDonald to raise money for the hurricane victims. He also co-founded Mission Save Her, a non -profit dedicated to fighting against human trafficking, slavery, and sexual abuse of women and girls around the world.

Benét received three Grammy Award nominations in the R&B category for singles released on his albums. In 2000, he was awarded the NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Song for his performance of “Spend My Life with You.” Benét was also nominated for the Black Reel Award for Best Actor in T.V. movie/cable for his role in the film Trinity Goodheart.

Benét and his wife, Manuela Testolini, have two children, Lucia Bella and Amoura Luna.

Eric Benét was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 19, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.118

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/19/2017

Last Name

Benét

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
First Name

Eric

Birth City, State, Country

Milwaukee

HM ID

BEN08

Favorite Season

Autumn

State

Wisconsin

Favorite Vacation Destination

Bali

Favorite Quote

No

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

10/15/1966

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Sushi, italian, soul food

Short Description

R&B singer and actor Eric Benét (1966 - ) a Grammy nominated R&B singer, known for his 1996 song “Spend My Life with You” featuring Tamia, has acted in television and movies, and founded his independent record label Jordan House Records.

Favorite Color

Most often blue

Penelope Stewart

Nonprofit executive Penelope Stewart was born on December 18, 1955 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin to Claude Edwards and Bernice Swan Edwards. She attended Keefe Avenue School and Parkman Junior High School in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Stewart graduated from Washington High School in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1973, and attended the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. In 2002, she earned her B.A. degree in business from Mount Mary College in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

In 1981, Stewart left Mount Mary College to open the Ambiance hair salon and a jewelry design business in Milwaukee. She was also hired by the Milwaukee Urban League to design and make handbags for their mother and daughter events, and she taught children how to design wearable art in the Milwaukee Public Schools. In 1997, Stewart joined All Pro Broadcasting, Inc. as the general sales manager and senior account executive for several radio stations in Milwaukee including WMCS Radio, WZTI Radio, WKKV Radio and WJMR Radio. In 2004, Stewart was hired at the BloodCenter of Wisconsin as the community outreach manager and worked to educate the African American community about sickle cell disease as well as managed the bone marrow donation program. In 2013, Stewart went to work at Columbia St. Mary’s Hospital in Milwaukee, Wisconsin where she raised awareness about disease prevention, health care and informational resources. In 2015, to address the rising infant mortality rate in Milwaukee, Stewart helped develop the Strong Baby Sanctuary Program, and partnered with local organizations to reduce infant mortality. She also created the Blanket of Love Program, which offered prenatal education for mothers and assistance for poor families. In 2018, Stewart helped launch the community wellness program, Be of Good Heart, to raise awareness about diabetes and hypertension and offer free health screenings.

In 2004, Stewart received the Jammin’ Legends Award from WJMR Jammin’ 98.3 FM Radio, in Milwaukee. She was also the recipient of the Jammin’ 98.3 Radio Community Leader Award, the Health Care Heroes Award by the Milwaukee BizTimes, and was named the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc. Kappa Phi Chapter Milwaukee Citizen of the Year.

Stewart has one daughter, Tamara and one son, Jamie.

Penelope Stewart was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 23, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.060

Sex

Female

Interview Date

2/23/2017

Last Name

Stewart

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
Schools

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Keefe Avenue Elementary School

35th Street Elementary School

Parkman Junior High School

Washington High School

Mount Mary College

First Name

Penelope

Birth City, State, Country

Milwaukee

HM ID

STE18

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Wisconsin

Favorite Vacation Destination

St. Lucia

Favorite Quote

The Sun Is Shining Somwhere.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Wisconsin

Birth Date

12/8/1955

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Milwaukee

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Spaghetti

Short Description

Nonprofit executive Penelope Stewart (1955 - ) served as community outreach manager at Columbia St. Mary’s Hospital in Milwaukee and developed the Strong Baby Sanctuary Program among others.

Employment

WJMR-FM

WZTI-FM

BloodCenter of Wisconsin

Columbia St. Mary's Hospital

All Pro Broadcasting

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Penelope Stewart's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Penelope Stewart lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Penelope Stewart describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Penelope Stewart describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Penelope Stewart describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Penelope Stewart describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Penelope Stewart lists her siblings, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Penelope Stewart lists her siblings, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Penelope Stewart lists her siblings, pt. 3

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Penelope Stewart describes her neighborhood in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Penelope Stewart describes her neighborhood in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Penelope Stewart describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Penelope Stewart talks about her experiences in the Milwaukee Public Schools

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Penelope Stewart remembers Parkman Junior High School in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Penelope Stewart talks about her decision to attend Washington High School in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Penelope Stewart describes her experiences at Washington High School in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Penelope Stewart remembers graduating early from high school

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Penelope Stewart talks about the Faith Temple Church of God in Christ in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Penelope Stewart talks about her role at Faith Temple Church of God in Christ in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Penelope Stewart remember the birth of her first child

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Penelope Stewart talks about her decision to attend the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Penelope Stewart recalls her time at Mount Mary College in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Penelope Stewart talks about her transition from the hair salon business to the broadcasting industry

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Penelope Stewart remembers her graduation from Mount Mary College in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Penelope Stewart describes her experiences in the radio industry

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Penelope Stewart remembers joining the staff of the BloodCenter of Wisconsin

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Penelope Stewart talks about her work at the BloodCenter of Wisconsin

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Penelope Stewart remembers joining Columbia St. Mary's Hospital in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Penelope Stewart talks about the Strong Baby Sanctuary Program

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Penelope Stewart describes the Blanket of Love Program

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Penelope Stewart talks about the factors that contribute to infant mortality in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Penelope Stewart reflects upon the success of the Strong Baby Sanctuary Program

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Penelope Stewart talks about her plans for retirement

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Penelope Stewart reflects upon her career

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Penelope Stewart describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Penelope Stewart talks about politics in Wisconsin

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Penelope Stewart reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Penelope Stewart talks about her family

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Penelope Stewart remembers her mentors

Tape: 4 Story: 14 - Penelope Stewart describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Penelope Stewart narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

7$3

DATitle
Penelope Stewart describes her experiences in the radio industry
Penelope Stewart talks about the Strong Baby Sanctuary Program
Transcript
Okay. Now the next step, now you were successful at WJMR [WJMR Radio, Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin], right?$$So--$$Jammin' 98.3.$$Yeah. I--$$And you received the Jammin' Legends award in 2004--$$Um-hm.$$--I think, right, yeah.$$So with, with Jammin'--so I, I initially started with 1290 WMCS [WMCS Radio; WZTI Radio, Greenfield, Wisconsin]. I was there for two years. The station was owned by Willie Davis [HistoryMaker Willie D. Davis], you know, Green Bay Packers, all-star--$$Right, running--Willie--$$--hall of fames.$$--right that Willie Davis$$Willie Davis owned 1290. And--$$Super Bowl champion, Willie Davis.$$Yeah, and I left 1290 after two years, and I, I, I left and went to V100 [WKKV Radio], which was a brand new hip hop station in Milwaukee [Wisconsin]. Back then we only had AM stations, and they were FM. And Connie Balthrop was the owner of that station, which I also look as, as a mentor. And she was a black woman. It just took Milwaukee by storm, the first FM black station.$$Is, is, it was a hip hop station.$$Yeah, kind of, you know, it was R and B. It wasn't quite hip hop. It was really more R and B. It's, it's more hip hop now. But anyway, so I--$$'Cause that was like what they call it best of the hits and dusties or something like--$$Um-hm. So, so V100 was really a great lesson, going from a small AM station to a big mega FM station. I learned a lot about, you know, how to get the numbers together for your ad- for your agents, Arbitron [Nielsen Audio] numbers, learned a lot about having a promotions department, operational manager, really learned a lot on the business end. So two years after I was there, Don Rosette called and asked me if I would come back to 1290. And at that time I was like, tired of radio. I said, okay, I'm gonna go back to 1290. That's an easy--said, I'm gonna become a teacher. And I'll stay there for six months and become a teacher, go back to school. Well, six months turned into eight years. And about a year after being there or less, I was promoted to general sales manager. And so I liked Don. He said--one thing I like about him--he was hard, but he was about his business. But one thing he said--I said, "I don't know if I can be a general sales manager." He said, "Why don't you go home and talk to your husband and think about it." And he said, "Penny [HistoryMaker Penelope Stewart], let me tell you something." He said, "The president was never a president until he became president." I was like, hm, interesting, yeah. He said, "So don't worry about not having experience as a manager. You'll, you'll, you'll be fine."$$Okay, okay. So now in 2000--well are any, you have, have any stories from your days in radio that you can tell us that, that--any dramatic stories? I know you're often in the path of personalities and entertainers--$$Oh the--well, you know, the, yeah, you--the 1290 was a great learning lesson, a stepping stone for my next career. They're still family. The people that I worked with, we still, when we see each other it's like brothers and sisters. 1290 was special because it was talk radio. And we had a host called Eric Von, who recently passed away.$$Right, yeah, we interviewed Faithe Colas [HistoryMaker Faithe A. Thomas-Colas] his wife earlier this week.$$Yeah. And so, well, the blessing is that who's who in the community would come to 1290 for the radio, so you had a chance to meet everyone. I liked the fact that Don Rosette, if there was anything happening in Milwaukee, like any special events, he made sure his staff was there at any community event. Ultimately, we were like this, we can't beat V100; we can't beat these other--Jammin', we can't beat those stations. We're a small AM with a third of their audience. So we, so what--we, we changed the, we changed our strategy and became more like a marketing radio station where we would offer advertisers opportunity to do interviews, opportunities to tag along on our heritage day, which was like an entertainment day, opportunity to tag along on our scholarship. And so we would let them brand themselves in the community. We were the voice of the community. So by advertising and being at these special events, kind of gave them their outreach. So that was a--so by doing that, I was extremely successful as it relates to breaking records, sales records individually, breaking records as a general sales manager. So Don Rosette and I were a team and made history there by, by putting together a proposal that looked more like a marketing campaign versus just radio spots.$Tell us about how you got involved in that, the Strong Baby Sanctuary program.$$So when I first started working at Columbia St. Mary's, which is now known as Ascension Columbia St. Mary's [Columbia St. Mary's Hospital, Milwaukee, Wisconsin], they had it. They were working with the city, Milwaukee, City of Milwaukee Health Department along with Mayor Tom Barrett. And they were hosting a one day, a luncheon, to tell the churches to have a one day pulpit message about infant mortality. This is something that prior to me coming into--working at Columbia St. Mary's, they had hosted this for like the last four or five years, prior to me coming to Columbia St. Mary's. And why--my job was a new job that was, that was created at Columbia because the Urban Church Wellness had like sixty churches, and the program became so successful that they needed someone just to manage those churches as far as providing them education. So anyway, going back to the Strong Baby Sanctuary, is that, you know, we have a committee, united--a group of us, United Way [United Way of Greater Milwaukee and Waukesha County, Milwaukee, Wisconsin], March of Dimes [March of Dimes Foundation], the Milwaukee Health Department, Columbia St. Mary's. We work together to coordinate--and March of Dimes--think I may have said that. We work together to coordinate the lunch. Well, after the first lunch, you know, after my first time putting together the lunch, we were like, this problem is too big--too big to make a one day pulpit message. Too many of our babies are dying.$$How big of a problem is it?$$Every year around one hundred babies die in Milwaukee [Wisconsin]. It's a big problem. Our infant mortality rate is worse than a third world country. So out of those hundred babies, sixty, about 60 percent are black babies. And so and primarily they're dying from prematurity, and that's the number one reason why our babies are dying in Milwaukee. And there's a recent article that came out call- from the national that really documented it. And primarily, prematurity has a whole lot to do with racism. They thought it was a black thing, so to speak, that we her- her,- are heredi- that we're just naturally born, are made, that our babies will be premature. But that's not true in Africa, so it's not heredity; it's not. But they found--it's interesting that if African--if a woman from Africa come to America, within two years they said her, whatever's going on here, she's more likely to have a premature baby than if she was still in Africa. So it's not a race thing. So it's, it's bad. If we're almost--we're worse than some third world countries. So the article--$$But what, what, what are the conditions that exacerbate this problem in black women here.$$Stress and racism. They boiled it down to you can be a, you can be a woman with a doctor's degree, a black woman, and compared to a, a white woman with no degree, that black doctor is more apt to have a premature baby. It's--so the article really speaks to that's the stress factor, the racism. You know, if you look at Milwaukee, we're number one in everything, number one in incarceration for black men, high school dropouts. Look at our city. We're so hyper-segregated. I love my city, but it's not a good city for, for, for black people, especially for black men. And so it's boiled down to the stress that comes from racism. And then if you look at racism, look at the impact of unemployment, where you live, the crime, all the stuff that comes with you not having the opportunity. It's just stressing our women out. And then we have one doctor that, that spoke to the fact that the stress I will suffer will impact me to the point that it will pass down to my daughter. So, it's a, it's a big problem, but I'm gonna keep faith going and say, you know, this is something that we can turn around.$$Okay, okay. All right, so your, your role in the Strong Baby Sanctuary is as outreach coordinator, right, or I guess--$$Right. What I, what I do, I really coordinate and facilitate all the meetings. So we meet with the, the sanctuaries quarterly. I de- help design the brochures. I help with setting up training for them. I surely keep the program going. You know, I'm the one who connects all the connectors. So I make sure that the City of Milwaukee, I'm working with their nurses to make sure their nurses are going to the churches, setting up all those meetings, coordinating all the events, doing all the, the PowerPoints for the events. I'm actually writing the scripts for people, yeah, all those things that come--yeah. 'Cause somebody gotta keep the wheels going.$$Okay.$$So that's my role.

