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Ishmael Reed

Writer Ishmael Reed was born on February 22, 1938 in Chattanooga, Tennessee to Thelma Virginia Coleman, a homemaker and salesclerk, and Henry Lenoir, a fundraiser for the YMCA. In 1942, he moved to Buffalo, New York with his mother and stepfather, Bennie Stephen Reed, an autoworker. Reed graduated from East High School in 1956, enrolled in night classes at Millard Fillmore College, and later transferred to SUNY Buffalo.

In 1961, Reed began writing for Empire State Weekly, during which time he interviewed Malcolm X for a community radio program. Reed then moved to New York City in 1962, where he joined the Umbra poets. In 1967, Reed began teaching at the University of California, Berkeley and published his first novel, The Free Lance Pallbearers. In 1969, Reed accepted a teaching position at the University of Washington, Seattle, where he taught for three years. Reed’s popularity soared in the 1970s with the publishing of several other books, including his novels Mumbo Jumbo and Flight to Canada. In addition to the popularity of his own work, Reed championed the work of other writers, operating various small presses and literary journals, including Yardbird, which he co-founded with poet Al Young in 1971, and Reed, Cannon & Johnson Publishing Company, which he co-founded in 1972. In 1976, he also co-founded the Before Columbus Foundation, which promoted contemporary American multicultural literature. Reed became a professor at Yale University and SUNY Buffalo in 1979. From 1983 until 1987, Reed was a professor at Columbia University before accepting a teaching position at Harvard University in 1987. Also, Reed authored over thirty published books, including The Complete Muhammad Ali , Juice! , Airing Dirty Laundry , A Secretary to the Spirits , and catechism of d neoamerican hoodoo church .

Reed has been the recipient of many awards and honors, including a 1998 MacArthur Genius Grant, The Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Award for fiction, a National Endowment fellowship for creative writing, and a National Institute of Arts and Letters Award for best noncommercial novel of 1974. Reed has also been nominated for a Pulitzer and two National Book Awards.

Reed and his wife, Carla Blank, live in Oakland, California. They have one daughter, Tennessee Reed. Reed has one other daughter, Timothy Bret Reed, from a previous marriage.

Ishmael Reed was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 13, 2015.

Accession Number

A2015.011

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/11/2015 |and| 12/13/2015

Last Name

Reed

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

Hutchinson Central Technical High School

State University of New York at Buffalo

First Name

Ishmael

Birth City, State, Country

Chattanooga

HM ID

REE09

State

Tennessee

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

2/22/1938

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/Oakland

Country

United States

Short Description

Fiction writer Ishmael Reed (1938 - ) authored a total of thirty novels, poetry collections, and plays, is a literary icon, and was a recipient of the MacArthur Genius Grant.

Employment

Empire Star Weekly

University of California, Berkeley

University of Washington, Seattle

Reed, Cannon & Johnson Publishing Company

Yale University

State University of New York at Buffalo

Columbia University

Harvard University

Joycelyn Harrison

Inventor and chemical engineer, Joycelyn Harrison was born in 1964. She received her B.S. in chemistry from Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia in 1987. She then went on later that year to earn her B.S. in chemical engineering from Georgia Institute of Technology. Harrison remained at Georgia Tech as a graduate student and completed her M.S. in chemical engineering in 1989 and her Ph.D. in 1993. She completed her dissertation on the “Structure-Dielectric Property Relationships in An Epoxy System: A Free Volume Analysis.”

After graduate school Harrison went on to work at the Advanced Materials and Processing Branch (AMPB) of NASA’s Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia in 1994 as a research engineer under the tutelage of Terry L. St. Clair. While at Langley, Harrison conducted much of her research in the field of piezoelectric materials, a class of polymers capable of producing mechanical motion when introduced to an electric current and conversely capable of generating an electric charge when subjected to stress. Her research culminated with her participation on the Thin-Layer Composite-Unimorph Piezoelectric Driver and Sensor (“THUNDER”) project with several colleagues, including senior engineer Robert Bryant. The THUNDER team innovated new piezoelectric polymers that improved upon the existing commercial varieties by providing better durability, energy efficiency, and production costs. In 1999, Harrison became chief of AMPB, which required her to supervise more than 40 research scientists conducting research on polymer composites and ceramics synthesis. NASA recognized Harrison’s contributions to the AMPB branch by awarding her the Exceptional Achievement Medal in 2000 and the Outstanding Leadership Medal in 2006.

Harrison’s personal achievements include a number of patents for piezoelectric substrates that she invented between 1999 and 2008, which have applications both within the aerospace industry for the repair of satellites and the commercial sector for improvements in devices, such as robots, heart pumps and audio speakers. In 2009, Harrison became the manager of the Low Density Materials program at the Air Force Office of Scientific Research in Arlington, Virginia, which seeks to attain reductions in weight of aerospace systems while simultaneously improving overall efficiency.

She resides in Arlington, Virginia.

Accession Number

A2012.173

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/14/2012

Last Name

Harrison

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

NASA LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER National Research Council Post-Doctoral Associate

Georgia Institute of Technology

Spelman College

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Joycelyn

Birth City, State, Country

Chattanooga

HM ID

HAR36

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Tennessee

Favorite Vacation Destination

Kiawah island, South Carolina

Favorite Quote

All That Glitters Is Not Gold.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

1/22/1964

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Lobster, Seafood

Short Description

Chemical engineer Joycelyn Harrison (1964 - ) was research engineer and chief of the Advanced Materials and Processing Branch of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Langley Research Center. She was also the director of the low density materials program at the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

Employment

United States Air Force Oiffice of Scientific Research (AFOSR)

National Science Foundation (NSF)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center

Thomas Nelson Community College

Favorite Color

Purple

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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Joycelyn Harrison's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Joycelyn Harrison lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Joycelyn Harrison describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her mother's growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Joycelyn Harrison describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her father's growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about how her parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Joycelyn Harrison describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Joycelyn Harrison describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Joycelyn Harrison describes her childhood home

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Joycelyn Harrison describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her experience being bullied

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her love for learning

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her childhood friend

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about documentaries

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her elementary school teacher, Ms. Grisham

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her junior high school experience

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her interest in books

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about the A.M.E. Church

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about The Civil Rights Movement and NASA

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her childhood education

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her high school teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her decision to pursue chemical engineering

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her experience at Spelman College

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her extracurricular activities

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her mentors in chemistry

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her experience at the Georgia Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Joycelyn Harrison compares her experiences at Spelman College with that of Georgia Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Joycelyn Harrison describes the difference between a chemist and a chemical engineer

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her decision to become a chemical engineer

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her decision to attend graduate school (part 1)

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her decision to attend graduate school (part 2)

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Joycelyn Harrison describes her dissertation on high performance composite materials

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about piezoelectric materials

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her research advisor and mentor, Dr. Terry St. Clair

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her work at NASA's Langley Research Center

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about receiving the R&D 100 Award

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about NASA's program, THUNDER

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her professional activities and awards

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her social skills

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about the challenges of being a manager

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about receiving the NASA Exceptional Achievement Medal

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her patents

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her resignation from NASA

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her career at the Air Force Office of Scientific Research

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her work with MUIRI

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her career

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Joycelyn Harrison reflects on her career

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about balancing family with her career

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about her husband and children

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Joycelyn Harrison shares her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Joycelyn Harrison reflects on her life choices

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Joycelyn Harrison reflects on her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Joycelyn Harrison talks about how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Joycelyn Harrison describes her photos

