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Melvin Stith

Academic administrator Melvin Stith was born on August 11, 1946 in Portsmouth, Virginia to Florence Stith and Millard Stith. Stith graduated from Central High School in 1964, and earned his B.S. degree in sociology from Norfolk State University in 1968. Stith then received his M.B.A. degree in 1973 and his Ph.D. degree in marketing in 1978, both from the Martin J. Whitman School of Management at Syracuse University. Stith served in the U.S. Army Military Intelligence Command from 1968 to 1972, achieving the rank of captain.

From 1977 to 1982, Stith worked as an assistant professor of business and an associate dean at the University of South Florida College of Business. He then served as a visiting professor at the Florida A&M University School of Business and Industry from 1982 to 1985, when he accepted an associate professor position in the marketing department at Florida State University, later serving as the department’s chair. In 1991, Stith was named dean of the business school and Jim Moran Professor of Business Administration. He left Florida State University in 2005 to become the dean of the Martin J. Whitman School of Management at Syracuse University. Stith also served on a number of boards, including Aflac, Flowers Food Corporation, the Keebler Food Company, and the Tallahassee State Bank. He served as president of the Crouse Hospital Foundation, an independent director at Synovus Financial Corporation, and an advisory board member of Syracuse University’s Institute for Veterans and Military Families. In 2018, Stith was appointed interim president of Norfolk State University.

Stith has received numerous awards over the course of his career. In 1990, he won Florida State University’s Dr. MLK Jr.’s Distinguished Service Award; and in 2018, he was inducted into the Florida State University College of Business Faculty Hall of Fame. His Ph.D. thesis became part of the Ph.D. Project Hall of Fame in 2014. He was a recipient of the Syracuse University Orange Circle Award, and is a member of the Lyman Beecher Brooks Society at Norfolk State University. Stith was named as a top influential black corporate executive by Savoy Magazine in 2016 and 2017.

Stith and his wife, Dr. Patricia Lynn Stith, have three children: Melvin Stith, Jr., Lori Stith, and William Stith.

Melvin Stith was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 16, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.012

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/16/2018

Last Name

Stith

Maker Category
Middle Name

T.

Schools

Norfolk State University

Syracuse University

First Name

Melvin

Birth City, State, Country

Portsmouth

HM ID

STI05

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Relaxing Places

Favorite Quote

You Have To Be Where Your Ship Comes In

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Virginia

Birth Date

8/11/1946

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Norfolk

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Short Description

Academic administrator Melvin Stith (1946 - ) was the dean of the college of business at Florida State University, dean of the Martin J. Whitman School of Business at Syracuse University, and an interim president of Norfolk State University.

Employment

Norfolk State University

Syracuse University

Florida State University

Florida A & M

University of South Florida

Favorite Color

Crimson and Cream

Camellia Moses Okpodu

Research director and STEM educator Camellia Moses Okpodu was born on January 24, 1964 in Portsmouth, Virginia. Okpodu was the fourth of five children born to Frank Moses, a retired U.S. Navy veteran, and Luerevia Fullwood Moses. She graduated from West Brunswick High School in 1982, and then enrolled at North Carolina State University where she received her B.S. degree in biochemistry in 1987, and her Ph.D. degree in plant physiology and biochemistry in 1994. Upon graduation, Okpodu was awarded a postdoctoral research fellowship in plant molecular biology at the Virginia Institute of Technology. She also received certificates in Documentation and Record Keeping from the BioPharma Institute Program, in Forensic DNA Databases and Courtroom Consideration from the National Institute of Justice via the Forensics Training Network, and in Hazardous Communication from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

In 1996, Okpodu joined the faculty at Hampton University as an assistant professor in the department of biology. While there, she served as program director and principal investigator for Project O.A.K. from 1992 to 2002, and as chair of the department of biology from 1999 to 2000. In 2002, Okpodu left Hampton and joined the faculty at Elizabeth City State University where she was appointed to an endowed professorship and served for one year as the chair of the biology department. She then moved to Norfolk State University in 2003 where she was named professor and chair of the biology department. She also served as the director of the National Institutes of Health Extramural Research Office, director of the Intelligence Community Center of Academic Excellence, and as director of the Group for Microgravity and Environmental Biology (formerly, the Center of Microgravity and Environmental Biology).

Okpodu is a member of the Sigma Xi, Beta Kappa Chi, and the American Society of Plant Biology. Okpodu served as a reviewer for the Journal of Applied Phycology, and has published her research in the Journal of Plant Physiology and the Journal of Plant Science. Her academic and professional awards include the Gordon Research Conference Travel Award, the Intelligence Community Faculty Scholar Award, and both the Award of Recognition and the Special Recognition of Merit Award from the Office of the Director of National Intelligence. In addition, she served as a National Institutes of Health Genome Fellow in 2006, an Extramural Research Associate Fellow in 2006, and as an American Council on Education Fellow in 2007.

Camellia Moses Okpodu was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 20, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.151

Sex

Female

Interview Date

6/20/2013

Last Name

Okpodu

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

Moses

Schools

North Carolina State University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Camellia

Birth City, State, Country

Portsmouth

HM ID

OKP01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Holden Beach, North Carolina

Favorite Quote

I don't need nobody to get me nothin'. Just open the door and I'll get it myself. - James Brown

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Virginia

Birth Date

1/2/1964

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Hampton

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Asparagus

Short Description

Molecular biologist and plant biochemist Camellia Moses Okpodu (1964 - ) former chair of the Norfolk State University Biology Department, was the first Marshall Rauch Distinguished Professor at Elizabeth City University and the second director of the Norfolk State University’s Intelligence Community Center of Academic Excellence.

Employment

Norfolk State University

Elizabeth City State University

Hampton University

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Camellia Okpodu's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Camellia Okpodu lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Camellia Okpodu describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Camellia Okpodu describes her research on the Emancipation Oak pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Camellia Okpodu describes her research on the Emancipation Oak pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Camellia Okpodu talks about her mother's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Camellia Okpodu talks about her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Camellia Okpodu describes her father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Camellia Okpodu talks about her parents

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Camellia Okpodu describes her likeness to her parents

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Camellia Okpodu talks about her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Camellia Okpodu describes being raised by her uncle and aunt

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Camellia Okpodu describes the leaf collection that she submitted for a 4-H competition

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Camellia Okpodu describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Camellia Okpodu talks about Wilmington, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Camellia Okpodu talks about grade school

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Camellia Okpodu talks about her extracurricular activities in school

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Camellia Okpodu talks about her uncle Legrand incorporating North Myrtle Beach

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Camellia Okpodu describes her decision to attend North Carolina State University

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Camellia Okpodu describes becoming Miss Brunswick County

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Camellia Okpodu describes her time at North Carolina State University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Camellia Okpodu describes why she became interested in biochemistry

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Camellia Okpodu talks about sports at North Carolina State University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Camellia Okpodu describes her time in graduate school at North Carolina State University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Camellia Okpodu talks about Arlene Maclin, Esther Terry, and Roseanne Runte

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Camellia Okpodu describes her doctoral dissertation

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Camellia Okpodu talks about her doing her postdoctoral work at Virginia Polytechnic and State University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Camellia Okpodu describes her time as professor at Hampton University

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Camellia Okpodu describes her projects at Hampton University

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Camellia Okpodu talks about her books

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Camellia Okpodu talks about Dr. Douglas Depriest

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Camellia Okpodu describes her transition from Hampton University to Norfolk State University

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Camellia Okpodu describes her time as chair of a department at Norfolk State University

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Camellia Okpodu talks about photosynthesis

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Camellia Okpodu talks about her work with undergraduate research pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Camellia Okpodu talks about her work with undergraduate research pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Camellia Okpodu describes her time as the director of the Office of Extramural Research

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Camellia Okpodu talks about genetically modified food

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Camellia Okpodu talks about the Dozoretz National Institute for Mathematics and Applied Sciences

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Camellia Okpodu talks about the Mid-Atlantic Consortium-Center for Academic Excellence

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Camellia Okpodu reflects on her career

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Camellia Okpodu talks about her concerns for parents and the next generation

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Camellia Okpodu reflects on her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Camellia Okpodu talks about her family

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Camellia Okpodu talks about how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Camellia Okpodu describes her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

5$6

DATitle
Camellia Okpodu describes her projects at Hampton University
Camellia Okpodu describes her time as the director of the Office of Extramural Research
Transcript
You're writing proposals there at Hampton [University, Hampton, Virginia]--$$Yes.$$--and for--what were some of the projects you were trying to fund?$$Well, I wrote a proposal to NASA [National Aeronautics and Space Administration] to fund my research in the microgravity research that I was doing, I wrote a proposal for my, National Science Foundation [NSF] for a Research Experience for Undergraduates [REU], I wrote one to NIH [National Institute of Health] as part of the MARC [Minority Access to Research Careers] proposal which was part of a larger group of proposals that we all wrote which we considered AREA Grant [National Institute of Health's Academic Research Enhancement Award], I participated in the writing of an ANPS, Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority in Science, so I was actively involved in a number of those proposals.$$Okay. Tell us a little bit about microgravity, now that's just something that NASA is interested in, right?$$Yeah.$$(Unclear) What happens to plants in low gravity situations, right$$Right, well I'm no longer doing that research but one of the things we know that plants have responsive genes that turn on a response to changes in gravitational pull, so right now you can take a--you've probably done this. You grow a plant, if you look at the plant on the side, you know--if you've probably seen this, and then plant will grow towards--grow up, so how does a plant know that's up? So we looked for genes that we could disrupt because those are gravity sensing genes, and we looked for that and that's what I was trying to do at Hampton. I designed something I called The Modular Plant, Plant Module PM--MPM; I never got to drop it in the drop tower, and what we were trying to do was look at those early events of development. What I had found over the years with the inositol enzymes is that those enzymes got turned on very early in, in development. So anytime you're sensing the change, they return normal within--actually within seconds, which--at the time when we were telling people this, they didn't believe it to be true, and then Dr. Bolson, along with others, have shown that this is really--a change in the transcript level occurs very quickly. So I--my question is what happens very early in microgravity? And so I had developed a way to study this; unfortunately, I never got a chance to do it, I left Hampton, went to Elizabeth City State [University, Elizabeth City, North California], by the time I got the thing in place--my contract moved to Elizabeth City State, I--the person I was working with at NASA retired or left, and so I was never able to fulfill that research but I did design the module and my understanding is that it works, so I did do that, and that's one of the things that was very successful.$$Tell us a little bit more about this module. I had a note about it here but what was it (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous)--I designed it in such a way that as it dropped through the tower, that you could actually slowly or quickly freeze the material so by the time it got to the end of the tower which was a thirty second drop, that you could take lapse times, so I had it designed where you could--it would kill plants after one second, it would kill some of the--it'll freeze other plants after five seconds, and so forth and so on. So you could do what we call a dose response. So you could look at--isolate the tissue and see what happened early on the first second of dropping and see what we call subtractive DNA analysis to see if there was any genes turned on or off as a result, as you would do the gravitational but I never got a chance to do it. So the thing is created, we showed it work, I never got to do the experiments.$$Did you ever get a chance to see the results of how it worked?$$Yeah, I got to do it, I just never got to do the experiments.$$Okay, all right.$$It worked. We designed it and it worked, we built it but I never got to--'cause the person I was working with got changed to a different mission and then NASA Glenn [Center for Research, Cleveland, Ohio] was not doing the drop tower research anymore.$$Okay. Now what was Project Oak at Hampton?$$That was the REU (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous)--That was the--$$(Simultaneous)--That was the Research Experience for Undergraduates.$$Okay.$$I named it Project Oak, Opportunity Alliance Network, after the fact that I was bringing students in--college students from all over the country, to come to an HBCU, spend eight weeks with us and do research centered around the Emancipation Oak that's a live--living laboratory. So we did pathology, we isolated whatever pathogen was from the leaves. We did micro-- molecular biology where did the isolation of DNA from both prepared and herbarium stored samples and we did some biochemistry in analyzing the different types of iso-enzymes that were seen in the leaves in response to different stresses. So it was just simply using the Emancipation Oak as the foundational research project for our--what we were doing.$In 2007, you were director of the NIH [National Institute of Health] Extramural Research Office [sic, Office of Extramural Research, OER] here. What did that entail?$$So when I became a department chair, I realized that part of the problem was--I did a survey and people weren't writing proposals, and it's because I learned about Vroom's expectancy theory. You're like, "What, you're a biochemist, what do you know about all this sociology work?" So Vroom's idea is to change an organization there's some intrinsic things that people come with that you're not gonna be able to do, you know? If I'm a runner, I'm wired to be a runner and--but there are some things that you can manage that's an expectation. So most of us are intrinsically motivated but we have an expectation that you would provide me the tools by which I can have--affect my own change, and so if you want to change organizational culture or outlooks, one of the things you can do is manage expectations by providing students--people with the proper tools. So what I, what I found--my idea was--this was hypothesis-driven research that I did was trying to figure out how to get people to write proposals and most people would wanna write. I mean most people wanna write but they felt like, "You didn't give us the infrastructure or the tools." And so I developed a training program when I would train people to write proposals and then I would actually work with them and actually draft the proposals. And so one of the ones that we had the most success with is this Mid-Atlantic Consortium that we had between Morgan State [University, Baltimore, Maryland] and Norfolk State [University, Norfolk, University] and that we brought a group of people together and we sat down through the OER office and we wrote a proposal together. And then we crafted that proposal such that when we submitted it for final submission, it was one of the--it was the top proposal. We were told by the agency our proposal ranked number one out of the forty-one applications that they got. And it was because of the approach we decided. I didn't have a work shop just to be having a work shop. I had a work shop with tangible outcomes that when they left, they actually had something that they could submit. They had to massage it a little bit more, and I helped them in the process. But--so that was what the OER office did. We were a research development office. And I did that up until last year where I found that it was just a little bit too much--too difficult. In managing that, I micromanaged a lot. I don't do well in micromanaging. I figure that you tell me what it is you do and I can manage my own expectations, so that was--I just decided that I couldn't be effective at doing it so I'm no longer doing that. I still help people. The other day, somebody called me and said "Can you help me write this proposal?" I helped 'em write it because in the end run, the long run, you want people to be able to get tenure. The other thing I saw is that a lot of the young women, I thought, were not getting tenure. I don't know the reason why they were leaving, but I know part of it was they weren't getting it because they didn't have funded projects. And so I opened up the competition for anyone who wanted to apply. I helped-- helped anyone, but a lot of the young women I guess came because they saw me, and I guess for some reason I was--that translated to them. I helped anyone who wanted to be helped however, but a number of them were successful in getting funded projects and were able to get tenure, and I think it was directly related to that early grant; because if they hadn't been there, the process--even though we have an officer-sponsored program, it's not an easy process to get through. So I kinda helped them get through the process and get a final project that they could submit. Yep.