Reuben Harpole

Academic administrator and foundation executive Reuben Harpole was born on September 4, 1934 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin to Reuben K. Harpole, Sr. and Mardree Johnson Harpole. He graduated from North Division High School in Milwaukee, Wisconsin and earned his B.S. degree in elementary education in 1978 from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

Harpole served at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee School of Continuing Education for thirty-one years as a senior outreach specialist at the University Center for Urban Community Development. In 1998, he went to work as a program officer for the Helen Bader Foundation (now Bader Philanthropies, Inc.), where he spearheaded the selection of 758 grants totaling more than $6.4 million. In 2007, Harpole established the Reuben K. Harpole Jr. Education Scholarship at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, which invested $19,000 in the college education of young African American men interested in teaching.

Harpole served as a civil rights worker and community leader who led development efforts for several Milwaukee institutions including the Black Holocaust Museum, the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee's Center for Urban Community Development, and the Harambee Community Development Corporation. Harpole is credited for his contributions to the founding of more than twenty-five community centers and programs that promote education including Milwaukee Public Schools’ Homework First program, the Milwaukee Community Sailing Center, 100 Black Men of Greater Milwaukee, and Bader Philanthropies’ Community Partnerships for Youth.

He was the recipient of numerous awards and honors for his dedicated civic work and promotion of education. In 2005, the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee awarded Harpole an honorary doctorate degree of humane letters for his work in improving Milwaukee communities. On September 21, 2009, he was honored as the official “Paramount Chief of Milwaukee” and received a portion of Second Street, near North Avenue. Milwaukee named the section of Second Street, “Reuben K. Harpole, Jr. Avenue.” In 2015, Harpole and his wife, were awarded the first Distinguished Educator of the Year award at Celebrate Teachers & Teaching. The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Alumni Association honored Harpole with its Community Service Award in 2016.

Harpole and his wife, Mildred Carwin Harpole, have two children: Annette and John.

Reuben Harpole was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 21, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.059

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/21/2017

Last Name

Harpole

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

K.

Schools

Roosevelt Middle School

Ninth Street Elementary School

North Division High School

Milwaukee Area Technical College

First Name

Reuben

Birth City, State, Country

Milwaukee

HM ID

HAR48

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Wisconsin

Favorite Vacation Destination

Virgin Islands

Favorite Quote

The Purpose For Education Is To Keep The World From Cheating You.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Wisconsin

Birth Date

9/4/1934

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Milwaukee

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Barbeque

Short Description

Academic administrator and foundation executive Reuben Harpole (1934 - ) served at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee School of Continuing Education for thirty-one years as a senior outreach specialist at the University Center for Urban Community Development and as the program officer for the Helen Bader Foundation.

Employment

University of Wisconsin--Milwaukee

Helen Bader Foundation

Asentu Rites of Passage Institute, Inc.

Milwaukee Star

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:7583,99:7891,126:8584,146:22110,235:26240,304:26520,309:27150,319:31140,387:31698,397:35490,450:35850,457:38695,502:39083,507:40900,516:41338,526:46664,685:52620,772:62875,890:63250,896:64000,910:64300,915:66475,931:67300,944:70975,1025:72475,1048:83898,1207:106927,1652:123650,1805$0,0:16164,245:27915,338:28365,346:37515,571:38190,584:38940,599:39315,605:39990,615:46820,662:81884,896:82764,907:83380,915:84500,925:92255,1019:104644,1099:107164,1158:107668,1165:108172,1181:110860,1298:129349,1490:135875,1553:165596,1914:179173,2080:214369,2495:216933,2507:233686,2778:259722,3132:265920,3190:268734,3231:269490,3272:285410,3408:285750,3413:308200,3743
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Reuben Harpole's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Reuben Harpole lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Reuben Harpole describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Reuben Harpole describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Rueben Harpole recalls how his parent's met

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Rueben Harpole describes his parent's personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Rueben Harpole lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Rueben Harpole describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Rueben Harpole remembers his maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Rueben Harpole describes his early neighborhood in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Reuben Harpole talks about racial discrimination in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Reuben Harpole talks about his childhood activities

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Reuben Harpole remembers his parent's divorce

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Reuben Harpole talks about author and scholar Increase Allen Lapham

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Reuben Harpole remembers the entertainment venues and black musicians in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Reuben Harpole talks about important figures in the black community in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Reuben Harpole remembers attending Mount Calvary Holy Church of America in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Reuben Harpole recalls the death of his maternal grandfather

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Reuben Harpole remembers attending North Division High School in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Reuben Harpole talks about working for Stark's General Cleaners in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Reuben Harpole recalls his experiences at North Division High School in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Reuben Harpole remembers being drafted into the U.S. Army and proposing to his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Reuben Harpole remembers learning to play the saxophone while stationed in Korea

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Reuben Harpole talks about the Harpole family

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Reuben Harpole recalls meeting his wife while studying at Milwaukee Area Technical College in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Reuben Harpole remembers Milwaukee Mayor Frank P. Zeidler

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Reuben Harpole talks about his community initiatives in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Reuben Harpole describes the Central City Teacher Community Project

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Reuben Harpole remembers working at the Milwaukee Star and the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Reuben Harpole shares his philosophy on community development

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Reuben Harpole remembers the civil disturbance in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Reuben Harpole talks about his mentorship of black college students

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Reuben Harpole talks about his activism for housing reform in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Reuben Harpole recalls helping Oprah Winfrey enroll at Nicolet High School in Glendale, Wisconsin

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Reuben Harpole talks about the summer prep program at Campion High School in Prairie Du Chien, Wisconsin

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Reuben Harpole describes the success of the students from the summer prep program at Campion High School

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Reuben Harpole talks about former Miss Black America Sonya Robinson

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Reuben Harpole recalls corruption in the U.S. Small Business Association

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Reuben Harpole talks about the minority business contracts and sports figures in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Reuben Harpole describes America's Black Holocaust Museum in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Reuben Harpole talks about the funding for America's Black Holocaust Museum in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Reuben Harpole remembers James Cameron's work at America's Black Holocaust Museum

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Reuben Harpole talks about his organizational memberships

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Reuben Harpole remembers Anthony Mensah and his Rites of Passage program

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Reuben Harpole talks about the impact of the Rites of Passage program

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Reuben Harpole recalls establishing the Reuben K. Harpole, Jr. Scholarship fund

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Reuben Harpole talks about the Milwaukee Public School's Homework First Program

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Reuben Harpole recalls the end of the Homework Comes First Program

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Reuben Harpole talks about his retirement and the Harambee neighborhood of Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Reuben Harpole describes his hopes and concerns with the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Reuben Harpole talks about his family

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Reuben Harpole reflects upon his life

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

6$8

DATitle
Reuben Harpole describes the Central City Teacher Community Project
Reuben Harpole describes America's Black Holocaust Museum in Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Transcript
We ended up running a program called, Central City Teacher Community Project. We had been working with a lot of neighborhood folks and they were like, they, they knew the community and they could talk with the parents. So we decided that the teacher needed to know the community and we worked together with something called, CESA 19 [Cooperative Educational Service Agency]. This was different school districts, together with the Milwaukee public school district [Milwaukee Public Schools] and we'd talk with the School of Education at UWM [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee School of Education, Milwaukee, Wisconsin] and got the professors involved with us and so we raised enough money to pay for the tuition of the teachers that are in the program so they could get some credits towards, so some of them could become teach- principals at some point. So, we ran that for about two or three years and the last year we had 235 teachers and administrators in the program and we brought some of the brightest brains in the education field in the country to Milwaukee [Wisconsin] 'cause we had enough money to take care of it and this is what we assigned the teachers to do. We wanted them to go into the neighborhood and get to know ten families, really get to know 'em and let the families get to know them and then they'd come back to, well we're operating out of Fulton Middle School [Robert Fulton Middle School, Milwaukee, Wisconsin], that's where they were shooting those BB guns, then discuss what was going--what happened as a result so they could learn the community--learn who they were work--they were teaching, you know, in the fall and that program, it ended up being terrific and the professors learned and the stud- and the teachers learned and as a result of that, things just happened.$All right, what--now you were involved, in the '80s [1980s], you got involved with the, the black holocaust museum with [HistoryMaker] James Cameron, right?$$Eighty-eight [1988], right.$$Yeah, well tell us about that.$$Well, the chairman of the board of America's Black Holocaust Museum [Milwaukee, Wisconsin] wasn't functioning and so I used to talk with Dr. Cameron constantly 'cause he was, he had his own business. He cleaned rugs and things like that, things, stuff, I used to do with Walter Stark [ph.] and--$$And wait a minute, before we get started on anything, just tell us what America's Black Holocaust Museum is and who is James Cameron.$$America's Black Holocaust is a museum called, bad fruit. It tells about the lynchings that took place in the South, mostly, of black folks who were slaves, had been brought over here from Africa to pick cotton in the South and Mr. Cameron was fifteen or sixteen years old when he was with two of his buddies and they caught themselves going to rob a couple that was making love and they held them up and then after Dr. Cameron saw that, he was a customer of his 'cause Cameron used to shine shoes in this little town in Marion, Indiana and this guy used to--was very nice to Mr. Cameron when he'd give 'em a tip for shining his shoes and he saw that was his friend, he told the guys that he was with, he said, "Man, I don't want any part of this, I'm going home." So he said he got halfway home and he could hear the gunfire. They had shot and killed this young man [Claude Deeter] but they didn't kill the girl [Mary Ball], they killed the young man and then a crowd gathered and started looking for him and see, he, he didn't tell his mother [Vera Carter Burden] and father what had happened, he just went and got into bed and then all of a sudden, there was a bang, doors were, somebody banged on the door, he got scared. It was the police and a group of people and they pulled him out. He said, "I didn't do anything, I didn't do anything." But they took him to jail. And then, they were about ready to kill him, they took the, his buddies out and they killed one before they got to, to the tree to hang 'em. It was about twenty-five thousand people had gathered 'cause they heard there was, be a lynching going on. So somebody in the audience screamed out, "Let that kid go, he didn't do anything." He said, he doesn't know who it was that, that called out. And so, he was working, he left, he went and served time in Anderson, Indiana and when they, he kept going up for parole and then finally they decided to give him parole and they sent him up to Detroit [Michigan] and he had, I think he worked for General Motors [General Motors Corporation; General Motors Company] for a while in Detroit. Then he came back to Milwaukee [Wisconsin], he said, he went over to, he had this, he had this firm where he was cleaning rugs and houses and so forth, just like I was doing with John--Stark General Cleaners [Stark's General Cleaners, Milwaukee, Wisconsin], and paid his wife's [Virginia Hamilton] way and his way to Africa, no, yeah, to, to Europe, to Africa and to Europe, and then he went over to, where he saw the Jewish museum [Yad Vashem, Jerusalem] where, in Israel, where, in terms of the Holocaust that had taken place when. So he told his wife, "Honey, we need to tell about the holocaust that took place among us." And so when he came back, that was his, his whole mission, was to tell the story that had not been told about the lynchings that took place in the South, of us. So, because two of his buddies had been killed. In fact, that's the most famous picture in the, in the world about lynchings and those were, Abe--Tom [Thomas Shipp] and Abe [Abram Smith].