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$6

DAStory

2$1

DATitle
Joycelyn Harrison talks about NASA's program, THUNDER
Joycelyn Harrison talks about her career at the Air Force Office of Scientific Research
Transcript
So what were the applications that, well, what was it used for?$$Oh, you can use those for a variety of, you know, well, we call 'em actuators. So actuators get used in a lot of type--a lot of devices to translate a load, you know, in instrumentation, for instance. Like all of these, you know, a lot of transducers are used in like medical equipment, to work all the mechanisms, in vehicles and systems like your, the pistons and things of that nature. I think that's one of the applications that Caterpillar was interested in. You know, it can drive things. In addition, if you put a voltage on it, as I said before, I mean if you put a load on it, it gives you a voltage. So you can use it as a sensor. Say you have something that you wanna know how much weight was put on something. This is a very elementary example. But if you wanna know how much weight was impacted on something, if you have this piezoelectric, and you roll a load across it or force, it gives you an electrical signal. And that signal is proportional to the weight that was on it. So you can use it also as a sensor. So that's what we call a sensor and actuator. And NASA [National Aeronautics and Space Administration], one of the things that they would be interested in that response would be like remember Columbia, and when it failed, some of the tiles, the shuttle tiles had been damaged because they had been impacted by ice. And that damaged tiles. And then when it, when the vehicle reentered, it couldn't handle the loads because it damaged the heat shield. If we had something like these sensors in there, you would know how much impact was exerted on that heat shield or of those tiles, you know, you could measure that amount of force and know that, okay, this thing has sustained a significant amount of damage because it got hit by, with this, at this force. So those types of sensor applications would be useful to NASA. Now, this particular one was never used in that way, but I'm giving a hypothetical example of the kinds of things you can use these materials for, lots of robotic-type devices, articulating arms in Space. One of the projects I worked on, they wanted actuators for something that sounds pretty trivial, but it was a big problem. It was, they wanna to send these rovers, like a little robotic instrument, basically, it's an instrument on wheels. And they wanted to send it to an asteroid. And, but one of the problems is the asteroids and the moon and a lot of surfaces in Space are very dusty. And so the lens on the robot was continually getting dirtied up or clouded up with the dust and stuff from the surface of the asteroid. And so they needed like a low-power, lightweight windshield wiper. And so they looked at these materials to serve as windshield wipers because, you know, anything you put in space, there's a big cost for putting it up there. So you'll always have a weight penalty. You want things to be lightweight. You want things to be low power. And in this case, these kinds of actuators were pretty low power, and they were plastic. They were really lightweight. You could make 'em really tiny, but they could keep that surface clean so you could get really expensive experiments, experimental data because now the optics were clear enough to see what was going on, on the surface. So those kinds of things are very useful for, you know, a myriad of applications that NASA was interested in, and in the commercial market as well.$$Okay, so this is an award-winning, so this is a--is this the biggest thing you worked on, you think, in the THUNDER [Thin Layer Composite Unimorph Piezoelectric Driver and Sensor] project?$$Probably--it was big, but probably not the biggest. I think the most rewarding thing I've worked on was related to the area that we broadly call nano technology now. And that was, nano technology is, is basically, seeing at the nano scale. Nano is really, really small. It's like, you can see a single atom. So you think of, you know, all matter is made of atoms and molecules and things. You can actually get down to the atomic scale and, and resolve and begin to move molecules. And I work, I started, the capability or this whole area of nano technology was birthed about twenty years ago. And so I was, you know, a scientist in the lab, doing research at that time, which is a great time to, in science, to be in that position. And so I've done research in working with what we call carbon nano tubes, and you mentioned earlier, grapheme, things of that nature, that are nano scale element. And we look at how you can now combine, if you can start moving one atom at a time, how you can move atoms to design materials that are, you know, you have a lot more control over what you can make. You're not just in the lab mixing molecules. You're now moving atoms at a time and developing new compositions of matter and structures and to engineer in the properties that you wanna see or you need in a given material. And so this whole era of nano technology, I think has been, you know, it's, it's been a hay day in the scientific and engineering community. We've done a lot in the past twenty years in this. So I think that's the most exciting work I've done.$Okay, 2009, this is the Air Force Office of Scientific Research in Arlington. That's, so, well, tell how you--$$Yeah, so, yeah, I, I was hired by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research in Arlington, Virginia right after, well, before I left NASA [National Aeronautics and Space Administration] I was offered a job there. And at AFOSR [Air Force Office of Scientific Research] which is what we call it, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, I, I'm a program manager. I run the low density materials program. And what we do at AFOSR is fund fundamental research. We fund discovery in all areas of relevance to the Air Force. And so that is, you know, aerospace systems, cyber systems, you know, computer systems as well. And so I, I work in the aerospace chemical and material sciences directorate and interface with scientist and professors all around the country that do things that will add to our discovery and understanding of the fundamentals of lightweight materials, low-density materials. So, and the way I do that is by, I attend a lot of conferences. I interface with a lot of professors and try to understand what their latest and greatest emerging research is, understand that, and understand how that can impact the technologies of the Air Force.$$Okay, what are low-density materials, just for the listeners?$$So when you think of low density, you think of, you know, density is mass over volume. So you think of low mass, lightweight materials. So, you know, any time you have a system that rises above the ground, okay, and whether that's an aircraft or helicopter, a spacecraft, anything that has to be launched into space like satellite systems, you want them to be as lightweight as possible because there's a penalty, the weight penalty when you have to carry them over distances, particularly, lifting them into space or into the atmosphere. And so my job is, you know, look at how can we decrease the mass, lightweight, in many of the structures and the systems that the Air Force works with. And what is the science that can enable continued radical, you know, what we call transformational improvements in that area.$$Okay, now, in 2010, you were working with the department, as a Department of Defense liaison for the National Academy Study on Structural Light Weighting.$$Um-hum.$$Okay, now, this is a part of the job at the Air Force?$$This is part of my job, yeah, exactly. So what the National Academies does is, they're kind of like the unbiased arm of the government that launches studies to, you know, in a variety of science and engineering areas that kind of do fact checking, and, you know, can address where we are as a country, as a nation and how we compete, compete or stand up against other countries in certain areas or what needs to be done in certain areas. And so this is a study that was launched by the Department of the Defense or commissioned through the Department of Defense to the National Academies to look at light-weighting of military vehicles, military systems. And so it included naval vessels, air, aircraft and spacecraft and also Army systems, tanks and things of that nature. And so my job, through part of the Reliance twenty-one which is an interagency DOD [Department of Defense], tri-service board, was to work with that committee. I helped to nominate the members of the committee and work with them to, as they studied. It's, the members of the committee were all from academia and industry. They're non-governmental, but I was the government liaison to assist them as needed in trying to understand military systems. And they did the study on how light-weighting can impact that, and what needs to be done in the future in that area.

Samuel Gooden

Samuel Gooden was born on September 2, 1934 in Chattanooga, Tennessee, the youngest of eight children. At age sixteen, Gooden began to perform at Chattanooga’s Triumph Church of God in Christ, where his father George was assistant pastor. Gooden and his twelve-year-old neighbor Fred Cash called themselves the Southland Jubilee Singers. In the evenings, they joined other teenagers on their block in singing rhythm and blues. In late 1950, Gooden joined the U.S. Army, where he served in Germany until 1953.

After returning from military service, Gooden joined Cash and their friends Arthur Brooks and Emanuel and Catherine Thomas to form an R&B group, Four Roosters and a Chick. They soon began to perform at Chattanooga nightclubs. In 1957, Gooden and Brooks decided to move the Roosters to Chicago, but Cash and the Thomas siblilngs remained in Chattanooga. Brooks’ brother, Richard, met a tenor at the YMCA in Chicago by the name of Jerry Butler. Butler was working a day job as a short-order cook. Butler’s partner in the Northern Jubilee Gospel Singers was Curtis Mayfield. When Gooden and Brooks move to Chicago, the group gained Mayfield and Butler and called themselves the Impressions. They released their first hit, “For Your Precious Love,” on Vee-Jay Records in 1958.

In 1959, after Butler left the group, the Impressions drove to Chattanooga to lure Cash back. Impressed with their success, Cash dropped out of Howard High School in the eleventh grade to join them in Chicago. The next year, Mayfield—the songwriter and leading force behind the group—encouraged Cash, Gooden, and the Brooks brothers to come to New York and record on ABC-Paramount. There, they released the 1961 hit “Gypsy Woman.” In February 1963, Mayfield, Cash, and Gooden decided to return to Chicago, while the Brooks brothers stayed in New York.