Linda Hayden

Mathematician and research director Linda B. Hayden was born on February 4, 1949 in Portsmouth, Virginia to Linwood Copeland, Sr. and Sarah Vaughn Bailey. She enjoyed math as a child, particularly plotting out functions and determining their characteristics. Hayden attended Portsmouth Public Schools for her elementary and secondary education. After graduating from I. C. Norcom High School in Portsmouth, Hayden attended Virginia State University and went on to graduate from there in 1970 with her B.S. degree in mathematics and physics. In 1972, Hayden received her M.A. degree in mathematics and education from the University of Cincinnati; and, in 1983, she received her M.S. degree in computer science from Old Dominion University. Hayden earned her Ph.D. degree in mathematics and education from American University in 1988. Her doctoral thesis was titled, “The Impact of an Intervention Program for High Ability Minority Students on Rates of High School Graduation, College Enrollment, and Choice of a Quantitative Major.”

Hayden began her teaching career as an assistant professor of mathematics at Kentucky State University in 1972 where she remained until 1976. Hayden then served an an assistant professor at Norfolk State University. In 1980, she was appointed as an associate professor of computer science at Elizabeth City State University (ECSU). While there, Hayden founded, and served as director of, the Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing Education and Research (CERSER). She was promoted to full professor and named as the associate dean of the ECSU School of Mathematics, Science, and Technology in 2002. In addition, Hayden has served as a research fellow at the Department of the Army Training and Doctrine Command, and as a visiting professor at American University and the University of the District of Columbia.

Her research has been published in national and international journals such as, the Proceedings of the National Science Teachers Association and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineer - Geosciences and Remote Sensing Society Joint International Conference Proceedings. Hayden was a founding member of the Eastern North Carolina Chapter of the Geosciences and Remote Sensing Society (GRSS) and subsequently served as president.

Hayden is a recipient of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Professional Achievement Award as well as the U.S. Black Engineer Magazine Emerald Award for Educational Leadership. In 2009, the National Science Foundation presented Hayden with the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Mentoring, and the National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education presented her with the NOBLE Laureate Award.

Hayden and her husband, Lee V. Hayden Jr., live in Portsmouth, Virginia. They have one son, Kuchumbi Linwood Hayden.

Linda B. Hayden was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 25, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.044

Sex

Female

Interview Date

2/25/2013

Last Name

Hayden

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Bailey

Occupation
Schools

Virginia State University

University of Cincinnati

Old Dominion University

American University

First Name

Linda

Birth City, State, Country

Portsmouth

HM ID

HAY13

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Favorite Quote

Like giving forward.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Virginia

Birth Date

2/4/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Norfolk

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Southern, Creole, Indian Food

Short Description

Mathematician and educator Linda Hayden (1949 - ) is the associate dean of the Elizabeth City State University School of Mathematics, Science and Technology, and the director of the Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing Education and Research.

Employment

Kentucky State University

Norfolk State University

Elizabeth City State University

Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing Education and Research

Favorite Color

Green, Pink

Timing Pairs
0,0:622,11:910,16:2206,35:2782,47:4294,71:4942,82:5590,93:6958,126:7678,146:8182,165:18928,318:23152,385:31550,464:33750,511:35950,560:36302,565:37622,602:38854,643:71796,867:72111,873:72426,879:80740,958:90180,1060:90530,1066:100616,1185:101344,1194:127577,1422:128593,1431:133352,1452:133808,1457:139175,1518:140854,1541:149280,1698:150136,1717:156058,1807:161105,1892:165109,1975:165494,1981:168805,2055:171346,2107:174880,2116:178875,2186:179810,2208:180490,2220:180830,2225:182530,2266:208076,2497:210122,2532:216850,2571:217264,2581:218851,2631:220093,2657:221473,2744:227130,2774:253284,2870:256326,2930:266382,3121:270092,3173:279386,3260:283210,3305:288232,3365:296402,3520:304680,3565:305286,3572:308121,3600:312333,3660:329214,3824:329642,3832:338948,3889:342646,3972:351414,4091:354372,4156:359058,4219:359394,4224:359814,4230:362334,4299:362754,4306:364350,4448:392080,4716:395114,4770:396590,4796:396918,4803:398640,4841:403265,4908:407542,4984:411414,5023:412602,5105:423030,5268:425505,5329:426180,5359:427980,5409:432855,5536:439240,5570:442810,5652:447520,5684$0,0:2442,29:4074,56:4890,70:5298,77:5774,85:6590,99:10534,174:14191,202:17755,302:18484,313:24438,333:28990,376:29710,389:30010,395:30310,401:33110,425:34210,437:35010,447:37280,456:39394,482:39682,487:39970,492:40762,507:41338,516:41770,523:42418,534:48998,617:50594,645:51014,657:52442,681:52946,688:64909,806:65185,811:65461,816:65737,821:66220,829:70120,900:70660,914:71140,924:72280,952:72760,961:73180,970:74080,995:75160,1015:75820,1029:76360,1040:77260,1056:82355,1101:82985,1108:85610,1142:86450,1151:86870,1156:87290,1161:90175,1181:90587,1186:91720,1198:94267,1212:101240,1285:102740,1298:103460,1309:104000,1318:104360,1323:106340,1354:107420,1370:111108,1407:112116,1414:112980,1432:115200,1442:116496,1473:122112,1601:131048,1646:131612,1653:132646,1680:133022,1685:134620,1710:135090,1716:136970,1733:138098,1751:150324,1804:151247,1847:153874,1901:158246,1950:158774,1960:160292,1989:160886,2003:161414,2012:161678,2017:162338,2031:162998,2042:163592,2052:163856,2057:164120,2062:168840,2076:169215,2082:169515,2087:172140,2104:179670,2119:180990,2132:182310,2152:183080,2161:186780,2187:187572,2201:187932,2207:190092,2245:197528,2302:198200,2312:199124,2325:199460,2330:203517,2357:206380,2385
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Linda Hayden's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Linda Hayden lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Linda Hayden describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Linda Hayden describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Linda Hayden talks about her father's barbershop

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Linda Hayden talks about how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Linda Hayden talks about her parents and siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Linda Hayden describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Linda Hayden describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Linda Hayden talks about her elementary school experience

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Linda Hayden talks about her high school experience

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Linda Hayden talks about her youth and her interest in mathematical functions

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Linda Hayden talks about her pre-college counseling

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Linda Hayden talks about her decision to attend Virginia State University

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Linda Hayden talks about her peers and professors at Virginia State University

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Linda Hayden talks about her extracurricular interests during college

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Linda Hayden talks about race and political relations in Virginia during the late 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Linda Hayden talks about moving to Cincinnati, Ohio and her decision to attend the University of Cincinnati

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Linda Hayden talks about her experience at the University of Cincinnati

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Linda Hayden her experience teaching at Kentucky State University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Linda Hayden talks about meeting her husband

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Linda Hayden talks about her mother's declining health

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Linda Hayden talks about her decision to pursue an M.S. degree in computer science

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Linda Hayden talks about her friend, Joan Langdon, and her decision to pursue her Ph.D. degree

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Linda Hayden talks about her mentor, Mary Gray, and balancing family life with school

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Linda Hayden talks about the Saturday Academy at the University of the District of Columbia

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Linda Hayden talks about the emerging computer science department at Elizabeth City State University

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Linda Hayden talks about establishing technological infrastructure at Elizabeth State University

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Linda Hayden talks about the grant funding for ECSU's computer science program

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Linda Hayden talks about her work with computers and parallel processing

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Linda Hayden talks about the NASA Network Resources and Training Site at ECSU

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Linda Hayden talks about her work with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the University of Cairo

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Linda Hayden talks about the Eastern North Carolina Chapter of the Geosciences Remote Sensing Society

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Linda Hayden talks about her work at Elizabeth City State University

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Linda Hayden talks about the Center for Excellence in Remote Sensing Education and Research

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Linda Hayden talks about receiving the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science, Mathematics and Engineering Mentoring

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Linda Hayden talks about the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS)

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Linda Hayden talks about her professional awards and activities

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Linda Hayden reflects on her major accomplishments

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Linda Hayden reflects on her life choices

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Linda Hayden talks about her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Linda Hayden talks about her organizational affiliations

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Linda Hayden talks about women in mathematics

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Linda Hayden talks about how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Linda Hayden describes her photos