Milton Coleman

Newspaper editor Milton R. Coleman was born on November 29, 1946 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Coleman grew up in the Hillside Terrace public housing project in Milwaukee. He attended Fourth Street Elementary School and then graduated from Lincoln Junior and Senior High School. Coleman received his B.F.A. degree in music history and literature from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. In 1971, he was named a Southern Education Foundation Fellow. In 1974, Coleman was awarded a fellowship to attend the Michele Clark Summer Program for Minority Journalists at Columbia University’s Graduate School of Journalism.

Coleman began his career in journalism as a reporter for the Milwaukee Courier. He then worked as a reporter and editor for several minority-oriented news outlets, including the African World newspaper in Greensboro, North Carolina; the All-African News Service; WHUR-FM in Washington, D.C.; and the Community News Service of New York. Coleman also worked at a major metropolitan newspaper, the Minneapolis Star, before joining the The Washington Post in 1976 as a reporter on the metropolitan desk where he covered politics and government in Montgomery County, Maryland and the District of Columbia. In 1980, he was promoted to the city editor. Coleman then moved to the national news staff in 1983 where he covered minorities and immigration, the 1984 Presidential campaign, state and local governments, and the U.S. Congress. In 1986, he was hired as the assistant managing editor for the metropolitan news where he directed the newspapers local coverage. In July of 1996, Coleman was promoted to deputy managing editor of The Washington Post.

Coleman is a member of the National Association of Black Journalists, and the Inter-American Press Association. He served as a member of the nominating committee for the Pulitzer Prizes in Journalism and as the chairman of the Seldon Ring Award for Investigative Reporting Judging Committee. In April of 2010, Coleman was elected as the president of the American Society of News Editors; and, in October of 2011, he was elected as the president of Inter-American Press Association. In 2012, Coleman was selected as the inaugural University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Foundation Alumni Fellow.

Milton R. Coleman was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 22, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.125

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/23/2013

Last Name

Coleman

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

Richard

Occupation
Schools

Columbia University

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Lincoln High School

Golda Meir Elementary School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Milton

Birth City, State, Country

Milwaukee

HM ID

COL23

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Wisconsin

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

11/29/1946

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Short Description

Newspaper editor Milton Coleman (1946 - ) was the managing editor of The Washington Post. He also served as president of the American Society of News Editors and the Inter-American Press Association.

Employment

Milwaukee Courier

Student Organization for Black Unity

All African News Service

Community News Service

Minneapolis Star

Washington Post

African World

Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
0,0:3659,97:8356,259:29220,443:34956,523:54770,727:55430,734:77422,1040:78258,1056:91380,1234:111120,1472:113678,1513:115540,1525:123130,1608:139668,1927:149390,2062:153760,2147:154710,2158:163510,2217:170350,2318:185712,2434:193596,2525:194040,2532:196750,2570$0,0:3145,79:4505,93:5015,100:5610,111:29850,337:30452,349:34666,442:35526,454:65996,856:66408,861:81969,1136:84235,1168:86089,1198:97312,1378:104590,1573:110824,1623:183167,2412:186216,2430:204246,2677:209010,2748:216320,2841:217200,2855:233887,3138:242587,3252:242935,3277:245458,3320:249765,3341:253773,3407:254259,3414:268530,3599:273260,3679:274910,3701:275118,3706:275534,3715:293181,3884:294640,3984
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Milton Coleman's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Milton Coleman lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Milton Coleman remembers his maternal grandfather, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Milton Coleman remembers his maternal grandfather, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Milton Coleman describes his mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Milton Coleman describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Milton Coleman describes his likeness to his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Milton Coleman talks about his father's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Milton Coleman recalls moving to the Hillside Terrace housing projects in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Milton Coleman describes the Hillside Terrace housing project in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Milton Coleman describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Milton Coleman describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Milton Coleman talks about his early experiences of religion

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Milton Coleman talks about the history of the Great Migration, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Milton Coleman talks about the history of Great Migration, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Milton Coleman remembers his experiences in primary and secondary school

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Milton Coleman recalls the basketball team at Lincoln Junior-Senior High School in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Milton Coleman recalls his primary school mentors

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Milton Coleman describes his early encounters with media and editing

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Milton Coleman talks about the talents of his brother, Jerome.

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Milton Coleman describes his interest in sports when he was young, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Milton Coleman describes his interest in sports when he was young, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Milton Coleman recalls secondary teachers and individuals that inspired him, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Milton Coleman recalls secondary teachers and individuals that inspired him, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Milton Coleman recalls secondary teachers and individuals that inspired him, pt. 3

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Milton Coleman talks about his involvement in organizations as a high school student

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Milton Coleman recalls his honors and awards in high school

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Milton Coleman recalls enrolling at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Milton Coleman talks about Professor Edith Borroff

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Milton Coleman remembers the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Milton Coleman recalls changing his focus to African American ethnomusicology

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Milton Coleman describes his involvement with the black student movement

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Milton Coleman recalls his introduction to journalism

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Milton Coleman remembers writing for Negro Digest

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Milton Coleman recalls his introduction to Hoyt W. Fuller

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Milton Coleman talks about his graduation from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Milton Coleman remembers the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Milton Coleman recalls directing the Soul Shack program in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Milton Coleman describes his role at the Milwaukee Courier

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Milton Coleman remembers moving to North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Milton Coleman talks about the Student Organization for Black Unity

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Milton Coleman remembers moving to Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Milton Coleman describes his reasons for founding the All African News Service

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Milton Coleman talks about his early challenges at the All African News Service

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Milton Coleman recalls the reporters and writers at the All African News Service

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Milton Coleman talks about the emergence of black organizations

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Milton Coleman remembers joining the staff of WHUR Radio in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Milton Coleman remembers the Michele Clark Summer Program for Minority Journalists

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Milton Coleman describes his experiences at Columbia University

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Milton Coleman describes his transition to the Minneapolis Star

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Milton Coleman recalls his experiences at the Minneapolis Star

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Milton Coleman describes his decision to join the staff of the Washington Post

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Milton Coleman recalls his start at The Washington Post

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Milton Coleman remembers Washington D.C. Mayor Marion Barry, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Milton Coleman remembers Washington D.C. Mayor Marion Barry, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Milton Coleman talks about gun violence

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Milton Coleman remembers his promotion to city editor of The Washington Post

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Milton Coleman remembers covering the black community for The Washington Post

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Milton Coleman remembers Janet Cooke's article about a child heroin addict, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Milton Coleman remembers Janet Cooke's article about a child heroin addict, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Milton Coleman recalls his doubts about Janet Cooke's reporting, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Milton Coleman recalls his doubts about Janet Cooke's reporting, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Milton Coleman describes the aftermath of the Janet Cooke scandal

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Milton Coleman talks about the importance of journalistic integrity

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Milton Coleman recalls the impact of the Janet Cooke scandal on his career

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$6

DAStory

8$7

DATitle
Milton Coleman talks about his early challenges at the All African News Service
Milton Coleman describes his decision to join the staff of the Washington Post
Transcript
So you just couldn't get the papers to pay their bills on time--now, this is probably, no matter what kind of service you had, it probably would be an issue in the black (unclear) (simultaneous)--$$ (Simultaneous) Yeah. And because of--I mean, that was the beginning of the thing--of the black--of the black press. You know, the black press had been at its high point in the '60s [1960s]. And then as is so frequently the case, once white folks start doing it, the black folks go out of business, you know. And it was always clear to me from my days at the Courier [Milwaukee Courier] that so much of the advertising in the black press at that time was not consumer driven. Then the advertising came primarily out of the public relations budget of the supermarkets. But they weren't really trying to get black folks to buy their cabbage and coleslaw. They were just trying to look good. And even to this day, a lot of advertising toward ethnic publications is not consumer driven. You know, it's public relations driven. And the black press had really been good until white folks started covering the Civil Rights Movement, 'cause up until that time, if you wanted to read about what was happening in the South, you had to read the Chicago Defender and the Afro-American Newspapers; the Atlanta Daily World, you know. The black press told you about the lynchings. The white press did not. And so I was part of the generation, probably on the tail end of the generation of people who came out of the black press into mainline newspapers, you know.$$I've been told not just in journalism, but in many other fields, doors for opportunity, you know, popped up after the '68 [1968] riots.$$ Oh, yeah.$$And (unclear) mean black people who had not even--didn't even dream about being in a riot were able to get a job, you know, in so many fields. They were the first African American--I interviewed the, you know, the first African American to do this or do that, anything you can think of almost.$$ Yeah.$$You know, so. They were actually recruiting people to be a part of like, Newsweek or Time or whatever.$$ If you read the Kerner Commission report on the chapter on the news media, it paints a whole picture of what life was like for black folks in the media at that time. I mean, Carl Rowan was the only black syndicated columnist. The only one, you know. And there were hardly any editors or--because, you know, essentially, white guys cover the Civil Rights Movement, and that was their springboard to higher positions in the news media, you know.$ (Simultaneous) Right. And I, and I wrote a, I wrote a series on Minneapolis finances that became part of my packet that I sent out looking for a job. And so I started looking for a job after I'd been--I had already been turned down by the Dayton Daily News, and turned down by The Philadelphia Inquirer a year earlier. And so I get this letter from the woman who's in charge of recruiting for The Washington Post newsroom, because I had applied for another job in Philadelphia [Pennsylvania]. I put Maynard [Robert C. Maynard] down as a reference, and Maynard had given this woman the clips, and she wanted me to come and interview at The Post. And so I had three interviews set up. One at The Washington Post, thanks to Maynard; one at The Philadelphia Inquirer, and one at the Washington bureau Newsweek. I had these three interviews. And so I come down and do these--all the interviews, and I get back to Minneapolis [Minnesota], so Faye [Coleman's wife, Faye Edwards Coleman] says, "Well, what's the story?" I said, "Well, I have two interviews--I have two job offers. I have one from The Philadelphia Inquirer, and one from The Washington Post." She said, "Which one's the better offer?" I said, "Well, actually The Philadelphia Inquirer has the better offer." She said, "Why?" I said, "Well, if I go to The Washington Post, I'll be covering government and politics in Montgomery County of Maryland. If I go to The Philadelphia Inquirer, I'll be covering the governor." She said, "Where's the governor?" I said, "In Harrisburg [Pennsylvania]." She said, "I hope you have fun." I decided to come to Washington [D.C.] (laughter). But it was a good offer in both places, but she was not about to go to Harrisburg. Wise woman that she was, 'cause Three Mile Island occurred a year or so later. And so that's how I wound up coming to The Post. And I--while I was in Minneapolis, I was mentored by, not only by Maynard, but by Joel Dreyfuss, who later became all kinds of things including the managing editor of theroot.com. But Joel was--I would write stories and send clips of those stories to Joel, and Joel would critique them in a no holds barred way, and Maynard and Austin Scott, who at the time was with The Washington Post, but had been with the Associated Press. And Joel taught me to always be concerned about who your editor is and to try to get an editor who would not only tell you why your story is no good, but would help you understand how to make it better. And I learned that from Joel, and I learned how to write better from Joel, 'cause Joel was--Joel at the time was at The Washington Post, and he was on the style staff and, in fact, when I came down for interviews, I stayed in Joel's apartment in Washington, 'cause I had my interviews in Philadelphia--in Harrisburg on, like, a Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday. And my interviews at The Post were, like, on Monday and Tuesday. So I came down to Washington and stayed in Joel's apartment. He was away. And Joel, himself, had been the center of controversy, because he had trapped--he had been on the job as a Los Angeles [California] correspondent for The Post, and had been denied that job in a very public way, 'cause Ben Bradlee wrote a memo to Joel saying that, "Joel, you're a good reporter. Everybody wants a good reporter in Los Angeles, but nobody wants a pain in the ass," and all of that had become public. And so when I came down here, I told Joel. I said, you know, "Joel, if I'm offered a job at The Post, I'm not so sure I'd take it." And Joel said, "Why?" And I said, "Well, because of what went down between you and Bradlee." And Joel said, "You'd be a fool if you do that. What happened between me and Bradlee is between me and Bradlee." And Joel said very prophetically, "You might be able to do things at The Washington Post that I could never do." So with that advice from Joel and the sage advice of my wife (laughter), I came to The Washington Post.