From 1963 to 1970, Gooden, Mayfield and Cash were the Impressions, scoring a number one hit with “It’s All Right” in 1963. That year, they also released their first full album, The Impressions. In 1964, they released the hit “Keep On Pushing,” followed in 1965 with the civil rights anthem “People Get Ready.” In 1968, they returned to the top of the charts with “We’re a Winner” and left ABC-Paramount to join Mayfield’s Curtom label headed by producer, Eddie Thomas. There, they produced two more albums before Mayfield left in 1970. Although Mayfield continued to serve as their occasional songwriter and producer, the Impressions remained on Curtom label through 1976.

The Impressions worked with vocalists including Leroy Hutson, Reggie Torian, Ralph Johnson, and Nate Evans after Mayfield’s departure. In 1991, the Impressions were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. After Mayfield’s tragic paralysis in 1990 and death in 1999, Cash and Gooden continued to perform, touring with Eric Clapton in 2001. Today, Cash, Gooden, and Willie Kitchens, Jr. perform as the Impressions. They are now based in Chattanooga, Tennessee.

Gooden lives in Chattanooga with his wife, Gloria, to whom he has been married since 1963. They have four grown children.

Accession Number

A2005.172

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/28/2005

Last Name

Gooden

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

Howard High School

Howard School of Academics and Technology

Park City School

East 5th Street Junior High School

The Howard School

First Name

Samuel

Birth City, State, Country

Chattanooga

HM ID

GOO05

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Tennessee

Favorite Vacation Destination

Orlando, Florida

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Tennessee

Birth Date

9/2/1934

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chattanooga

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Spaghetti, Meatballs

Short Description

Singer Samuel Gooden (1934 - ) contributed bass vocals to the musical group, The Impressions.

Employment

U.S. Army Reserve

The Impressions (originally The Roosters)

Favorite Color

Gray

Timing Pairs
0,0:970,37:5434,131:8596,192:9340,204:16647,290:47358,711:50649,735:51728,752:52226,759:54218,790:69158,1060:69988,1073:80424,1159:101672,1416:102330,1425:108358,1499:108862,1508:113038,1656:115486,1708:115918,1716:116926,1727:117286,1733:126142,1848:127138,1867:127553,1873:129490,1880:133436,1938:133884,1947:139916,2039:144971,2092:149688,2164:150044,2169:150489,2175:156394,2209:158469,2246:159216,2257:161374,2299:161955,2307:165607,2393:173570,2465:178290,2531:182779,2581:183103,2586:186100,2646:186424,2651:186991,2660:192882,2718:194982,2753:198426,2833:199182,2846:200190,2865:202542,2911:205314,2942:208002,3010:209850,3058:220942,3181:247328,3642:254898,3718:260082,3794:260892,3805:261378,3820:273616,3970:274224,3979:274604,3985:276124,4010:276580,4018:278850,4023$0,0:2205,34:14454,280:15118,289:15865,303:20015,370:37938,546:46254,670:47850,709:53130,752:53851,761:55293,780:55808,786:56632,796:59207,828:61885,873:62915,886:63739,895:89844,1279:104362,1395:107146,1404:114934,1466:115246,1473:116754,1516:116962,1521:117326,1529:122422,1559:122792,1565:125234,1637:129600,1723:134336,1805:145770,2022:152932,2083:158975,2165:170560,2319:185282,2476:185786,2483:187298,2498:187886,2506:188222,2511:188558,2516:192002,2552:192338,2562:202368,2643:204062,2679:205833,2711:206526,2724:206911,2730:207604,2743:211531,2828:211839,2833:213841,2864:220260,2886:223604,2944:228796,3016:236772,3132:243700,3218:248620,3329:252392,3397:254196,3449:264666,3525:272505,3629:274680,3711:279630,3758:280010,3764:285227,3827:288431,3879:288876,3885:293237,3973:294661,4000:301968,4095:303648,4122:307090,4135:307500,4142:313076,4266:314388,4319:316110,4353:329730,4453:330730,4460
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Samuel Gooden's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Samuel Gooden lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Samuel Gooden describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Samuel Gooden describes his mother's personality and musical talents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Samuel Gooden describes how his parents met in Wedowee, Alabama

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Samuel Gooden describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Samuel Gooden describes his father's career

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Samuel Gooden describes his parents' personalities

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Samuel Gooden describes his childhood neighborhood of Park City, Chattanooga, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Samuel Gooden describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Samuel Gooden describes the role of religion in his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Samuel Gooden describes his childhood interests and aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Samuel Gooden describes musical influences in his youth

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Samuel Gooden describes his educational experiences in Chattanooga, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Samuel Gooden describes his service in the U.S. Army during the Korean War

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Samuel Gooden recalls readjusting to civilian life after leaving the U.S. Army

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Samuel Gooden recalls starting his musical career with the Southland Jubilees

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Samuel Gooden describes moving to Chicago, Illinois to start a singing group

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Samuel Gooden describes playing semi-pro baseball in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Samuel Gooden recalls being signed by Vee-Jay Records

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Samuel Gooden explains how The Impressions got their name

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Samuel Gooden describes how HistoryMaker The Honorable Jerry Butler left The Impressions

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Samuel Gooden describes The Impressions' changing lineup

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Samuel Gooden describes Curtis Mayfield's unique guitar style

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Samuel Gooden describes The Impressions after Jerry Butler left

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Samuel Gooden recalls living in Detroit, Michigan during the early 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Samuel Gooden describes the song 'Gypsy Woman'

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Samuel Gooden describes Curtis Mayfield's talent for writing lyrics

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Samuel Gooden describes the political messages in The Impressions' songs

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Samuel Gooden recalls performing with Curtis Mayfield

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Samuel Gooden describes bands The Impressions toured with

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Samuel Gooden describes the song 'It's Alright'

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Samuel Gooden describes the relationship between lead and backup singers

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Samuel Gooden recounts how The Impressions replaced Curtis Mayfield

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Samuel Gooden describes his successful records during the 1970s

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Samuel Gooden describes the problem of bogus bands in the recording industry

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Samuel Gooden describes copyright problems in the recording industry

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Samuel Gooden describes his friendship with musician Eric Clapton

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Samuel Gooden describes his recent successes with The Impressions

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Samuel Gooden describes his future plans for The Impressions

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Samuel Gooden describes his favorite musical performers

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Samuel Gooden describes his contributions to The Impressions

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Samuel Gooden describes Curtis Mayfield's paralysis and death

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Samuel Gooden reflects upon his long career in the music business

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Samuel Gooden describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Samuel Gooden recalls the death of The Impressions' band in a 1968 car accident, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Samuel Gooden recalls the death of The Impressions' band in a 1968 car accident, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Samuel Gooden describes the aftermath of The Impressions' band's death in 1968

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Samuel Gooden talks about reunion performances of The Impressions

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Samuel Gooden offers advice to aspiring musicians

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Samuel Gooden reflects upon his life

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Samuel Gooden reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Samuel Gooden describes his family life

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Samuel Gooden describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Samuel Gooden narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Samuel Gooden narrates his photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