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$6

DAStory

1$2

DATitle
Linda Hayden describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up
Linda Hayden talks about the Center for Excellence in Remote Sensing Education and Research
Transcript
So, you've been talking about--one question we always ask is about the sights and sounds and smells of growing up. And you've really been doing a good job with that already, without me asking you. But, what are some of the sights and sounds and smells?$$Oh, I remember, I remember the dirt outside of my grandmother's house where we used to draw our little hopscotch, and the color of that dirt being a muddy--kind of a brown. There was no grass. It was just, you know, but it was a hard dirt and it was a good thing. We'd draw--you know, all you needed was a nice piece of glass, and you could draw a nice hopscotch with it. And the color of that dirt... Yeah, I remember when I did see, you know, places where there was glass, like in the backyard. She used to have a fig tree. It was really great, because I love figs. And we'd search for four-leaf clovers in the areas where there was grass growing, always happy when we found one, a four-leaf clover. I remember her kitchen--and Saturday--you didn't cook on Sunday. She always cooked on Saturday. And she would make the rolls, and if there was any bread left over, she'd pat it down and put cinnamon and butter over it. And she'd slice an apple very thin, and she'd just lay it on top of the bread, and we'd have that cinnamon bread like for breakfast in the morning. And that smell--oooh, ahhh, brings back some real memories, that smell of cinnamon bread baking. I remember that she cooked on a wood stove, or a coal stove. In the kitchen, there was one in the kitchen. And there was always a coffee pot sitting on the back of the stove. And that coffee would be, they'd make it in the morning and it would just, you know, first thing you'd smell would be the coffee. And they'd drink it all day long. That would be some pretty strong coffee. And to this day, the first thing I do when I get up in the morning is make some coffee. And people in my house don't drink coffee, except for me. So, I make a half a pot, but every single day I make a pot of coffee. It's just sort of my connection to the world, and it's, yeah, it's decaf. So, it's not the caffeine that gives me, you know, the rush or whatever. It's the warmth that's good and the aroma is good. And I just think it is just kind of my link back to that time. Coffee on the stove, I remember. I remember the nights when we would all sleep in that one bed. It was Grandmama and myself and Aunt Vivian, and sometimes Stephanie. And how we would--if you had to get up at night, then there was no indoor plumbing for a long time. So, there was a jar, a jug, that we'd have to use. And then somebody would have to take that out the next day, of course, in the morning. So, I remember that. Smell--I remember the smell of the lotion that Aunt Vivian used to use, that Jergen's lotion, that I thought was just wonderful. I remember the vanilla ice cream, that whenever Vivian's friend used to come over. And there was a living room that nobody got to play in. I mean, we'd come in the front door and we'd go right through the living room. You didn't stop there. Only visitors got to sit in the living room. But whenever her friend would come over, he'd bring ice cream for Grandma. (laughter). And so, I remember that. I remember her, I remember the sound of the man who used to bring ice. He'd come selling ice, big chunks of ice. When she finally got a refrigerator, you got the ice and put it in there to keep stuff warm [does she mean cold?]. And it was the ice pick that we used to use, you know, to chip pieces off, if we wanted a drink. So, that's pretty clear in my memory. And the feel of that coal heat which was so dense, you know, it was really a heavy, heavy, heat in the family room. The sounds when we'd go out and get that coal and bring it in, and the buckets and the wood, the wood had to be cut also to keep us warm. And then we'd all go upstairs and we... at night. Get up--wouldn't nobody would get--Grandma would get up first. And she'd go down and she would, you know, start the stove up and make a pot of coffee. And then a little later, we'd get up and go down and wash up, because there was some warm water, a kettle of water, where we could wash up then. So, that's what I remember from early days. Now, after that, when Dad [Linwood Copeland Bailey] bought the house, they say, people used to say, well, you know, he was cooking with gas, because he didn't have to cook with coal anymore, he cooked with wood. They had, you know, a gas furnace and (laughter) a gas stove to cook on. So, we didn't have to go through that anymore when we moved to 306 Beechdale Road.$$Now, how old were you when you all moved?$$I was about five or six.$$Okay.$$I was school age.$$So, you went to school in the new neighborhood, right?$$Actually, the school was still downtown that I went to. And so, I would ride down to school with him in the morning and go to school. When I got out of school, I'd go to his barbershop and wait until somebody had, you know, the opportunity to take me back home.$$So, that is interesting, to spend a lot of time in a barbershop, with the discussions that--$$Uh huh.$$Did they clean up their conversation...$$Oh, gosh.$$...when you came in?$$I spent a lot of time in the back room (laughter). Yeah.$$Okay. Because they were--I'm the son of a barber, and I know they would do that--$$Are you?$$--and you'd come in the guys would try to talk, they--$$Yeah, they didn't--$$They'd chastise each other for, you know, for--$$They did not talk dirty around me, no. I don't remember any of that.$$But--$$I remember spinning around in that barber chair a lot, though. That was a fun thing to do. Did you do that? (laughter).$$That's right.$Now, in 2002, you became the director of the Center for Excellence in Remote Sensing Education and Research.$$Yeah.$$For CERSER, right?$$Yes.$$Okay.$$CERSER started off as a proposal. It was a proposal that I wrote to NOAA [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration]. They had a solicitation for Centers of Excellence. And the thing is, they wanted the centers to be in institutions where there were, where there was a significant amount of graduate work going on. And we had just been approved for a master's degree program in mathematics, but it didn't start until September. The proposals were due in May or spring. And so, I explained that in the proposal, but it wasn't strong enough to compete with schools like, you know, schools that already had programs well-established. And I tried it one more time with another solicitation for a center, the Center of Excellence for Remote Sensing Education and Research. Although there was a lot of research going on here, there was a lot of integration of that research into education, into these K-12 schools and these other universities, but we didn't have the master's and Ph.D. level programs they were looking for. And so they rejected my proposal. And eventually, I just said, you know what, this idea is bigger than any one proposal. We need to do this, we just need to do this. And so, I was able to get the facility on campus-some--but not all that I needed, but I got some. And over the course of those other small grants--I've been--grants with Navy and NASA [National Aeronautics and Space Administration]--I've been accumulating some indirect costs funds and just kind of using, saving them. And I said this is a good purpose. And so, we used those funds to buy the carpeting and the furniture and the video equipment, and you know, and just set it up. So, we just did it, and we established that center. And you know, Mr. Luther was encouraging me the whole way. And that's how the Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing Education and Research came about. It was first, two proposals that were rejected. And under that umbrella, we are able to engage partnerships that are focused on coastal, marine, and polar science programs. And those partnerships are both educational and research based. Under the umbrella of CERSER there are a number of programs now that operate, and a lot of good research going on in CERSER.

Marlene Randall

City councilwoman and longtime former educator, Marlene Randall was born on October 18, 1934 in Portsmouth, Virginia to Gladys and James West. After graduating from high school, Randall earned her B.S. degree in elementary education from Virginia State University. She also received her M.A. degree in early childhood education from Columbia University in 1960. Randall continued her education to receive her advanced certificate in administration from the University of Virginia and her advanced certificate in administration and supervision from Old Dominion University. In addition, Randall received her certificate in advanced studies from Nova University.

Randall began her teaching career in the Portsmouth Public School System. She went on to become treasurer for the Church and Community in Action, working to improve the quality of life of citizens in Portsmouth. She also worked as Secretary for Area II of the NAACP which includes Portsmouth, Norfolk, Chesapeake, and Suffolk, Virginia. She also created the pattern for the pairing of schools, staff and students that led to the integration of Portsmouth Public Schools. In 2002, Randall was elected to the Portsmouth City Council where she served three consecutive terms.

In 2008, Randall was a guest speaker at Tidewater Community College’s Black History Month Celebration. She has also been recognized by the National League of Cities for attaining the Platinum level in its Certificate of Achievement in Leadership program. This is the highest level of achievement that one can attain in the state. She has also been the chairman of Virginia First Cities, and appointed by former Governor Tim Cane to the Criminal Justice Services Board.

Randall is married to Vernon Randall and together they have three children, Ricardo, Veronica, and Michelle. Unfortunately, her home was destroyed by fire on December 27, 2010.

Marlene Randall was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 13, 2010.

Accession Number

A2010.018

Sex

Female

Interview Date

5/13/2010

Last Name

Randall

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Organizations
Schools

Abraham Lincoln Elementary School

Booker T. Washington High School

Virginia State University

Columbia University

First Name

Marlene

Birth City, State, Country

Portsmouth

HM ID

RAN08

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

Everything's Going To Be All Right.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Virginia

Birth Date

10/18/1934

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Portsmouth

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Cabbage

Short Description

City government administrator Marlene Randall (1934 - ) served as an elementary school principal and city council member in the community of Portsmouth, Virginia.

Employment

Highland-Biltmore Elementary School

Lakeview Elementary School

Portsmouth Virginia Central Administration

Favorite Color

Green

DAStories

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Marlene Randall describes her experiences of racial discrimination as an educator in the Portsmouth Public Schools

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Marlene Randall remembers working with struggling students in New York City's Harlem neighborhood

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Marlene Randall reflects upon the curiosity of children

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Marlene Randall recalls her challenges at Columbia University's Teachers College in New York City

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Marlene Randall talks about her husband and children

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Marlene Randall recalls the start of school desegregation in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Marlene Randall recalls her experiences of discrimination at Highland-Biltmore Elementary School in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Marlene Randall remembers the support of Rufae Holmes

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Marlene Randall describes Rufae Holmes' role in the desegregation of the Portsmouth Public Schools

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Marlene Randall describes her role in the consolidation of the Portsmouth Public Schools

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Marlene Randall recalls becoming the principal of Lakeview Elementary School in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Marlene Randall recalls becoming the principal of Highland-Biltmore Elementary School in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Marlene Randall describes her achievements at Lakeview Elementary School in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Marlene Randall talks about the high school consolidation process in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Marlene Randall describes a reprisal against her school integration efforts

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Marlene Randall describes the impact of her work on her health

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Marlene Randall reflects upon the problems facing today's youth

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Marlene Randall recalls her decision to run for the Portsmouth City Council

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Marlene Randall talks about her role as the secretary of the Area II NAACP

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Marlene Randall talks about her campaigns for the Portsmouth City Council

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Marlene Randal describes the economic challenges in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Marlene Randall describes the redevelopment plans for Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Marlene Randall describes her concerns for the community of Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Marlene Randall talks about the Tidewater Community College in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Marlene Randall describes her hopes for the Tidewater region of Virginia

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Marlene Randall reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Marlene Randall talks about her family

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Marlene Randall describes her hopes for the community of Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Marlene Randall describes how she would like to be remembered

Joyce Moore Gray

Educational specialist Joyce Moore Gray was born in Portsmouth, Virginia, in 1943. As a child, Gray played the clarinet and was encouraged by her mother and music instructor to become a teacher. She attended Southwestern Elementary School and graduated from Crestwood High School in 1961. Gray received a scholarship to attend Virginia State University where she graduated with her B.S. degree in music. She went on to earn her M.A. degree in education from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

After graduating from college, Gray began her career as a music teacher in Clark County School District, Las Vegas, Nevada. In 1981, she moved to Salt Lake City, Utah, where for one year she taught instrumental music at West Lake Junior High School, Granite School District. The following year, Gray was appointed to serve as that district’s Multicultural Programs Coordinator. While serving in that capacity, she also filled the position as Assistant Principal at Central Junior High School.

In 1984, Gray broke the color barrier in educational administration by becoming the first African American principal in the State of Utah. She was selected to be the Principal of Arcadia Elementary School in the Granite School District, Taylorsville, Utah. After six years, Gray continued to defy the odds when she was appointed Principal of Granite School District’s Roosevelt Elementary School. During her second year at that school, she was approached by an Assistant Superintendent in Salt Lake City School District and requested to apply to be principal of an intermediate school. In 1992, Gray became Principal of Bryant Intermediate School, Salt Lake City School District, Salt Lake City, Utah. Bryant Intermediate School became one of the nation’s top schools and was recognized as a National Blue Ribbon School of Excellence. Gray and her school team were invited to the White House to receive this award. During their Washington, D.C. visit, they met President and Mrs. Bill Clinton.

In 1995, Gray’s ambition led her to enroll in a doctorate program in Educational Leadership and Policy at the University of Utah. She continued to pursue professional goals and applied for a high school principalship. Another moment in history occurred in 1996 when Gray was selected to be principal of West High School, Salt Lake City School District. Thus, Gray became the first African American high school principal in the State of Utah. Gray’s outstanding leadership skills led her to become Utah Principal of the Year in 1999.

Gray earned her doctorate in education from the University of Utah in 2001. She went on to become Director for Career and Technical Education in Salt Lake City School District for two years prior to her retirement in 2005. Gray is now an Educational Consultant and Founder and President of her own company, Jam G Consulting, Inc.

Gray has earned numerous awards during her professional journey. These include: the NAACP Rosa Parks Award, UASCD Educator of The Year, NCCJ Community Award, YWCA Outstanding Achievement Award in Education and the UWEAA President’s Award. Her work in the Utah community included: Board member of the United Way of the Greater Salt Lake Area; YWCA Board member; Chair, Utah Governor’s Black Advisory Council; Board of Lay Editors for Salt Lake Tribune’s “Common Carrier” column; Minister of Music and Director at New Pilgrim Baptist Church; Youth Director, NPBC; Chartering President for the Utah Alliance of Black School Educators. Gray is also a chartering member of Upsilon Beta Omega Chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. She currently serves as that chapter’s President.

Gray and her husband, Lloyd, reside in Murray, Utah. They have three children and eight grand children

Accession Number

A2008.046

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/13/2008

Last Name

Gray

Maker Category
Middle Name

Moore

Schools

Crestwood High School

Southwestern Elementary School

Virginia State University

Chestnut Street School

University of Nevada, Las Vegas

University of Utah

First Name

Joyce

Birth City, State, Country

Portsmouth

HM ID

GRA09

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

San Diego, California

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Utah

Birth Date

8/3/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Salt Lake City

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Education consultant and principal Joyce Moore Gray (1943 - ) was the first African American principal in the history of the State of Utah. She was also founder and president of her own educational consulting company, Jam G Consulting, Inc.

Employment

Clark County School District

Granite School District

Arcadia Elementary School

Simmons Associates - The Education Company

Jam G Consulting, Inc.

