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Sandra Hughes

Journalist Sandra Hughes was born on October 18, 1946 in Durham, North Carolina. While her biological father was Alexander Cotton, she was raised by her mother Alice Marie Amis Daye, a housekeeper, and her stepfather Charlie Alfred Daye, an auto mechanic. Hughes graduated from Notre Dame High School in 1964 and went on to attend North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, where she earned her B.S. degree in English education in 1969.

Hughes worked briefly as a technical publications editor for Western Electric upon graduating, but was hired in 1972 as a general assignment reporter by WFMY-TV in 1972. She became the first African American woman to host her own daily talk show in the Piedmont, in 1974, with Sandra and Friends. In 1976, she was the first female broadcaster invited to participate in the European Communities’ Visitors Program. Hughes was the first African American woman in the Southeast to host the nationally syndicated PM Magazine, in 1978. She joined Lee Kinard in hosting the Good Morning Show in 1985. That same year, Hughes was appointed manager of WFMY-TV’s community affairs department, where she started the “2 Those Who Care” initiative in 1989. In 1990, Hughes returned to the newsroom as the 6 p.m. evening news anchor. She spearheaded the Minority Broadcast Development Program in 1992. Hughes retired from WFMY-TV in 2010, and began teaching at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University the following year as an adjunct professor of journalism.

Hughes received the Edward R. Murrow award for news reporting from the Greensboro Chamber of Commerce in 1981, and was the first African American in the Piedmont to receive the award. She was recognized by North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University in 1995 as a Distinguished Alumnus. In 2002, she received the North Carolina Governor’s Order of the Long Leaf Pine, and July 24th of that year was proclaimed “Sandra Daye Hughes” Day by the Guilford County Commissioners. She has won multiple “Best of Gannett” awards for news anchoring and specific programs, and was named an “Unsung Hero” by the International Civil Rights Center and Museum in 2006. Hughes was given the Sojourner Truth Award by the National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women’s Clubs, Inc. in 2009, and the newsroom at WFMY-TV was renamed “The Sandra Daye Hughes Information Center” the following year. Also, in 2010, The National Academy of Television Art & Sciences inducted Hughes into the Silver Circle, the North Carolina Association of Broadcasters inducted her into the Broadcaster’s Hall of Fame, and she received an honorary doctorate of humanities from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, her alma mater. Hughes received the Chuck Stone Lifetime Achievement Award from the National Association of Black Journalists in 2014.

Hughes lives in Greensboro, North Carolina with her husband. She has two children and two grandchildren. Hughes had a third child who passed away in 1984.

Sandra Hughes was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 13, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.181

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/13/2014

Last Name

Hughes

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Marie

Schools

Our Lady Of The Miraculous Medal School

Notre Dame High School

North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Sandra

Birth City, State, Country

Durham

HM ID

HUG07

Favorite Season

Fall

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

The Beach

Favorite Quote

Never Give Up.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

North Carolina

Birth Date

10/18/1946

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Greensboro

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Tomatoes

Short Description

Broadcast journalist Sandra Hughes (1946 - ) was the first African American female talk show host in the Piedmont region and the first African American woman to host PM Magazine in the Southeast.

Employment

North Carolina A&T State University

WFMY-TV

Western Electric Company

Kmart

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Sandra Hughes' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Sandra Hughes lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Sandra Hughes describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Sandra Hughes remembers her mother's personality, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Sandra Hughes describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Sandra Hughes describes her stepfather's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Sandra Hughes describes her early family life

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Sandra Hughes remembers her mother's personality, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Sandra Hughes lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Sandra Hughes describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Sandra Hughes describes the Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal School in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Sandra Hughes recalls her early experiences of bullying

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Sandra Hughes describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Sandra Hughes remembers her favorite television shows

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Sandra Hughes recalls her early experiences of religion

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Sandra Hughes remembers the sit-ins at Woolworth's lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Sandra Hughes describes the segregation of Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Sandra Hughes remembers the sit-ins at Woolworth's lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Sandra Hughes remembers witnessing discrimination against her parents

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Sandra Hughes describes her experiences at Notre Dame High School in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Sandra Hughes describes her experiences at Agricultural and Technical College of North Carolina in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Sandra Hughes recalls her audition for the Richard B. Harrison Players

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Sandra Hughes recalls her husband's conscription into the Vietnam War

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Sandra Hughes describes her position at the Western Electric Company

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Sandra Hughes remembers the Greensboro uprising of 1969

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Sandra Hughes talks about her husband's military service in Vietnam

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Sandra Hughes describes how she came to work for WFMY-TV in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Sandra Hughes describes her role as a reporter at WFMY-TV in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Sandra Hughes recalls the threats against her as a black woman broadcast journalist

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Sandra Hughes talks about balancing her career and family

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Sandra Hughes describes her talk show, 'Sandra and Friends'

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Sandra Hughes recalls the celebrity guests on 'Sandra and Friends'

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Sandra Hughes describes the WFMY-TV show, 'PM Magazine'

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Sandra Hughes describes the European Community Visitors Program

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Sandra Hughes remembers the Greensboro massacre

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Sandra Hughes recalls the death of her youngest son, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Sandra Hughes recalls the death of her youngest son, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Sandra Hughes remembers the WFMY-TV helicopter crash

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Sandra Hughes talks about her position on WFMY-TV's 'Good Morning Show'

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Sandra Hughes recalls becoming an evening news anchor at WFMY-TV in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Sandra Hughes describes her awards and honors

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Sandra Hughes talks about the Minority Broadcast Development Program at WFMY-TV

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Sandra Hughes remembers the stories she covered at WFMY-TV

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Sandra Hughes reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Sandra Hughes describes her hopes for the African American community in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Sandra Hughes reflects upon her career

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Sandra Hughes talks about her family

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Sandra Hughes talks about the International Civil Rights Center and Museum in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 13 - Sandra Hughes describes her teaching position at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University

Tape: 5 Story: 14 - Sandra Hughes describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 15 - Sandra Hughes talks about her award from the National Association of Black Journalists

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Sandra Hughes narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Sandra Hughes narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$2