1$6

DATitle
Samuel Gooden recalls starting his musical career with the Southland Jubilees
Samuel Gooden describes the political messages in The Impressions' songs
Transcript
Coming back from the [U.S. military] service, you all form the Southland Jubilees [Southland Jubilee Singers] right?$$Right, then, well.$$Where'd you get the name?$$(Laughter) Well there was, there was a group, I think already named the Northern Jubilees [Northern Jubilee Singers], not in Chattanooga [Tennessee] but other places. We were trying to get something that people didn't have, and then we were from the South, and so we decided the Southland Jubilees, and (laughter) we did a show at my father's [George Gooden] church [Triumph the Church and Kingdom of God in Christ, Chattanooga, Tennessee], and of course you know when you're doing spiritual, you prolong it, you wanna at least last an hour. I guess we didn't make an hour, but we did pretty good, we did very good, and of course the people give you a little offering and stuff like that, and that was enough for us, we head from there, we go on to the movies someplace and the next day or two we would probably go back and sit down and rehearse some more, and try to better ourselves because there was no musician and we were singing like a capella and that, well you know that way a lot of groups used to sing, even on records they sung just a capella by patting their feet and popping their finger.$$Right, a lot of the doo wop groups would sing their own baseline.$$Yeah.$$Right?$$And it just--$$They do their own rhythm.$$Then we decided to do some pop songs, and we started singing some pop songs, but--$$Now were you writing your own material then?$$No.$$Or were you just copying somebody else, doing someone else's (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) No, we were doing records that we would hear just like different records come out and then we would sing those songs. You know, I'd learn 'em or try to learn 'em, but what we found out a little bit later on is that there was about four or five other groups that was a hundred percent better than where we were, and they had some musician, you know they had a guitar player or something that was playing for 'em, and there was a band that, that played behind all of the local acts, a group called the Upsetters band, and I don't know why but they would learn every single song they sang themselves. So that mean all of the other kids that had a group, you had nothing to sing because they sang all of these songs, and if you gonna go up there and try to sing this song, they already doing this in their show, and they was very popular in the black neighborhood that, that you could go down, 'cause there's a street called East Ninth Street, and you would go down there and you would find them at this club all the time and they would be there every week, every week, and they would have a guest group to come in and there was one group, I don't know whether Fred [HistoryMaker Fred Cash] probably told you the name of this group, but I can't remember the name of that group, but they was excellent, they was a well-put together group, had a good lead, had a good background vocals.$$Was that the Lamplighters?$$Yeah, yeah that's them, they was really, really good.$$Well what happened to them?$$They just split up, I don't know. They, they just stopped and then the two guys that sung with us was talking about going to Chicago [Illinois] 'cause they had, he had, I think he had a sister lived in Chicago.$$Now these are the Brooks brothers [Arthur Brooks and Richard Brooks], right? Yeah.$$Um-hm, they had a sister lived there and they said, "Well let's go to Chicago." So he talked me into going and we were talking to Fred about going, but his mother [Lola Cunningham Cash] wouldn't let him go because he was too young. So, we got in the car (laughter) didn't have that much money to get there, and this friend, these girls that we knew made us a great big box of sandwiches that we didn't have to stop to eat, we just ate out of the car, and we had almost run out of food when we got there and almost run outta money, and we stayed at his sister's house until we could find some jobs to work.$Well I wondered, you know, in the early '70s [1970s] especially when you started hearing music from the white singers like Bob Dylan and others, you know, Country Joe and the Fish around the time of Woodstock [Festival; Woodstock Music & Art Fair], and it was so much made of the relevant lyrics in the music of--but you know it seemed like there was hardly any of that coming out of the black community, though people did point to The Impressions as a group that tried to write music that had social commentary, you know.$$Yeah I know, and what bothered me about it was that I think James Brown--after we've done these songs, and I think James Brown came out with 'I'm Black and I'm Proud.'$$Right.$$And the president called him up there and gave him this big award by being the first person to stand out and speak out for the masses, and we're sitting there listening to this and I'm watching this and I said, now wait a minute, he wasn't the first one to do that. Now we've sung four or five songs like that, you know, and 'cause 'Keep on Pushing.'$$That's right.$$You know, that's where [HistoryMaker Reverend] Jesse [L.] Jackson got his Operation PUSH [Rainbow PUSH Coalition, Chicago, Illinois] from, and Dr. King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] used to use that. That was his song, they marched by that particular song, and I'm saying now, but that is one thing that I would say that The Impressions are not recognized as much as they should and the things that they have accomplished and the things that they've done, it just seems like it's being pushed to the side, you know it.$$But I think you'd be surprised at the people though that do like understand that contribution, even like Sam Cooke's record from way back, 'A Change is Gonna Come,' you know.$$Right.$$That was picked up by people involved in the [Civil Rights] Movement, and 'Keep on Pushing,' 'We're a Winner' and you know, all the other Impressions songs.$$'Choice of Colors.'$$That's right, that's right.$$'Cause the person, I had a guy that asked me (laughter), "What do you, what are you talking about, 'Choice of Colors'?" I said, "Now if you sit down and you're sitting with your people or I'm sitting with mine, and you sit down and you said if you had a choice, it's not saying you've got a choice, it said if you had a choice which one would you choose? Will you choose what you are, and stand up for what you are?" That's all it means, you know you stand up for what you are, not saying that you don't dislike what this nation does or this--people do, you just, you stand up for who you are and then as far as black people, then they can say well this is what I choose. Then if you choose that, then why don't you stand up and speak about it and stand up and be proud of it? You know you got some people that will say things, and then when it comes time for them to stand up and be vocal with their thoughts and say, well, no I better not ruffle this guy's feathers over here. You're not ruffling anybody's feathers, you're just only speaking what you feel and how you feel and where, how you stand about things and this is me. I'm black and I'm proud and I'll stand up. I don't care where it is between--in front of anybody and I'm not trying to be white, I'm not trying to be Jewish. I'm not trying to be anything else. I'm just trying to be who I am and that's all it's saying to all of the people. If everybody stood up together, and pulled together we wouldn't have all this junk that's going on now, because of the thing is, you will respect you, and I'll respect you and you'll respect me.$$That seems to be what it's about when you boil it all down.$$Yeah, yeah, and that's, basically the song says that, you know. "How long have you hated your white teacher? Who told you, you loved your black preacher? Do you respect your brother's woman friend, and share with black folks not akin."$$Yeah right, it's a powerful song.$$Yeah, and see the thing is there's black peoples all over the world that's not--just you know American black people. There's African, there's all the other people that got that black color. It's just a matter of listening to the lyrics. Some people listen to certain parts of a song and they'll say, "Well, I don't like that song. They're militant," you know, "they are against this, they're against that." No, they're not against anything, it's just being proud of who you are just like the other song 'I'm So Proud.'

Willie Kitchens

Born on January 6, 1956, to a musical family in Chattanooga, Tennessee, Willie David Kitchens, Jr., fell in love with music at an early age. At age seven, Kitchens began singing at community churches with his sisters and his father, a guitarist with the gospel group Five Sons of Calvary. Kitchens soon became a member of the Rosebud Choir at his family’s church, Greater Friendship Missionary Baptist. Willie Kitchens, Sr. taught his son to play guitar when he was ten, and at sixteen the younger Kitchens joined the Five Sons of Calvary as bass guitarist and background vocalist.

With the Five Sons, Kitchens performed with groups including the Swan Silvertones, the Brooklyn All-Stars, and the Jackson Southernaires. Diversifying his repertoire, Kitchens joined the funk band at Howard High School as lead guitarist and lead vocalist while continuing to perform gospel at church and with the Five Sons. After graduating high school, Kitchens attended the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga.

At age twenty-four, Kitchens began to concentrate on gospel performance. Over the years, he taught himself to play the harmonica, piano, and electric keyboards. Kitchens performed and ministered everywhere from “Bobby Jones Gospel” to colleges, to prisons.

In 1995, Kitchens became Music and Performing Arts Director for the Bethlehem Center, a ministry in inner-city Chattanooga; there he created a traveling youth choir for children from two to eighteen years of age and opened the Bethlehem Recording Studio for the Bethlehem Center’s radio and television programs. Kitchens’s choir recorded four albums, three of them at the Bethlehem Recording Studio. Kitchens also performed for luminaries including South African Archbishop Desmond Tutu.

In December 1999, Kitchens joined Samuel Gooden, Fred Cash, and Vandy Hampton in the Impressions, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame rhythm and blues group that launched Curtis Mayfield’s career. In 2001, the Impressions toured with Eric Clapton.

Kitchens served as lead vocalist for the group—the role that Mayfield filled from 1963-1970. Kitchens, a long-term resident of Chattanooga, Tennessee, left the Impressions in 2002 and went on to work for the Bethlehem Center, where he served as the executive director of the Bethlehem Center Mass Choir and minister of music to the Bethlehem-Wiley United Methodist Church.

Willie Kitchens was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 27, 2005.