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:930,21:1335,27:6280,98:6680,103:8680,131:9280,138:10080,148:11180,162:12380,238:19707,301:20400,310:21588,325:23271,346:26437,354:27270,363:28341,382:32387,434:35524,449:36672,469:38394,496:39542,514:40280,530:41756,553:45700,578:46148,587:50500,708:53334,733:53719,739:54489,755:56106,784:56568,793:57954,835:58416,843:58878,857:59802,874:60110,879:63036,916:63498,923:64422,936:71130,979:71500,984:72092,993:74645,1025:75212,1038:80956,1091:81341,1097:82111,1113:82419,1118:84036,1147:84652,1156:87260,1161:91308,1210:92218,1227:104304,1399:104576,1404:107530,1433:108220,1440:111660,1468:112760,1481:122412,1656:124300,1672:125400,1705:125785,1718:128725,1737:129120,1744:130621,1771:132359,1795:133149,1808:133465,1815:134650,1841:134966,1846:135993,1864:141630,1916:142070,1922:142950,1933:146570,1949:148970,1992:149850,2004:151130,2034:151450,2039:151770,2044:152570,2056:152970,2063:153530,2072:157599,2097:158151,2107:158772,2117:159117,2123:159393,2128:160359,2137:160842,2145:161325,2154:161739,2161:162429,2175:162705,2180:163395,2193:163878,2204:165396,2239:165810,2246:166086,2251:166362,2256:167811,2294:172250,2309:173210,2330:173594,2337:174618,2363:175194,2375:175578,2382:178452,2406:178890,2413:180131,2434:180715,2446:181007,2451:183510,2464:183810,2469:184110,2474:184935,2488:185460,2497:186135,2508:186735,2518:187785,2534:190410,2566:195580,2583:195868,2588:196804,2610:197452,2621:199540,2663:201124,2694:201484,2700:204554,2715:204988,2724:205608,2736:206290,2749:209296,2793:210166,2807:215125,2934:215995,2950:224650,3087:224930,3092:225210,3098:225490,3103:225770,3108:226260,3116:226960,3129:227310,3135:229200,3176:229620,3183:230740,3227:236048,3289:236820,3294$0,0:1200,31:6320,140:9120,196:9440,201:9760,206:10080,211:13440,219:14300,232:15676,256:19976,318:24104,381:28594,404:29578,473:30152,482:30808,496:32120,516:33022,534:34334,558:36302,596:40867,630:41973,649:42368,655:43316,670:43632,675:44738,688:45054,693:48278,717:48506,722:49076,735:49475,743:49703,748:49931,753:53074,781:53466,786:56610,812:65207,964:70480,1029:71740,1053:72160,1067:72510,1074:72790,1079:75352,1091:81398,1163:81776,1170:86440,1283:87700,1324:92010,1386:93690,1421:100662,1544:109274,1601:109814,1607:114630,1641:115230,1649:116580,1669:116955,1675:117405,1682:119655,1730:120780,1753:121230,1761:121755,1769:123255,1812:123705,1822:124455,1834:124755,1839:131533,1891:132100,1901:132352,1906:132793,1915:133108,1921:134520,1937
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Joyce Moore Gray's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Joyce Moore Gray lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Joyce Moore Gray talks about her mother's childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her mother's education and career

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her parents' emphasis on education

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Joyce Moore Gray describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her likeness to her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Joyce Moore Gray talks about her father's service in the U.S. Navy

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Joyce Moore Gray remembers segregation in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Joyce Moore Gray describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her family's house in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Joyce Moore Gray remembers her first trip to Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Joyce Moore Gray describes Victory Manor in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her early educational experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Joyce Moore Gray talks about her early interest in music

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Joyce Moore Gray lists her elementary and high schools

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Joyce Moore Gray recalls her activities at Crestwood High School in Chesapeake, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Joyce Moore Gray talks about the segregated school system in Chesapeake, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Joyce Moore Gray narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Joyce Moore Gray remembers the music of her youth

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Joyce Moore Gray remembers the segregated movie theater in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her early religious experiences

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Joyce Moore Gray remembers her early aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her first year at Virginia State College in Petersburg, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Joyce Moore Gray remembers F. Nathaniel Gatlin

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her activities at Virginia State College

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Joyce Moore Gray talks about her experiences of racial discrimination

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Joyce Moore Gray remembers the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Joyce Moore Gray remembers learning to play brass, string and percussion instruments

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Joyce Moore Gray recalls being hired at Jo Mackey Elementary School in North Las Vegas, Nevada

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her teaching experiences in Las Vegas, Nevada

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Joyce Moore Gray remembers the music scene in Las Vegas, Nevada

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her experiences at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Joyce Moore Gray remembers her courtship with her husband

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her early teaching career

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Joyce Moore Gray recalls her work for the Granite School District

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her early experiences as an elementary school principal

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Joyce Moore Gray describes the challenges she faced at Arcadia Elementary School in Salt Lake City, Utah

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Joyce Moore Gray narrates her photographs, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Joyce Moore Gray recalls becoming the principal of Roosevelt Elementary School in Salt Lake City, Utah

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her work at Bryant Intermediate School in Salt Lake City, Utah

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Joyce Moore Gray describes the National Blue Ribbon Schools Program

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Joyce Moore Gray recalls becoming the principal of West High School in Salt Lake City, Utah

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her start as the principal of West High School

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Joyce Moore Gray remembers developing the I CARE program

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Joyce Moore Gray describes the demographics of West High School's student body

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Joyce Moore Gray talks about her Ed.D. degree program

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Joyce Moore Gray describes the academic programs at West High School in Salt Lake City, Utah, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Joyce Moore Gray describes the academic programs at West High School in Salt Lake City, Utah, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her work as a educational consultant

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her awards and honors

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Joyce Moore Gray talks about her organizational involvement

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her involvement with the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Joyce Moore Gray talks about diversity in the State of Utah

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her philosophy of education

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Joyce Moore Gray describes her concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Joyce Moore Gray reflects upon her life

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Joyce Moore Gray reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Joyce Moore Gray talks about her family

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - Joyce Moore Gray describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 13 - Joyce Moore Gray narrates her photographs, pt. 3

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

7$8

DATitle
Joyce Moore Gray describes her early experiences as an elementary school principal
Joyce Moore Gray describes the challenges she faced at Arcadia Elementary School in Salt Lake City, Utah
Transcript
Now here's where the story starts.$$(Laughter) Okay.$$(Laughter).$$Go ahead (laughter).$$Well, in this situation, now that I'm the person that's in charge of the school [Arcadia Elementary School, Salt Lake City, Utah], it's a little bit different than being a teacher. So, I mean, the race--racists began to surface in the community and at the school, from the teachers, from the students, and from the parents. And it was, it was difficult that first year because, first of all, parents were looking at me and saying, "Is she qualified to be at the school? Does she really have the credentials? We want to see her creden- ." They actually said this to my assistant superintendent: "We want to see her credentials." And then, there were a group of parents that were very, very racist. Some of them pulled their kids out of the school, went to other schools, but yet they still had--they were noisy enough to create havoc in the school that I was in. There were students that actually called me a nigger. There were parents that actually called me nigger. And it was, it was not a happy time. I was at that school for six years, and it probably took three good years to really, you know, get myself situated in that school.$$How did you handle, you know, that, the name calling and that sort of thing?$$I think I handled it--I had a, I had a secretary, a white lady was my secretary, but very supportive of me and she was always there for me. I had, I had people at my church [New Pilgrim Baptist Church, Salt Lake City, Utah], and I had Lloyd [Gray's husband, Lloyd Gray] that I would talk to. The way I handled it, I knew that I had to do a good job, and I knew I had to always do what was best for the children. And so, what I would do is I would put my focus on doing what was best for the kids. Because parents wanted to come after me, and say that I wasn't doing what was best for the kids, you know, that I was misusing funds, that I was assigning students to the wrong teachers or just--. But I knew, and so I just kept focusing on what I knew was right. But the other--I think the strongest thing that came out that my first or second year, was the fact that it was, this was a small group, the racist group, the people that were basically trying to get me out of the school. They, they had gone to the school board and everything, but there was a silent majority out there that really supported what I was doing. And what they did was they came together, and they put together a manual of support letters that were given to the board of education saying that they wanted me in the school and that, you know, they didn't represent the minority; they represented the large majority. And that was probably my salvation in terms of--. And it turned out to be a good situation. I mean, by my third, my, my fourth, fifth, and sixth year, I didn't want to move. The parents didn't want me out. The teachers that were still there with me didn't want me gone, and the students loved me, so I didn't want to go. But in that district [Granite School District] at that time, they make changes every six to eight years. And my sixth year was up, so the school board made--put me in another assignment at another school. But, yeah, that was, that was a pretty rough time.$I was wondering if you had any preparation for that kind of thing. Did you anticipate it at all, or did anybody try to warn you about what might happen or?$$Nope, nope, there was no warning. It just came full force. There was no preparation and I don't even know if they, if anyone knew how to prepare, prepare the community for a black woman coming in to be principal of their school, or prepare the school [Arcadia Elementary School, Salt Lake City, Utah]. Now what, what the people at the school and what the people at, in the community wanted to do, they wanted me to change who I was in order to be their principal. And changing who I was meant giving parents what they wanted, each parent, giving teachers what they wanted, whether they were right or wrong, buying into that system. I had, I had one person to say to me--because I, you know, I didn't get angry with them. I didn't curse anyone out. I just did my job, and I did it well, and I did my homework, and I was very firm in what I believed. And I had one person to say to me one time, "You're such a good person, you should be a Mormon." So, I said, "Are you saying that only Mormons, or people that are LDS [The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints] can be good people?" "Well, I really didn't mean that way." I said, "Well, that's how it came off." I'm not Mormon. I'm Baptist, you know, and I'm a person. I'm who I am, and I can't change that. The assistant superintendent said to me one time, "What can I do to help you?" I said, "Well, you've got to support who I am, and what I'm doing." And I said, "You can't change me. I'm a black woman, an African American woman; you can't change that. It's what it is, it's who I am. And you have to, you know, you have to respect that. That's the only thing you can do to help me. Support the work that I do, you know, don't let my race or my gender interfere with what I'm doing professionally."

Cheryl Willis Hudson

Children’s book publisher and author Cheryl Willis Hudson was born on April 7, 1948 in Portsmouth, Virginia to Hayes Elijah Willis, III, an insurance executive, and Lillian Watson Willis, an educator. Hudson attended Oberlin College and graduated cum laude in 1970. The following summer, she enrolled in a summer publishing procedures course at Radcliffe College in Cambridge, Massachusetts. In the fall of 1970, Hudson began working as an art editor in the educational division of Houghton Mifflin in Boston. She and Wade Hudson, a writer, met in Cambridge in 1971 and began collaborating on children’s book ideas. In 1972, she and Hudson were married, and they subsequently moved to New Jersey to live while Wade was enrolled in Channel 13’s film and television training program in New York City. Cheryl continued her career as a graphic designer at Macmillan Publishing Company in New York City and at Arete Publishing in Princeton, New Jersey.

In 1976 the Hudsons first child, Katura, was born and after failing to obtain African American art to ornament her nursery’s walls, Hudson decided to create her own designs. Ultimately, she was inspired to create a children’s book, and although she and Hudson attempted to shop it around to various publishing companies, they were unsuccessful. In 1982, Hudson again gave birth to the couple's second child, Stephan J. Hudson, and three years later, the couple again revived their idea of creating African American children’s art.

In 1985, the Hudsons developed the AFRO-BETS kids, black characters who would twist themselves into the shape of the alphabet. Two years later, after further rejections from various publishers, they invested $7,000 and self-published it. The couple received attention from leading education magazines and black bookstores, which carried the books. After the AFRO-BETS books sold out within three months, the Hudsons founded Just Us Books, Inc., an independent publishing company that publishes books and educational material for children that focus on black history, experiences and culture.

Cheryl Hudson handled the editorial aspects, while her husband served as president of the company, managing the business and marketing aspects. As director of editorial operations she works with authors and artists, and has helped many young aspiring book creators get their start in the publishing industry.

In 1990, Just Us Books, Inc. introduced a bi-monthly newspaper for young people entitled Harambee, which would later win a parent’s choice award. Throughout the 1990s, Just Us Books continued to publish critically acclaimed children’s literature, including Bright Eyes, Brown Skin, Jamal’s Busy Day, Annie’s Gifts, When I Was Little, Ziggy and the Black Dinosaurs and Kid Caramel, the first contemporary mystery series to focus on young, black male characters. In 1997, Income Opportunities Magazine named the Hudsons “Small Business Pioneers of the Year.” In 2004, they began the Sankofa Books imprint, which publishes Black classics for children and young adults that are no longer in print.

Hudson is an award-winning author of more than twenty books for children. They include Bright Eyes, Brown Skin, Hands Can, the What A Baby series, Many Colors of Mother Goose, Come By Here, Lord, Everyday Prayers for Children and Langston’s Legacy. A graphic artist, Hudson has designed a number of books published by Just Us Books.

When she’s not writing, editing or art directing children’s books, Hudson is active in her community and publishing industry organizations. She serves on the advisory boards of the Small Press Center and the Langston Hughes Library at the Alex Haley Farm, operated by the Children’s Defense Fund. She is also a member of the Author’s Guild, PEN America and the Society of Book Writers and Illustrators. Among her accolades are the Stephen Crane Award and induction into the International Literary Hall of Fame for Writers of African Descent in 2003. Hudson also serves as a diversity and parenting expert for ClubMom.com.

Hudson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 28, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.174

Sex

Female

Interview Date

4/28/2007

Last Name

Hudson

Maker Category
Middle Name

Willis

Occupation
Schools

I.C. Norcom High School

Oberlin College

Radcliffe College

Mount Hermon Preschool Center

Northeastern University

Search Occupation Category
Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Weekends

First Name

Cheryl

Birth City, State, Country

Portsmouth

HM ID

HUD04

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Parents, Teachers, Librarians, Students interested in children's books and literature.

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - $500 - $1,000

Favorite Season

Fall

Speaker Bureau Notes

Preferred Audience: Parents, Teachers, Librarians, Students interested in children's books and literature.

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Favorite Quote

Go With The Flow.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New Jersey

Birth Date

4/7/1948

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

East Orange

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Sweet Potatoes, Broccoli

Short Description

Fiction writer Cheryl Willis Hudson (1948 - ) published children's books. Hudson was the co-founder of Just Us Books, Inc. and the developer of AFRO-BETS kids. She was the publisher of Bright Eyes, Brown Skin, Good Morning Baby, Good Night Baby and Ziggy and the Black Dinosaurs.

Employment

Just Us Books, Inc.

Hudson Publishing Group

Houghton Mifflin Co.

