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The Honorable Deval L. Patrick

Deval Patrick was born in Chicago, Illinois on July 31, 1956. His father, a musician, left the family while Patrick was young. Patrick was raised by his mother near the Robert Taylor Homes on Chicago's South Side. While in the eighth grade, Patrick was recruited into a program called A Better Chance, which provided scholarships to inner city students. After attending an elite private school, Milton Academy outside of Boston, Massachusetts, Patrick was accepted to Harvard University, where he earned his A.B. degree in English and American literature in 1978.

After graduating from Harvard, Patrick was awarded a Rockefeller Fellowship, where he worked for the United Nations, traveling and living in the Sudan. He returned to the United States in 1979, and enrolled in Harvard Law School, and earned his J.D. degree in 1982. After working as a clerk in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in Los Angeles for a year, Patrick moved to New York City and joined the NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund. There, he met, and filed a lawsuit in a voting rights case against then Governor Bill Clinton He remained with the NAACP until 1986, when he joined the Boston law firm of Hill & Barlow, P.C. as a partner. He continued his civil rights work, and in 1994, President Clinton appointed Patrick to the position of assistant attorney general in charge of the Department of Justice's Civil Rights Division. In this role, Patrick worked to ensure that federal laws banning discrimination were enforced. He also oversaw an investigation into a series of church burnings throughout the South.

In 1997, after three years with the Clinton Administration, Patrick returned to private practice with the Boston law firm of Day, Berry & Howard, where he focused his efforts on major commercial litigation and civil rights compliance issues. Patrick then joined Texaco in 1999 as vice president and general counsel, and in 2001, he became executive vice president, general counsel and secretary to the Coca-Cola Company, where he was responsible for the corporation's worldwide legal affairs. Patrick left Coca-Cola in December of 2004.

Patrick serves on the board of directors of Reebok International, Inc, Coca-Cola Enterprises, and A Better Chance, Inc. He is a trustee of the Ford Foundation, and sits on the board of overseers of Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. Patrick is also the recipient of numerous awards and seven honorary degrees.

He and his wife, Diane Beamus Patrick, have two children.

Accession Number

A2004.202

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/14/2004

Last Name

Patrick

Maker Category
Middle Name

L.

Schools

Du Sable Leadership Academy

Martha M. Ruggles Elementary School

Mary Church Terrell Elementary School

Milton Academy

Harvard University

Harvard Law School

First Name

Deval

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

PAT02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Berkshires, Massachusetts

Favorite Quote

To Hew Out Of The Mountain Of Despair A Stone Of Hope.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

7/31/1956

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Italian Food

Short Description

Corporate general counsel and governor The Honorable Deval L. Patrick (1956 - ) was appointed by President Bill Clinton to be assistant attorney general in charge of the Civil Rights Division. Patrick has since served as general counsel to Texaco, as executive vice president, general counsel and secretary to The Coca-Cola Company, and as the 71st governor of the State of Massachusetts.

Employment

United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Legal Defense Fund

Hill & Barlow, P.C.

United States Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division

Day, Berry & Howard

Texaco

Coca-Cola Company

State of Massachusetts

Bain Capital

Favorite Color

Yellow

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating for The Honorable Deval L. Patrick's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick talks about how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick describes his father's gift for listening

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick talks about his grandfather's job at South Shore Bank in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick talks about the apartments he lived in as a child in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick describes his childhood neighborhood of Washington Park, Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick describes his experiences in elementary school in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick describes the origin of his first name

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick describes his childhood personality

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick talks about his childhood interests and aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick reflects on his influences from his childhood in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick talks about growing up near the Robert Taylor Homes in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick recalls gang activity from his childhood in Washington Park, Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick recalls the effect of civil strife in the 1960s on his neighborhood in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick talks about why he chose to leave Chicago, Illinois for high school

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick describes the history of Milton Academy in Milton, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick talks about his scholarship and involvement with A Better Chance

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick describes the process of adjusting to Milton Academy in Milton, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick talks about the influence of his English teacher, A.O. Smith, at Milton Academy in Milton, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick recalls returning to Chicago, Illinois while on breaks from boarding school

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick reflects on the impact that attending Milton Academy in Milton, Massachusetts had on his life