Michael Evans Carter

Michael Evans Carter, Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of V.E. Carter Development Group, was born on April 12, 1962, to Lorraine Peters Carter and Veledis Edwin Carter in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Carter graduated from the University School of Milwaukee in 1980. He received his B.A. degree in television production and business administration from Howard University in 1985.

While at Howard University, Carter founded a video production company. He received a SIBA award for an interview with Jesse Jackson, Sr. After college, he returned to Milwaukee to apply his television production skills to aid the educational mission of the V.E. Carter Development Center, which was founded by his parents in 1971. Through Carter Educational Systems, a subsidiary of Carter Development Group, Carter produced a series of video tapes teaching math teachers how to teach math to children as well as two video series teaching the Swahili and Yoruba languages to children. Carter also worked as a cameraman for the Milwaukee Bucks basketball team. Carter moved to Detroit in 1990s and worked for the Detroit Cable Commission as a producer and director during the Dennis Archer administration. In 1994, Carter began working as an executive assistant to his mother at V.E. Carter Development Center. He also served as the organization’s facilities and building manager. Carter became CEO of V.E. Carter Development Group when his mother passed away in 2006. V.E. Carter Development Group operates the center along with a K-5 charter school, the Carter School of Excellence, and offers social service programs to central-city residents. The V.E. Carter Development Group is a partner with the Milwaukee Public School System. Carter Group programs also include two north side drop-in child care centers and case management services for non-violent offenders.

Carter is married to Lori Carter. They have two children: a son Courtney, and a daughter Micah.

Accession Number

A2008.137

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/19/2008

Last Name

Carter

Maker Category
Middle Name

Evans

Organizations
Schools

University School of Milwaukee

Howard University

First Name

Michael

Birth City, State, Country

Milwaukee

HM ID

CAR18

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Wisconsin

Favorite Vacation Destination

Virginia Beach, Virginia

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Wisconsin

Birth Date

4/12/1962

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Milwaukee

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken

Short Description

Nonprofit chief executive and educator Michael Evans Carter (1962 - ) was the CEO of the V.E. Carter Development Group in Milwaukee, which operated social service programs and a K-5 charter school, the Carter School of Excellence.

Employment

Cable Commission of Detroit

V.E. Carter Child Development Group

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:5760,169:8960,299:14480,400:16160,426:16560,432:21840,443:22786,458:23130,463:24248,481:25538,497:40025,662:40500,668:41165,717:41925,727:43730,752:58156,882:62026,959:68304,1031:68820,1038:69508,1048:70282,1061:76290,1098:76654,1103:77291,1112:83843,1256:84571,1273:86027,1288:106025,1478:106704,1486:107771,1505:108353,1513:110002,1534:114755,1601:115240,1607:125876,1669:133352,1790:134276,1802:138260,1824:142940,1901:143660,1911:145190,1930:145730,1938:154123,2023:165865,2131:167545,2157:169645,2196:175105,2259:175840,2268:181560,2315:192355,2481:195160,2538:195755,2551:204130,2622$0,0:2592,80:3483,183:4050,190:6561,219:7047,226:13608,325:14661,341:18387,394:25715,413:35215,515:42352,549:57672,768:59274,791:59808,798:62745,841:73924,1008:78820,1089:114612,1494:116091,1517:117483,1535:120823,1546:121218,1552:121613,1558:131814,1719:133562,1770:139262,1871:140250,1886:140630,1892:142454,1925:144126,1952:150668,1983:151291,1991:151647,1996:159696,2096:160134,2103:160426,2108:161010,2118:164660,2193:169551,2303:170427,2320:170719,2325:179480,2424:183610,2527:185780,2617:189140,2679:189980,2696:190470,2704:195090,2799:207546,2918:208062,2925:220801,3099:221197,3104:222583,3113:223375,3122:227292,3127:228679,3148:229482,3164:241600,3390:252760,3504:253480,3515:254760,3544:255320,3556:259400,3625:259800,3631:260120,3636:260840,3646:264910,3660:275550,3833:277146,3859:277450,3864:278894,3883:280490,3903:281326,3916:283910,3954:296310,4090:309170,4227:309810,4236:310450,4247:311890,4282:313010,4299:315490,4325
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Michael Evans Carter's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Michael Evans Carter lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Michael Evans Carter describes his mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Michael Evans Carter describes his mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Michael Evans Carter remembers his mother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Michael Evans Carter describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Michael Evans Carter talks about his father's U.S. military service

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Michael Evans Carter describes how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Michael Evans Carter describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Michael Evans Carter describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Michael Evans Carter describes his neighborhood in Brown Deer, Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Michael Evans Carter talks about Rufus King and the name V.E. Carter Development Group, Inc.

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Michael Evans Carter describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Michael Evans Carter describes his parents' emphasis on education

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Michael Evans Carter remembers the University School of Milwaukee in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Michael Evans Carter talks about the founding of the Carter Child Development Center

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Michael Evans Carter describes his early interest in African American history

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Michael Evans Carter remembers the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Michael Evans Carter talks about the influence of his favorite television programs

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Michael Evans Carter remembers listening to Michael Jackson

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Michael Evans Carter remembers playing hockey growing up

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Michael Evans Carter describes his experiences of racial discrimination as a hockey player

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Michael Evans Carter talks about his sports activities

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Michael Evans Carter recalls the influence of his U.S. history teacher

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Michael Evans Carter describes his decision to attend Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Michael Evans Carter remembers hearing Minister Louis Farrakhan speak at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Michael Evans Carter remembers George Herbert Walker Bush's commencement speech at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Michael Evans Carter remembers Howard University President James Cheek

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Michael Evans Carter talks about the communications department at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Michael Evans Carter remembers working on WHUT-TV's 'Evening Exchange'

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Michael Evans Carter remembers his instructional children's video series, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Michael Evans Carter remembers his instructional children's video series, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Michael Evans Carter describes how he came to work for the V.E. Carter Development Group, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Michael Evans Carter recalls learning to manage the V.E. Carter Development Group, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Michael Evans Carter talks about his parent's vision for the V.E. Carter Development Group, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Michael Evans Carter describes the role of parents at the V.E. Carter Development Group, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Michael Evans Carter talks about the educational philosophy of the V.E. Carter Development Group, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Michael Evans Carter describes his plans for the V.E. Carter Development Group, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Michael Evans Carter describes his partnership with the University School of Milwaukee in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Michael Evans Carter talks about the Carter School of Excellence in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Michael Evans Carter reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Michael Evans Carter describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Michael Evans Carter reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Michael Evans Carter talks about his family

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Michael Evans Carter describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

9$5

DATitle
Michael Evans Carter remembers working on WHUT-TV's 'Evening Exchange'
Michael Evans Carter talks about his parent's vision for the V.E. Carter Development Group, Inc.
Transcript
Did you work on a program, 'Evening Exchange' you mentioned that (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Yeah, I did.$$Okay.$$I did.$$That's a, you know, pretty popular news--$$News, um-hm, um-hm.$$--magazine show out of Howard University [Washington, D.C.]. It comes on public, you know, Howard, Howard's public TV station [WHUT-TV, Washington, D.C.].$$Um-hm.$$Yeah.$$Yeah, yeah. I, I, myself and I had a partner, we, we started a video production company and we also worked in a video production club that we, we functioned, we, we ran. And so we went out and we would do interviews with various celebrities and political figures. We actually did a interview with Jesse Jackson [HistoryMaker Reverend Jesse L. Jackson] before he announced he was, he was still in the process of thinking about running for president. And we, we got an interview with him in the, in a hotel room. His father, his father, my partner's father worked for an oil company and he had connections and so Jesse consented to do this interview. We did it, he talked about his potential of running and how excited he was. And that that was used by the, the, the show 'Evening Exchange' and actually won an award, it was a CEBA award [Communications Excellence to Black Audiences] for being one of the first shows to have his, his announcement so.$$Okay. So it was, it was a program that's produced on Howard's--$$Howard's campus.$$Oh, okay.$$Correct.$$Yeah.$$And, and, you know, a few--the, the comp- the company that I worked with that we started in, the club that we were a part of, we interviewed everyone from Eddie Murphy, Jesse Jackson, Bootsy Collins, Phyllis Hyman, oh, Teena Marie, Rick James, we did a lot of, we interviewed a lot of people that came to, we were at a black music convention and Black Music Association convention and we did some, some interviews. So we got a chance, James Brown, (laughter) we got a chance to meet and, and, and talk to people who were movers and shakers at the time and it was a excellent experience. I also got to learn that that, you know, sort of, sort of bust the bubble of, of, of putting celebrities on a pedestal, they're regular people, you know. And we were able to learn that in this experience, yeah, they are very, very, very popular, very ambitious folks but they're still regular folks. And I think at a, at a young age being able to, to internalize that it was significant that, you know, you don't, you don't have to walk on egg shells around people who have been on television, you know. And that, that they're willing to, to be regular folks and talk to you just like anybody else.$What did your parents [Lorraine Peters Carter and Veledis Carter] envision this school [V.E. Carter Child Development Center; Carter School of Excellence, Milwaukee, Wisconsin] to be that's different from the Milwaukee Public Schools, or, or the other private schools in the area?$$Well, to, to serve the whole family, okay, starting at the earliest age that we can get children, which is four weeks, to help the parents know how to raise children, to help them with the needs that they have in raising children so that the family structure is more intact based on their contact with us. Now, obviously the agency [V.E. Carter Development Group, Inc., Milwaukee, Wisconsin] is not gonna replace a father but at the same time can we, can we provide things or at least show you how to get to things that, that you need. Show you how to deal with an infant, teach you what infants' needs are, teach you about how significant you are in the child's life and what you do as a parents is as at least is, is more significant than what the school does. And if you are the school's partner as a parent then we can help you develop a child that can, can hopefully be successfully and have, you know, good moral, good moral character and, and have a quality life.$$Now, now, that's sounds, it's like similar to the philosophy of James Comer [HistoryMaker Dr. James Comer] and the philosophy of Bob Moses and some--$$Um-hm.$$--some of the other educators, talk about that too. And you often hear today teachers in the public school system say that they, their major obstacle in teaching the students is that the parents are not involved and there's no discipline when the kid comes in the, and there's no provision for them to reach out to the--$$Um-hm.$$--student.$$Um-hm.$$So your parents envisioned like a, a holistic kind of--$$Like a wraparound concept. I know that, that, that, that's a catch word now or it, it, it's, it's a word that has a definition outside of what my parents had because they were wraparound before wraparound existed as a, as, as a, as a term. But, you know, the concept is really just trying to reach out and, and to, to, to keep the parent involved. We, I don't know, when you walked in, I don't know if you saw we have bags in the hallway and we, we have a food pantry for the parents. And we know that one way we can have contact is by giving away the food, okay. And--$$And once again you hear teachers say today I'm not a social worker, I'm--$$Right.$$--a teacher.$$No.$$I should only be able to just--$$Well--$$--teach and all that sort of thing but--$$--well, see but that's not true because you are, you, you have to talk to the parent, even in just in a parent teacher conference setting but, but you must talk to the parent about the behavior of the child in the classroom, you gotta talk to the parent about the child's attendance, about what, what time the child gets to school. Social worker is, is really, it's, it's really part of the teacher's job. Although, of course, you know, it is, it is an awesome job to do it, to teach every day, you know, and to deal with the problems that discipline, children that don't have discipline in their lives bring. So that is one of the major challenges but, you know, we, we, we try, whatever we can to draw the parent in so we can have contact with them. And, you know, we do have some good parents that that that come in on a regular basis and talk about their children. But unfortunately it's the one, the two, the three kids that are in a classroom that disrupt the classroom that, that prevent learning for everybody. Though we have tried many different things to, to take that influence out but it's, it's, it's always gone be there to a certain degree. But, you know, we, we're, we're presently trying to, we have a, we have a, a room, a special classroom for our most distinctly problem children. And they actually get more individual time for the learning situation but they also don't present the problems that they do in the classroom for other folks to learn. So that's, that's something that we're, we're engaged in right now. And it seems to be, it seems to be working. And, and, we've, we've cleared up some of our, our problems that we've been having with, with getting the information, the education to the children.

Faithe A. Thomas-Colas

Publisher Faithe A. Thomas-Colas was born on June 22, 1961, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to Helen McCray and Floyd Thomas. Colas graduated from John Marshall High School in 1979.