Macmillan Publishers USA

Favorite Color

Mauve

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Cheryl Willis Hudson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Cheryl Willis Hudson lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Cheryl Willis Hudson describes her mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Cheryl Willis Hudson describes the community of Charlottesville, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Cheryl Willis Hudson describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Cheryl Willis Hudson describes her mother's family background, pt. 3

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Cheryl Willis Hudson describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Cheryl Willis Hudson describes her neighborhood in Portsmouth, Virginia, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Cheryl Willis Hudson describes her neighborhood in Portsmouth, Virginia, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Cheryl Willis Hudson remembers dinners with her family

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Cheryl Willis Hudson describes the African American community in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Cheryl Willis Hudson describes Mount Hermon Elementary School in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Cheryl Willis Hudson remembers desegregation in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Cheryl Willis Hudson describes her extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Cheryl Willis Hudson remembers her high school science fair

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Cheryl Willis Hudson describes her decision to attend Oberlin College in Oberlin, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Cheryl Willis Hudson describes her experiences at Phillips Exeter Academy in Exeter, New Hampshire, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Cheryl Willis Hudson describes her experiences at Phillips Exeter Academy in Exeter, New Hampshire, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Cheryl Willis Hudson describes her experiences at Oberlin College in Oberlin, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Cheryl Willis Hudson remembers the Civil Rights Movement in Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Cheryl Willis Hudson describes her mother's civic involvement

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Cheryl Willis Hudson recalls her graduation from Oberlin College

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Cheryl Willis Hudson describes her political and civil rights affiliations

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Cheryl Willis Hudson remembers the books she read at Oberlin College

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Cheryl Willis Hudson talks about the importance of African American studies

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Cheryl Willis Hudson describes her role as art editor at the Houghton Mifflin Company

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Cheryl Willis Hudson recalls working as a senior designer at Macmillan Publishing Company

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Cheryl Willis Hudson talks about racial stereotyping in textbooks

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Cheryl Willis Hudson describes her decision to found Just Us Books, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Cheryl Willis Hudson recalls the publication process for the 'AFRO-BETS ABC Book'

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Cheryl Willis Hudson recalls the early years of Just Us Books, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Cheryl Willis Hudson recalls her initial successes at Just Us Book, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Cheryl Willis Hudson reflects upon her publications at Just Us Books, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Cheryl Willis Hudson describes her community's support for Just Us Books, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Cheryl Willis Hudson lists Just Us Books, Inc.'s awards

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Cheryl Willis Hudson describes the distribution of Just Us Books, Inc. publications

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Cheryl Willis Hudson describes her plans for the future of Just Us Books, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Cheryl Willis Hudson talks about black authors and illustrators of children's book

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Cheryl Willis Hudson reflects upon her challenges at Just Us Books, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Cheryl Willis Hudson describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Cheryl Willis Hudson reflects upon successful children's books

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Cheryl Willis Hudson remembers children's books from her childhood

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Cheryl Willis Hudson narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$3

DAStory

5$1

DATitle
Cheryl Willis Hudson recalls the early years of Just Us Books, Inc.
Cheryl Willis Hudson describes her experiences at Phillips Exeter Academy in Exeter, New Hampshire, pt. 2
Transcript
What made you think you could do it, if you hadn't seen it being done by another? Like, there are no one else publishing black children's books. What do you think it is that made you think that the two of you could pull it off?$$Well, I you know, I think it was gradually thing, I don't think, I, I think that once--well, once we had printed the, the 'AFRO-BETS ABC Book' [Cheryl Willis Hudson], we started getting calls for more. We had to print more, I mean it was a flurry of activities I mean people wanted this book. Say well people of color, yeah, everybody wants this book. How many black people are there in the country, how many of them have kids that don't know their ABCs or want an alphabet book? So, I think we, we thought that there's a, a huge possibility. And then we started getting some more reinforcement from the few the people that we knew who were involved in, in publishing. We met with [HistoryMaker] Marie Brown who was our agent for a while. And she said, "Oh this is fantastic, this is, this is wonderful." We met with someone, she had worked with who is deceased now, Glenn Thompson, who had also started a publishing company, around that same time, Black Butterfly press [Black Butterfly Children's Books]. And he thought we were crazy, he said, "This is beautiful but how can you make any money," you know, but we got some reinforcement from people in the industry, and just started studying it a lot more systematically.$$What would Marie Brown, what could Marie Brown do for you, the agent? Why would you need an agent, if you're a publisher?$$Well, because we weren't a publisher at the time that we first knew Marie (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Okay.$$We, we were looking to her, to say, "Well Marie here's some other ideas that we have, can you place them with publisher?" And she was one of the few black agents at that time, in, in New York [New York]. And she had all of the contacts too, of, of knowing people at Doubleday [Doubleday and Company Inc.; Knopf Doubleday Publishing Company] and all the other publishing houses. But, again when you're dealing with institutions who have not been doing this, they've not had a, a, a series of black characters, maybe there's one book with one black child in it. And if there's some resistance, like there's no market for it. Why would be there be any incentive for a Random House [Random House Inc.; Penguin Random House] or anybody else to buy our book, if they don't think there's a market for it anyway. So, part of it is kind of informing the industry that there, yes there is a market for these books. But, in the meantime I can't wait for you to decide to make up your mind for somebody, for us to convince you of it. We sort of had to prove that the market was there and I think we did that, by getting so much positive feedback on both the 'AFRO-BETS ABC Book,' '123 Book' ['AFRO-BETS 123 Book,' Cheryl Willis Hudson], but also particularly Wade's [HistoryMaker Wade Hudson] book with Valerie [Valerie Wilson Wesley], 'Book of Black Heroes from A to Z' ['Book of Black Heroes from A to Z: An Introduction to Important Black Achievers for Young Readers,' Wade Hudson and Valerie Wilson Wesley], which as a, a another again a different kind of book. Not a book just on George Washington Carver, but a book of black heroes. And we didn't call them, here's a biography of the African Americans, there's a difference between that and saying book of black heroes, because these people were heroes to us. So, their perspective was a little bit different. And so, the, they're subtleties that you will find in the difference in approach to, to publishing that we took verses maybe a more commercial publisher.$And you're just gonna wrap up that summer experience?$$The summer experience at Exeter [Phillips Exeter Academy, Exeter, New Hampshire] was wonderful. I was, I had been away from home before. I had gone to Howard [Howard University, Washington, D.C.] one summer. I had gone to Norfolk State [Norfolk Branch, Virginia State College; Norfolk State University, Norfolk, Virginia] one summer. But, this was different because this was New Hampshire. It was New England, I was living in a, a dormitory with other white kids. Kids who really were a, a lot of them were from a different social class, an upper class kids. There were a few black students on campus during the summer. But, again it, it was a mutual- mutually beneficial kind of experience because I think on, on a social level if you get to know someone by living with them, by talking with them, by having meals together. You have a different perception of, of them rather than just seeing somebody on, the news, so you recognize one another as, as individuals, as, as human beings rather than as a white person or a black person, or somebody who's integrating a situation in a social context. I really enjoyed it (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) So, that was nineteen--$$That was 1966.$$The summer--

Dorothy Harrison

Educator and former president of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc., Dorothy Penman Harrison was born Dorothy Marie Penman on December 8, 1907 in Portsmouth, Ohio. Harrison’s parents were former teacher, Annabelle Layne, and chef, Victor Logan Penman. Harrison grew up in Portsmouth where she learned to read and took piano lessons. Attending all black Eleventh Street Elementary School, Harrison graduated from Portsmouth High School in 1924. At Fisk University, she studied history with A.A. Taylor. When both of her parents passed away in 1926, Harrison returned to Ohio and taught school. She earned her B.A. degree in education from Ohio State University in 1932. That same year, Harrison joined the Epsilon chapter of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc. and married educator, Dr. Gerald Lamar Harrison. Her husband earned his Ph.D. in education from Ohio State University in 1936 while he was serving as head of the Education Department at Prairie View A&M College in Texas.

In 1940, Harrison moved to Oklahoma when her husband was named president of the Colored Agricultural and Normal University. The college was renamed Langston University in 1941. As first lady to the president, Harrison hosted distinguished guests like W.E.B. DuBois and Liberia’s Clarence L. Simpson. In 1944, she traveled to Liberia for the inauguration of William V.S. Tubman as Liberia’s president, also attending were Mary McLeod Bethune and Eta Moten Barnett. Tragedy struck as Harrison’s eldest son, Gerald Lamar, passed away at the age of thirteen, in 1948, followed by the younger son, Richard, in 1950. Returning to school, Harrison acquired her M.S. degree in education from Oklahoma State University. She also amassed a record of civic activities, serving as treasurer of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc. under president Dorothy Height in 1952 and national officer for The Links, Inc. in 1957. Harrison was elected president of the sorority in 1956 and served through 1958.

In 1960, Harrison relocated to Chicago, Illinois with her husband after spending twenty years at Langston University. She continued her public service as a board member of the Chicago Metropolitan YWCA and as a national board member of the Central Review Team and the Urban League Women’s Board. Harrison is a lifetime member of the NAACP and the National Council of Negro Women. In 1965, Harrison was selected as co-chair of the federal Head Start program. She also served on the board of directors of the City Associates of the Chicago Art Institute. Harrison has traveled numerous times to Europe, Africa, Asia, South America and the Caribbean.

Awarded an honorary doctorate from Langston University in 2003. Harrison passed away on December 22, 2010.

Harrison was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 18, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.015

Sex

Female

Interview Date

1/18/2007

Last Name

Harrison

Maker Category
Middle Name

Marie

Schools

Portsmouth High School

Eleventh Street Elementary School

Fisk University

The Ohio State University

Oklahoma State University

First Name

Dorothy

Birth City, State, Country

Portsmouth

HM ID

HAR22

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

Malaysia

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

12/8/1907

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Grits

Death Date

12/22/2010

Short Description

Elementary school teacher Dorothy Harrison (1907 - 2010 ) served as a national officer for The Links, Inc., succeeded Dorothy Height as president of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc., and served as a board member of the Chicago Metropolitan YWCA and the National Council of Negro Women. Harrison was also selected as co-chair of the federal Head Start program.

Favorite Color

Red, White

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dorothy Harrison's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dorothy Harrison lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dorothy Harrison describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her maternal uncle, who passed for white

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dorothy Harrison remembers her maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her mother permitting her to attend Fisk University

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dorothy Harrison recalls teaching elementary school during her college career

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dorothy Harrison describes her paternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dorothy Harrison describes her family's historic homestead in Meadville, Pennsylvania

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dorothy Harrison describes how her family valued education

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dorothy Harrison talks about her father running away from home

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dorothy Harrison describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Dorothy Harrison describes her mother's personality

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dorothy Harrison describes her father's death

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dorothy Harrison describes her earliest childhood memories, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dorothy Harrison describes her brother Frederich Penman

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dorothy Harrison describes her earliest childhood memories, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dorothy Harrison describes the sights and tastes of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dorothy Harrison talks about her hearing problem

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dorothy Harrison recalls experiencing discrimination at Portsmouth High School

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dorothy Harrison remembers Portsmouth's Eleventh Street School

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dorothy Harrison describes her love of reading

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dorothy Harrison describes her parents' expectations

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dorothy Harrison describes the restrictions upon married teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dorothy Harrison talks about her favorite teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Dorothy Harrison remembers Allen Chapel A.M.E. Church

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dorothy Harrison describes her experiences with church

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dorothy Harrison recalls popular pastimes during her teenage years

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her decision to attend a historically black college

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dorothy Harrison describes her social life at Fisk University in Nashville

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dorothy Harrison remembers the professors and staff at Fisk University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dorothy Harrison remembers The Ohio State University in Columbus

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dorothy Harrison describes her husband's graduate studies

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dorothy Harrison describes her classes at The Ohio State University

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dorothy Harrison remembers her marriage

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dorothy Harrison describes her husband's career at Wilberforce University

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dorothy Harrison describes her brother's house and practice in Dayton, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her impressions of Prairie View, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 13 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her husband's achievements at Prairie View State Normal & Industrial College

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dorothy Harrison describes her husband's studies and career

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dorothy Harrison describes the history of Langston University in Oklahoma

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dorothy Harrison remembers her life in Langston, Oklahoma

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dorothy Harrison remembers the Dust Bowl era in Langston, Oklahoma

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dorothy Harrison remembers the desegregation of Oklahoma's colleges

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her duties at Langston University

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dorothy Harrison recalls establishing a work-study program in her home

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dorothy Harrison remembers her famous houseguests

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dorothy Harrison remembers her travels abroad

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dorothy Harrison remembers William V.S. Tubman, Jr.'s inauguration

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dorothy Harrison recalls being in Ghana when Kwame Nkrumah was overthrown

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dorothy Harrison describes her travels in Africa

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her impression of Liberia

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dorothy Harrison remembers notable figures she met in Liberia

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dorothy Harrison remembers joining Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dorothy Harrison remembers the deaths of her sons

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dorothy Harrison recalls her election as president of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dorothy Harrison recalls Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.'s support of civil rights