Accession Number

A2005.171

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/27/2005

Last Name

Kitchens

Maker Category
Organizations
Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Days

First Name

Willie

Birth City, State, Country

Chattanooga

HM ID

KIT01

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Youth Teens

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - 0 - $500

Favorite Season

Christmas

Speaker Bureau Notes

Honorarium Specifics: $500
Preferred Audience: Youth Teens

State

Tennessee

Favorite Vacation Destination

Gulf Shores, Alabama

Favorite Quote

If He Hung Out There, We Ought To Be Able To At Least Hang In There.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Tennessee

Birth Date

1/6/1956

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chattanooga

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Soul Food

Short Description

Gospel musician, music director, and singer Willie Kitchens (1956 - ) sang with the musical group, The Impressions, and served as executive director of the Bethlehem Center Mass Choir and minister of music to the Bethlehem-Wiley United Methodist Church.

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:7325,118:7860,124:8395,130:20646,233:21776,248:22567,256:34929,421:39353,512:45357,632:54878,736:62348,854:64257,904:65585,928:66083,935:66830,946:82685,1077:92290,1313:95265,1387:100960,1509:101470,1516:104190,1561:114004,1640:119026,1764:119512,1771:132850,1928$0,0:15052,256:22585,315:22925,320:23775,342:28620,422:32105,464:32955,488:40120,558:41920,586:42280,591:43360,606:45970,652:48490,687:50290,717:50830,725:55780,766:57400,830:93750,1360:107664,1535:108267,1547:110746,1599:111081,1605:111818,1619:112153,1625:113694,1662:114364,1676:126264,1840:128239,1887:129898,1927:130214,1932:141906,2187:142301,2193:148880,2243:149192,2248:151844,2289:153482,2345:158006,2442:158318,2447:165494,2606:165962,2613:166274,2618:175200,2684
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Willie Kitchens' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Willie Kitchens lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Willie Kitchens talks about his maternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Willie Kitchens talks about musicianship in his mother's family

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Willie Kitchens talks about his mother's upbringing in Sandersville, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Willie Kitchens talks about his paternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Willie Kitchens talks about his father's upbringing and migration to Chattanooga, Tennessee

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Willie Kitchens describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Willie Kitchens talks about musicianship within his father's family and the WLAC radio station in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Willie Kitchens describes his parents' personalities and considers which parent he takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Willie Kitchens describes his earliest childhood memories and the sights, sounds, and smells of his neighborhood in Chattanooga, Tennessee

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Willie Kitchens describes the racial demographic in Chattanooga, Tennessee in the 1960s

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Willie Kitchens describes his experience at the Howard Elementary and High School in Chattanooga, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Willie Kitchens remembers his choir classes at Howard High School

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Willie Kitchens remembers singing in the Rosebud choir at Greater Friendship Missionary Baptist Church

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Willie Kitchens talks about his sisters, and his parents' co-parenting

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Willie Kitchens remembers learning to play guitar with his father

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Willie Kitchens describes the kinds of records he remembers hearing on the radio and at home

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Willie Kitchens recalls civil rights activity in 1960s Chattanooga, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Willie Kitchens remembers listening to the blues at home

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Willie Kitchens talks about playing sports in high school and being invited to play with his father's gospel band, the Five Sons of Calvary

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Willie Kitchens talks about enrolling at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Willie Kitchens describes transitioning from gospel music to secular music, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Willie Kitchens comments on some musicians from Chattanooga, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Willie Kitchens talks about working as a musician in Chattanooga, Tennessee in the early 1970s

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Willie Kitchens recalls playing and singing at First Baptist Church of Bozentown

Tape: 2 Story: 14 - Willie Kitchens describes transitioning from gospel music to secular music, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 15 - Willie Kitchens describes playing on the Bobby Jones Gospel TV show and his affection for Chattanooga, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Willie Kitchens talks about taping HistoryMaker Bobby Jones' gospel show, 'Bobby Jones Gospel'

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Willie Kitchens talks about becoming the minister of music at Church of the First Born and Friendship Community Church in Chattanooga, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Willie Kitchens talks about the history of the Bethlehem-Wiley United Methodist Church of Chattanooga, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Willie Kitchens talks about directing the Bethlehem Center Mass Youth Choir

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Willie Kitchens describes recording the Bethlehem Center Mass Youth Choir

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Willie Kitchens explains how he became a member of The Impressions in 1999

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Willie Kitchens remembers his first performance with The Impressions in 1999

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Willie Kitchens lists noteworthy past and present members of The Impressions, including HistoryMakers Jerry Butler, Samuel Gooden and Fred Cash

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Willie Kitchens talks about touring with The Impressions and finding his own sound

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Willie Kitchens talks about The Impressions' performance schedule at the time of the interview

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Willie Kitchens describes highlights of his experience as a member of The Impressions

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Willie Kitchens talks about being inducted into the Vocal Group Hall of Fame with The Impressions

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Willie Kitchens talks about his favorite Impressions song, 'People Get Ready' as well as Curtis Mayfield

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Willie Kitchens talks about the original songs he has written for The Impressions

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Willie Kitchens describes his musical philosophy

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Willie Kitchens shares his advice to young singers and musicians

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Willie Kitchens expresses his hopes and concerns for the African-American demographic

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Willie Kitchens considers what he would change about his past

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Willie Kitchens reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Willie Kitchens talks briefly about the support of his family

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Willie Kitchens expresses how much he appreciates having gotten the opportunity to work with The Impressions

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Willie Kitchens describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Willie Kitchens narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

4$6

DATitle
Willie Kitchens remembers learning to play guitar with his father
Willie Kitchens explains how he became a member of The Impressions in 1999
Transcript
Okay, now how old were you when your father [Willie Kitchens, Sr.] started showing you how to play the guitar?$$I was about seven years old, seven or eight when I could remember him putting that guitar in my lap. In fact, I used to sneak and, and play it when he was not at home. I'd go in and open up the case and grab it and try to play a little bit of it.$$Okay, could you play a little bit?$$No considering I would just be strumming and getting blisters on my finger. And couldn't do anything with it but just to know that I could go to it and get it, it was, you know, that was enough for me.$$Okay, do, do you remember the first thing you learn how to play?$$I believe what he taught me was--it was just a chord I think it was just a chord. It wasn't a song it was like a chord here, and then he would tell me this is the first and this is the second and this is the fourth. And I would learn things like that, so it wasn't actually a song. But actually when I heard a sound that sound like a chord I went, man, I knew it was getting there it was getting there, so that was about it.$$Okay, so how long was it before you started actually playing the guitar, you know, in public?$$Well after my dad left I think I got a little bit more intense with it. My mom [Lena Pearl Wise] bought me a guitar and then I got together with my sisters, and we formed a group and we started singing. And I start playing guitar, I kind of surprised my dad. We had a gentleman, a older gentleman lived across the street from us named Mr. Curtis [ph.]. And I would always go over when my dad wasn't around. Of course, I went over to watch him play, and he would sit me down sometimes and, and show me a few things. And I took off from there and formed my own little family group. And so my dad would then sometimes have us to sing on the programs with them, so that's where I start playing actually myself. Start playing guitar.$Alright, now. Well, once again now, should we talk about The Impressions now?$$Yeah, let's go to The Impressions.$$Okay, so as stated earlier you were--your name was referred to Sam [HM Samuel] Gooden by his sister--$$Right.$$--that attended a neighboring church--$$Right.$$--and knew about you.$$Right, right.$$So what happened did--can you remember how you felt when you first heard from them?$$Yes I can very much so I said I said to my wife I say I wonder why they calling me I'm not interested in that (laughter). I really did I mean, I was doing very well in the gospel, and I'd just released a new project of my own. And, and that's all I was concentrating on when I get a call from Sam and said that they'd like to talk to me about, you know, getting with them. And I told my wife I'm like I'm not interested in that. Because growing up, I was so involved in the church I guess, and I'd made up in my mind that that's all I was gonna do. I wasn't gonna do anything else. So at that time I just wasn't interested in anything else.$$Okay now were you an [The] Impressions fan when you were growing up or, or was it a generation ahead of you sort of?$$No I, I listen to The Impressions music, in fact, I told Sam and [HM] Fred [Cash] that same story. I could remember coming home from--I was in middle school walking home I came by my house aunt's house, and my cousin was playing some of The Impressions music. And he knew how much I loved to sing and I would go to the door and listen. And he said to me he said if you keep up the work you're doing and with your singing one day you might become one of these Impressions. I never in one million years dreamed that this would happen he's dead and gone now. But he must have been a prophet 'cause he prophesized that.$$Okay, all right so they called you up, and you weren't interested right? (simultaneous).$$No I really wasn't interested.$$Not cause you don't like them (simultaneous).$$No.$$But because you, you were already busy?$$That's right, that's right. And he called and said they were going to London [England] to tour with Eric Clapton. And they needed a lead vocalist they need somebody. And, and I really still wasn't enthused, you know, it was like, you know, most people I know would. You know, and, and that's not to say that, you know, I didn't care. But I just wasn't--but and I asked, and I told him I said let me get back with you 'cause they want to come over and meet with me. And I wanted to talk to my pastor, talk to my dad [Willie Kitchens, Sr.]. To you know, to get some kind of opinion or get some kind of wisdom from them of what they thought and that's what led to where I am today.