Thomas-Colas began her career at The Milwaukee Courier in the 1980s as a sales executive and later served as advertising manager, associate publisher, and editor. In 2004, Thomas-Colas was named publisher of The Milwaukee Courier. She has been a WMCS radio show panelist and has co-hosted What’s Going On? on MATA community television. Thomas-Colas was selected as the new co-host for Milwaukee Public Television’s Black Nouveau. Thomas-Colas became the community affairs director of the Salvation Army, Wisconsin and Upper Michigan Division, in November of 2007.

Thomas-Colas has been the recipient of several community awards including the U.S. Postal Service's Women Putting Their Stamp on Metro Milwaukee 2002. In 2003, she received the Images of Us Sports Award recognizing women in journalism and the Andrew S. Douglas 2003-2004 Community Service Award. Thomas-Colas serves on the Thurgood Marshall Scholarship Fund Corporate Advisory Board, and she is co-chair of the NAACP Environmental Justice Task Force. She is a member of the NAACP Executive Committee, a vice president of the Wisconsin Black Media Association, and active in several other community and professional organizations. Thomas-Colas is the president and a founding member of Dark Pearl Rising, an African American arts alliance comprised of Ko-Thi Dance Company, African American Children's Theatre, Hansberry Sands Theatre Company, City Ballet Theatre, Art In Motion, Milwaukee Dance Connection and My Window Productions. Colas is a member of The Publishers Group, which has created the internet site Bronzeville-Milwaukee.com to promote greater understanding of the history of Milwaukee’s Bronzeville. She is also the co-producer for a documentary on Milwaukee’s black factory workers, Punching In: A Tribute to the African American Factory Worker in Milwaukee.

Accession Number

A2008.136

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/19/2008 |and| 02/20/2017

Last Name

Colas

Maker Category
Middle Name

A.

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

John Marshall High School

Milwaukee Lutheran High School

St. Leo Catholic Urban Academy

Clarke Street Elementary

Eighty-Second Street Elementary School

Pilgrim Lutheran

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Faithe

Birth City, State, Country

Milwaukee

HM ID

THO16

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Wisconsin

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

Whatever It Takes.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Wisconsin

Birth Date

6/22/1961

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Milwaukee

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pizza

Short Description

Publisher Faithe A. Thomas-Colas (1961 - ) was the publisher of the Milwaukee Courier, a radio show panelist and television co-host, and the community affairs director of The Salvation Army of Greater Milwaukee.

Employment

WNOV, Milwaukee, Wisc.

Milwaukee Courier

Salvation Army, Wisconsin and Upper Michigan Division

Favorite Color

Black

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Faithe A. Thomas-Colas' interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas talks about her mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas talks about her father's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas describes her parents' relationship

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas talks about her parents' marriage

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas talks about her mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas talks about her parents' careers

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas describes her relationship with her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas remembers her neighborhood in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas remembers the riots of 1968 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas talks about her early exposure to the white community

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas recalls her misdiagnosis with a learning disability

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas recalls her maternal grandmother's campaign for the mayoralty of Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas describes her grandmother's activism

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas talks about Vel Phillips

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas remembers joining the Lutheran church

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas recalls her senior year at John Marshall High School in Milwaukee, Wisconsin pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas talks about her interest in history

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas recalls her maternal grandmother's relationship with Angela Davis

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas talks about her early interest in journalism

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas remembers the films and television shows of her youth

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas recalls her senior year at John Marshall High School in Milwaukee, Wisconsin pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas talks about the impact of her parents' divorce

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas talks about her experiences at University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas recalls her start in the communications industry

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas describes her work at the Milkwaukee Courier

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas talks about the black press in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas talks about the relationship between the police and the African American community in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas talks about the financing of the African American news media

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Slating of Faithe A. Thomas-Colas' interview, session 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas talks about the history of the Milwaukee Courier

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas recalls her tenure as the publisher of the Milwaukee Courier

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas talks about her television career

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas recalls Marvin Pratt's mayoral campaign in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas talks about President Donald Trump

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas describes the diversity in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas describes her responsibilities as the publisher of the Milwaukee Courier

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas remembers her challenges at the Milwaukee Courier

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas remembers the topics of her talk show, 'Black Nouveau'

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas talks about her maternal grandmother's involvement with the Black Panther Party

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas remembers her marriage to Eric Von

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas talks about her husband's radio career

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas recalls her start at The Salvation Army of Greater Milwaukee

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas talks about the mission of The Salvation Army

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas talks about The Salvation Army's programs

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas describes her challenges at The Salvation Army of Greater Milwaukee

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas talks about her relationship with her grandmothers

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas describes her career at The Salvation Army of Greater Milwaukee

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas talks about the lack of African Americans in the media

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas describes her concerns for the African American community, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas describes her concerns for the African American community, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Faithe A. Thomas-Colas talks about President Barack Obama

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Faithe A. Thomas reflects upon her life and legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Faithe A. Thomas talks about her family

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Faithe A. Thomas describes how she would like to be remembered

James Causey

Editor and reporter James Edward Causey was born on August 1, 1969 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin to Otha R. Causey and James D. Causey. Causey graduated from Marshall High School in Milwaukee in 1987. He received his B.A. degree in communications from Marquette University in Milwaukee in 1992 and his M.B.A. from Cardinal Stritch University in Fox Point, Wisconsin in 2002.

Causey became interested in journalism in middle school when he won an essay contest about Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. for the Milwaukee Community Journal, the state's largest African-American newspaper. He started writing for that newspaper periodically and then, as a student at Marshall High School, landed an internship at the Milwaukee Sentinel. Causey then worked as a reporter for the Milwaukee Sentinel from 1987 through 1995. Since 1995, Causey has been a reporter, editor, and editorial writer for the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, where he has also served as the night city editor. Causey became an editor in the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel's metro department in 1999. That same year, he began serving as the president and treasurer for the Wisconsin Black Media Association. In 2008, Causey was a Nieman Fellow at Harvard University. He joined the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel's editorial board in June 2008 as an editorial writer on urban affairs.

Causey resides in Milwaukee and has one child, Taylor Marie Causey.

Causey was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 17, 2008.

Accession Number

A2008.132

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/17/2008

Last Name

Causey

Maker Category
Middle Name

Edward

Occupation
Schools

Marquette University

John Marshall High School

Robert M. Lafollette School

Samuel Clemens School

Jackie Robinson Middle School

Cardinal Stritch University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

James

Birth City, State, Country

Milwaukee

HM ID

CAU02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Wisconsin

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

Shouldn't I Be Good?

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Wisconsin

Birth Date

8/1/1969

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Milwaukee

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pizza

Short Description

Newspaper reporter James Causey (1969 - ) was a reporter, editor, editorial writer and night city editor for the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Causey also served as an editor in the paper's Metro department, as an editorial writer on urban affairs as the president and treasurer for the Wisconsin Black Media Association.

Employment

Milwaukee Community Journal

Milwaukee Journal Sentinel

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of James Causey's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - James Causey lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - James Causey describes his mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - James Causey describes his mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - James Causey talks about his mother's education in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - James Causey describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - James Causey describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - James Causey remembers meeting his paternal uncle

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - James Causey recalls visiting his paternal uncle in the U.S. Virgin Islands

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - James Causey remembers his paternal grandparents, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - James Causey remembers his paternal grandparents, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - James Causey describes his paternal family's land in Gloster, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - James Causey talks about the traditional medical practices of Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - James Causey remembers his family's superstitions

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - James Causey recalls his parents' taste in music

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - James Causey talks about his father's interests

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - James Causey describes his father's experiences in the U.S. Army

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - James Causey talks about his parents' marriage

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - James Causey describes his parents' occupations in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - James Causey describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - James Causey describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - James Causey remembers his childhood pastimes

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - James Causey recalls his extracurricular activities

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - James Causey describes his early education

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - James Causey recalls his early interest in the news

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - James Causey remembers Reverend Jesse L. Jackson's 1984 presidential campaign

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - James Causey talks about the Al Moreland Boxing Club in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - James Causey remembers refusing an invitation to join a gang

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - James Causey recalls the gang activity in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - James Causey remembers joining the staff of the Milwaukee Community Journal

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - James Causey describes his experiences at the Milwaukee Community Journal

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - James Causey remembers working with Speech at the Milwaukee Community Journal

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - James Causey describes the festivals in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - James Causey talks about the America's Black Holocaust Museum in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - James Causey describes his internship with the Milwaukee Sentinel

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - James Causey remembers covering Jeffrey Dahmer for the Milwaukee Sentinel

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - James Causey describes the Milwaukee Police Department's discrimination against Jeffrey Dahmer's victims

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - James Causey remembers Jeffrey Dahmer's arrest and death

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - James Causey talks about the Milwaukee Police Department's relationship with the black community

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - James Causey remembers his experiences at Marquette University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - James Causey recalls his mentors in the field of journalism

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - James Causey talks about the influence of comic books on his writing

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - James Causey talks about his career at the Milwaukee Sentinel

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - James Causey talks about diversity in the journalism industry

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - James Causey talks about his efforts to reduce discriminatory reporting

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - James Causey talks about Christopher J. Scarver

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - James Causey recalls his roles at the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - James Causey remembers his Harvard Nieman Fellowship

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - James Causey recalls becoming an editorial writer at the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - James Causey remembers the fatal beating of Charles Young, Jr., pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - James Causey remembers the fatal beating of Charles Young, Jr., pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - James Causey talks about his plans for his career

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - James Causey describes his journalistic influences

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - James Causey talks about his current project

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - James Causey describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - James Causey reflects upon his life

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - James Causey reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - James Causey describes his role in the National Association of Black Journalists

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - James Causey talks about his family

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - James Causey shares his advice for young black journalists

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - James Causey describes his values

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - James Causey describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

5$5

DATitle
James Causey remembers his family's superstitions
James Causey remembers covering Jeffrey Dahmer for the Milwaukee Sentinel
Transcript
Now are there any other cultural traditions out of Mississippi that they cling to, like are there stories or songs and (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Superstitions.$$--yeah, ghost stories or stuff?$$Super-yeah. Oh yeah, you know. When growing up in that house, it was just like, "Don't sweep after like seven o'clock, don't have a broom go across your shoes that brings you bad luck." My [paternal] grandmother [Ruth Anderson Pinkney] was huge on superstition. Like when there wa- like if anytime it was thundering and lightning, when she would--the lightning would flash, she'd be like (makes noise), she would freeze like this and tell you, she want you--she would demand you to freeze no matter what. So if you hear like--so as soon as the lightning flash, you gotta like (gesture), she would like literally stop and get quiet until the thunder sound and then she would go on and move around. It's just little things like that that are so, you know, "Whoa, what is this grandma?" Yeah, she still believed that when it was lightning you unplug everything in the house, unplug everything and be quiet. She would just sit there and, and just sit there, and in almost complete darkness, it was amazing. My mother [Otha Tobias Causey] and father [James D. Causey] knows all these little things better. You know, another thing you take fruit and like you--like an orange or something like that--I'm probably, I'm probably telling too much. But you like for good luck you take a piece of fruit that has never been--that was picked from a tree, well all fruit--it, it can't be fruit from a store basically. You take a orange or a pear or something like that and you put it in a corner or you put it someplace and just let it dry out, and it's supposed to take in all the negative energy that's in the house. And you know, it's funny because sometime I will be walking through my apartment and my--after my mother had came over and I'm like, what is this orange doing right--there's an orange over here, what is this, you know (laughter). Stuff like that. Tape a penny over the entrance way and it brings you good luck. It's just little things like that, and it just, you know, it passes on, you know. But the penny over the entrance way is a good one too. I think it's supposed to bring you prosperity in, in future earnings. So it, you know, over the doorway to the main entrance, my mother has a penny taped over the door. So, little things like that.$$Okay, well thank you for that--that's a, that's a--$$(Laughter).$$--no, no those are interesting things that--$The following year I came back again [to the Milwaukee Sentinel; Milwaukee Journal Sentinel], they invited me back and so that summer I got more experience and they gave me bigger assignments. When I was accepted at Marquette University [Milwaukee, Wisconsin] I started working more part time at the paper instead as an intern. I worked part time during the school year and full time during the summer as an intern. And I worked the police beat, working a 5:30 p.m. to 1:30 a.m. shift while I was at school. And so I was going out to shootings, stabbings, fires, you name it and writing briefs and stories on it for the police--on the police beat. And that's when we first heard about the Jeffrey Dahmer incident or Jeffrey Dahmer really came into everyone's world. It was the night that I was working the night police beat and--$$This is 1980--was it '88 [1988]?$$Eighty-eight [1988].$$Eighty-eight [1988], okay.$$And we got this call that, you know, there was a poss- possible bodies in a home or body parts. And I called over to the newsroom and they sent out Tina Burnside who was the--she was a night reporter and she went to the scene. She was actually the first reporter at the scene. She didn't get credit for being the first reporter at the scene, but she was really the first reporter at the scene. Now we got in a small brief in the paper, because it was--we were up against a deadline basically saying that the police are still investigating, but it's reported body parts in this--in this home. The Journal [Milwaukee Journal; Milwaukee Journal Sentinel] which is the evening paper, they came in and then they got their first real big story on this, which was--turned out to be more gruesome than anyone could imagine. That was the story. But--however, if you were here at the time, everyone worked on that Jeffrey Dahmer story.$$Now, well we talked off camera about what it meant for this community, I mean how horrible it was in so many aspects and one aspect you talked about was how--what it revealed about the police relationship to the black community?$$Exactly. There's always been friction between police and, and the black community. And it's--you can go back as far as you, you could think and there's been this friction. There's been some times where there hasn't been conflict on the surface, but it's always been conflict in be- behind the scenes. But, Dahmer who was white, most of his victims or thirteen of his victims were African American and most of them were gay. This was a whole different type of arena then anyone was accustomed to. It wasn't just black and white, it was like black, white and gay, and that was a whole different community that, you know, Milwaukee [Wisconsin] had not really addressed or dealt with. I--as a matter of fact, I don't even remember seeing many stories about gays or lesbians in our newspaper up until that time. And I read the newspaper religiously. It was--so--the, the night Dahmer was--we, we know that Dahmer could've been stopped after our investigation a month--months before he was actually caught.