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dorothy Harrison describes the growth of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dorothy Harrison recalls stepping down as president of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dorothy Harrison describes her work on the executive committee of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dorothy Harrison remembers moving to Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dorothy Harrison describes her involvement with The Links, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dorothy Harrison describes her work with the Young Women's Christian Association

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dorothy Harrison describes her other organizational involvement

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Dorothy Harrison reflects upon her life

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Dorothy Harrison describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Dorothy Harrison talks about the 2008 presidential election

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dorothy Harrison reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Dorothy Harrison talks about her remaining family

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Dorothy Harrison describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Dorothy Harrison talks about her favorite sports teams

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Dorothy Harrison remembers accepting an honorary degree from Langston University

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Dorothy Harrison narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$4

DAStory

9$7

DATitle
Dorothy Harrison recalls her election as president of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.
Dorothy Harrison recalls establishing a work-study program in her home
Transcript
I had to be busy. So I decided to go back to school. I had sleep--at first I started going places. Then I--I had to make adjustment. I used to--when I went to bed I always had a book to read because I'd just start dreaming about them. So finally I decided to go to school up at--I drove twenty miles up to Stillwater [Oklahoma] to go to school, and I started and I got my master's [degree], and I stayed one year on the doctorate. By that time, I then began to get involved in Delta [Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.] and I was, was, I was--that was '48 [1948] and '50 [1950] when I lost my sons [Gerald Harrison and Richard Harrison]. So I became involved in Delta on the national level and I became the national treasurer for four years from 1952 to 1956. They had a term, you could be elected for two years and two more, four years was supposed to be the maximum. So they called the person that was vice president. She wanted to be president because Dorothy [HistoryMaker Dorothy Height] by that time had served nine years and that's when they changed--$$This was Dorothy?$$Height, right.$$Dorothy Height, all right.$$My sister [Beatrice Penman] was treasurer during that time. And so--part of that time. So they were meeting and they decided to rule--to put in the rules that you can be elected for two years and reelected. Dorothy had served four years. She says it cannot be retroactive that law, cannot--you putting in it cannot refer to me, so I'm still eligible for two--four more years. So she stayed in and then one year there was a war or something going on to travel, so she stayed in nine years. During that time, I served four of those under--when she was president I was national treasurer. Then they--committee called me, convention committee called me and asked me to run for president. I, I had questions because I was still at Langston [Langston University, Langston, Oklahoma] serving as a hostess for my husband [General Lamar Harrison], you know. And I--and I knew what was involved when you become president, because you had to go out and make speeches and all that, you know. I knew what was involved. I said, "Well let me think about that. I--I--I'll call you back after I think about." They were meeting in Washington [D.C.] getting the slate. And the vice president was called. She had some kind of health problems, would almost fall out during the meetings and so forth. They didn't want her to be president and she wanted to be very much, and she was a friend of mine. So I knew how she felt. And I hesitated about saying I will be president, because I knew also what was involved in travel and so forth. And so finally, I agreed. My husband really wanted me to be president, for the name, you know. So I told him, I said, "I have to make up my mind because I know what's involved." And so I finally told them I would accept. So I served two years. During that time--part of that time when Dorothy was president, we were invited to the Hi- to the capital to the White House [Washington, D.C.] and Mr. Eisenhower [President Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower] was president. Mrs. Eisenhower [Mamie Eisenhower] invited us when we were meeting in--in Washington. They invited us to come to the White House. They had a reception for us. The whole--the whole bird. And so that's where that picture was made with Mrs. Eisenhower.$$And (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) And the--those are the officers who was the executive director, Dorothy Height and I was treasurer, and Reba was still, Reba Cann [Reba S. Cann] from Cincinnati [Ohio] was still vice president and we had the officer, so that was where that was taken.$Now before we went there, the president had a housekeeper. Well, my husband [General Lamar Harrison] when he walk- worked--when he went to Howard University [Washington, D.C.] he worked his way through, he had to work some place to go. And he was for us hiring the students to work, not a housekeeper. So, I was the first to have four or five students who got everything paid, they didn't have to pay a dime. They got the room, the tuition, their--their registration, everything was paid. And then during the month, once a month, I gave them five dollars change to spend whatever they might need, you know. So I helped each year, I helped five--four or five students. One worked on the yard, one worked in the house and kept the floors, at the time we had hardwood floors. And then one did the cooking and one waited the table. So when guests came, the person waited the table and they learned. They usually were home ec [home economics] students that knew something about it. But they always said they knew more by actually doing it in--at my house. So, one of the--one of my friends here who taught school, who finished Langston [Langston University, Langston, Oklahoma] by working through because she lived in that old--in that black town wrote and said she had no money at all, but she was determined to get an education. So she came and one of the--her professors she said told her--took her down to my house and asked me to give her a job because she needed it. And so she finished, when she graduated I gave her a summer at summer school at Oklahoma A and M [Oklahoma Territorial Agricultural and Mechanical College; Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma]. Then she went to Indiana [Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana] and when she was there, she needed some money and wrote us and I sent it to her. So when she finished and started teaching here, she wanted to pay me back and I said, no you just pass that on to another person who'd help her to go to school too. So during the twenty years, I had almost a hundred students who got their education by working for us in the house and doing and going to school. So some of them still call me. I have one from Oklahoma City [Oklahoma] that called me for my birthday this last, in December. And they, you know, they--they--they referred to--to those kids as Prexy's [ph.] kids on the campus. But they--one mother told her daughter, she said, "If it hadn't been for Mrs. Harrison [HistoryMaker Dorothy Harrison] you would not have an education." And three of her daughters, two of them worked for me in the house, you know, during when she was going to school. And they have asked me when students have had homecoming, they have asked me to come back and be there for their homecoming. You know, it--it made me feel good that, you know, they recognize it. So I enjoyed my--I enjoyed my--I went--as I said, we had service on Sunday in the--in the chapel, you know, for the students and I always went there. And one of the--the dean of the school of the Baptist school, they had a school right outside of the campus on down the road and he taught sociology I think up on the campus and he served as chaplain on Sunday. And he always said, "Mrs. Harrison, you were always a lady on the campus." It was a nice tribute, wasn't it?$$Yeah, I'll say so.

Charles F. Harris

Pioneering book publishing executive Charles F. Harris was born on January 3, 1934 in Portsmouth, Virginia. During his elementary school days, Harris delivered newspapers in the community to make some extra money. His father insisted that he not deliver something that he did not read. Harris accepted his father’s challenge and became an avid reader at an early age. Graduating in 1955, from Virginia State University with a B.A. degree, he served in the Infantry of the United States Army and received an Honorable Discharge as a First Lieutenant.

Harris began his publishing career in 1956 at Doubleday & Company where, in 1965, as editor of Doubleday’s Publishing Division he launched the Zenith Book Series, which focused on African American history for elementary and high school students. He also acquired original manuscripts for publication and edited works by John Hope Franklin, Robert Weaver, Rayford Logan, and Jim Brown. Joining Random House in 1967 as senior editor, Harris edited Amistad, two volumes of writings on African American History and culture. This paperback magazine was launched in 1970 and was aimed at college humanities and social science courses. He also acquired The Greatest by Muhammad Ali with Richard Durham.

In 1971, Harris was recruited to create and manage the Howard University Press, where he served as the first chief executive, supervising all book publishing until 1986. He founded Amistad Press Inc. in 1986 to specialize in the works of African American themes. Its publishing program includes works by Arthur Ashe, John H. Johnson, Susan Taylor, Congressman William L. Clay, as well as the critically acclaimed Amistad Literary Series, which features critical studies of Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, Richard Wright, Gloria Naylor, Alice Walker and Toni Morrison.

In 1999, Harris sold Amistad Press to HarperCollins Publishers, and he joined HarperCollins as Vice President Editorial Director of this new imprint and as an executive editor for the HarperCollins General Books Group. Harris also authored a monthly column on Bet.com. In 2003, Harris left HarperCollins Publishers to once again start his own publishing company, Alpha Zenith Media Inc., where he continued to publish works critical to the African American community.

Harris passed away on December 16, 2015.

Accession Number

A2005.132

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/8/2005 |and| 7/28/2005 |and| 8/2/2005

Last Name

Harris

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

F.

Schools

I.C. Norcom High School

Virginia State University

Norfolk State University

New York University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Charles

Birth City, State, Country

Portsmouth

HM ID

HAR15

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris, France, Miami, Florida

Favorite Quote

The World Is A Wonderful Place.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

1/3/1934

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Blue Crab

Death Date

12/16/2015

Short Description

Book publishing executive Charles F. Harris (1934 - 2015 ) was the founder of Amistad Press, known for its publication of works by John H. Johnson and Arthur Ashe, as well as the critically acclaimed Amistad Literary Series, which featured critical studies of Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, Richard Wright, Gloria Naylor, Alice Walker and Toni Morrison.

Employment

Norfolk Journal and Guide

Doubleday Publishing Company

Portal Press

Random House Publishing

Howard University Press

Amistad Press

Alpha Zenith Media Inc.

Favorite Color

Business Suit Gray

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Charles F. Harris' interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Charles F. Harris lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Charles F. Harris describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Charles F. Harris describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Charles F. Harris describes his maternal aunt and family gatherings

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Charles F. Harris describes the makeup of his childhood neighborhood in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Charles F. Harris describes his father's occupation

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Charles F. Harris describes his childhood love of newspapers

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Charles F. Harris recalls his father's support of labor unions

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Charles F. Harris describes his ancestors

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Charles F. Harris describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Charles F. Harris remembers fishing as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Slating of Charles F. Harris' interview, session 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Charles F. Harris describes his childhood neighborhood and elementary school experience

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Charles F. Harris describes the socioeconomic diversity of his childhood community

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Charles F. Harris describes the leaders and recreational activities of his childhood neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Charles F. Harris describes his religious upbringing

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Charles F. Harris describes the segregation he encountered in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Charles F. Harris describes his family's community involvement

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Charles F. Harris remembers his teachers at Mount Hermon School in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Charles F. Harris recalls special programs at Mount Hermon School in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Charles F. Harris describes Virginia's poll tax and other inequalities

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Charles F. Harris describes Mount Hermon School in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Charles F. Harris remembers his teachers at I.C. Norcom High School in Portsmouth, Virginia, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Charles F. Harris remembers his teachers at I.C. Norcom High School in Portsmouth, Virginia, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Charles F. Harris talks about covering sports for his school newspaper, the Norcom Gazette

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Charles F. Harris talks about Junius Kellog's role in the 1950 point shaving scandal

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Charles F. Harris describes writing for The Portsmouth Star

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Charles F. Harris describes raising money for Junius Kellogg following the point shaving scandal

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Charles F. Harris explains his decision to attend Virginia State College in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Charles F. Harris recalls his inspiration to become a journalist

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Charles F. Harris describes the Norfolk Branch, Virginia State College in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Charles F. Harris remembers the impact of segregation on the high schools in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Charles F. Harris describes writing for the university paper

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Charles F. Harris describes the growth of industry in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Charles F. Harris describes his experiences at Norfolk Branch, Virginia State College in Norfolk, Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Charles F. Harris talks about joining Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Charles F. Harris talks about enrolling in ROTC in college

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Charles F. Harris remembers seeing Thurgood Marshall speak at Virginia State College in Petersburg, Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Charles F. Harris describes his experiences in ROTC

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Charles F. Harris talks about being drafted after college

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Charles F. Harris describes traveling to Fort Benning, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Charles F. Harris describes arriving for basic training at Fort Benning in Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Charles F. Harris describes discrimination during basic training

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Charles F. Harris shares lessons learned from his U.S. military service

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Charles F. Harris talks about moving to New York City

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Charles F. Harris remembers being hired at Doubleday & Company Inc. in New York City

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Charles F. Harris describes his experience at Doubleday & Company Inc. in New York City

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Charles F. Harris describes meeting HistoryMaker John Hope Franklin

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Charles F. Harris describes meeting prominent writers and academics as a new editor

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Charles F. Harris remembers encountering discrimination while travelling for work

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Slating of Charles F. Harris's interview, session 3

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Charles F. Harris describes meeting his wife and the birth of his first son

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Charles F. Harris remembers his older brother, Francis Harris

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Charles F. Harris explains why he visited historically black colleges as an editor for Doubleday & Company Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Charles F. Harris describes his visits to historically black colleges, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Charles F. Harris describes his visits to historically black colleges, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Charles F. Harris talks about publishing the 'Zenith Book' series, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Charles F. Harris talks about publishing the 'Zenith Book' series, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Charles F. Harris recalls trying to convince Jim Brown and Bill Russell to write their memoirs

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Charles F. Harris talks about publishing Jim Brown's memoir

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Charles F. Harris talks about Jim Brown's retirement and memoir

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Charles F. Harris describes leaving Doubleday & Company to work for Portal Press in New York City

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Charles F. Harris talks about working for Random House in New York City

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Charles F. Harris talks about pursuing Muhammad Ali to publish his autobiography

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Charles F. Harris talks about the acquisition of Muhammad Ali's autobiography, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Charles F. Harris talks about the acquisition of Muhammad Ali's autobiography, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Charles F. Harris talks about publishing Amistad

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Charles F. Harris talks about founding and directing Howard University Press in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Charles F. Harris recalls becoming director of Howard University Press in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Charles F. Harris talks about researching and visiting college presses

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Charles F. Harris describes the launch of the Howard University Press in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Charles F. Harris describes being approached to publish Jamaican Prime Minister Michael Manley's book

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Charles F. Harris describes his experience publishing Prime Minster Michael Manley's book

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Charles F. Harris describes attending the Ile Book Fair in Lagos, Nigeria

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Charles F. Harris describes his travels in Africa

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Charles F. Harris describes his attempt to establish a printing press in Africa

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Charles F. Harris explains England's dominance in the publishing industries of Africa

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Charles F. Harris describes trying to convince China to join the Copyright Convention

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Charles F. Harris recalls leaving Howard University Press to publish Arthur Ashe's autobiography

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Charles F. Harris describes establishing Amistad Press Incorporated in New York City

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Charles F. Harris remembers the landmark fair use case of Wright v. Warner Books, Inc.