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick describes the educational standards of Milton Academy in Milton, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick talks about how he came to attend Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick recalls his experience attending Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick talks about receiving a Rockefeller Fellowship to live in Sudan

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick describes his experience working for a job training program in Sudan

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick remembers traveling in Egypt during his year abroad

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick describes applying to Harvard Law School in Cambridge, Massachusetts while living in Sudan

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick describes his experiences at Harvard Law School in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick talks about his summer jobs in corporate law while attending Harvard Law School in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick describes his tenure as a lawyer for the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick explains his reasons for working at the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick describes his job as a clerk for Judge Stephen Reinhardt on United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick reflects on what he learned as a lawyer for the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick recalls memorable cases from his tenure at the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick talks about joining the law firm Hill and Barlow in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick describes his rise to partner at Hill and Barlow in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick describes his responsibilities at Hill and Barlow in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick talks about being considered for the position of United States attorney for Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick recalls being nominated as United States assistant attorney general for civil rights

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick recalls being confirmed as United States assistant attorney general in 1994

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick describes his experiences as United States assistant attorney general in the Clinton administration

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick recalls accompanying President William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton to a commencement at Gallaudet University

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick talks about advising President William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton on the appointment of Justice Stephen Breyer

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick describes forming the National Church Arson Task Force

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick describes his work advising on affirmative action as United States assistant attorney general

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick recalls President Bill Clinton's speech on affirmative action at the National Archives Building in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick talks about the effects of serving as United States assistant attorney general on his personal life

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick describes his tenure working for Texaco

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick describes his tenure as general counsel for The Coca-Cola Company

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick reflects on the responsibilities for African American leaders whose careers symbolize success and progress

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick describe some of the challenges faced by The Coca-Cola Company

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick talks about the duties of a general counsel at a major corporation

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick reflects on the progress made by African Americans in the corporate realm

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick reflects upon his life

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - The Honorable Deval L. Patrick reflects upon his legacy