Randolph Noel Stone

Distinguished professor of law Randolph Noel Stone was born on November 26, 1946 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The eldest of seven children, Stone’s parents greatly emphasized the importance of education. After graduating from high school, Stone went on to attend Lincoln University in Pennsylvania where he received an academic scholarship.

Stone was drafted by the United States Army in 1967 and served in Vietnam. After the war, Stone returned and continued his studies at the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. In 1972, he graduated with his B.A. degree, and inspired by the legal profession’s icons, Thurgood Marshall and Charles Houston Hamilton, Stone attended the University of Wisconsin earning his J.D. degree in 1975. After graduation, Stone received a Reginald Heber Community Law Fellowship and worked with the Neighborhood Legal Services in Washington, D.C. He then worked as a staff attorney and office director for the Criminal Defense Consortium of Cook County and later as a Clinical Fellow for the University of Chicago Law School before starting his own private practice with Stone & Clark. At that time, Stone was appointed to represent one of the defendants in the “Pontiac Seventeen” Case, then the largest capital murder case in U.S. history. All the defendants were acquitted after a lengthy jury trial.

Stone later served as staff attorney and deputy director for the Public Defender Service of the District of Columbia and as an instructor at Harvard Law School before becoming the Public Defender of Cook County in Illinois in 1988. As the first African American Public Defender of Cook County, Stone was responsible for the management of a $30 million budget and the leadership of over 500 attorneys. In 1991, Stone was appointed as the director of the Mandel Clinic at the University of Chicago Law School where he created the Criminal and Juvenile Justice Project, providing law and social work students with the opportunity to engage in policy reform while defending children and young adults accused of criminal behavior. Stone continues to serve as a Clinical Professor of Law at the Law School. Stone was the first African American to Chair the American Bar Association’s Criminal Justice Section, an organization of over 9,000 criminal defense lawyers, prosecutors, judges, public defenders and other professionals concerned with criminal justice policy. He is a past president of the Illinois Board of Bar Admissions, a founding board member of First Defense Legal Aid (FDLA), the Neighborhood Defender Service of Harlem and former board member of both the Cook County and Chicago Bar Associations. He currently serves on the board of Treatment Alternatives for Safer Communities (TASC), the Sentencing Project, Inc. and on a variety of other advisory boards and committees. Stone has received a number of awards and writes and teaches about criminal and juvenile justice, race and crime, evidence, legal ethics and trial advocacy.

Stone lives in Chicago, Illinois, is married to Cheryl Bradley, has four children and continues to serve the general public through the profession of law.

Accession Number

A2008.011

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/5/2008 |and| 2/8/2008

Last Name

Stone

Maker Category
Middle Name

Noel

Schools

Robert M. Lafollette School

Rufus King International High School

Lincoln University

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

University of Wisconsin Law School

First Name

Randolph

Birth City, State, Country

Milwaukee

HM ID

STO06

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

Wisconsin

Favorite Vacation Destination

Chicago, Illinois, Washington, D.C.

Favorite Quote

The Moral Arc Of The Universe Is Long, But It Bends Towards Justice.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

11/26/1946

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Lamb

Short Description

Law professor and public defender Randolph Noel Stone (1946 - ) was the first African American director of the Law Office of the Cook County Public Defender in Chicago, Illinois. Stone later served as the director of the Edwin F. Mandel Legal Aid Clinic at the University of Chicago Law School, where he started the Criminal and Juvenile Justice Project.

Employment

Neighborhood Legal Services Program

Criminal Defense Consortium of Cook County

Edwin F. Mandel Legal Aid Clinic

Stone and Clark

Public Defender Service for the District of Columbia

Law Office of Cook County Public Defender

Harvard Law School

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Randolph Noel Stone's interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Randolph Noel Stone lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Randolph Noel Stone describes his mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Randolph Noel Stone describes his mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls his mother's childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Randolph Noel Stone talks about the U.S. military service of his maternal grandfather Jacob Hale

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Randolph Noel Stone describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Randolph Noel Stone describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls his neighborhood in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Randolph Noel Stone remembers moving to an all-white neighborhood in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Randolph Noel Stone describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls the impact of white flight on his community

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Randolph Noel Stone describes his home life

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls his parents' strict discipline

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Randolph Noel Stone describes his early educational experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls facing discrimination at the Robert M. LaFollette School in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Randolph Noel Stone describes his extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Randolph Noel Stone remembers the racial demographics of his community

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls attending Rufus King High School in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Randolph Noel Stone remembers the Civil Rights Movement in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. speech in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Randolph Noel Stone remembers segregation in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Randolph Noel Stone talks about his college aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls his influences at Rufus King High School

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Randolph Noel Stone describes his childhood personality

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls his early interests

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Randolph Noel Stone remembers being arrested in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls his friends from Rufus King High School in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Randolph Noel Stone describes his music lessons

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls attending Calvary Baptist Church in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Randolph Noel Stone describes his train ride to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls his first impressions of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Randolph Noel Stone talks about his first impressions of Lincoln University in Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Randolph Noel Stone remembers Professor Charles V. Hamilton

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls his economics course at Lincoln University

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Randolph Noel Stone describes his social life at Lincoln University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Randolph Noel Stone remembers the black fraternities at Lincoln University in Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls joining Lincoln University's choir

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Randolph Noel Stone describes his decision to leave Lincoln University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Randolph Noel Stone talks about the Revolutionary Action Movement at Lincoln University

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls being drafted into the U.S. military

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Randolph Noel Stone remembers his decision to go to Vietnam

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Randolph Noel Stone describes his first impressions of Vietnam

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls his experiences during the Vietnam War

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Randolph Noel Stone remembers returning home to Milwaukee, Wisconsin from the Vietnam War

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls the political climate of Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1969

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Randolph Noel Stone describes his psychological state after the Vietnam War

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls his experience at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Randolph Noel Stone describes his role with the Black People's Topographical Research Center

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Randolph Noel Stone remembers his influences at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Randolph Noel Stone talks about his first marriage

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls enrolling in the University of Wisconsin Law School

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Randolph Noel Stone talks about his favorite class at University of Wisconsin Law School

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Randolph Noel Stone describes his involvement with the Black American Law Students Association

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Randolph Noel Stone remembers his mentors in law school

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Randolph Noel Stone describes his passion for public service

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls his Reginald Heber Smith Community Law Fellowship

Tape: 5 Story: 13 - Randolph Noel Stone remembers his early casework

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Slating of Randolph Noel Stone's interview, session 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Randolph Noel Stone describes the Neighborhood Legal Services program

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Randolph Noel Stone remembers his first court case

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Randolph Noel Stone talks about a eviction case

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls joining the Criminal Defense Consortium of Cook County in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Randolph Noel Stone remembers his first murder case, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Randolph Noel Stone remembers his first murder case, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Randolph Noel Stone describes how his experience in Vietnam War influenced how he practiced law

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls transferring to the Criminal Defense Consortium of Cook County's Woodlawn office in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Randolph Noel Stone describes his position with the Edwin F. Mandel Legal Aid Clinic

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Randolph Noel Stone remembers the Hot Dog Stand Murders case at the Edwin F. Mandel Legal Aid Clinic, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Randolph Noel Stone remembers the Hot Dog Stand Murders case at the Edwin F. Mandel Legal Aid Clinic, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls the verdict of the Hot Dog Stand Murders case

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Randolph Noel Stone reflects upon his clients' acquittal

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Randolph Noel Stone describes the procedures of a clinical law firm

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Randolph Noel Stone talks about the social issues of the Hot Dog Stand Murders case

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls an armed robbery case at the Edwin F. Mandel Legal Aid Clinic

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Randolph Noel Stone reflects upon his time as a clinical fellow at the University of Chicago Law School

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Randolph Noel Stone remembers the Pontiac 17 case

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls the proceedings for the Pontiac 17 case

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Randolph Noel Stone describes the details of the Pontiac 17 case

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Randolph Noel Stone remembers the difficulties he faced during the Pontiac 17 case

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls a self-defense case, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls a self-defense case, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Randolph Noel Stone talks about the emotional toll of a murder case

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Randolph Noel Stone describes his position at the Public Defender Service for the District of Columbia

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls a case at the Public Defender Office for the District of Columbia

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Randolph Noel Stone describes a weapon possession case

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Randolph Noel Stone remembers the trial of a weapon possession case

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls his decision to join the Law Office of the Cook County Public Defender in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Randolph Noel Stone describes his accomplishments at the Law Office of the Cook County Public Defender, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Randolph Noel Stone describes his accomplishments at the Law Office of the Cook County Public Defender, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls his community involvement in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Randolph Noel Stone describes his caseload at the Law Office of the Cook County Public Defender

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Randolph Noel Stone remembers problems within the Cook County State's Attorney's Office

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls returning to the Edwin F. Mandel Legal Aid Clinic

Tape: 9 Story: 10 - Randolph Noel Stone describes the Criminal and Juvenile Justice Project

Tape: 9 Story: 11 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls a case for the Criminal and Juvenile Justice Project, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 12 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls a case for the Criminal and Juvenile Justice Project, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 13 - Randolph Noel Stone talks about his legal advocacy in South Africa

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Randolph Noel Stone recalls his experiences in South Africa

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Randolph Noel Stone describes his intensive trial practice workshop at the Edwin F. Mandel Legal Aid Clinic

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Randolph Noel Stone reflects upon his career

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Randolph Noel Stone reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Randolph Noel Stone talks about his family

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Randolph Noel Stone describes his future plans