DAStory

4$2

DATitle
Sandra Hughes describes her talk show, 'Sandra and Friends'
Sandra Hughes recalls her early experiences of bullying
Transcript
So I went into the TV station [WFMY-TV, Greensboro, North Carolina] after about two years, and I told the general manager, I said, "I, I just don't think I can do this anymore." I said, "I need to have a nine to five [o'clock] kind of job, in an office," da, da, da, da, da, da. And he says, "Well, what do you want to do? If you--we want you to stay here. What do you want to do?" And I said, "I'd like to do a talk show." And he said, "A talk show?" I said, "Yeah." And he said, "What kind of talk show?" He said, "Go, go do one, show me what it looks like." I was so excited. So I went and put together this little thirty minute show. I invited a lady that I know that has a modeling agency and all this kind of stuff and we set up a little set there in the studio and I interviewed her and I was just, I mean, I'll tell you, it was like somebody says, you can have Christmas every day. And I went back and showed it to him and he said, "Okay, we'll do that," and I thought, god, are you serious? And so, every day, from 1:00 to 1:30 'Sandra and Friends' was on the air and that's the most fun I ever had in TV. For one thing, I could do anything I wanted to do. I could interview the mayor, I could interview the homeless guy, I could, anything, it was all up to me. Now I had to do all the work. I had to do the producing and the writing and, but, but I just, I was having a ball and I'd bring my little girl, by that time she was toddling around, you know, and she'd stand and look at the lights and I was saying, "Look at the camera, honey, look," and she'd be looking all over, and--the one whose husband [Christopher Harris] was just here a little bit ago. And that's when the real ugliness started. That's when the bomb threat started, when people would call in and say there is a bomb in that studio and it's going to go off, you know, such and such a time. Well, of course, they'd call the police and here come the police and the bomb squad and the drug sniffing and bomb sniffing dogs and they'd take all of the guests out of the studio, everybody in the whole TV station had to evacuate but I said, you know, doggone it, I've gone this far, I'm not going to leave. So I would sit there, like this in front of the camera and I would say, "Well, today is Wednesday and we're going to be talking, sometime this week, to a lady who's having a community event and that money's going to raise money for children who have, don't have money to buy school supplies." And I would just talk for thirty minutes, until the show was over. So after about a year and a half of that, I think the people who were calling in the threats thought, lord, if we have to sit and listen to her talk again for thirty minutes--let's not call in anymore bomb threats. Then they started threatening my daughter. That got me. They would call and say, and would wait 'til I got on the show at one o'clock, they'd call in and say that, Tiffany [Tiffany Hughes Harris] is her name, that Tiffany had been hurt in a fieldtrip accident and that she was at the hospital and I need to get there right away. And then, you know, it's that she's been in an accident, it was all kind of horrible things that they would call and say about her. Well at that, after me--$$Just trying to disrupt the show, trying to get you to leave (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Yes, trying to get me to get off that TV, and I went the first time, but it was nothing. So after that, when those calls would come in, other people in the TV station now, two or three of 'em in particular, would take, they would take the call, they'd take off to the daycare, which was only about a mile down the street from where we were to see if she was there or find out what was going on and then when I'd get off the air at 1:30, they'd say, "Well, got one of those calls today." I said--you know, but they, they were trying to help me stay, stay on there, but that's when I said, that's it, you know, hurt me, scare me, attack me but not my little baby. So I said, I just won't do this anymore. My husband [Larry Hughes, Sr.] and, you know, I was telling you all my family was here, he's from here so his parents and his brothers and sisters, and he had nine of them, and my mother [Alice Amis Daye] and brothers and sisters, everybody came and said, "Do you like what you're doing?" I said, "Yes, I have a--now I have a passion for TV." They said, "Do you want to keep doing it?" "Yes, I want to keep doing it." "Well, this is what we're going to do. We're going to develop a safety net around you so you can't fall. We're going to keep our eyes on the baby, keep our eyes on your house, your car, you, your husband, everybody. So if something happens, really happens, you'll get a call from me, mommy, auntie or whatever, cousin, that says, 'Yeah, you need to come home' or, 'You need to do whatever.'" And they said, "So, go, go do it." And that, it's almost like that put wings on me. Then I just really started enjoying what I was doing because I thought I've got these people who, who've got my back. And the people in the TV station had started rallying too. You know, like I said, they would go run and see about something that they heard and wouldn't, wouldn't tell me about it. When we'd go, let's say if a bunch of us went out to lunch or out to dinner or something, it's, the guys almost treated me like they were bodyguards, you know, watching (laughter) and making sure nobody did anything. So from that point on, you know, I just, I just, I fell more and more and more in love with television.$I liked to write poems and stories and I used to love to tell stories. I mean that was just, I'll never forget coming home at night and we'd all gather in the kitchen because that was the warmest room in the house and my mother [Alice Amis Daye] was cooking and I'd sit there and just tell--I'd entertain the family, telling stories, telling jokes, making up things to tell and my dad [Hughes' stepfather, Charlie Daye] would laugh so hard, tears would run down his face and he said, "This girl, I'll tell you, I'm going to drive her to California so she can be on 'The Ed Sullivan Show'" (laughter).$$When 'Ed Sullivan' was in New York [New York].$$Yeah, but he said California and I thought, I believed him.$$What a waste of gas. So, what were some of your stories? (Unclear) (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Oh, I'd tell stories about things that happened in school [Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal School, Greensboro, North Carolina] that day and I'd always try to make them funny. We had a lot of bullies in school and that wasn't funny but I would try to turn it into a funny story about how one day two of the girls, the head bullies, told my sister, who was about fourteen months younger than I am, they says, "Today, we're going to beat you up and so you meet down in the park," there's a park next to the school, "meet us at the park so you can get your beating this afternoon." Well, I was sort of a timid child and I was just scared to death and I said to my sister, "You're not going." She says, "Oh, yes, I am." She was almost, a lot braver than me. And so, all day long, I kept thinking, gosh, I can't let her go by herself because then mother's going to get me when I get home for letting her do that. So, my best friend, Ann Mitchell [ph.], says, "Why are you so upset?" And I said, "'Cause Faye's [Hughes' half-sister, Faye Daye Kahn] getting beat up today down in the park." And I said, "And I don't know what to do." And she says, "Well I don't either but I'll go with you." And so then, Ann's cousin was there and she said to Ann, "What's wrong with you?" And she said, "Well, Sandra's sister, Faye, is going to get beat up at the park today and I've got to go with her 'cause Sandra's [HistoryMaker Sandra Hughes] scared to go." And so then the cousin says, "Well, okay, I'll go with you." And so then the cousin told her best friend, Vicky Adams [ph.], "Faye's getting beat up at the park today, so I'm going to go with Ann and Ann's going to go with Sandra and Sandra's going to think--." And so Vicky said, "Well, I'll go with you." And so, when we showed up at the park that afternoon, we had this big entourage of people and the two girls, who didn't expect that, said to my sister, "Well, we'll just get you another day." So (laughter) (makes sound), thank goodness. And my, my baby brother, the youngest one, was in a nursery school across the street from our school and we'd have to go and pick him up and, and run home with him, run, because, since we lived in the housing projects [Morningside Homes, Greensboro, North Carolina], we wore uniforms. We had a navy blue jumper with a white puff sleeved blouse, white socks and brown tie up shoes, the Buster Brown shoes, and my brothers [Hughes' half-brothers, Charles Daye and Michael Daye] had to wear navy blue trousers, a long sleeve shirt and a blue necktie. Well, if we walked down through public housing in that getup, we'd have rocks thrown at us, sticks, we'd get pushed and, you know, because we were weird. We just looked weird to them. So we got out of school about ten or fifteen minutes before the public schools got out so, I, we'd run across the street, grab my little brother, I'd put him on my hip and we'd take off home as fast as we could to get home to take these uniforms off, and that was tough. And my sister did get in lots of scrapes 'cause she'd get home and her sleeve was torn off and (laughter), and she would drag her toes of her shoes on the sidewalk as we're walking so her shoes were all scuffed up, but I'll tell you, when we woke up the next morning, those shoes would be shined, standing tall, sleeves sewn back onto the shirt and my mother said, "'Cause you're going to that school" (laughter), okay, that was that.

Almeta Cooper

Association general counsel Almeta Cooper was born in 1950 to her mother Patricia Carter Cooper and her father. She attended Wells College in Aurora, New York, graduating with her B.A. degree in 1972. She then attended Northwestern University School of Law in Evanston, Illinois earning her J.D. degree from there in 1975.

Cooper went on to pursue a career in health law. She began her work as assistant director of health law at the American Medical Association (AMA) in 1977. She then worked as legal counsel for Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee in 1982, MCP Hahnemann University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the mid-1980s, and the Ohio State Medical Association in Columbus, Ohio in 1999. In the early 2000s, Cooper became Associate Vice President for Health Sciences and Associate General Counsel for Health Sciences at The Ohio State University Medical Center in Columbus, Ohio. In 2014, she became the senior vice president, general counsel and corporate secretary for Morehouse School of Medicine. She has been very involved in the American Health Lawyers Association (AHLA) since 1980, serving as the first African American woman president of the organization in 2003 among many other leadership roles. In 2012, Cooper was named a fellow of the AHLA in order to continue her contribution to the association. She is also an active member of the American Bar Association (ABA) and sits on a program committee for the Physician Legal Issues Conference and chairs the Public Health and Policy Interest Group. Cooper lectures regularly at law education conferences and other professional gatherings on topics such as “Medical Staff: The Fault Line between Physicians and Hospitals” and “How to Stay Focused on a Health Law Career.” Cooper was honored as a Mentor by the 2011 Top Corporate Counsel awards from Columbus Business First.