Fred Cash

Born on October 8, 1938, in Chattanooga, Tennessee, Fred Cash was the third of four children in a musical family. Cash’s mother played the piano and he and the rest of his family sang at Chattanooga’s Beulah Baptist Church, which he attended “three times a day” growing up. At age twelve, Cash and his sixteen-year-old neighbor, Samuel Gooden, began to perform together at Gooden’s church as the Southland Jubilee Singers. The duo was also drawn to the music of the Platters and Ray Charles, and spent their evenings singing rhythm and blues on the corner.

At age fourteen, Cash began to perform at local nightclubs with Gooden and their friends Arthur Brooks and Emanuel and Catherine Thomas under the name Four Roosters and a Chick. Cash would sneak out of his bedroom window to perform, but when the rest of the Roosters decided to move to Chicago in 1957, Cash’s mother prevented him from doing so; the Thomas siblings also remained in Chattanooga. Brooks’s brother, Richard, met a tenor at the YMCA in Chicago by the name of Jerry Butler, who at the time was working a day job as a short-order cook. Butler’s partner in the Northern Jubilee Gospel Singers was Curtis Mayfield; when Gooden and Brooks moved to Chicago, the group gained Mayfield and Butler and called themselves The Impressions. The group released their first hit, “For Your Precious Love,” on Vee-Jay Records in 1958.

In 1959, after Butler left the group, The Impressions drove to Chattanooga to lure Cash back. Impressed with their success, Cash dropped out of Howard High School in the eleventh grade to join them in Chicago. The next year, Mayfield—the songwriter and leading force behind the group—encouraged Cash, Gooden, and the Brooks brothers to come to New York and record on ABC-Paramount. There, The Impressions released their 1961 hit “Gypsy Woman.” In February 1963, Mayfield, Cash, and Gooden decided to return to Chicago, while the Brooks brothers stayed in New York.

From 1963 to 1970, Cash, Gooden, and Mayfield were The Impressions, scoring a number one hit with “It’s All Right” in 1963. That same year, the group also released their first full album, The Impressions. In 1964, The Impressions released the hit “Keep On Pushing,” followed in 1965 with the civil rights anthem “People Get Ready.” In 1968, the group returned to the top of the charts with “We’re a Winner” and left ABC-Paramount to join Mayfield’s Curtom label headed by producer, Eddie Thomas. There, The Impressions produced two more albums before Mayfield left in 1970. Although Mayfield continued to serve as their occasional songwriter and producer, The Impressions remained on Curtom label through 1976.

The Impressions worked with many vocalists, including Leroy Hutson, Reggie Torian, Ralph Johnson, and Nate Evans, after Mayfield’s departure. In 1991, The Impressions were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. After Mayfield’s tragic paralysis in 1990 and death in 1999, Cash and Gooden continued to perform, touring with Eric Clapton in 2001. At the time of this interview, Cash, Gooden, and Willie Kitchens, Jr. were still performing as the Impressions; the group remained based in Chattanooga, Tennessee, where Cash resides with his wife, Cynthia.

Accession Number

A2005.173

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/28/2005

Last Name

Cash

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Howard High School

Howard School of Academics and Technology

The Howard School

First Name

Fred

Birth City, State, Country

Chattanooga

HM ID

CAS01

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Tennessee

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

It Is Alright

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Tennessee

Birth Date

10/8/1938

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chattanooga

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Greens (Collard)

Short Description

Singer Fred Cash (1938 - ) performed as a member of the R & B group, The Impressions.

Employment

ABC Records

Favorite Color

Brown

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating for Fred Cash's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Fred Cash lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Fred Cash describes his maternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Fred Cash talks about the musical talent in his family

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Fred Cash describes his paternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Fred Cash speculates on his parents' motivations to move to Chattanooga, Tennessee

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Fred Cash describes his likeness to his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Fred Cash describes his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Fred Cash describes his childhood neighborhood of Park City in Chattanooga, Tennessee

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Fred Cash describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Fred Cash remembers his musical influences as a young boy

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Fred Cash remembers his interests and influences during his school years in Chattanooga, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Fred Cash remembers entertaining himself with singing as a young boy

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Fred Cash remembers performing with his high school group, Four Roosters and a Chick

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Fred Cash remembers staying with his sister in Detroit, Michigan as The Roosters went to Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Fred Cash remembers the early success of The Impressions

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Fred Cash talks about the prominence of Vee-Jay Records

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Fred Cash remembers joining The Impressions

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Fred Cash explains The Impressions' signature high tenor sound

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Fred Cash remembers the man who wrote the hit song 'Man oh Man'

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Fred Cash remembers the excitement of joining The Impressions

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Fred Cash remembers his early days in The Impressions

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Fred Cash recalls the differences between Chattanooga, Tennessee and Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Fred Cash talks about the influence of gospel music in The Impressions' songs

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Fred Cash admires Curtis Mayfield's songwriting abilities

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Fred Cash remembers the early hits of his career with The Impressions

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Fred Cash remembers the role of The Impressions' songs in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Fred Cash remembers Curtis Mayfield

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Fred Cash remembers the loss of The Impressions' band in a tragic car accident

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Fred Cash speaks about his favorite Impressions' songs

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Fred Cash remembers singing backup for other notable artists

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Fred Cash remembers hard times for The Impressions

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Fred Cash recalls the golden years for The Impressions

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Fred Cash recalls the years after Curtis Mayfield left The Impressions

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Fred Cash reflects on the image and influence of The Impressions

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Fred Cash talks about the importance of knowing one's niche in the music industry

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Fred Cash reflects on the friendliness between members of The Impressions

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Fred Cash remembers Curtis Mayfield's death

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Fred Cash talks about moving back to Chattanooga, Tennessee and performing with a new iteration of The Impressions

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Fred Cash talks about his recent work with The Impressions

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Fred Cash recalls traveling to Africa

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Fred Cash talks about the historical significance of Tennessee and Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Fred Cash talks about The Impressions' first Christmas album

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Fred Cash reflects on his contributions to The Impressions

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Fred Cash describes his hopes for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Fred Cash reflects on his life

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Fred Cash reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Fred Cash talks about his parents' reactions to his musical career

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Fred Cash describes his wife and children

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Fred Cash describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Fred Cash narrates his photographs, pt.1

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Fred Cash narrates his photographs, pt.2