DASession

1$2

DATape

4$8

DAStory

6$2

DATitle
Randolph Noel Stone remembers his decision to go to Vietnam
Randolph Noel Stone recalls the proceedings for the Pontiac 17 case
Transcript
So, we got the orders to go to Vietnam and--story--the funny story there was, we get the orders to go to Vietnam from Louisiana, but we're gonna get about a month off to go home for the holidays because this is December of '67 [1967], and we're supposed to report to Seattle [Washington] in January of '8 [1968], so we got three full weeks off. So, those of us who were coming back to the Midwest--there were about eight or nine of us, and we took a bus from Fort Polk, Louisiana, and we were gonna catch a plane out of Houston [Texas] and I think we went to maybe--some small town in Louisiana to wait for a transport to take us to Houston. So we're, we're dropped off; there're six or seven of us, all of us going to Chicago [Illinois] to catch flights to other places. And so we're standing on the ground, and we look up and there's a bar, you know, within walking distance--big sign, beer sign out in front. So somebody says, "Well, let's go and have a couple beers while we're waiting on our transport to the Houston airport." So we all walk in this bar, and we're all in our uniforms, fatigues, with our, you know, duffle bags and whatnot, and it's kind of like a country western bar, and there's a huge table--a round table--and we all sit around this table; there's six or seven of us, and it was just like right out of a Western movie, you know; we walk in, and everything gets quiet, you know; I mean you could almost hear a pin drop. And we sit around this, this table, and the waitress walks up and she says to one of the other guys--I'm the only black guy there; there's six or seven guys. She says to the white guy, she says, "We can't serve you guys." And the white guys look at her like, what, are you crazy, you know. "We just finished advanced infantry training, we're on our way to Vietnam; what do you mean you can't serve us?" And she says, "Well, as long as you--as long as he's here, we can't serve you." And so the white guys, you know, they all look at me like--they can't believe it, you know, 'cause they're from Chicago, the Midwest, or whatever. And so they wanna get violent and turn the place out and so, you know, I'm saying, "No, we're, we're not gonna do that," (laughter), "because I'll be the one who winds up going to jail, you know." So we walk out of the club--the bar--complete silence, and nobody says another word until the transport comes. So, we're on the plane or--the transport comes, takes us to Hou- to the Houston airport, we get on the plane; one of the--we're all going to Chicago, and then a couple of us are going to Milwaukee [Wisconsin] and, and other places. One of the white guys on the plane comes and sits with me in my seat on the airplane, and he says, "Look, I'm not going to Vietnam, I'm going to Canada and then I'm going to Paris [France]. If you wanna go, call this number." And he gives me this number to call, and then he goes back to his seat. So, when I get home to Milwaukee, you know, after decompressing for a couple days, I tell my parents, you know, what happened in this bar, and I tell 'em about this number that I have to call, and I give it to my parents and, you know--so we--I remember sitting at the kitchen table, and my father [Raymond Stone, Sr.], he has worked himself up into such an emotion that he's almost, he wants to cry, you know. And my mother [Lee Terrell Stone], she's just in a complete consternation; she doesn't know what--so I said, "Well, here's the thing, you know; I can go to Canada and maybe France, or I can go to Vietnam. What should I do?" You know. And, you know, it was just so difficult for them to discuss it, you know; they were just like dumbfounded. And they never did tell me what they thought I should do, you know; they kind of talked about the pros and the cons and, you know, "You may not make it to Canada, you might not make it to France, you could get locked up. If you go to Vietnam you could get killed or maimed or hurt." It's a, you know, tough decision. And--well, ultimately I dec- I--you know, I went to Vietnam, but it was--I still think about that a lot.$What happened with the--this, this Pontiac [Pontiac 17] case?$$The Pontiac case--well, the Pontiac case was a nightmare of--an, an administrative nightmare. Seventeen defendants, each defendant had one or two lawyers appointed, so just--you know, as you can imagine, trying to manage that schedule was just an administrative nightmare, and the judge who was appointed was a judge from downstate, Ben Miller [Benjamin K. Miller], and he had worked out some kind of schedule for payment; we were supposed to be getting paid every couple weeks and we'd submit our vouchers for payment. And then they appointed three prosecutors, special prosecutors, to try the case. Well, sometime during the, the pretrial proceedings, we discovered that the prosecutors were being paid a lot more than the defense lawyers. The prosecutors were all white, most of the defense lawyers were African American, which was another unique thing about this case, in that there were so many African American lawyers involved, you know--Skip Gant, Roosevelt Thomas, Lou Myers [ph.], Chokwe Lumumba from Detroit [Michigan]; he came in, tried--was part of the case--Stan Hill [Stanley L. Hill]--and I'm leaving out a lot of people, but there were a lot of very good--Leo Holt [HistoryMaker Leo Ellwood Holt] was the--probably the dean, and I think he's one of your HistoryMakers. Marianne Jackson, who's now a judge in juvenile court, was one of the trial lawyers on the case; Jeff Haas [ph.], Flint Taylor [G. Flint Taylor] from the People's Law Office [Chicago, Illinois], they were involved in the case. David Thomas, Paul Brayman--just a, a, a, a really good group of trial lawyers--Marc Kadish, and many of them African American. So, thousands of motions were filed, pretrial proceedings lasted about a year, jury selection took about three or four months of jury selection; it was a very painstaking, onerous process. And I'm in private practice at the time, so I'm trying to balance my practice with this Pontiac case, which was extremely difficult, and--but anyway--so we picked a jury, three or four months of jury selection, and then the trial lasted another two, two and a half months. And, and then, just before the trial started, the judge divided the case into the ten--ten and seven; one group of ten, one group of seven, and then he decided that he would go to try the ten first, hence the Pontiac 10. One of the seven defendants decided to turn state's evidence and testify against the ten, which created all kinds of havoc and--but--so two and a half months at trial, and then closing arguments took three or four days, and jury goes out on Mother's Day, I think, or the day before Mother's Day in 1981, and they're out like three or four hours, and they come back and they find everybody not guilty, and it was just a pandemonium, you know; I mean sheer ecstasy for us, but--and for the--you know, the clients, obviously. And my client (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Who was your client?$$My client was Albert Jackson, who was serving time on another--every--well, obviously, everybody in, in the case was serving time on another case, that's why they were in prison [Pontiac Correctional Center, Pontiac, Illinois]. But ultimately, I got him out on his other case and we--we're still in very close touch. We, I talk to him at least once a month, or twice a month.

Vel Phillips

State government appointee Velvalea Hortense Rodgers Phillips was born on February 2, 1924 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin to Russell Lowell Rodgers and Thelma Etha Payne Rodger. Growing up on Milwaukee’s South Side, she attended Garfield Avenue Elementary School, Roosevelt Junior High School, and North Division High School. There, Phillips won a prize for outstanding oratory for her speech, “The Negro and the Constitution,” which she wrote for the Elks Lodge Competition. She subsequently won a scholarship to Howard University in 1942. She earned her B.A. degree from Howard in 1946. Phillips became the first black woman to earn an L.L.B. degree from the University of Wisconsin in 1952.

Phillips became active in the NAACP and supported a redistricting referendum in 1950. Phillips lost a close race for a seat on the Milwaukee Common Council in 1953, but came back to become the first woman to win a council seat in 1956. Frequently involved in civil rights activities, Phillips introduced Milwaukee’s first open housing ordinance in 1962. In 1967, resistance to civil rights agitation turned violent when the NAACP headquarters was firebombed and the non-violent Phillips was the only city official arrested at a rally the next day. Joined by Catholic Father James Groppi and the NAACP Youth Council, Phillips led marches for fair housing in 1968, while riots swept the black community. Finally, that same year, Milwaukee’s open housing bill passed. In 1971, Phillips was appointed as the first woman to the Milwaukee County Judiciary, but lost the subsequent election to a white candidate. She then taught at the University of Wisconsin Milwaukee and became mentor to Black Student Union president and future member of the Common Council, Fred Gordon. In 1978, she became the first woman and first non-white to be elected as Wisconsin’s Secretary of State, making her the highest ranking female Wisconsin official in the 20th century. In 2002, Phillips was appointed “Distinguished Professor of Law” at Marquette University School of Law. She also chaired the successful congressional campaign of Gwen Moore in 2004 at age eighty. In 2006, Phillips founded the Vel Phillips Foundation which supports the work of people who are engaged in projects of social justice and change. She is also active on numerous civic boards in Milwaukee.

Phillips passed away on April 17, 2018.

Vel Phillips was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 2, 2007 and February 25, 2017.

Accession Number

A2007.338

Sex

Female

Interview Date

12/2/2007 |and| 2/25/2017

Last Name

Phillips

Maker Category
Schools

North Division High School

Garfield Avenue Elementary School

Roosevelt Creative Arts Middle School

North Division Virtual University High School

University of Wisconsin Law School

First Name

Vel

Birth City, State, Country

Milwaukee

HM ID

PHI03

Favorite Season

September

State

Wisconsin

Favorite Vacation Destination

Camping

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Wisconsin

Birth Date

2/18/1924

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Milwaukee

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Ice Cream

Death Date

4/17/2018

Short Description

State government appointee Vel Phillips (1924 - 2018 ) was the former Wisconsin Secretary of State, the first woman and first non-white to be elected to the position.

Employment

State of Wisconsin

Milwaukee Common Council

Milwaukee County Judiciary

Favorite Color

Fall Colors

Timing Pairs
0,0:1138,23:2084,75:14640,321:20660,453:45628,936:88656,1580:122300,1972$0,0:510,6:8925,197:22225,355:27830,457:34010,480:41570,584:42110,591:48230,723:86083,1141:87093,1250:118686,1614:123292,1710:123782,1717:125448,1899:127996,1942:128388,1968:166265,2318:167630,2332:185710,2577:186985,2611:190210,2682:196620,2744:210988,2971:213844,3015:216868,3079:230458,3273:245282,3536:260000,3762
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Vel Phillips' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Vel Phillips lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Vel Phillips describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Vel Phillips talks about her maternal grandparents, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Vel Phillips talks about her maternal grandparents, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Vel Phillips describes how her mother was sent from Oklahoma to Wisconsin

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Vel Phillips describes her parents' restaurant, Clara's Restaurant

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Vel Phillips describes her mother's education

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Vel Phillips talks about her father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Vel Phillips describes her parents' marriage

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Vel Phillips remembers thinking her family was poor as a child, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Vel Phillips remembers thinking her family was poor as a child, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Vel Phillips talks about Gwendolynne Moore

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Vel Phillips describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Vel Phillips recalls earning a scholarship to Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Vel Phillips describes her disciplinarian mother

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Vel Phillips remembers her sheltered upbringing

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Vel Phillips recalls competing in the Elks Oratorical Contest

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Vel Phillips recalls her mother's reluctance to allow her to attend Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Vel Phillips recalls her mother's rules for attending Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Vel Phillips remembers arriving on campus at Howard University in 1942

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Vel Phillips talks about her friendship with Mamie Hansberry

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Vel Phillips describes her orientation weekend at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Vel Phillips describes her childhood education and activities

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Vel Phillips recalls serving as a mentor at Delta Theta Sigma Sorority

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Vel Phillips remembers honoring her third grade teacher, Margaret Borkowski

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Vel Phillips recalls being taught by Margaret Borkowski in the third grade

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Vel Phillips describes how her third grade teacher influenced her career, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Vel Phillips describes how her third grade teacher influenced her career, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Vel Phillips recalls being discouraged from the Elks Oratorical Contest

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Vel Phillips recalls composing her speech, The Negro and the Constitution

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Vel Phillips recalls being eliminated from the Elks Oratorical Contest

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Vel Phillips recalls a petition for her reentry to the Elks Oratorical Contest

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Vel Phillips remembers being readmitted to the Elks Oratorical Contest

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Vel Phillips remembers her winning performance in the Elks Oratorical Contest

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Slating of Vel Phillips' interview, session 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Vel Phillips recalls being ostracized by the members of the Milwaukee Common Council

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Vel Phillips talks about her experiences on the Common Council of Milwaukee, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Vel Phillips talks about her experiences on the Common Council of Milwaukee, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Vel Phillips remembers the support from the community during her tenure on the Common Council of Milwaukee

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Vel Phillips talks about Lloyd Barbee and Father James Groppi

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Vel Phillips talks about the racial discrimination in the television and film industries

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Vel Phillips reflects upon her political career, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Vel Phillips recalls the employment discrimination at the Common Council of Milwaukee office

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Vel Phillips talks about the governorship of Scott Walker

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Vel Phillips talks about her sons

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Vel Phillips reflects upon her political career, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Vel Phillips remembers her mother's advice on life

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Vel Phillips reflects upon her life