In addition to her health law career, Cooper was involved in numerous groups and organizations, including serving as president of the Central Ohio Links Inc. Chapter. She is also involved with Columbus Reads, the Women’s Fund of Central Ohio, and the YWCA Family Center. She was awarded the YWCA Woman of Achievement Award in 2009 to honor her commitment to her community.

Almeta Cooper was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 10, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.163

Sex

Female

Interview Date

5/10/2013 |and| 8/18/2018

Last Name

Cooper

Maker Category
Marital Status

Single

Schools

Wells College

Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law

Loudon Elementary School

Millbrook Park Elementary School

Spelman College

John F. Kennedy High School

Schiller International University

First Name

Almeta

Birth City, State, Country

Durham

HM ID

COO11

Favorite Season

Spring

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

You Should Always Have A Dollar For The Robber. If You Don’t, He Will Kill You.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

12/27/1950

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Vegetables

Short Description

Corporate general counsel Almeta Cooper (1950 - ) was senior vice president of health services and general counsel for The Ohio State University Medical Center.

Employment

Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center

American Medical Association (AMA)

Meharry Medical College

MCP Hahnemann University

Ohio State Medical Association

Allegheny Health, Education and Research Foundation (AHERF)

St. Thomas Hospital

Vedder, Price, Kaufman & Kammholz

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:5670,74:9072,147:12555,286:13608,313:17415,389:31403,534:35592,606:36373,616:36657,621:39710,682:41130,716:42763,741:43118,747:51208,802:52121,814:52619,821:56598,844:57462,858:59694,901:59982,906:63870,989:64302,997:65166,1010:82465,1274:90598,1347:94203,1375:95757,1395:100978,1416:102479,1452:116545,1610:119620,1665:121195,1690:121495,1695:122995,1725:124420,1758:130812,1800:135136,1853:137862,1890:146044,2004:146352,2009:151973,2118:154283,2159:155669,2182:163810,2318:165768,2348:167014,2364:169061,2394:170600,2400$0,0:960,24:5306,182:5638,187:6302,206:6800,213:9124,278:9456,283:10535,301:11199,309:12112,321:12942,333:13357,339:14104,351:14934,362:15764,376:17424,400:18088,409:30410,481:32302,509:32990,518:36258,575:36774,582:40250,595:40534,600:42025,635:42380,641:43232,653:43871,665:44226,671:47137,719:48912,749:49409,757:50261,776:50687,784:51326,796:51823,804:56575,821:56923,826:58402,847:59185,857:66328,933:66902,941:68542,965:69198,974:71494,1011:72724,1024:73380,1033:74528,1049:75348,1062:76168,1074:76578,1080:80741,1099:81246,1105:82155,1116:84983,1151:86094,1163:87306,1179:89023,1240:92255,1276:92962,1285:100882,1342:101365,1353:101641,1359:102262,1370:102538,1375:103297,1393:103573,1398:104263,1410:104815,1419:106678,1496:107092,1503:108196,1522:108472,1527:109645,1546:110542,1563:110818,1568:111439,1578:111922,1586:112681,1602:124199,1779:126191,1810:127934,1846:129096,1864:130175,1881:135145,1911:135485,1916:136505,1931:138120,1950:138460,1955:138970,1963:140245,1975:144070,2028:144580,2035:145430,2050:145855,2056:153954,2128:155807,2148:157224,2162:160603,2209:164688,2231:165392,2241:166448,2258:167152,2268:167768,2277:168384,2287:172256,2357:176832,2460:177360,2468:182140,2474:182650,2482:182990,2487:183500,2495:186050,2526:188005,2557:188515,2564:189025,2572:189450,2578:189790,2583:190130,2588:190895,2599:194840,2633
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Almeta Cooper's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Almeta Cooper lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Almeta Cooper describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Almeta Cooper talks about her maternal great-grandfather, Hawkins W. Carter

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Almeta Cooper describes her mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Almeta Cooper talks about her mother's education and career

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Almeta Cooper describes her maternal grandparents' professions

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Almeta Cooper describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Almeta Cooper talks about her father's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Almeta Cooper describes her father's education and career

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Almeta Cooper remembers moving with her family to Willingboro, New Jersey

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Almeta Cooper talks about her parents' marriage

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Almeta Cooper describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Almeta Cooper remembers her father's sense of humor

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Almeta Cooper talks about her sister

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Almeta Cooper describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Almeta Cooper recalls her home in Roanoke, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Almeta Cooper describes her early education

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Almeta Cooper talks about her extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Almeta Cooper recalls her academic strengths

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Almeta Cooper remembers her early religious experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Almeta Cooper talks about moving to a predominantly white area of New Jersey

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Almeta Cooper talks about her accelerated education program

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Almeta Cooper remembers the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Almeta Cooper recalls her early aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 14 - Almeta Cooper remembers John F. Kennedy High School in Willingboro, New Jersey

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Almeta Cooper remembers her cousin's advice to study law

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Almeta Cooper recalls her decision to attend Wells College in Aurora, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Almeta Cooper remembers the Civil Rights Movement of the late 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Almeta Cooper describes the black community at Wells College in Aurora, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Almeta Cooper remembers her travels abroad

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Almeta Cooper recalls her college exchange programs

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Almeta Cooper remembers her trip to Germany

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Almeta Cooper describes her time at Spelman College, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Almeta Cooper describes her time at Spelman College, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Almeta Cooper remembers the mentorship of R. Eugene Pincham

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Almeta Cooper recalls her mentors at Wells College in Aurora, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Almeta Cooper remembers her summer employment at the Western Union Company

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Almeta Cooper remembers the Northwestern University School of Law in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Almeta Cooper recalls her mentors at the Northwestern University School of Law

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Almeta Cooper recalls her classmates at the Northwestern University School of Law

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Almeta Cooper recalls joining the law firm of Vedder, Price, Kaufman and Kammholz, P.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Almeta Cooper recalls her position at the American Medical Association

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Almeta Cooper remembers being recruited to work for Dr. David Satcher

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Almeta Cooper recalls her challenges at the Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Almeta Cooper recalls the highlights of her time at the Meharry Medical College

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Almeta Cooper talks about her marriage

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Almeta Cooper recalls her position at St. Thomas Hospital in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Almeta Cooper recalls joining the Allegheny Health, Education and Research Foundation in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Almeta Cooper describes her role at the Ohio State Medical Association

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Almeta Cooper talks about the Ohio State Medical Association Frivolous Lawsuit Committee

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Almeta Cooper reflects upon her time at the Ohio State Medical Association

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Almeta Cooper describes her position at The Ohio State University Medical Center in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Almeta Cooper recalls her challenges at The Ohio State University Medical Center

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Almeta Cooper reflects upon her professional accomplishments

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Almeta Cooper talks about the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Almeta Cooper talks about her civic engagement

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Almeta Cooper reflects upon her life

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Almeta Cooper describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Almeta Cooper talks about her friendship with Earlene Wandrey

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Almeta Cooper talks about her daughter

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Almeta Cooper describes her support from the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Almeta Cooper describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Almeta Cooper narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$5