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$6

DAStory

1$8

DATitle
The Honorable Deval L. Patrick describes applying to Harvard Law School in Cambridge, Massachusetts while living in Sudan
The Honorable Deval L. Patrick talks about advising President William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton on the appointment of Justice Stephen Breyer
Transcript
You took this year off. You get back, right? And--$$I decided while I was over there that I wanted to go to law school.$$Okay.$$And in the true, sort of, you know, Harvard College [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts] keeping all your options open behavior, I had brought in my backpack one application to one law school (laughter). And when I knew that, that we were going out to western Sudan, and there would be no mail or phone service, I decided to, that night, the night before we left Khartoum [Sudan], to go out and fill out this application and send it in. So I went out behind this little hostel where I was staying, and I made a big--and there was no electricity--made a big mound of sand. And I took my fat flashlight and put that on top of the mound of, of sand so I would have, you know, light on my work surface, which was on the ground. And I filled out this application by hand. It was a mess. I'm (laughter) sure it was covered with bugs I swatted and all that. And then I gave it the next morning before we left to somebody who knew somebody who was going to London [England] where they would mail it, because the mail service thing was a little more reliable from London. And in fact, I mailed it to Jim Vorenberg [James Vorenberg], and I said, "If you think I should, then please submit this application." And when I got to Khartoum months later, and I collected all my mail from the poste restante, there was a telegram for me saying, and it was from my mother [Emily Wintersmith Patrick] actually saying congratulations, you've been admitted to Harvard Law School [Cambridge, Massachusetts].$The faculty's all lined up in the kitchen to process out to the graduation [at Gallaudet University, Washington, D.C.]. And the president [President William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton] starts shaking hands, one at a time, every single faculty member's hand. Still don't know what I'm supposed to do, so the aide says, "Come stand down here," and she puts me down at the end of the receiving line. The president shakes the last hand, and then turns. And the aide says, "Mr. President, here's [HistoryMaker] Mr. [Deval L.] Patrick." And the president says, "Oh, Deval." He said, "I hoped you would be here." And then at just that moment somebody else says, "Right this way, Mr. President." They hold open the doors to the men's room. So he strolls, strides into the men's room. There are two Secret Service on the other side of the door. And just as the door is closing, he grabs the door, and he looks out at me, and says, (finger motions to come here). So in he goes and I go; it's just the two of us in the men's room. He's at the urinal. He starts talking to me, and he says, look. He said, "I've got this vacancy on the [U.S.] Supreme Court," he says, "and I've got to fill it." And I said, "Oh yeah, I've been reading about that." And he said "Well, I'm down to three finalists, but I'm really only focused on two of 'em. And I want to ask you," he said, "you know this guy, [Justice Stephen] Breyer, don't you?" And I said, "Oh yeah, I've known him for years. I've worked with him. I've appeared before him and so on." He said, "Well, what do you think? Would he do a good job?" And I said, "Mr. President, I think he'd be a fine, a fine justice. And I think, frankly, he'd be great on our stuff in the civil rights division because he's fair and because he's respectful of precedent." And I said, "And I'd be proud to say that publicly if that's what you need." I said, "But sir, if you're asking me, (laughter) I'd say you've already made up your mind." He said, "No, no, I've really gotta decide." So, he said, "But I'd heard you'd say good things about Breyer, but I'm struggling." And he began to talk about some of the others that he was thinking about, including about a judge from Arkansas, federal judge from Arkansas. And at that point, the valet had come in with his cap and his gown and was getting him together. And I said, "Well, Mr. President, I'll just give you some advice." I said, "If you do choose Judge Breyer, say to the press why you chose Judge Breyer, not why you didn't choose the other ones who are being speculated about. The press, the public doesn't need to know your whole reasoning. Just focus on him." He said, "Well, that's good advice." Of course, he didn't take it, but that's good advice. So off we go. He does the procession. He finishes the speech. We all pile back into the cars, get back to the White House [Washington, D.C.], and then I have to hustle off to the airport because I had something in Boston [Massachusetts] that night. And I'm coming from the airport through the tunnel, and the radio is on in the taxi. It's about five o'clock, and the, and the announcer says we interrupt the broadcast to go to the White House South Lawn for a special announcement. And the president says I'm pleased to announce the nomination, my intent to nominate Stephen Breyer to the Supreme Court. I thought, oh my goodness (laughter), this just happened. So, I had to get back to Washington [D.C.] that night because the next day, the next morning, I was going with the president to I think it was Indianapolis [Indiana]. So, I go out to Andrews [Air Force Base; Joint Base Andrews, Maryland], up to Air Force One. These are all first experiences for me. And Air Force One is a series of sort of living rooms. And I'm given a seat in one of these living rooms, and there are TV monitors all around the walls. And it's all broadcasting news about Stephen Breyer's nomination. The plane starts to move, which means the president gets on. You have to be on beforehand, and as soon as he's on it starts going. And he comes striding into this living room where I am. And of course, I'm the only one in my seatbelt with my tray table in its upright position, and my (laughter) seatbelt locked. Everybody else is walking around. The plane's moving. And he comes in, and he shakes my hand. And he points up at the monitor, and he says, "You see that, Deval?" He said, "You did that." And I thought, wow.

The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder

Former governor of Virginia L. Douglas Wilder was born in Richmond, Virginia, on January 17, 1931. The second youngest of eight children, Wilder often spent time as a child at the local barbershop listening to political debates. After graduating from Armstrong High School at the age of sixteen, Wilder attended Virginia Union University, while he worked as a waiter to pay his way through college. Wilder earned his B.A. degree in chemistry from Virginia Union in 1951; the following year he was drafted into the army and sent to Korea. In Korea Wilder would lead a group of POW’s under his watch through artillery fire to rescue a group of wounded American soldiers, which earned him the Bronze Star.