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

9$6

DATitle
Vel Phillips recalls earning a scholarship to Howard University
Vel Phillips remembers arriving on campus at Howard University in 1942
Transcript
When I wanted to go to Howard [Howard University, Washington, D.C.] and my mother [Thelma Payne Rodgers] had promised me, she had said, "You can't go, we can't afford it," and all like that. Then when she said--this is something that sort of shaped my life when, when I said, "Well suppose I win a scholarship?" I said that to my mother and she said, "Oh, if you win a scholarship, well of course if you don't, if I don't have to pay and say we can't afford--." So then I did, I won, I entered an Elk oratorical contest, and I won and John Daniels [HistoryMaker John W. Daniels, Jr.], who you interviewed--once when we were at a law, black lawyers [Wisconsin Association of African American Lawyers] meeting, their fundraiser was named after my husband, it was--their fundraiser was the W. Dale Phillips scholarship--they, you only had fundraiser a year. Two years ago they changed it; it's now called VelanDale Scholarship dinner, which is my husband's name and my name combined. But anyway, John got up and said, "You know I entered the Elk oratorical contest and I wanted to win to get a scholarship," he said, "but I didn't win," he was younger than me, "I didn't win," he said, "but I want you to know that [HistoryMaker] Vel Phillips who will be giving," I give the scholarship every year, "won the very scholarship that I did not win." So when I won this scholarship I said, I said, now can, oh, I, I was just fancying around the kitchen, we had a huge kitchen. I was going to be going to Howard. My mother said, "You're not going to Howard, you're, you're," and I said, "But you promised." Well she didn't care anything about rules like, if you promise a child--I mean Dr. Spock [Benjamin Spock] I guess hadn't even written a book--that you don't disappoint and change your mind. She thought she could change your mind, she was very strong willed and she said, I said well, "Why?" And she said, "Because I said so. It's too far away and this and that."$And I remember, we went to, all the--Truth Hall [Howard University, Washington, D.C.] was this, was the dorm for, for the freshman; and my mother [Thelma Payne Rodgers] took me to college and I'll never forget when we, we--she said, "We do not have enough money to fly, we're going on the train," and she had always told us that when the train stopped in Chicago [Illinois] that I just thought Chicago had, I felt, I actually thought that if you got off in Chicago there'd be men standing there with guns, you know. It was just (laughter) it was: "Do not get off the train ever. If you're going, if you take the train somewhere, don't get off in Chicago because you will be accosted and people will--they're ju- terrible people, a lot of gangsters live in Chicago," and stuff. So I, so we were on the train and this, the train stopped in Chicago and a lot of freshman with (gesture) 1946 Howard [Howard University, Washington, D.C.], 1946, which was--would be our graduating year 'cause this was '42 [1942]; and there were about oh, a bunch of them--five, six of them or so you know and they were just laughing and, and just being, being their age, but they were--Mother said that she saw a bottle being passed around and she said to me, "You see that, that's not--they're going to Howard and you're going to Howard. Just because they're going to Howard doesn't mean that they're not trash; they're trash because they're carousing, they're loud, they're drinking, probably smoking and you do not associate with any of those people who are on that, that." And I remember having to go to the bathroom and had to pass by this group. "Hey!" they said, said, said, "You with your momma, huh?" That's the first time I knew it wasn't so good to be with your momma (laughter). "I see you got your momma with you," you know. "You got big eyes, but you got your momma with you," and so I was just, boy that made me feel pretty good you know, is that I had, they had said that I had big eyes or something; and, but I then thought, oh gee, it wasn't cool to have your momma with you, and so I said, "Does everyone's parents take them to college?" I thought everyone's parents--she said, "But they probably don't have any parents if, some of them are probably drunk or in the tavern," you know (laughter). And I got to be friends, real close to all of them especially Mamie Hansberry, because Mamie Hansberry was--oh, oh when we were, the last day my mother said, "Well we're gonna move--," all the other parents, "and we're gonna visit the rooms." Now she had no pencil or paper with her, and we started from the third floor and the second--all, all the floors and we're going--and I remember Mamie Hansberry because she had on a little, she was smoking a cigarette and when we got back to our room, my mother said, "Now in," and then she named the numbers, "in 214 there was a girl, a young lady there, she was smoking a cigarette; do not associate with her. And such and such a person, the young lady that was from Ohio her name was Zoe Crumpler [ph.]," and the reason my mother said, "do not associate with her," and the reason was, think of this reason, because Zoe--her mother was still there, like my mother was still there, and Zoe, who I loved, from Youngstown, Ohio called her mother by her first name. "Oh, Bernice [ph.] would you hand me such and such," or whatever her name was. My mother--oh! So she was on the list because she called her mother by her first name and her mother said, "Oh, okay baby," you know. That was, that was their little thing. Her mother maybe said, "You can call me Bernice," or whatever her name was, and, and so she called her mother by her first name. My mother thought that was outrageous, and so she was on the list.

Charles Holton

Former Harlem Globetrotter Charles Holton was born on September 3, 1930 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin to Alice and Frank Holton. Holton attended St. Benedict School in Milwaukee, where he was a good athlete and played basketball. He graduated in 1948 at the age of eighteen. Holton was the first black to graduate from St. Norbert College in De Pere, Wisconsin with a B.S. in economics in 1952. Holton became a member of the Harlem Globetrotters, the then Chicago-based basketball franchise headed by legendary coach William “Pop” Gates.

Invited to tryout for the Harlem Globetrotters at Chicago’s St. Anselm’s Gym, Holton became a member of the Abe Sapperstein’s Globetrotters, the popular barnstorming Chicago-based basketball franchise. He became a Harlem Globetrotter during their glory years (between 1951 and 1957) and witnessed first hand the passing of the comic basketball star baton from Reese “Goose” Tatum to Meadowlark Lemon. Holton made the Southern Harlem Globetrotters, one of three traveling squads. His teammates included Leon Hilliard, Junior Lee, Chico Burrell and Babe Pressley. In 1954, Holton and the Globetrotters were warmly welcomed in Europe and later in South America. Holton left the team at the age of twenty-seven in 1957.

Holton began working in social services as an administrator for Milwaukee County the following year, a position he would retain until 1966. In 1967, Holton obtained his M.S.W. degree from the University of Michigan and began working for the State of Wisconsin as a social services administrator, where he would remain until 1996. In 1997, Holton became executive director of Milwaukee’s House of Peace, a Capuchin Franciscan Ministry that Holton would lead until retirement in 2000.

Holton lives with his wife, Carol S. Oakes, whom he married in 1969. His daughter is Miss Lori the public television children’s host and his uncle is Chicago police commander and award winning mystery writer, Hugh Holton.

Holton was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 29, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.335

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/29/2007

Last Name

Holton

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

St. Benedict School

St. Norbert College

University of Michigan

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Charles

Birth City, State, Country

Milwaukee

HM ID

HOL08

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Wisconsin

Favorite Vacation Destination

Door County, Wisconsin

Favorite Quote

Be Good To Yourself.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Wisconsin

Birth Date

9/3/1930

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Milwaukee

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Barbecue (Ribs)

Short Description

Social service administrator and basketball player Charles Holton (1930 - ) played with the Harlem Globetrotters from 1951 to 1957. He then became social services administrator for the State of Wisconsin. In 1997, Holton became executive director of Milwaukee’s House of Peace, a Capuchin Franciscan Ministry, where he remained with until his retirement in 2000.

Employment

Harlem Globetrotters

House of Peace

State of Wisconsin

Favorite Color

Gray

Timing Pairs
0,0:5650,87:11323,168:12093,179:12709,189:16428,218:16716,223:17508,235:19380,271:19812,280:21180,304:21684,312:25930,361:32860,473:33256,478:34741,500:35137,505:36919,531:43840,567:45190,586:47800,635:48160,640:67902,955:76826,1208:90400,1327:93136,1412:114202,1652:114572,1658:115830,1677:116200,1683:117014,1697:117310,1702:121015,1743:121645,1751:122065,1756:123640,1772:124060,1777:128670,1805:131311,1817:131846,1823:132702,1833:133130,1838:137220,1887:142462,1951:149256,2081:161080,2198$0,0:738,13:5166,179:5904,192:6232,197:6560,202:9430,252:13408,275:15046,297:15358,302:16138,314:17464,342:18322,354:19804,378:20350,386:21286,400:21598,405:22378,417:24094,448:25810,483:26590,494:27292,506:28462,523:29710,543:30022,548:30880,561:31738,573:32362,583:32752,589:33220,597:40342,635:41350,646:41938,655:43198,666:48826,735:49414,744:49918,760:50422,766:51766,782:52690,796:53782,813:56470,855:57058,864:59074,889:59410,894:60166,903:60754,912:69914,943:70695,955:71334,971:73890,1010:74245,1017:75239,1035:77880,1048:78160,1053:88440,1247:89865,1280:93536,1307:104237,1396:105189,1405:109130,1456:109690,1465:115610,1583:117690,1623:128064,1773:135680,1823:142478,1921:145208,1965:145832,1975:146144,1980:148250,2018:155891,2051:157629,2082:160710,2132:167306,2215:168847,2237:169383,2247:169718,2253:170930,2258
DAStories

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Charles Holton recalls his work for the House of Peace in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Charles Holton talks about his health

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Charles Holton reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Charles Holton describes his hopes for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Charles Holton reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Charles Holton talks about his family

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Charles Holton reflects upon his experiences with the Harlem Globetrotters

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Charles Holton remembers Nathaniel "Sweetwater" Clifton

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Charles Holton talks about the contemporary Harlem Globetrotters

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Charles Holton recalls a challenging basketball game on the East Coast

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Charles Holton describes his daughters and granddaughter

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Charles Holton describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Charles Holton narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

5$2

DATitle
Charles Holton describes his experiences with the Harlem Globetrotters, pt. 2
Charles Holton talks about playing with the Harlem Globetrotters in Europe
Transcript
Well, all those games are tough, you know, that pounding and we played every night and sometimes twice a day with the Trotters [Harlem Globetrotters] and that pounding eventually takes its toll on the body. Played in some interesting places, we played in some wonderful places. There was a, Vancouver, British Columbia [Canada], you hit that floor and it was like bouncing off a mattress, it was so springy, a new gym that they had built. We hit a lot of new gyms, even high school gyms that were very nice and held quite a few people. I--and there, you know, it wasn't all fun and games, you hit that bus and you had to go to the next town and try to be ready. We didn't have, you know, laundry service, we had to wash out our own uniforms.$$So where would you do that? I mean, if you're on road?$$In the hotel.$$In the hotel--$$Yeah.$$--just in the sink?$$If you were in a town long enough--$$Yeah.$$--the team would send 'em to the laundry. But most of the times you were in a town, gone the next day, so.$$And did you ever play the next day in a dirty uniform, I mean, in the (laughter)--$$Oh, yeah, yeah, all the time (laughter). You know I had a roommate, Jesse Coffey, who, who would wash out that uniform every night. And it would get a little crusty (laughter) after a while. But, you know, we didn't have a trainer. If you, if you got an injury, you know, you found a doctor in the town you were in and then got treated that way. But it was--I mean these guys--. We didn't get, we didn't get meal money when we played in the states. And now (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) So it just came out of your salary?$$--you read about these guys getting what, fifty dollars a day meal money, and then they're making millions, when we went overseas we got five dollars a day. Now, in all honesty you could take that five dollars, eat heartily and still have a couple of dollars for souvenirs (laughter). But, you know, to hear these players getting whatever it is for meal money is unbelievable when you think about the salaries they make, what do they need meal money for? You could take that money and donate it to the old timers, you know. So many things it's, things change.$Yeah, was it refreshing to be over there and be treated differently than (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Yes, yes, and, you know, they would look up to us [Harlem Globetrotters] like we were nine feet tall and (laughter) you know--we were compared to them, I guess, we were considered tall. But they enjoyed the basketball and that was the interesting thing. You go to those foreign countries and they enjoyed the basketball maybe more than the showmanship, and maybe they didn't understand some of the showmanship, but they did understand good basketball. Interesting thing was there were no teams in Europe. You know, you would have a few here and there, but basketball was not the sport, the worldwide sport that it is today. Later on when we went to South America we were amazed at how well some of the South American players played, had it all over the Europeans, and now it's, it's probably just the opposite. Rome [Italy] was an interesting place and being Catholic it was, it was interesting to have a chance to see the pope who had just come off an illness, I think it was Pius XI or XII [Pope Pius XII], so I went to St. Peter's Square [Vatican City] and--some of us went there. And we've had, subsequently we've had, and before that we've had private audiences with the popes who were in office at the time but I was never at one of those opportunities. Played in bull rings, swimming pools.$$Played in swimming pools?$$Yeah. You just take the water, take it--with the water out (laughter). And, you know, they set up the court, we had to carry, we traveled on buses over there, and we had to carry a portable floor. Played in--$$Was, was it made out of some kind of a hard rubber or something or what was it?$$No, it was wooden.$$Wooden?$$Plywood I think.$$Okay. Okay.$$'Cause, you know, dribbling wasn't always fantastic. But it was interesting to get a windy day or a night and have to--well, sometimes the wind was so strong you had to shoot the ball here (gesture) for it to go there and that was, that wasn't easy. But most of the games were on, you know, on like a, an open field and they'd lay the court down and it's and we'd perform and then they'd take it up. 'Cause it wasn't real popular sport in Europe in those days.