DAStory

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DATitle
Almeta Cooper talks about the Ohio State Medical Association Frivolous Lawsuit Committee
Almeta Cooper recalls her challenges at The Ohio State University Medical Center
Transcript
Now this was in your file, a frivolous liability case filed against a Dr. Michael A. Banks, in 2007. Did, did you have anything to do with that?$$Right, well, that's what I was talking about, the frivolous lawsuit committee [Ohio State Medical Association Frivolous Lawsuit Committee] that I was involved in, is that what, there were several cases and I'm not sure if this was Dr. Banks' case but there was a case where, one example was, where the physician, the plaintiff, basically, had the plaintiff's lawyer tell the physician's lawyer that, "If you would agree to make a payment to me, even though I know that your physician doesn't have any liability, then we'll release you from the lawsuit." Well that's a very egregious situation right there and, you know, most malpractice companies at the time really didn't have the, the focus to really pursue when those types of situations arose so we were able to put a, you know, kind of shine a spotlight on that kind of conduct and say this is inconsistent with what the standards are in Ohio, you, you know, you cannot do that. And so that was a case where it was found in favor, the one I'm describing, in favor of the physician plaintiff, not the physician plaintiff, I mean, in terms of the physician who brought an allegation of frivolous lawsuit against the lawyer who represented that, that particular plaintiff. That we had another situation where a, a physician, we had another situation where a physician had a name that didn't sound like the typical name that you might hear in Ohio. It wasn't Cooper, it was another name, and the plaintiff's lawyer brought a lawsuit against this physician simply because she had the same last name as the physician who was actually involved in the medical care of the patient and the physician was very upset and she complained and we looked into her case and the lawyer did withdraw the case, but, you know, what people don't understand is once you're named in the case, you have to, you know, notify your company, you have to, you know, the company spends money to get you dismissed and so, you know, those, that, that all adds to the cost and expense of professional liability action. So--$$And adds to the cost of healthcare eventually, right (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) And adds to the cost of healthcare, exactly, exactly. So we were very excited to have some success in, in that arena.$What's been the biggest challenge working f- at Ohio State [The Ohio State University Medical Center; The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio]?$$Well, in the last year, probably the single largest challenge I've had, and it's been in the papers so I can talk about it. We did have an unfortunate incident in which there was a mistake in referral of a proficiency test in our clinical laboratory and a proficiency test is a test that's used to validate the testing that is done in the clinical laboratory. It's not, it does not involve a patient, an actual patient, and what happens is that you're supposed to treat that sample just as you would treat a real patient specimen except you do not process it all the way to its natural conclusion but you send it back to the testing authority and in this instance, one of our employees mistakenly referred it, treated it as a patient specimen and referred it to another laboratory. So, in the clinical laboratory world, even though at the time OSU was doing 10 million tests a year and ten thousand of these proficiency tests, there wasn't any flexibility in the way the code of regulations were written to allow CMS [Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services] to be flexible with the medical center in terms of what kind of penalty would be assessed and, fortunately, during the time, during the nine months or so that this process was going on there was, the TEST Act [Taking Essential Steps for Testing Act of 2012] was passed which did give CMS more flexibility but in addition, we had very excellent outside counsel. I was able to identify the top lawyer at, Hope Foster [Hope S. Foster], who was at the Washington, D.C. law firm of Mintz Levin [Mintz Levin Cohn Ferris Glovsky and Popeo, P.C.], who represented us and through the teamwork, both of the staff and the leadership in the laboratory, with excellent representation, I'm very pleased to say that in the end we were able to resolve the situation with CMS and it did not result in the very severe penalty of not being able to own or operate a clinical laboratory. So, but along the way we discovered a lot of opportunities that we could, that we needed to address as an organization and as a result of that, one of the things is that, in fact, I'm just in the transition of beginning to do this. I'm now the executive director for HHS [health and human services] advocacy, regulatory and quality improvement program so I will be doing more of this type of work to try to assist us as an organization in addressing any issues that we might have that relates to that, that regulatory environment.

James Mitchell

Research chemist James W. Mitchell was born on November 16, 1943 in Durham, North Carolina as the eldest and only son of tobacco factory workers. Mitchell’s interest in chemistry stemmed from the disciplines logical principles and their reliability. Mitchell received his B.S. degree in chemistry from North Carolina A & T State University in 1965, and his Ph.D. degree in chemistry from Iowa State University in 1970. His doctoral thesis focused on analytical chemistry, a branch of chemistry concerned with analyzing the characteristics and composition of matter.

Mitchell first joined AT & T Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey after receiving his doctorate. He chaired the Lab’s Affirmative Action Committee and was one of the founders of the Association of Black Laboratory Employees. In 1982, Mitchell was promoted to supervisor of the Inorganic Analytical Chemistry Research Group. Mitchell became head of the Analytical Chemistry Research Department in 1975. Under his leadership the department was transformed into an internationally renowned research organization. In 1985, Mitchell was named an AT & T Bell Laboratories Fellow, and, in 1989 he was extended membership into the National Academy of Engineering. He has written nearly 100 publications with as many citations attached to his work. He earned the 1999 Lifetime Achievement in Industry Award by the National Society of Black Engineers.

In 2002, Mitchell began his tenure at Howard University. He served as the David and Lucille Packard Professor of Materials Science, Director of the CREST Nanoscale Analytical Sciences Research and Education Center, Professor of Chemical Engineering, and Dean of the College of Engineering. Mitchell has also lectured internationally. In addition, he co-authored a book, Contamination Control in Trace Analysis, published more than seventy-five scientific papers, and invented instruments and processes. He also served as a member of the editorial advisory boards of Analytical Chemistry and Mikrochimica Acta. Mitchell and his wife Jean live in Washington, D.C. They have three children.

James W. Mitchell was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 11, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.236

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/11/2012

Last Name

Mitchell

Maker Category
Middle Name

W

Occupation
Schools

North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University

Iowa State University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

James

Birth City, State, Country

Durham

HM ID

MIT13

Favorite Season

Holiday Season

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Alaskan Cruises

Favorite Quote

When times get tough, the tough get going.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

11/16/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Turkey, Greens (Collard), Fish, Barbecue

Short Description

Chemist James Mitchell (1943 - ) was the first African American honored as an AT&T Bell Laboratories Fellow, and is the Dean of the College of Engineering at Howard University.

Employment

Bell Laboratories

Lucent Technologies

Howard University College of Engineering

CREST Nanoscale Analytical Sciences Research and Education center

Favorite Color

Gold, Purple, Red, White

Timing Pairs
310,0:4470,95:5350,111:6310,131:6630,136:7270,150:9110,189:10310,208:15672,263:22832,332:23781,347:24365,356:25241,370:25679,377:32120,416:34760,468:35880,487:36600,502:36920,507:37240,512:38200,525:38840,534:39480,543:40200,554:42200,587:47750,630:49270,656:50150,672:53670,726:55910,761:58230,784:59270,799:60310,813:61270,827:61590,832:66579,850:67492,863:68239,872:68571,877:69733,894:70231,901:71900,928:72593,940:73097,950:73601,959:74042,967:75428,992:75995,1002:76562,1014:78011,1043:78641,1104:84833,1129:89948,1225:98063,1312:103076,1342:105169,1372:111930,1410:112262,1415:112677,1421:116635,1444:117145,1451:121410,1486:121766,1491:126928,1562:127284,1567:127818,1572:128708,1584:129153,1590:135470,1647:135926,1654:136458,1663:138054,1689:139422,1712:141980,1719:142360,1724:143025,1733:151406,1803:153494,1830:155495,1857:160280,1915:161498,1930:166066,1956:173326,2113:173590,2118:180270,2203:181020,2215:181545,2224:182070,2236:185032,2252:185402,2258:185846,2265:187178,2286:188140,2300:189028,2313:189694,2323:192358,2364:192654,2369:193024,2375:193690,2385:197728,2406:200968,2470:201256,2475:201688,2482:202912,2503:203488,2513:204496,2528:205504,2553:209827,2577:211681,2593:212196,2599:221466,2679:222048,2686:222436,2691:223212,2700:224182,2713:225928,2737:227770,2742$0,0:8907,32:10041,51:18951,164:23498,179:26427,214:29815,246:33222,274:34671,303:34923,308:37210,323:44237,393:45013,403:47147,424:50932,444:54663,484:56895,512:57546,521:59499,540:59964,546:61917,573:67638,614:70992,654:71850,667:78222,723:80242,751:83582,779:87023,803:87451,808:88414,818:89591,835:93110,861:95407,879:96208,890:96742,897:99224,927:99763,935:103151,979:105230,1015:105846,1024:106924,1045:108310,1072:108926,1082:109927,1098:110389,1106:118830,1184:119570,1195:124422,1230:131730,1262:132094,1267:133277,1283:136752,1310:138026,1325:139104,1337:140084,1348:140476,1353:140868,1358:143612,1388:155430,1457:156022,1462:157370,1469
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of James Mitchell's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - James Mitchell lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - James Mitchell describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - James Mitchell describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - James Mitchell talks about how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - James Mitchell describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - James Mitchell describes his childhood neighborhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - James Mitchell talks about his family