Following his time in the Army, Wilder decided to become a lawyer, and in 1956, he entered Howard University. While at Howard University, Wilder met Henry Marsh, the future mayor of Richmond, and had the opportunity to watch Thurgood Marshall and a number of other notables hone their skills in moot court. Wilder also met Eunice Montgomery during his days as a student, and the two married on October 11, 1958. Wilder opened his law firm, which would become Wilder, Gregory & Associates, in 1961, and was soon asked by Spottswood Robinson, who had worked on the Brown v. Board of Education case, to take on some of his excess workload. While Wilder's legal career got off to a successful start, he refused to sit on the segregated side of courtrooms, and often argued with judges about the treatment of his clients. Over the next decade and a half, Wilder argued several famous cases, including his defense of William Penn, an infamous serial killer, which resulted in a hung jury. In 1969, Wilder successfully ran for the Virginia State Senate, becoming the first African American to hold a position there in almost one hundred years. In his first speech in the Senate, Wilder blasted the use of the racially offensive song, Carry Me Back to Old Virginny, and though his bill to repeal the anthem fell short, his reputation as an orator was secured.

During his time in the Senate, Wilder supported a number of bills that were beneficial to low-income residents, and was also a major proponent of anti-discrimination bills. Wilder was most active, however, in reforming legislation relating to juvenile criminal offenders. Beginning in the mid-1970s, Wilder also fought to secure a state holiday for Martin Luther King, Jr.’s, birthday, which finally succeeded in 1984. The following year, Wilder won an election to become the first black lieutenant governor in the United States in a landslide victory. After five years as lieutenant governor, Wilder was elected governor of Virginia, the first African American to become governor of a state in United States history. Coming into office in a budget crisis, Wilder was forced to make job and pay cuts, but in the end, Financial Magazine named Virginia the best-managed state in the country. Throughout his term in office, Wilder worked hard to support his low-income constituents and to promote equal opportunities for women and minorities.

Accession Number

A2004.105

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/22/2004

Last Name

Wilder

Maker Category
Middle Name

Douglas

Occupation
Schools

Armstrong High School

George Mason Elementary School

First Name

L.

Birth City, State, Country

Richmond

HM ID

WIL11

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

I Never Succumb To Flattery Because Then Criticism Would Crush Me.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Virginia

Birth Date

1/17/1931

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Richmond

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Governor The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder (1931 - ) was the first African American to hold a position in the Virginia State Senate in almost one hundred years. Following a long term in the senate, Wilder became the first black lieutenant governor in the United States; after five years in that position, he was elected governor of Virginia, becoming the first African American to become governor of a state in United States history.

Employment

Wilder, Gregory & Associates

Virginia General Assembly

State of Virginia

Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of L. Douglas Wilder's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder describes his father's childhood and paternal family ancestry

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder describes his mother's childhood in Charles City, Virginia, in New Jersey, and Richmond, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder lists his siblings and their birth order

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder recalls his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder remembers experiencing segregation and receiving his first lesson in racial pride

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder describes his childhood community in the Church Hill neighborhood of Richmond, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder remembers developing his skills as an orator in the local barbershop

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder remembers seeing the Brooklyn Dodgers play against the St. Louis Cardinals in 1947

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder remembers playing semi-professional football and boxing with his brother

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about his relationship with his older sisters

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder remembers the community discussions his father hosted on the porch of their home

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder describes his father's personality and influence, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder describes how he financed his undergraduate education

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder describes his father's personality and influence, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about his mother's aspirations for him

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder describes the sights, sounds, and smells of Richmond, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder describes his experience at George Mason Elementary School in Richmond, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about graduation from Armstrong High School in Richmond, Virginia at sixteen years old

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder remembers when HistoryMaker Oliver W. Hill became the first black city councilman in 1948

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about majoring in chemistry and the scarce job market in the 1950s

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder remembers his professors, mentors and speakers at Virginia Union University including Dr. Benjamin Mays and Belford Lawson, Jr.

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about pledging Omega Psi Phi Fraternity

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about being drafted into the Korean War in 1952

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about his interest in African politics while serving in the U.S. Military

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about U.S. political activity in Asia and Africa in the 1950s

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder describes his experience in the military, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder describes his experience in the military, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about the consequences of warfare

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder describes earning a Bronze Star in the Battle of Pork Chop Hill

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder describes working in the chief medical examiner's office and abandoning chemistry for law school

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder describes his experience at Howard University School of Law in Washington, D.C., pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder remembers an interaction with civil rights attorney and Federal District Court Judge Spottswood W. Robinson, III

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder remembers Thurgood Marshall and Charles Hamilton Houston

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder remembers meeting HistoryMaker Henry L. Marsh III at Howard Law School

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about preparing for the bar exam