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

5$1

DATitle
Fred Cash remembers the early success of The Impressions
Fred Cash remembers hard times for The Impressions
Transcript
Okay, so you were on the outskirts of this when they were making their, their big move in Chicago [Illinois]?$$Yeah, yeah, yeah, they.$$Did they write you and tell you what they were doing or did you have to--how did you find out they- they made a record?$$Oh, I heard it, I was in Chattanooga [Tennessee] still. Man, that record was big 'For Your Precious Love' you know.$$Yeah, but how did you first find out that they were gonna make a record? Did you know that they were?$$No they didn't write.$$Did they tell you, did they say we're--$$I didn't (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Getting to make a record or?$$(Laughter) I--when I heard it on the radio I said man that ain't them guys, they can't sing like that. Until they came back here, you know. I never will--I was sitting out on my front porch. They had a brand new green station wagon and I saw them pull up that hill, I stayed on the hill, I saw 'em coming up the hill, I couldn't believe it. They pulling out big roll of money. One of the guys later on told me, say, "Man I had about a hundred dollars in one dollar bills" and had about tens and twenties. You didn't see all the ones under there you know and man that just blew my mind, just blew my mind. I said, golly look what I don' missed out on, I said to myself you know, but after that show that's when they came back the next morning and got me and I left and went back with them.$$Okay so you just basically heard their record on the radio and knew it was them, The Impressions. When did they change their name to The Impressions, do you know?$$Well once they got to Chicago from what I understand they put some names in a hat, somebody pulled out that name, The Impressions, and that's what stuck with the group 'cause they didn't want to- they had such a big record at that particular time, they didn't wanna go out as The Roosters you know so that's why they changed the name.$$Now what happened to the chick [Catherine Thomas], did she--?$$Naw' she stayed in Chattanooga.$$She stayed in Chattanooga?$$Yeah and worked, well she sang with us for a while you know and we finally just came to the conclusion that, hey maybe it just needs to be just the fella, you know. So she kinda dropped by the wayside and we carried on with just the fellas.$Well what we were discussing kinda in the break, we wanted to go back maybe to the beginnings of your involvement with The Impressions to when [HistoryMaker] Jerry Butler left and--the kinda hard times The Impressions fell on, and you said that for a while you know the--well The Impressions then consisted of the Brooks Brothers [Arthur Brooks and Richard Brooks] and--$$Sam [HistoryMaker Samuel Gooden] and--$$Sam and you--$$--myself and Curtis [Mayfield], yeah.$$And Curtis Mayfield and for a while you all were impersonating Jerry Butler (laughter).$$Right, through--well hey.$$Curtis had to, had to you know travel with Jerry Butler.$$That's right.$$In order to--'cause he was still writing songs for Jerry Butler right?$$Yeah, well.$$And he had to do some traveling with him to make enough money for you all to--'cause you fell on hard times.$$Very hard times, very hard times.$$Now what was the--tell us what happened.$$In between that period Sam and I we got little jobs at one of our friend's restaurant you know so we could kinda survive 'cause.$$So what were you doing in the restaurant?$$Huh?$$What were you doing in the restaurant?$$Washing dishes, yeah that's, that was my job just--$$Who would have ever guessed that? I mean that.$$Well, hey we--our friend he was a white fellow and he said "Well hey, my"--his father was Greek, well he was Greek as well and he said "Man, my father's got a restaurant. I know y'all need something to do, you know so you can have some kind of monies to live on." So he got us a job in his father's restaurant, and busting [sic. bussing] dishes that's what we was doing you know to try to feed ourselves, 'cause Curtis he had to go on the road with Jerry so he could make a living for his self, you know. So he was still playing guitar for Jerry and writing songs you know, and once he made enough money he came back and got Sam and myself. We went in the studio and recorded 'Gypsy Woman.' We took that to New York [New York], I think we recorded it in New York and gave it to Maxine Brown which was another artist. Her husband was a producer, and he took it to ABC-Paramount [Records], and ABC-Paramount liked it and after that the rest was kinda history because it started the ball to rolling you know.$$So your first records as The Impressions without Jerry Butler were produced by?$$'Sad, Sad Boy and Girl,' that was the first one.$$Yeah.$$But the one that really started to making noise was 'Gypsy Woman.'$$And that was on ABC Paramount?$$Yeah.$$Not on, not on Vee-Jay [Records]?$$Naw, naw.$$Okay, yeah.$$Then after that 'It's Alright' and after that it was, it was uphill, but those was very hard times in between, because when the record came out it was Jerry Butler and the Impressions. So Jerry kinda rode on that because he had that name you know and we had to do something to survive and that's what we did.$$So how long a period of time was it between?$$I imagine it had to be about two or three years.$$Really?$$In between that period.$$Okay so did you (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Yeah, that was a downer.$$You all were washing dishes for two or three years?$$Oh, naw, naw, we--I reckon we worked there for about, about six or seven months.$$Okay.$$'Cause it was just--the area that we was working in man was just so rough and we went to work like about four o'clock in the morning and it was just--I mean really a rough area that this restaurant--the area that it was in, in Chicago [Illinois].$$Where, where was it in Chicago?$$I can't remember, I know going down Wentworth [Avenue], it was somewhere over in that area, and I just can't remember.$$Was it in Greektown [Chicago, Illinois]?$$Huh?$$Was it in Greektown?$$It probably was, probably was 'cause it was Greek restaurant you know, but man it was a rough part of the town that it was in, so we stayed there and we did that for a while you know and we lived in [HistoryMaker] Eddie Thomas' home. He had a home and he said, "Well hey man"--after we left Detroit [Michigan] he said "Well I gotta house here." Didn't have no furniture in it, we was sleeping on the floor, you know and that's how we made it. That's how we made it you know and after Curtis came back and he had made a little money we went into the studio and started rolling again.$$Okay, all right, now that's a period of time we didn't hear about, the, down, that's--so that was the worst-- I guess that had to be the worst period you know.$$The worst time, yep, for The Impressions you know, but once we got it back together then hey. The Good Lord was in the mix and hey, and it went from there.

Orlando L. Taylor

Author and educator Orlando Taylor was born on August 9, 1936, in Chattanooga, Tennessee. His mother was a teacher and his father was a factory worker. Taylor attended Orchard Knob Elementary School through ninth grade. As a youth, he enjoyed listening to the radio, and in 1952, hosted his own show called “Teen Time” on the local radio station. In 1953, Taylor earned his high school diploma from Howard High School.

While attending Hampton University, Taylor participated in a student exchange program at Dennison University in Ohio, where he became a member of an all white fraternity, Delta Epsilon. In 1957, he earned his bachelor’s of science degree in education. While studying for his master’s degree at Indiana University, he joined the NAACP and participated in sit-ins and helped to integrate Bloomington barbershops. He earned his masters degree in 1960. He went on to further his education by earning his Ph.D. in education at the University of Michigan in 1966.

Taylor worked as a speech-language clinician, identifying speech disorders in patients, between 1958 and 1960. From 1960 to 1962, he was the director of the speech and hearing clinic at Fort Wayne State School in Indiana. From 1970 to 1973, Taylor was a professor of communication sciences at the University of the District of Columbia from. In 1972, Taylor and several other colleagues coined the term Ebonics to describe black speech patterns. The term is a combination of the words ebony and phonics. In 1975, Taylor taught students at Stanford University and the University of California at Berkeley as a visiting professor.

In 1973, Taylor joined the faculty at Howard University where he served in a number of posts including executive assistant to the president, interim vice president for academic affairs, dean of the School of Communications and chair of the Department of Communications and chair of the Department of Communication Arts and Sciences. Currently Taylor is dean of Howard University’s Graduate School, vice provost for research and a professor in the School of Communications. As vice provost for research, he is responsible for increasing the number of Ph.D. recipients in science, math, and engineering.

Taylor is the author of numerous books, chapters and articles in the field of communication disorders and linguistics. He is also the recipient of numerous awards and honors.

Accession Number

A2004.076

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/14/2004

Last Name

Taylor

Maker Category
Middle Name

L.

Organizations
Schools

Howard High School

Orchard Knob Elementary School

Howard School of Academics and Technology

The Howard School

First Name

Orlando

Birth City, State, Country

Chattanooga

HM ID

TAY06

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Tennessee

Favorite Vacation Destination

Albuquerque, New Mexico, San Antonio, Texas

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

8/9/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chinese Food

Short Description

Academic administrator and communications professor Orlando L. Taylor (1936 - ) is dean of the Graduate School at Howard University. As a speech and communication scholar, Taylor and several other colleagues helped coin the term, "Ebonics." Taylor is the author of numerous books, chapters and articles in the field of communication disorders and linguistics.