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - James Mitchell talks about his parents' separation and reconciliation

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - James Mitchell describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - James Mitchell describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - James Mitchell talks about his elementary schools

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - James Mitchell talks about his elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - James Mitchell talks about his natural ability of taking things apart and reassembling them

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - James Mitchell talks about what influenced him while growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - James Mitchell talks about his involvement in church

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - James Mitchell talks about his interest in music

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - James Mitchell talks about growing up in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - James Mitchell talks about his childhood jobs

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - James Mitchell talks about the importance of education

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - James Mitchell talks about the book rent policy in North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - James Mitchell talks about his father's return after a long absence

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - James Mitchell talks about his relationship with his mother

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - James Mitchell talks about his experience at the summer science program at North Carolina Central University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - James Mitchell talks about his high school experience

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - James Mitchell talks about his decision to attend North Carolina A&T University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - James Mitchell talks about his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement (part one)

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - James Mitchell talks about his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement (part two)

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - James Mitchell talks about the segregation at North Carolina A&T State University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - James Mitchell talks about his mentors at North Carolina A&T State University

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - James Mitchell talks about his college experience

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - James Mitchell talks about his summer employment during college

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - James Mitchell talks about his decision to attend Iowa State University for his Ph.D. degree

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - James Mitchell talks about his friend, Dr. Reginald Mitchner

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - James Mitchell talks about his experience at Iowa State University and his wife

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - James Mitchell talks about his experience at Iowa State University

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - James Mitchell describes his dissertation on the separation of rare earth elements

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - James Mitchell talks about the practical applications of his research on the separation of rare earth elements

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - James Mitchell talks about his employment prospects after graduating from Iowa State University

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - James Mitchell talks about the assassinations of prominent figures during the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - James Mitchell talks about the work environment at Bell Laboratories

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - James Mitchell talks about his work at Bell Laboratories

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - James Mitchell talks about his patents

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - James Mitchell talks about his professional activities and awards

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - James Mitchell talks about AT&T Bell Laboratories' merger with Lucent Technologies

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - James Mitchell talks about his mentorship activities at Bell Laboratories

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - James Mitchell talks about his colleagues at Bell Laboratories/Lucent Technologies

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - James Mitchell talks about his career at Howard University

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - James Mitchell talks about his goals for the college of engineering at Howard University

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - James Mitchell describes the challenges he faces as dean of the college of engineering

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - James Mitchell talks about his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - James Mitchell reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - James Mitchell reflects on his life choices

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - James Mitchell talks about his family

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - James Mitchell talks about his parents' reaction to his success

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - James Mitchell shares his advice for young people

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - James Mitchell talks about how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$6

DAStory

4$5

DATitle
James Mitchell talks about the work environment at Bell Laboratories
James Mitchell talks about his goals for the college of engineering at Howard University
Transcript
Okay, so, and so, after graduating in 1970, so you joined Bell Labs [Bell Laboratories]. Now, this is, as you said, Bell Labs has been touted by the people we've interviewed as one of the greatest places to work. Of course, the culture is destroyed now, but at that time, it was a scientist's dream.$$It absolutely was one of the best corporate research facilities on Planet Earth. It was run by managers who had first been accomplished scientists themselves. You didn't get to be a manager at the AT&T Bell Laboratories Research Facility unless you were an extraordinary researcher first. And so the people in charge of the place understood what was necessary in an environment in order for it to be essentially perfect from the standpoint of supporting, fostering and allowing scientific and technological excellence to take place. I had the blessings of enjoying Bell Laboratories for thirty years. It was the type of environment where you couldn't believe that you were paid to do something that was so enjoyable and to do it under conditions that were so excellent.$$Yeah, it's hardly anyone that says something like that, but that's, those who talk about Bell Labs do speak that highly of it. So, for instance, what made it such an enjoyable place to work?$$Well, it was such an enjoyable place to work because money was not an obstacle to accomplishing the impossible. If a young person had an idea about something and it had a finite probability of being feasible, the only thing you had to do was convince the manager of your organization that this idea concept was worth pursuing and that if brought to fruition, its scientific impact would be extraordinary, and it was possible for you to do that. That could be done in a conversation and on one page. It didn't require a 300-page research proposal. So you could pursue extraordinary research ideas and so forth without exhaustive inputs and justifications before the fact. You had colleagues on your hallway who were experts in virtually all aspects of science and technology. You could learn in a thirty-minute conversation with one of your colleagues what would require you three months of digging through the literature and research in order to acquire the knowledge. You could almost instantly generate a collaboration with anyone, excellent people will collaborate at a finger snap with other excellent people. And you had access. If you indicated that you worked at Bell Laboratories, that almost immediately gave you access to collaborations with anybody else in the country. And so it was just an amazing place where the money, the infrastructure, the intellect, the vision and all of those things came together that allowed important science to be done.$Okay, so that's 2009. Now, so, just tell us about what you're doing as dean here and what your prospects are as well as for the college?$$As a dean, I believe the most important responsibility I have is to put in place the underpinnings and the structure of the College of Engineering such that in the next century we are able to implement, establish and grow entrepreneurships, intellectual property, technology parks and businesses. Howard University is not going to be a greater university than it has been until we have done what the other universities do, establish technology parks, establish intellectual property and have a gigantic foundation with funding sufficient for us to accomplish anything on our own, if necessary. And so I see my greatest goal is to lay the foundation for pursuing that long-term goal. And so we have, are in the midst of restructuring the college to pursue that. We are in the midst of working with the faculty to recruit entrepreneurial professors, individuals who see the business aspect of science as important as the knowledge aspect of science and who want to operate in both arenas. And my job is to hopefully work with the upper-level management here and transform the environment from one of teaching excellence with science done in addition to it, but one of scientific and engineering excellence that even surpasses by far the teaching legacy of excellence that we have. And so that's the unfinished job that exists.

C. Eileen Watts Welch

Academic administrator Constance Eileen Watts Welch was born on March 28, 1946, in Durham, North Carolina to Dr. Charles DeWitt Watts, North Carolina’s first African American surgeon, and Lyda Constance Merrick Watts, a community volunteer. Welch's family founded North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company, the oldest African American life insurance company. Her maternal great-grandfather, Dr. Aaron McDuffie Moore was Durham’s first black doctor and co-founder of North Carolina Mutual and the Durham Colored Library. Welch attended a segregated high school, Hillside High School, in Durham before heading to Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia, where she received her B.A. degree.