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Charles F. Harris recalls publishing 'Dorothy Dandridge: A Biography' by HistoryMaker Donald Bogle

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Charles F. Harris remembers selling Amistad Press to HarperCollins in New York City

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Charles F. Harris recalls founding Alpha Zenith Media Incorporated in New York City

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Charles F. Harris describes the publishing industry's shortcomings in reaching African American audiences

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Charles F. Harris talks about the terms Negro and colored as identifiers of African Americans

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Charles F. Harris reflects upon his family's sense of racial identity

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Charles F. Harris shares his concerns about media portrayals of African Americans

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Charles F. Harris reflects upon the importance of history

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Charles F. Harris reflects upon his legacy and his love of books

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Charles F. Harris shares his concern about the role of religion in the African American community

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Charles F. Harris narrates his photographs

DASession

2$3

DATape

6$7

DAStory

8$7

DATitle
Charles F. Harris talks about publishing the 'Zenith Book' series, pt. 2
Charles F. Harris talks about publishing Amistad
Transcript
And so after about, I guess about 1963, we started the contracting of the first books [in the 'Zenith Books' series], and what I did was put a writer with a historian. And that was proved to be very effective, so but we never disclosed to the students that these books that the teacher has a teacher's manual. So it was presented as if the regular trade book that they use in the bookstore. And the, none of the books are no more, more than 144 pages, and they're, most of them are illustrated by an African American artist. So--$$Do you know who the African American artist was that illustrated the illustrator?$$Yeah sure. One was Charles [Wilbert] White, Ernest Crichlow, a woman named I think her first name is Leona Barnett [sic. Moneta Barnett], so it was a whole series. We went through, we, we in some cases, we used illustrators who were already working. But most of the artist were African Americans, because what I was trying to do is to establish in the minds of the people at Doubleday [& Company Inc.; Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, New York, New York]. That there was other resources to tap into, and to bring these people in as well, and everything doesn't have to look like it's done by the same design or the same artist or. So the books have a completely different look, but the books became extremely successful because it was selling in more than one market. And then after a while it was, students go home with these books, then the parents, and they would be in the library and the parents would want to have the books for themselves. And so they would go into the books and then wanted them into their personal libraries, but many, the parents may have known this information exist from an oral history standpoint, but it never had been validated with the--Doubleday at the time was the largest book publishing company in the country, and probably one of the largest in the world. So to have the president and the, and the principal owner, John Sargent was, was greatly endorsed this, and so did Nelson Doubleday. John Sargent and Nelson Doubleday, John Sargent was Nelson Doubleday's brother in-law. Today, John Sargent's son is, is named John Sargent [Jr.] is the president of St. Martin's Press [New York, New York]. So but it was the support that Doubleday gave me that made this have so much impact. Because it was a way to use the resources of one of the most sophisticated companies that exist at the time to penetrate the market in a, in a way, to crossover: get the books in the classroom, get them in the library and get them in the bookstores.$Simultaneously, I came up with the idea to do two collections of works, one--and call them Amistad. I had always known the name of Amistad from my days as, as a kid in Virginia and my family's always talked about that and the Amistad incident of 1839. That's when Africans captives who are in bondage take over the ship and, and eventually win their freedom in the United States Supreme Court. And where they are represented by [President] John Quincy Adams, they, the event takes place, the mutiny was not a mutiny because they were not sailors. But the rebellion takes place on the Amistad ship which means friendship in Spanish, but it's a slave ship, another irony in 1839. And there ensues of tremendous legal battle and many of the Africans learned how to speak English, they're held captive in New Haven [Connecticut] near Yale [University, New Haven, Connecticut]. And it becomes a big event for the anti-slavery movement. So someone of the anti-slavery abolitionist convinced John Quincy Adams who had already been president and had become a congressman after that, to convince him to represent the Africans. And the case goes to the Supreme Court and they win their freedom in 1841. So I chose that name for that reason and I asked Romare Bearden, the famous African American artist, late famous African American artist, if he would do a cover specifically for this book. I enlisted John A. Williams, the well-known writer, novelist, journalist who's now retired professor from Rutgers University [The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey], he were, we were very close friends at the time. And I convinced him to be co-editor with me on this project. So what ensued is a, a critically acclaimed collection of essays and fiction that was published in April of 1970 to great and controversial reviews. It was designed to be used in black study courses, and so what you have is there are people like [HistoryMaker] Vincent Harding who was the head of the Institute of the Black World at Atlanta University [Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia] at the time. A well-known historian, C.L.R. James, the, the famous Trinidadian philosopher and writer and thinker who was a Pan-Africanist a great influence on Stokely Carmichael [Kwame Ture] and other of that period. He's in that, Basil Davidson the famous English writer, we had fiction, we had two additions that came that came out. The first one came out in April of 1970 and the next one came out the following year, I think that was spring. There were people in there like [HistoryMaker] Haki Madhubuti who was Don L. Lee, the poet; he's a publisher now in Chicago [Illinois] of Third World Press, as well as a writer. So it was a great collection and it, and it was quite shocking at some of the concepts and some of the thoughts. And so these are publications that, that set a tone for that period, it was, they were not harangues but sort of critiques of, of American society on various levels. There's [HistoryMaker] Ishmael Reed is in there, the late Calvin Hernton [Calvin C. Hernton] is in there, we, we John A. Williams did a, a marvelous interview with Chester Himes which people are constantly referring to. So these books today are collector's items and here again we we're using African American artists for the covers.

Julian Manly Earls

Physicist and federal government administrator Julian Manly Earls was born on November 22, 1942 in Portsmouth, Virginia to James and Ida Deberry Earls. He graduated from Crestwood High School in Chesapeake, Virginia in 1960 and went on to earn his B.S. degree in physics from Norfolk State University in 1964. Upon the advice of his mentor, Dr. Roy A. Woods, Earls attended the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry to obtain his M.S. degree in radiation biology in 1965. Earls then moved to Cleveland to work at NASA for six years at the Lewis Research Center. NASA sponsored Earls to obtain his Ph.D. degree in radiation physics at the University of Michigan in 1973. Also, while working at NASA, he graduated from the Harvard Business School Program for Management Development in 1978.

Working at NASA for over forty years, Earls became NASA's first black section head, first black office chief, first black division chief, first black deputy director, and NASA's second black center director. Earls was hired as the director of the Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field in Cleveland, Ohio in 2003. As center director, Earls has been responsible for research, technology and systems development programs in aeronautical propulsion, space propulsion, space power, space communications, and microgravity sciences. He manages an annual budget and oversees all employees and contractors. Earls has written several publications for technical and educational journals. He also wrote NASA’s first health physics guides. On two occasions, he has been awarded NASA medals for exceptional achievement and outstanding leadership and has received the Presidential Rank Award of Meritorious Executive for career Senior Executive Service (SES) members.

Earls has been awarded honorary degrees by Vaughn College of Aeronautics and Technology in Queens, New York, Nova Southeastern University in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, and North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University in Greensboro, North Carolina. He has been a member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the National Technical Association, the National Society of Black Engineers, the National Society of Black Physicists, the Development Fund for Black Students in Science and Technology, the Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, and the Sigma Pi Phi Fraternity. An avid runner, he has run at least twenty-five marathons and was given the honor of being a torchbearer for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City, Utah. Earls and his wife, Zenobia, reside in Beachwood, Ohio. They have two sons, Gregory and Julian, Jr., and one granddaughter, Madisyn Chandler.

Julian Earls was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 10, 2005.

Accession Number

A2005.006

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/10/2005

Last Name

Earls

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Manly

Schools

Crestwood High School

Crestwood Middle School

I.C. Norcom High School

Norfolk State University

University of Rochester

University of Michigan

Harvard Business School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Julian

Birth City, State, Country

Portsmouth

HM ID

EAR02

Favorite Season

Spring

Sponsor

National Science Foundation

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Los Angeles, California

Favorite Quote

God did not give anybody everything, but He gave everybody something.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Ohio

Birth Date

11/22/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Cleveland

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pie (Lemon Meringue)

Short Description

Federal government administrator and physicist Julian Manly Earls (1942 - ) worked at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for over forty years, and has served as the director of the NASA's Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field in Cleveland, Ohio.

Employment

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center

Cuyahoga Community College

Main Sponsor
Main Sponsor URL
Favorite Color

Black

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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Julian Earls' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Julian Earls shares his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Julian Earls talks about his parents and grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Julian Earls remembers the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood and talks about his grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Julian Earls talks about his four brothers and two sisters

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Julian Earls describes his parent's jobs as well as family holidays

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Julian Earls talks about growing up in the Union Holiness Pentecostal Church

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Julian Earls talks about his elementary, junior high, and high school years

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Julian Earls remembers the segregated schools in Virginia and graduating from Crestwood High School

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Julian Earls talks about his decision to attend Norfolk State University

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Julian Earls describes his professors at Norfolk State University

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Julian Earls talks about going to graduate school and his early years at NASA

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Julian Earls remembers his promotions at NASA, the Carl Stokes mayoral election, and the contributions of Congressman Louis Stokes

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Julian Earls talks about NASA's contracts with minority and women-owned firms and making science fun for young people

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Julian Earls talks about increasing African American participation in engineering and physics

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Julian Earls talks about the Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, the Boule, and his mentors at NASA

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Julian Earls talks about affirmative action

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Julian Earls talks about NASA's equal employment opportunity office and the values of NASA

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Julian Earls tells stories about Guion "Guy" Bluford and Mae Jemison.

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Julian Earls talks about the NASA astronaut program

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Julian Earls talks about his wife, Zenobia, and their two sons, Julian Earls, Jr. and Gregory Earls

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Julian Earls talks about Cleveland public schools

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Julian Earls discusses civil rights, education, and the importance of stable family structures

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Julian Earls talks about Ohio and the 2004 Presidential Election

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Julian Earls talks about his long distance running

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Julian Earls talks about Dr. Willie Ray "Karimi" Mackey

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Julian Earls talks about mentoring and Northeast Ohio as home

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Julian Earls talks about the difference between the North and the South

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Julian Earls explains how science and technology are good for the economy and a global society

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Julian Earls talks about ethics in science and technology

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Julian Earls talks about the ethics of cloning

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Julian Earls shares his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Julian Earls describes his photos