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder describes his experience at Howard University School of Law in Washington, D.C., pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about the shortage of black lawyers in Virginia in 1960

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder describes entering the Virginia bar in 1960, managing discrimination within the bar, and helping to organize the black bar

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about the influence of HistoryMaker Oliver W. Hill, Thurgood Marshall, Spottswood W. Robinson III and others

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about integrating courtrooms, law offices and the circuit bench

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder describes his litigating style

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about representing Curtis Poindexter for the murder of Judge S. A. Cunningham

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about the Bruce Tucker heart transplant investigation, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about the Bruce Tucker heart transplant investigation. pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks briefly about his relationship with his father and challenging his parents

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about Virginia's opposition to the Brown v. Board decision and the closing of Virginia schools in Prince Edward County

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder explains why he decided to run for the Senate of Virginia

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder explains how the annexation of Chesterfield County in 1960 affected the voter demographic in Richmond, Virginia

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about winning a seat in the Virginia General Assembly

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about introducing the bill to repeal the old Virginia state song, 'Carry Me Back to Old Virginny,' pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about introducing the bill to repeal the old Virginia state song, 'Carry Me Back to Old Virginny,' pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder describes his campaign strategy

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about his relationship with Senator William Vincent "Bill" Rawlings and joining the Committee on Privileges and Elections

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about being elected lieutenant governor and working to balance duties of this position with that of his law practice

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about his relationship with Dr. William P. Robinson

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder describes Virginia's black legislators in the 1970s

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about his participation in the formation of the Democratic Black Caucus of Virginia

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about voting in opposition of capital punishment

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about passing the bill to observe Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s birthday as a holiday

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about his relationship with Charles Spittal "Chuck" Robb and being elected lieutenant governor of Virginia in 1985

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder describes how he made use of his political clout as lieutenant governor

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about regulating gun control as lieutenant governor

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder explains why he decided to run for Governor of Virginia

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder describes his campaign strategy for lieutenant governor

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about winning the lieutenant gubernatorial election

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about his endorsement from Virginia Attorney General Gerald L. Baliles and Charles Spittal "Chuck" Robb in the 1985 lieutenant gubernatorial election

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about campaign fundraising and shooting a low-cost, improvised commercial in Lunenburg County, Virginia

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder remembers being asked by a Virginia resident his stance on abortion during his gubernatorial campaign

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder describes how he felt the night he was elected governor in 1989

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about Virginia's budget deficit in 1990 and establishing a

200 million dollar rainy day fund

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about having developed a reputation for fiscal conservatism

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder addresses criticism of his governorship

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about his contribution to Virginia handgun regulation

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder considers the importance of his election as governor

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about the risks of succumbing to flattery

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about his post-gubernatorial activity

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder describes his role in helping to reform Richmond, Virginia's mayoral election process

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about his 2004 mayoral campaign

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder addresses criticism of his mayoral campaign

Tape: 8 Story: 10 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about fostering African American participation in politics

Tape: 8 Story: 11 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder explains his definition of a public servant

Tape: 8 Story: 12 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder describes his concerns for the African American community

Tape: 8 Story: 13 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 14 - The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder explains the origin of his name