Welch began her career in 1968 as a third grade teacher in Atlanta. She later taught in Arlington, Virginia when her husband was drafted for military service. She became a stay-at-home mother after the birth of her two sons in 1970 and 1972. Welch returned to work in the late 1970s and became founder and the chief operating officer of Book Art, Ltd., a chain of bookstores in Fairfax County, Virginia. In 1983, she was named regional manager of the Reston Employment Service where she designed marketing campaigns and negotiated contracts. In 1990, Welch was hired at Inova Health System where she worked in strategic planning, health promotion and disease prevention. In 1994, she was promoted to Director of Development for the Inova Annual Fund. In 1995, Welch earned her M.B.A. degree in public relations, management, and marketing.

After a long career in Virginia, Welch returned to North Carolina in 1996, when she was named Associate Dean of External Affairs at Duke University's School of Nursing. In 2005, Welch was named Executive Director for Advancement at the Center for Child and Family Health, established by Duke University, the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill and North Carolina Central University. Welch has also served as a lecturer and community volunteer, serving The Links, Incorporated and the Durham County Library.

Constance Eileen Watts Welch was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 23, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.185

Sex

Female

Interview Date

6/23/2007

Last Name

Welch

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Watts

Schools

Hillside High School

W. G. Pearson S.T.E.A.M. Elementary School

Burton Elementary

Spelman College

George Mason University

First Name

C. Eileen

Birth City, State, Country

Durham

HM ID

WEL03

Favorite Season

Spring

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Bahamas

Favorite Quote

We All Have Talents, And We Have To Use Them For The Best.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

North Carolina

Birth Date

3/28/1946

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Durham

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chocolate, Seafood

Short Description

Academic administrator C. Eileen Watts Welch (1946 - ) was Executive Director for Advancement at the Center for Child and Family Health, established by Duke University, the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill and North Carolina Central University.

Employment

INOVA Health System

Duke University School of Nursing

Center for Children and Family Health

Officer of Book Arts

Atlanta Public Schools

Arlington Public Schools

Favorite Color

Pink

Timing Pairs
0,0:9409,115:10820,141:12148,164:12480,169:14140,192:15468,210:15966,217:16298,222:16962,231:17294,236:17709,242:18954,269:19286,274:19950,287:20282,292:21361,307:22108,442:22855,452:23270,458:28520,482:28840,487:29480,497:30920,517:31960,535:32360,541:32680,546:33400,558:34440,573:34920,585:36280,606:41654,645:42242,654:43670,675:44090,681:44426,686:44762,691:47702,737:49886,768:51314,795:53498,834:54254,845:56606,875:57278,885:57950,894:58286,899:64922,941:65736,955:68252,1006:68622,1012:70102,1035:70694,1044:71360,1054:73654,1106:74172,1117:74764,1127:80640,1181:81360,1190:81990,1199:83610,1251:85050,1271:87030,1315:87660,1327:92880,1390:93600,1399:93960,1404:94590,1413:99437,1422:99882,1428:100327,1434:101306,1447:102819,1466:104421,1483:105311,1488:109227,1545:109761,1552:110918,1568:112164,1588:112520,1593:115546,1640:121645,1723:124568,1774:125753,1832:129703,1888:130098,1894:140460,1967$0,0:858,13:6786,133:7566,145:8970,160:10686,177:11544,189:12168,202:12714,210:13026,215:14430,244:20202,344:21372,361:23478,414:23790,419:27768,485:28236,492:34390,518:36790,557:37690,570:37990,575:38740,589:44740,694:47290,757:47590,762:47890,767:48190,772:49240,794:52090,843:52615,852:53515,867:53965,875:54940,889:55465,897:56215,909:57715,942:66422,1007:67298,1021:67736,1028:68539,1042:69123,1052:69415,1057:69707,1062:71313,1083:72335,1101:72919,1110:73357,1118:73722,1124:74598,1135:74890,1140:75547,1151:75839,1156:78321,1200:78832,1209:79416,1220:83066,1292:83431,1298:83723,1303:91738,1337:96886,1450:97282,1457:98470,1483:98866,1490:99394,1499:100318,1517:100582,1522:109654,1681:110356,1691:111214,1704:113632,1746:114022,1752:114334,1757:114880,1766:115192,1771:115816,1780:116128,1785:117220,1801:117922,1813:118546,1823:120808,1864:121900,1900:122368,1908:126970,1976:133850,1986:134471,1996:134885,2003:135713,2017:136334,2027:137162,2041:137950,2046
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of C. Eileen Watts Welch's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - C. Eileen Watts Welch lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - C. Eileen Watts Welch describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - C. Eileen Watts Welch describes her maternal great-grandfather's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - C. Eileen Watts Welch talks about the founding of North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - C. Eileen Watts Welch describes her maternal grandmother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - C. Eileen Watts Welch describes the creation of the Negro Braille Magazine

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - C. Eileen Watts Welch talks about her siblings and maternal aunt

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - C. Eileen Watts Welch describes her father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - C. Eileen Watts Welch describes her father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - C. Eileen Watts Welch lists her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - C. Eileen Watts Welch describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - C. Eileen Watts Welch recalls her experiences with racial discrimination in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - C. Eileen Watts Welch remembers Camp Oak Hill in Nottingham, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - C. Eileen Watts Welch describes her father's medical practice in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - C. Eileen Watts Welch describes her experiences in Durham, North Carolina's public schools

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - C. Eileen Watts Welch recalls the desegregation of public schools in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - C. Eileen Watts Welch recalls her family's relationship with the Duke family of Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - C. Eileen Watts Welch remembers the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - C. Eileen Watts Welch remembers her grandparents

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - C. Eileen Watts Welch remembers Maynard Jackson's family

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - C. Eileen Watts Welch describes her experiences at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - C. Eileen Watts Welch talks about the Miss Maroon and White pageant

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - C. Eileen Watts Welch remembers the Civil Rights Movement in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - C. Eileen Watts Welch describes Spelman College's campus

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - C. Eileen Watts Welch talks about her marriage and move to Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - C. Eileen Watts Welch recalls teaching in Atlanta, Georgia during desegregation

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - C. Eileen Watts Welch talks about her teaching career in Arlington, Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - C. Eileen Watts Welch describes the African American community in Reston, Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - C. Eileen Watts Welch recalls the racial discrimination within Fairfax County Public Schools in Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - C. Eileen Watts Welch describes her role with Inova Health System

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - C. Eileen Watts Welch describes her role at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - C. Eileen Watts Welch talks about the growth of Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - C. Eileen Watts Welch reflects upon her family's legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - C. Eileen Watts Welch narrates her photographs

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Slating of C. Eileen Watts Welch's mother's interview

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - C. Eileen Watts Welch's mother lists her favorites

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - C. Eileen Watts Welch's mother describes her parents' background

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - C. Eileen Watts Welch's mother describes her grandparents' backgrounds

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - C. Eileen Watts Welch's mother remembers her childhood in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - C. Eileen Watts Welch's mother describes W.G. Pearson Elementary School in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - C. Eileen Watts Welch's mother remembers segregation in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - C. Eileen Watts Welch's mother talks about her parents' professions

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - C. Eileen Watts Welch's mother describes the sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - C. Eileen Watts Welch's mother remembers St. Joseph's African Methodist Episcopal Church in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - C. Eileen Watts Welch's mother remembers her maternal grandparents

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - C. Eileen Watts Welch's mother recalls notable individuals in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 13 - C. Eileen Watts Welch's mother remembers her experiences at Hillside High School in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - C. Eileen Watts Welch's mother describes the influence of North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - C. Eileen Watts Welch's mother recalls the race relations in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - C. Eileen Watts Welch's remembers Alice Freeman Palmer Memorial Institute in Sedalia, North Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - C. Eileen Watts Welch's mother recalls shopping in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - C. Eileen Watts Welch's mother describes her experiences at Talladega College in Talladega, Alabama