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

4$3

DATitle
Julian Earls remembers his promotions at NASA, the Carl Stokes mayoral election, and the contributions of Congressman Louis Stokes
Julian Earls tells stories about Guion "Guy" Bluford and Mae Jemison.
Transcript
All right, so again, I'm looking at what's happening at the, I guess we say, the macro level. In '64 [1964], you said you didn't have a clue. But I would think by the late '60s [1960s] when you're here in Cleveland [Ohio] in the era of the, well, the tenure of Carl Stokes as mayor, you must have known that history was being made?$$Oh, absolutely, and it was at that point that I really became active in trying to encourage black youngsters to focus upon math and science and increase the numbers of black scientists and engineers by increasing the number of black students who took those courses. And I joined an organization called the National Technical Association, an organization of black scientists, engineers, architects that had been founded in Chicago in 1925. And once I found out about that organization, I decided that we needed to form a Cleveland chapter. And we formed the chapter here in Cleveland and started working with youngsters in the local school system. Our first program was established a Kirk Middle High School in East Cleveland. And we, second, next we moved out into the Warrenville school system. And we had black scientists, engineers, technologists working at any number of different companies here in Cleveland, Ohio. And we would go out on Saturday mornings into the schools and take projects for the students and also had a parental involvement section where the parents would be involved and would have to essentially agree that they would work with the students. And some sessions, they would actually come with the students on Saturday morning. But that was one of the efforts. And then I started right here within NASA [National Aeronautics and Space Administration], people blame me for the being the catalyst for starting the movement that said, look, not only do we need more black people working within NASA, but we need to make sure that we have black people in true, powerful management positions here at NASA. And at that time, we didn't have blacks who were managers, section heads, branch chiefs, division chiefs and so forth. And I became the first black section head at NASA. I was the first black office chief. I was the first black division chief. I was the first black deputy director, but I was the second black center director. But back in those days, back in '64 [1964], '65 [1965], we have records and archives of things that we did to make the points that we needed to open up opportunities for blacks here within NASA, Lewis Research Center at the time. But then, we were the catalyst for any number of changes within the agency for black employees. And, of course, being in Cleveland, when Carl Stokes was elected mayor, you would have to live in a cave not to know the importance of the activities that were going on at that time.$$Okay. Okay, so that was '67 [1967]--$$That's right.$$--his first victory?$$That's right.$$Do you remember the election night--$$I certainly do.$$--when it was announced?$$I certainly do.$$I watched a video in the 'Eyes on the Prize' series and I saw people dancing in the street.$$(Laughter).$$Were you a part of that crowd?$$I was not dancing on the street, but I was dancing in my living room. That's for sure (laughter).$$Did you ever have an opportunity to work with Mayor Stokes?$$No, but I worked with his brother back in those days. And I really call him my hero. Congressman Louis Stokes and I forged a relationship when things needed to be changed within NASA. And I credit him for all the progress that has been made within NASA as an agency, with progress that has been made for people of color and females. I credit him especially with the progress that has been made with the small disadvantaged businesses because it was Congressman Stokes who attached to the NASA appropriations bill, a requirement that eight percent of all contract dollars in NASA had to be spent with small disadvantaged businesses in the set-aside program. He was the architect of that which is a requirement that still exists to this day at this agency.$$Okay, and so those things are coming into being in the '60s [1960s] to the 1970s, in that era?$$Yes, that's--$$So more than a generation ago?$$Yes.$I mean I'm just so proud of them. And so, I don't know if that's because NASA [National Aeronautics and Space Administration] is pushing them out front and saying, here's a role model or if they just have that excellence, that's part of that formula you just told me about. Were they just that cream, you know, that just rose to the top?$$Well, I have to tell you my Guy Bluford [Guion "Guy" S. Bluford, Jr.] story.$$Okay.$$I applied to be an astronaut in 1977. That was the same year that Guy Bluford applied, Fred Gregory [Frederick D. Gregory] applied, Ron McNair [Ronald Ervin McNair] applied. Guy Bluford and I were born on the same day, November 22, 1942. And I kid Guy because I tell him he was born at 10:00 a.m. in the morning. I was born at 4:15 in the afternoon, and NASA, as a tie breaker, went with the old man. That's why he got in the Astronaut Corp and I didn't. But I've worked with those astronauts. When Guy was launched, his was the first night launch of the shuttle, and I was the speaker for the Education program at Kennedy Space Center [The John F. Kennedy Space Center, Merritt Island, Florida] when Guy Bluford went on the first flight as the first African American in space. And Guy subsequently retired from the Astronaut Corp and came to work here at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland [Ohio]. He was a program manager for a major contract here and is still living here in the Cleveland area.$$And how about Mae Jemison [Mae C. Jemison]? Have you had a chance to work with her?$$Absolutely. Mae and I talked, before Mae's launch, the last six months before Mae launched, Mae's launch, she and I must have talked at least once a week about some of the issues and some of the challenges confronting her as the first African American female going in space. As a matter of fact, one of the things that she and I talked about was she did a down link from her shuttle mission with the Chicago school system, which she's a product of the Chicago school system. And so we worked that, and I've been in touch with her since that time. She's absolutely--I maintain that NASA has a little back room where they build perfect people to make them into astronauts. And that's why I never got selected to (laughter) to be an astronaut.

Wilhelmina Rolark

Lifelong civil rights and community activist, attorney and politician Wilhelmina Rolark was born on September 27, 1916 in Portsmouth, Virginia. She attended Truxton elementary school in the Truxton area of Portsmouth until seventh grade. In 1933, Rolark graduated from I.C. Norcum High School in Portsmouth .

Following her high school graduation, Rolark attended Howard University from 1933-1937 where she earned bachelor’s and master’s of arts degrees in political science. While at Howard, she studied under Ralph Bunche. In 1944, while working at the Treasury Department and going to law school at night, she earned her bachelor’s of law degree from the Robert H. Terrell Law School in Washington, D.C.

As a young attorney practicing law in the 1940s, she worked on many civil rights cases. In 1970, she founded the National Association of Black Women Attorneys. Following on the footsteps of a successful law career, she set her sights on politics.

In 1969, Rolark and her husband, the late Dr. Calvin Rolark, founded the United Black Fund, a non-profit organization that provides funding to community-based organizations. Rolark served as the group’s General Counsel, where she won major legal battles against United Givers Fund and the Civil Service Commission discriminating against black and other minorities.

In 1976, Rolark was elected to represent residents of Ward 8 on the Washington, D.C. city council, where she went on to serve four consecutive terms. While on the council, she chaired several committees including the committee on Employment and Economic Development, Public Service and Consumer Affairs and Judiciary. Rolark also served on the Sentencing Guidelines Commission of the D.C. Superior court.

As a legislator, Rolark was responsible for a number of laws including the legislation that created the D.C. Energy Office, the Bank Depository Act, the law that triples the penalties for PCP distribution and the law that brought cable television to D.C.

Upon the untimely death of her husband in 1994, she was unanimously elected as the President /CEO of the United Black Fund, a position she held for twelve years. Rolark also served on the National Board of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

Rolark passed away on February 14, 2006.

Accession Number

A2004.053

Sex

Female

Interview Date

5/19/2004

Last Name

Rolark

Maker Category
Middle Name

Wilhelmina

Organizations
Schools

Truxton Elementary School

I.C. Norcom High School

Robert H. Terrell Law School

First Name

Margaret

Birth City, State, Country

Portsmouth

HM ID

ROL01

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

Keep On Pushing.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

9/27/1916

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Vegetables

Death Date

2/14/2006

Short Description

Foundation chief executive Wilhelmina Rolark (1916 - 2006 ) founded the United Black Fund, and the National Association of Black Women Attorneys. In 1976, she was elected to the Washington, D.C. City Council, where she went on to serve four consecutive terms, and was later unanimously elected as the President /CEO of the United Black Fund.

Employment

United States Treasury Department

National Association of Black Women Attorneys

United Black Fund

Council of the District of Columbia

Favorite Color

Black, Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Wilhelmina Rolark's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Wilhelmina Rolark lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Wilhelmina Rolark describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about her paternal and maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Wilhelmina Rolark describes her father

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Wilhelmina Rolark describes the importance of education in her family

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Wilhelmina Rolark shares her earliest childhood memories of growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about her siblings and her community in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Wilhelmina Rolark remembers the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Wilhelmina Rolark describes her experience at Truxton Elementary School in Portsmouth, Virginia and remembers childhood friends

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about The Norfolk Journal and Guide and her mother's communication skills

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Wilhelmina Rolark remembers going to church as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about her sister and the parties her family had

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about her teenage years and I. C. Norcom High School in Portsmouth, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Wilhelmina Rolark describes her experience as an undergraduate at Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about earning her master's degree at Howard University in Washington, D.C. and working in the U.S. Treasury Department

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Wilhelmina Rolark describes her experience at Robert H. Terrell Law School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Wilhelmina Rolark explains how she learned to run a law practice

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about integration's effect on African American businesses

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about meeting her husband, Calvin Rolark

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Wilhelmina Rolark describes running for the Council of the District of Columbia

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about the incarceration of African Americans and its effect on African American families

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Wilhelmina Rolark describes the energy bill that created the D.C. Energy Office in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about chairing the judiciary committee of the Council of the District of Columbia and her efforts to reform sentencing guidelines

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Wilhelmina Rolark reflects upon her achievements on the Council of the District of Columbia and segregated communities

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about the importance of young people voting

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about her and her husband's involvement in the Southern Christian leadership Conference (SCLC)

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about the 1939 Alexandria Library Sit-In and the 1962 Howard Johnson Restaurant Sit-In

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about the National Association of Black Women Attorneys

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Wilhelmina Rolark recalls fighting to keep The University of the District of Columbia David A. Clarke School of Law in Washington, D.C. open

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about the United Black Fund, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Wilhelmina Rolark describes her concerns for the Washington, D.C. community

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about working with Washington, D.C. mayors, including HistoryMaker Marion Barry

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Wilhelmina Rolark describes her hope for the youth to vote

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about the importance of education in the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about her column in The Washington Observer and affirmative action

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Wilhelmina Rolark reflects upon her life

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Wilhelmina Rolark describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Wilhelmina Rolark talks about the importance of history

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Wilhelmina Rolark reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Wilhelmina Rolark narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

1$2

DATitle
Wilhelmina Rolark talks about the 1939 Alexandria Library Sit-In and the 1962 Howard Johnson Restaurant Sit-In
Wilhelmina Rolark talks about the National Association of Black Women Attorneys
Transcript
So Ms. Rolark [HM Wilhelmina Rolark], tell me about that story we were talking about, Brown v. The Board of Education [Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 1954]. But you said there was also another public case?$$Oh yeah, there was, there, there was the one of the first sit-ins took place in Alexandria, Virginia, where two lawyers, young lawyers the Tucker brothers, Otto Tucker and Samuel Tucker, sat-in in the library [Alexandria Library, later, Barrett Branch Library] in Virginia (laughter) in Alexandria, Virginia. You know Virginia is a tough state to do anything like that in. And they were arrested of course, and as a result of that case, they were arrested and went to court and all the rest of it. That was, to my knowledge, among the first sit-ins, it could have been the first, but I know it was among them. They wouldn't move, that particular library in which they staged hat has now become a historical site. It's been made a historical site in Alexandria. People come from all over to visit it, and there has been story written about it because you know, it was just unheard of. That they, number one, would sit-in at Howard Johnson [Ice Cream Parlor and Restaurant, Durham, North Carolina], you know which was looked upon as whites sitting there eating all kinds of fancy ice cream and what not. And one of the brothers said, "I just want to see how that ice cream taste sittin' at the (laughter)"--it was some exciting times you know. And they pulled it off, and although it seemed to be small it was--had a huge impact because it was blacks participating in just a, just a simple thing like eating a bowl of ice cream. Where people could come from a whole public, unless you were black, and sit down and eat ice cream. You know Howard Johnson was famous for variety, you know all kinds of famous kinds of ice cream that you could eat, but we couldn't go there because we were black. And so--that means a lot too 'cause you know children, for instance, they'll worry you to death about an ice cream cone or eat ice cream, see they can do that now. And so you look back--and the library itself, which was a public library, but the blacks couldn't use it. It has now become a historical site and people come from all over to visit that library in Alexandria, in Alexandria. That little library has now become a memorial site because it was made open--public library should have been public all along. People can't realize you had to, you had to go through a session like that in order to get the use of the library, and you encouraged your children to read and study, but if you can't go to the library, what--where are you going to get the material to read and study?$And Ms. Rolark, if you will, tell me a little bit about an organization that you founded in the '70s [1970s], the National Association of Black Women Attorneys [NABWA]. Why did you think it was necessary to create such an organization?$$Well, to me that organization did a great job in defeating the notion that to be a lawyer you had to be a man. Which is sexism, because next to racism, sexism is a very bad thing, I think and so that was my motivation in doing it. Because everything that we were doing in law was headed by a guy, you know, and there are plenty of smart women lawyers too. And so it was formed and we formed it after a meeting at the National Bar Association held in--I think we were in Detroit [Michigan] that year and it was controversial. 'Cause see some of the fellas didn't like the idea of forming it, why'd you have to have two of them, you know. They have The [National] Bar Association as well as the National Association of Black Women Attorneys, why you need both? We need both to show that women were just as proficient as men in runnin' and managin' an organization like that, it had become very well-known and it's very active and I'm just semi-retired now so I'm not that active in it, but it meets when the Bar Association meets. It's quite a good organization. And it has inspired quite a few young women to take law. That was the other reason for doing it.$$And what do you think it's like for women lawyers today compared to what it was like for you when you started?$$It's much different, yes indeed, much different. For instance, now you have women lawyers with president of the National Bar Association. Not, the National Association of Black Women Attorneys, but the big Bar Association itself. Women have run and have become the officers, in fact they have a woman president now and one of the first presidents came from Detroit.$$And what was it like when you were, when you began your law career for women?$$Well, I didn't think about that, I was just thinking about winning those cases that I had. But, it was tough, you know, it was tough for women, all of them white, black, you know--primarily a man's field. But now you have women judges, in fact you've got a woman member of the [U.S.] Supreme Court. And, you have chief judges, who are women, like Chief Judge [Annice] Wagner here in the District of Columbia she's chief judge of our Circuit Court of Appeals here. Excellent judge too.$$And when you look at how far women, more particularly African American women have progressed in terms of the field of law and you were there blazing the trail, how do you feel?$$I feel good about that. I feel very happy about that because I think it's a field that, you know, it's like anything else, if it's opened up like that it gives, say girls when they go to court--when they go to college, and take up a career, they can look upon law as not only to practice, but you have women judges now, you have women chief judges, you know black women, a chief judge. As I said, over there in our circuit court you have Judge Wagner, she's our chief judge there and you have them in Superior [sic, Supreme] Court. You have black women who are judges and chief judges of that. And it gives them something to aspire to, you know, and it gives them a real good motive for carryin' on and stayin' in school and preparing their children, you know, for different vocations.