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Charles Ward

Lawyer and nonprofit executive Charles Ward was born on September 20, 1946 to Francis Lewellen Crowe and Mattie Sue Branch. He received his B.A. degree from California Western University in San Diego and obtained his J.D. degree from the University of San Diego School of Law in 1971. He served as a legislative research coordinator for the founding contingent of the Congressional Black Caucus in Washington, D.C., before Congressman Ronald Dellums appointed him his Chief-of-Staff in 1971. In 1974, Ward became a staff attorney for the Federal Communications Commission.

In 1975, Ward moved to the San Francisco, where he joined the entertainment law firm of Rohan & Stepanian. That year, he also served as an administrator for the University of California, Berkeley’s Summer Program for Minority Journalists. After leaving Rohan & Stepanian in 1983, Ward was named Director of Programming at Times Mirror Cable, Inc. He remained there for nine years, and helped to negotiate carriage agreements with HBO, CNN, ESPN and others, and rose to the position of Vice President of National Marketing & Programming. After leaving Times Mirror in 1992, Ward worked as an independent cable programming and book publishing consultant until 1996, when he became Director of Marketing and Corporate Sponsorships at the San Francisco Jazz Festival. Ward oversaw a campaign to rebrand the festival as SFJAZZ; helped launch a spring subscription series; instituted a corporate sponsorship program; and oversaw the distribution of six compilation albums. After leaving SFJAZZ in 2001, Ward was named Senior Vice President of Institutional Advancement at the Family Service Agency of San Francisco in 2002. In 2005, he accepted the position of Director of Development and Corporate Sponsorships for the Yerba Buena Center for the Arts, where he was subsequently named Chief Development Officer.

Ward has served on the boards or advisory committees of the Museum of the African Diaspora, which opened in 2005; SF Travel, a nonprofit organization that oversees San Francisco’s Moscone Center; Baycat in the Bayview-Hunters Point community; the Young Musicians Choral Orchestra at U.C. Berkeley; and the Mechanics Institute in San Francisco’s Financial District. He was also appointed by then-Mayor Willie L. Brown to serve on the San Francisco Human Rights Commission from 2001 to 2005, and by the San Francisco district attorney, Kamala Harris, to serve on the city’s Ethics Commission in 2012.

Ward lives with his wife, Cheryl, in San Francisco’s Pacific Heights neighborhood.

Charles Ward was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 13, 2015.

Accession Number

A2015.006

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/13/2015 |and| 11/30/2017

Last Name

Ward

Schools

California Western School of Law

University of San Diego School of Law

First Name

Charles

Birth City, State, Country

San Diego

HM ID

WAR19

State

California

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

9/20/1946

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/San Francisco

Country

United States

Short Description

Lawyer, telecommunications executive, and nonprofit chief executive Charles Ward (1946 - ) served as Congressman Ron Dellums’ Chief-of-Staff, before serving as a development officer for several San Francisco cultural institutions, including the Yerba Buena Center for the Arts.

Employment

Congressional Black Caucus

Congressman Ronald Dellums

Federal Communications Commission

Rohan & Stepanian

University of California, Berkeley

Times Mirror Cable

SFJAZZ

Family Service Agency of San Francisco

Yerba Buena Center for the Arts

Howard Woolley

Telecommunications industry lobbyist Howard Woolley is senior vice president of wireless public policy and government relations for Verizon. His family roots are in government and entertainment. Woolley’s mother, Ora Leak Woolley, was a Katherine Dunham dancer. In the mid-1940s, she appeared in Show Boat with Buddy Ebsen on Broadway and Finian’s Rainbow in London. Herman Woolley, a World War II veteran, was active in local politics and helped establish the Frederick Douglass political club and the Langston Hughes Library in their community in Queens, New York. Although both of his parents were Ohio natives, Woolley was born in New York City in 1957.

In the mid-1960s, Woolley’s parents transferred him from the local public school in Queens to the Downtown Community School in Manhattan’s Greenwich Village. Upon graduation, he was accepted into the Bronx High School of Science. A college internship at a local television station launched him on a path to the S.I. Newhouse School of Public Communications at Syracuse University, where he studied television and radio broadcasting. While obtaining his B.S. degree from the Newhouse School, he met his future wife, Gail Campbell.