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - C. Eileen Watts Welch's mother recalls meeting her husband

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - C. Eileen Watts Welch's mother remembers Charles R. Drew

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - C. Eileen Watts Welch's mother reflects upon her family's legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - C. Eileen Watts Welch's mother narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$4

DAStory

5$5

DATitle
C. Eileen Watts Welch talks about the founding of North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company
C. Eileen Watts Welch describes her role at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina
Transcript
So Aaron [Aaron McDuffie Moore] lived 1856 to 1923.$$Okay.$$Was he a leader in the community?$$Yeah, obviously so, right. He was the, he was first a physician, and then because of what he saw people needed, he became more involved with other ideas. But he wasn't alone with this, I mean with organizing the mutual [North Carolina Mutual and Provident Association; North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company, Durham, North Carolina]. In the beginning there were a group of men who came together, including Aaron and John Merrick. But there were several and their pictured here in the early forming of the country- the company. And at one point when the first claim due, the story goes that several backed out except for Aaron Moore and John Merrick and they paid the first claim. And then they began to continue. But neither of them needed the company income, they both had their own careers. John Merrick owned barbershops, he had--he was first a brick mason, and then he built these barbershops, he had three barbershops. So he had economic stability without the mutual. It was an entrepreneurship that they could afford to invest in and help to grow. Neither of them ever took salaries from the company. C.C. Spaulding [Charles Clinton Spaulding] came as a cousin of Aaron Moore's to Durham [North Carolina] to work in the company sort of as a, a busboy, gofer, whatever, and learn the business from them and then was their first salesman and really brought the company into the next level of growth. And from his entrepreneurial spirit, it became more well-known nationwide and grew with branch offices and that kind of thing. He knew Roosevelt [President Franklin Delano Roosevelt], President Roosevelt and Booker T. Washington and, you know, he was, he was, the, the person who--he was the president, probably the first paid president at that point.$$Who was the first president?$$First president was John Merrick. And then Aaron Moore and then C.C. Spaulding.$When did you return to Durham [North Carolina]?$$Duke [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina] recruited me home in 1996. They were building up staffing for a campaign, a huge development campaign and someone here said you know they're hiring development officers. Don't you wanna apply? And I said I don't know, we'll see. And I was home for Thanksgiving one year and they set up an appointment with me and this vice president for development. And it went from there. And I ended up coming here and working with the School of Nursing at Duke and actually revitalizing that school, which just was pretty--it had, they had just about closed, the School of Nursing.$$You had done quite a bit of fundraising.$$I did fundraising and it's advancement, which is more than just fundraising. It's the publicity, it's rebuilding the alumni relations. They had decided to not have an undergraduate nursing program any longer at Duke. And so all those people who had finished as undergrad nurses, weren't necessarily interested in giving back or being involved; they were angry. And we had to figure out how to overcome some of their anger, and also during the time actually reinstituted a bachelor's [degree] program, which is a second bachelor's. It's not exactly the same as they remember as coming after high school there, but it still helped them to see that Duke was educating leaders in nursing and they could be proud of it. So we built a building. We raised enough to build a nursing school building which just opened last year.$$Great. And what's your current title?$$Currently I'm still with Duke, but I'm with the Center for Child and Family Health [Durham, North Carolina], and executive director for advancement for that organization. And it works with kids who have suffered from maltreatment or trauma as a result of abuse or just being in a traumatic event like Katrina [Hurricane Katrina] or loss of parents or fires, that kind of thing, mental trauma. So I'm raising money and providing public relations and marketing assistance to them.

Dr. Warren Strudwick, Sr.

Dr. Warren James Strudwick was born on December 23, 1923, in Durham, North Carolina. His mother was a teacher and his father a physician. As a child, he enjoyed a privileged life until his father’s death in 1931, when he was eight years old. Strudwick attended Whitted Elementary School and as a young boy enjoyed building model airplanes and was a member of the safety patrol. He received his diploma from Hillside High School in 1940.

Strudwick attended North Carolina College for Negroes in 1940, where he studied chemistry until he transferred to West Virginia State College in 1942. That same year, he was drafted into the United States Marine Corps where he served in a combat unit during World War II. In 1943, he attended Purdue University to complete Officers Training School. In 1946, Strudwick entered Howard University, receiving his B.S. degree in biology and chemistry in 1948. He went on to attend Howard University Medical School and while a student met and married his wife, Dr. Bette Catoe. He graduated from medical school in 1952.

In 1958, Strudwick helped to integrate Washington, D.C. hospitals. From 1961 to 2000, he taught surgery at Howard University Medical School. While teaching, he also operated a successful private practice in Washington, D.C. Strudwick was a member of numerous professional organizations including the American Board of Surgery, the American Medical Association, the American Cancer Society and the American Society of Abdominal Surgeons. He was also actively involved in the NAACP, Urban League and Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity. Strudwick also wrote and published a number of medical related articles.

Strudwick passed away on October 27, 2008 at the age of 84. He leaves behind his wife and three grown children; two are physicians and the other an attorney.

Accession Number

A2004.084

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/17/2004

Last Name

Strudwick

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

James

Occupation
Schools

W. G. Pearson S.T.E.A.M. Elementary School

Whitted Elementary School

Hillside High School

North Carolina Central University

West Virginia State University

Purdue University

Howard University

First Name

Warren

Birth City, State, Country

Durham

HM ID

STR05

Favorite Season

Spring

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

12/23/1923

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Death Date

10/27/2008

Short Description

Surgeon Dr. Warren Strudwick, Sr. (1923 - 2008 ) helped to integrate Washington, D.C. hospitals and has taught at Howard University Medical School. Strudwick also had a successful private practice in Washington.

Employment

Post Office, Washington DC

Howard University

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:792,29:1980,48:2508,57:2970,66:3432,72:3894,81:4422,93:5082,106:6138,133:13155,236:13581,244:13865,250:14504,265:14788,270:15285,279:15924,293:16421,302:16705,307:22598,433:26626,438:28562,468:28914,473:33402,543:37358,569:38006,581:43669,657:44317,668:44722,674:45370,700:47756,709:49068,726:49806,738:50708,750:51036,755:51774,767:52102,772:54234,809:54808,819:58908,936:67772,1025:70390,1086:70852,1093:72546,1121:81487,1221:90360,1317:90871,1326:91236,1332:92404,1355:96054,1422:96565,1431:96930,1437:97222,1443:97733,1451:102786,1484:103216,1491:103990,1504:107906,1537:110780,1547:111185,1553:112319,1570:112724,1576:114425,1625:114992,1634:115397,1640:116288,1654:120480,1687:121080,1699:122180,1721:124280,1748:127064,1759:127652,1768:129248,1790:130004,1815:130424,1821:136052,1944:136724,1953:149027,2122:153631,2185:154461,2198:155042,2207:155457,2214:156951,2241:157283,2246:158528,2266:159358,2293:159690,2298:161267,2338:165411,2357:166421,2369:167633,2389:169148,2413:169956,2423:176196,2449:176840,2457:181128,2516:190896,2633:191192,2638:192524,2675:192820,2680:193116,2692:193634,2701:194004,2729:203840,2848:204236,2856:205028,2872:205622,2890:208896,2940:209344,2957:209984,2998:210368,3012:212896,3042:214700,3056:216287,3090:217430,3096:219900,3104:222385,3166:224570,3205:224930,3212:225290,3220:229536,3304:236531,3383:238313,3415:239204,3438:241900,3446:242077,3457$0,0:1472,42:1856,50:2560,70:3136,87:3520,94:3968,102:4416,112:4864,120:17796,171:20984,192:25378,254:25952,262:27250,282:30450,338:31410,357:31810,363:43415,571:44520,587:51277,613:51625,618:52582,630:53887,648:62034,738:62658,747:66636,847:68118,874:68664,886:74436,1009:75138,1019:75450,1024:82944,1113:83592,1123:87768,1208:94028,1283:94288,1289:94548,1296:97530,1346:102668,1421:105776,1477:106112,1482:115616,1650:116694,1674:124986,1822:126278,1865:126754,1873:128794,1922:130562,1988:131242,1999:131718,2007:132262,2025:132534,2030:132806,2036:133146,2042:134302,2065:134778,2073:142533,2152:142857,2157:143343,2164:143667,2169:147260,2188:156890,2339:157690,2353:158090,2359:161599,2419:161915,2424:164917,2502:165391,2510:168156,2580:169657,2615:170289,2625:171237,2639:178260,2675:178700,2680:179580,2691:181010,2704:181450,2709:188006,2787:188314,2792:191110,2815:196380,2883:197920,2935:200720,3024:201350,3034:210170,3115:211500,3133:216095,3198
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Warren Strudwick interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Warren Strudwick lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Warren Strudwick remembers his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Warren Strudwick remembers his father