Employment

Fort Wayne State School

University of the District of Columbia

Stanford University

University of California, Berkeley

Howard University

Howard University Graduate School

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Orlando Taylor interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Orlando Taylor lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Orlando Taylor remembers his mother and father

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Orlando Taylor explains why his family migrated north

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Orlando Taylor recalls growing up in Tennessee

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Orlando Taylor remembers his grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Orlando Taylor recalls his elementary school years

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Orlando Taylor shares childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Orlando Taylor discusses his brother

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Orlando Taylor recounts his high school activities

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Orlando Taylor details his college aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Orlando Taylor remembers his years at Hampton Institute

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Orlando Taylor recounts combating discrimination at Indiana University

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Orlando Taylor reflects on life as an African American in the field of speech therapy

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Orlando Taylor explains his decision to get his PhD at University of Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Orlando Taylor recounts how he coined the term "Ebonics"

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Orlando Taylor details the various controversies surrounding Ebonics

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Orlando Taylor discusses his current projects at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Orlando Taylor shares his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Orlando Taylor describes how he'd like to be remembered

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Orlando Taylor discusses the importance of preserving history

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Orlando Taylor considers his legacy

DASession

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DATape

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DAStory

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DATitle
Orlando Taylor reflects on life as an African American in the field of speech therapy
Orlando Taylor recounts how he coined the term "Ebonics"
Transcript
And after you left Indiana, did you go on to [University of] Michigan then?$$No, what happened was I went there to get a masters, and I got it. And I went back to this job in Fort Wayne [Indiana] that I mentioned earlier. And by the time I got back, that guy who really wasn't very good, had stepped aside, and I got the job. I became the director of this particular clinic. I did that for two years.$$Was it unusual to have an African American working in the field of speech therapy?$$Very unusual.$$What was that like as an African American working in that field?$$Well, first of all I'd never heard, heard of the field until I went to college. And I had always liked communications, and they had a major in communications which I gravitated toward. And, again, liking to be different, one professor said one day, have you heard about this field called speech therapy or speech correction it was called then. I said, no; said, what is it? And he said, well, it's, you know, it's when you kind of provide therapy to people whose speech wasn't normal, and sometimes because they have emotional problems, sometimes because of brain damage and sometimes because of developmental disorders. I said, wow, that's different, so I'll, I'll major in that. I won't, I won't do the other part of communications. Again, this being different theme again. So I picked it up just mainly for that reason. When I went to Indiana University to work on the degree, yes, it was unusual. At that time, there was reported to have been one person with PhD in the field, but I didn't never know the--I never knew that person. There were no faculty, of course, there. And there was, there had been a report of one previous African American student in the department. But when I was there--when I first got there, there were none. But after I got there, one came along, and I think two came along after me, after--when I was still in the department. But what was important about it, again, a very, sort of a life-changing experience, we had a number of international students in Indiana at the time, and they were doing their studies in English, but their first language had been something else; maybe it had been Portuguese from Brazil or maybe they knew Spanish. So they had a speech pattern that was reflective of their first language, so you had Brazilian students speaking Portuguese influenced English. And, of course, their pronunciations weren't the same as ours. And at the time, the, the tests that were given to students in terms of whether they were normal or not normal, presumed an English-based first language. So the result was all of these foreign students were labeled as having a speech impediment. And they were all referred to me to fix. So for the first time that I'm meeting up close and close and personal Brazilians, or people El Salvador, and I'd talk with them. Of course, their, their grammar and their pronunciation patterns did differ from American English, but they were not disordered patterns. They were predictable patterns, based upon having spoken another language first. Why is that important for me? Much of my research that really catapulted me to prominence in this field, when I started doing research on the influence of a first language and a second language and began to lead a group of folk to challenge traditional definitions about what was abnormal speech and move--it was a movement that led eventually toward bilingual education and a greater understanding about dialect variation even, even among African Americans, who were also labeled as having a speech disorder because they reflected Southern speech or Africanized English in their speech, and that really has revolutionized the field. And that's really why Orlando Taylor got to be known because I was one of the first people to do work in this area. But that experience at Indiana, where I had an opportunity to first-hand deal with people who were being discriminated against because of their speech, legitimate speech, led me to raise questions about the field.$So, Dr. Taylor, let's talk a little bit about Ebonics and--.$$Okay.$$--we talked--let's talk a little bit about how the phrase was coined--.$$All right.$$--and about what year was that and how was it coined?$$Well, to be in--to begin with, particularly with regard to my own career, after having gotten a PhD at [University of] Michigan with a focus on brain and language, most of us who were African Americans were caught up into the whole civil rights moment. And we started asking ourselves, how can I use my little part of the world, my discipline, my profession to contribute to this major social movement. And so I was in language. And I'd had this experience with the Brazilians at Indiana ten years earlier, and I knew, having grown up in the South how much people had been ridicules--how much black speech had been ridiculed. I was aware of minstrel shows and how whites in black face in early film would present negative caricatures of black folk. I was aware of images of film in the '30s [1930s] and '40s [1940s] and '50s [1950s] of black folk always appearing to not be able to speak very well. I was aware when I grew up in the South how black Southerners, as they moved North, would work real hard to not sound Southern or to not sound country. I was aware of going to Hampton [Inistitute, now University], how Northern blacks would tease the Southern, more Southern blacks with us at Hampton who pronounced words in a way that they thought was different. So there was this whole negative thing laid on black folk in my view around speech. And we had, we had spent a lot of time trying to, to not sound certain ways. And also at Indiana University I'd become aware of how whites would perceive blacks as being smarter, if they didn't have a black accent and how proud black parents felt when somebody would tell them that their children sounded so nice, why, you can't even tell they're black. And you say, oh, thank you, cause that--so the whole marker of being linguistically advanced was to have Northern speech, have white speech. And yet I had learned by this point that all people's speech was based upon the historical roots of their language. And so in the nineteen, in the early 1970s, a number of people--Geneva Smitherman (ph.) is one that comes to mind and, and Bob Williams who was a psychologist out at Washington University in St. Louis, were called together to--for a conference in St. Louis at Wash U to look at the scientific evidence around black speech. As it turned out, there had been some earlier work done by a very well-known scholar, Lorenzo Turner, in the 1930s, long before my time, who had done work on African survivals in black Southern speech. He had done work on the Gullah dialect off the coast of South Carolina, the coast of South Carolina and Georgia; speech that was the vernacular referred to as Geechie speech and people talking like a Geechie was often referred to, derisively I might add, it was really a put down, but, in fact, it was the most Africanized speech in the United States. And we perceived it as being ignorant and bad, but it really was out of, African origin. We were at this point into looking for African origins. Well, heck, the most African, one of the most African remnants that we have in America was the, was in speech. And so many of us had begun to do research on how these Africanisms not only came--were brought to the United States, but had survived as a result of segregation and plantation life and separatism in America, got reinforced over time into modern American English. And we thought that some of these forms that had been previously defined as being just bad speech or lazy speech or speech produced by folk whose lips were too big or tongues were too thick, really had an African origin to it. So building up on Lorenzo Turner's work and later the work of Melville [J.] Herskovits who wrote a very important book called "The Myth of the Negro Past", we started looking at contemporary African American speech, looking for African origin and suggesting that part of the things that we had seen were not because we were lazy, but were quite explainable by historical facts. Somebody in the room at the time, before that, before that event occurred, we had been referring to this speech in various ways. Sometimes it was called Negro nonstandard English; often it was called black English. And there were a lot of problems with all of these terms. Somebody said, why don't we get a term that's somewhat neutral? And why not--you know, if you say Ebony is black and phonics refers to sound, how about getting, coining a word that would combine blackness with phonics or blackness with sound. So Ebonics, from ebony, the Ebo part, and the '-onics' part from phonics. And so the word was coined in about 1972 in a book that was published by, edited by Bob Williams.