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The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder remembers developing his skills as an orator in the local barbershop
The Honorable L. Douglas Wilder talks about introducing the bill to repeal the old Virginia state song, 'Carry Me Back to Old Virginny,' pt. 1
Transcript
The barbershop was a place that was my forum. And the older men would listen to me because they said the kid might know what he's talking about because I would come and argue with them, fuss with them about what I knew and what the encyclopedia said. Well I know--and I'd run home and bring the encyclopedia back, said this is it. So the men started betting on me in terms of the kid knows what he's saying. And it was I guess the first opportunity I had to engage in public speaking, in the barbershop, as most people do. Most neighborhoods. But I wanted to make certain that I knew what I was talking about. And if I didn't, checked it out and find out why I didn't.$$Who were some of the characters in that barbershop, the regular patrons of it?$$Well you had the know-it-alls, you had people who pretty much were into--one of the things that I did experience in that barbershop when--as well as in the shoeshine parlor. People who didn't have education didn't diss it. They encouraged young people to get a better education. They would say look, "Listen to this kid. He's, he's in school and you didn't finish, you didn't--why don't you learn?" And say, "Well I don't need to, I"--wait a minute. And they would provide opportunities for me to speak. Then you had those who knew everything about sports, they thought. And I was a sports enthusiast too. I could name all of the batting averages for all of the ballplayers. And I had favorite teams myself. And the, the characters were--they, they, they ran the gamut between those would come to speak of their sexual exploits, and those who would come to--and you learn gambling across the street at the shoeshine parlor. And you would know what shooting dice were and what craps were. And it was a, a very rich experience. You learn when the preacher would come in, no cursing. And no one would curse. And I guess it was one of the things that stopped--early on, I had six sisters. One of the things I hated was to hear the men talk about their exploits, as I've described them. Even naming the women, "Oh yeah, I know her." Oh my God I knew I would choke somebody if they ever said that about any sister of mine. So it was good for me to learn early on that you can't respect your community, nor womanhood, if you wanna do that. And it--I learned to be a bit more private too, in whatever it is I said because it'll spread and go everywhere.$After I got in the session, we got into the state song, which I never knew was the state song.$$You didn't, okay.$$I never knew it.$$Okay, before that.$$Yeah, never knew it.$$Okay.$$Knew the words, yeah, but everyone's forced to do it as a kid.$$$$The state song, though is 'Carry me Back to Old Virginia [sic, Virginny].'$$'Carry me Back to Old Virginia.' And many people thought that I objected to it because of the words, "There's where this old darkey's heart am long'd to go." And it wasn't the, the reason I objected to it. I objected to it because in addition to those words, if you get to the second stanza of the song, it says that that's--the slave is singing the song, see and he's lamenting the fact that his master and missus had passed. But when he dies, he's gone join them and they won't be separated anymore. So even in slavery, even in death, he wants to be a slave. Even in death he wants to be. So I said, "How can you cut this, the, the pie if you can't get past the crust? The social crust is so encircling and hard, that you'll never be able to penetrate what's taking place." This was three weeks after I'd been elected, my first speech on the floor of the senate [Virginia General Assembly]. They said my god, that's the end of him.$$They felt you had betrayed him, [Bob] Butcher [ph.], right? And some--was he upset about your speech? Did he feel--$$He wasn't happy.$$He wasn't happy, okay.$$Butcher said, "My god after you'd been getting along so well with those old men." I said I hadn't been getting along that well with them, they were tolerating me I guess, they were speaking. Said hello and how are you? And what happened though was in researching it, I, I became even more upset because if you look at the preamble to the resolution, which was only adopted into the, in the 1940s, this song was only adopted in 1940 in the administration of Governor [William M.] Tuck, who was certainly never considered moderate by any standards. So you can imagine he couldn't be considered anything leaning toward the rights of African Americans. And in the preamble it says in order to foster pride in the people of the Commonwealth [of Virginia], more importantly to foster pride in the young people, we hereby adopt this as the official state song and the Alliance Club had gone out to the gravesite of this man James Bland who had written the song, and they pointed did you know that he was an African American? I said so what? I said, "Do you know what else he wrote? He wrote 'In the Evening by the Moonlight' and 'Oh! Dem Golden Slippers.'" I said, "He was a smart, educated man, but he wrote what he could sell. So I don't knock it that he wrote it. You could tell me that anybody of color could have written it, it doesn't make a difference." I said, "But you think this promotes pride in the people of the commonwealth?" "But it's such a lovely song. What words would you like us to change?" None. So I introduced a bill to say repeal the state song. They came to me and they said, "Are you gonna force us to vote on this?" I said, "No I'm not gonna force you." Same thing I told the judge. I'm not trying to force you to do anything. If I felt I could force you to do something, it would be just to say, it's repealed. I knew there wouldn't be not--there would be not a single vote along with mine. But that isn't the real story. The real story is that when I did that, I was criticized all around the world. Letters came from all over the places, Maryland, I mean Ireland, Germany, Mexico. People who'd lived in Virginia, come back to Virginia. "How dare you do that?" How--and yet so many of the letters came that understood exactly what I was talking about. Now this is--you gotta remember, what, 1960.$$1969.$$Yes, 1969. They understood exactly what I was talking about. And stated so.