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Warren Strudwick traces his family history

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Warren Strudwick shares his earliest memories

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Warren Strudwick recalls the sights and smells of growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Warren Strudwick discusses his brother

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Warren Strudwick gives an overview of his school life

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Warren Strudwick describes his childhood interests

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Warren Strudwick discusses his early religious participation

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Warren Strudwick recalls influential figures from his adolescent years

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Warren Strudwick recounts his high school experience

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Warren Strudwick details his college experience and his military stint

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Warren Strudwick recounts his medical school experience

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Warren Strudwick discusses changes in his family life

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Warren Strudwick reflects on his medical training

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Warren Strudwick reflects on the medical profession during the 1950s

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Warren Strudwick describes his experiences as a medical school professor

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Warren Strudwick evaluates the "managed care" healthcare system

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Warren Strudwick considers the effect of violent crimes on healthcare systems

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Warren Strudwick describes his family's medical legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Warren Strudwick shares advice for aspiring medical practitioners

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Warren Strudwick reflects on developments in the medical field during his lifetime

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Warren Strudwick describes how he'd like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Warren Strudwick shares thoughts on the significance of history

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Warren Strudwick reflects on his father's success

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Warren Strudwick considers his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Warren Strudwick reflects on systems of government

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$2

DAStory

4$6

DATitle
Warren Strudwick remembers his father
Warren Strudwick recounts his medical school experience
Transcript
Now, let's talk a little bit about your father, starting with his name, where he grew up and where he was born?$$Okay. His name was William Canady Strudwick. Now, where he got both names, I do not know. The William and the Canady, I have no idea, except for the fact that the name William, when you look through the Strudwicks on the computer, you see a lot of Williams, and it may be they just picked that up. Canady, I have no idea about. Strudwick, I think it came from the plantation owners, I suppose. I don't think Strudwick is an African name, as such, so this is the only way that I can say it came about. He, as far as I knew--my daddy died when I was eight years old [1932]. I have very few recollections of what he was like. I do know that he was very good to me and certainly, I remember that very well. He was a disciplinarian and my mama [Mabel Christina Wormley] used to say, well, I'll tell your daddy when he comes home what you did, you know. And I was scared, but anyway, he was not the one who would give me the whipping. I had to go outside and get the switch from the hedges and my mama would do the whipping (laughter) for whatever I had done wrong, you know (laughter). But anyway, I remember he was flamboyant and an immaculate dresser. I don't remember ever seeing my daddy in what one would call work clothes. He always had on a suit and tie and cuff links and all, and he--and I guess in those days, doctors were that way. They, and that's what I remember. I remember he liked cards too. We were in a black neighborhood, in which everybody, you were either poor, middle class or what one would call well-off black, you know. And so we were well off as blacks go in that--in fact, we had two cars as I remember. Prior to that time, I was told that he used to make his house calls in a wagon, you know, horse and wagon. We had a barn behind our house. I can remember that, the little barn, and I remember that barn. But I don't remember the horse and the buggy. I do remember the cars that we had. We had a Packard, which was a super car. I guess it was the Mercedes of that day. And we had a Hupmobile, which was a two-seater car, which in the back was like a convertible, you know, the back seat was, you could open, and you'd sit in the back seat in the air and all. So I remember that about him. I remember he used to carry me at times to East Durham to visit his patients, and he had some friends down there who we'd go to see. The man who married him, I remember him as Reverend Sowell and his wife. They had a store in East Durham. I can remember very well the, going down there in these cars and all. And at that time, there were not paved roads. They had dirt roads, and all, and I remember, you know, sometimes it was muddy and all. But he would take me with him and all. And this is about all I can remember about my father. I remember it was very devastating to my mother and to my brother [William Wormley Strudwick], you know, when my father died. But being eight years old, it just did not translate to me very well, until I started not being able--my mother would tell me that we can't afford this and we can't afford that. That's when it started to hit me. But from that point on, from eight, through nine to ten and all that, took it, but anyway, there were some things that I wanted. So I started working at ten years of age. I started finding little jobs to make money.$What were our experiences like in medical school, like were there any classes that you really enjoyed taking in medical school?$$Yeah, I guess, you know, to me all of 'em were enjoyable if it were not for who--sometimes who was teaching and all, but the subject itself, I mean, was quite interesting, you know. You were learning all the time. You learned about bacteria, you learned about the germs, and you learned--they called it bacteriology. You learned about anatomy, you learned the anatomy of the body. You learned what is biochemistry, you know, the chemical elements of the body. You--it was just a very interesting experience for me anyway. And you did not--what you were trying to do is get the basics before you went to clinical medicine, and everybody strived to get to clinical medicine when you start treating, taking care of patients. But anyway, and early, I, I enjoyed it.$$So while you were in medical school, did you know that you wanted to be a surgeon or were you still trying to determine what type of medicine you would go into?$$No, I wanted to be a surgeon, yeah. I wanted to do something with my hands. I always wanted to do something--that's why I said I wanted to be an engineer and all. I wanted to be something, you know. So surgery was the thing that I would be doing with my hands and all. And it was fascinating to me. Surgery was fascinating, and I wanted to be able to do something to a person that would make them better. And most things in surgery, you were operating to make a person better. In medicine, there were some things that--and most things with surgery, you could cure, if you're gonna operate on 'em. But in medicine, you weren't--you could treat them, but you knew they were gonna die no matter what you did (chuckle). So surgery was my choice as far as that was concerned.$$And while you were in medical school, you--as you mentioned, while you were at Howard [University] you met your wife [Bette Catoe]. And you all married in medical school. What was that like, being married while going to medical school?$$It was okay. And the reason it was okay, and I think that one of the best things that happened to me was maybe going into the service. I grew up in the service. It made me know that I, when I got out, I had to do something, and it gave me the GI Bill of Rights, and I don't think, if I had not had the GI Bill of Rights, I would have been able to afford to go to medical school or to finish college. I don't know, I have no idea, but I do know the GI Bill of Rights took me all the way through except for my last year of medical school in which I got a scholarship for that. But up until that point, you know, the GI took care of us. I worked part time. I worked--part of the time, I worked at the post office, you know, just about the whole time I was in medical school really. And you can't work now. They do not allow you to work. It's too much to learn. They don't allow you to work now. If you're gonna work, you can work at something related to medicine. So it's a little different in this day. I know some of my classmates worked full time, you know, doing something, during medical school days.