Following his graduation from Syracuse University, Woolley was hired into membership sales by the National Association of Black-Owned Broadcasters in 1980. His work caught the attention of the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB). Woolley was hired by the NAB to work on increasing opportunities for minorities in the industry. With the help of senior executives of the NAB and advice from his uncle, a lobbyist for a multinational oil company, he transitioned into government relations in 1984. Woolley also obtained his M.A.S. degree in management from Johns Hopkins University during this period.

In 1991, Woolley was named Vice President - Regulatory Affairs for NAB. Two years later, Bell Atlantic Corporation offered him an opportunity to lead their government relations initiatives. In this role, he worked on the historic 1996 Telecommunications Act. Company mergers resulted in Woolley leading Bell Atlantic’s government relations on wireless and international issues. In 2000, a joint venture created Verizon Wireless. Woolley was appointed to head federal government relations, the first African American to lead this function for a major wireless company. In 2002, he assumed additional responsibilities for state government relations. Woolley was promoted to Senior Vice President for Wireless Public Policy in 2004. In 2008, he was named one of the top corporate lobbyists by The Hill newspaper.

Woolley is a member of the Executive Leadership Council, an organization of senior African American corporate executives. Woolley serves on the advisory boards of the S.I. Newhouse School of Public Communications and the Johns Hopkins Carey Business School Leadership Development Program. He serves on the Board of Directors of the World Affairs Council, Congressional Black Caucus Foundation, Everybody Wins – D.C., and the Community Academy Public Charter School. Woolley also serves as a Trustee of the National Urban League and a Corporate Advisory Board member of the National Council of La Raza.

Woolley and his wife, Gail, are active in charities and have established an endowment for minority students at the S.I. Newhouse School of Public Communications. They live in Potomac, Maryland.

Accession Number

A2008.096

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/27/2008 |and| 6/17/2012

Last Name

Woolley

Maker Category
Middle Name

E.

Organizations
Schools

Bronx High School of Science

Downtown Community School

City University of New York

Newtown High School

Syracuse University

First Name

Howard

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

WOO10

Favorite Season

Summer

Sponsor

Antoinette Cook Bush

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Outer Banks, North Carolina

Favorite Quote

If You Put Your Mind To It, You Can Do It.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

5/19/1957

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pizza

Short Description

Telecommunications executive Howard Woolley (1957 - ) was Senior Vice President of Wireless Public Policy and Government Relations for Verizon. He was the first African American to lead federal government relations for a major wireless company.

Employment

Verizon

Main Sponsor
Main Sponsor URL
Favorite Color

Blue

Patrick R. Gaston

Patrick Reginald Gaston was born on August 5, 1957, in Port Au Prince, Haiti. While still a youth, Gaston and his family moved to Boston, Massachusetts, where he remained until he relocated to Montreal, Canada, as a teen to attend boarding school. From Montreal, Gaston went on to the University of Massachusetts, from which he graduated with his B.A. degree in management in 1984; that same year he began work with Verizon. In 1992, Gaston received his M.B.A. degree from Northeastern University. In addition to the degrees he was awarded within the United States, Gaston also earned an international certificate in business from Ecolé Superieure de Commerce in Reims, France.

Remaining with Verizon throughout his professional development, Gaston occupied a wide array of management positions, ranging from operations, to marketing, to human resources, to strategic planning and government relations. Eventually, Gaston rose to the position of executive director of Verizon’s Strategic Alliances Group, in which he coordinated the company’s activities within the community.

Gaston was named the president of the Verizon Foundation in 2003; here he was charged with overseeing the philanthropic activities of the company, including the issuing of grant funding to community development programs. The Verizon Foundation placed special emphasis on the utilization of technology and literacy to improve the quality of community life; to help achieve those aims, Gaston oversaw an annual budget of $75 million. In 2007, Gaston took on the additional role of independent director and member of the audit committee of Bed Bath & Beyond, Inc.

In addition to his professional activities with Verizon and Bed Bath & Beyond, Gaston is heavily involved with a variety of organizations and foundations, including the NAACP Special Contributions Fund Board of Trustees; America’s Charities; the Foundation of the University of West Indies; and the World Institute on Disability. Gaston has also served as a fellow at the Aspen Institute, and a guest lecturer on the topics of public responsibility and philanthropy at a long list of universities that included Rutgers University, and Dartmouth College.

Accession Number

A2005.212

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/30/2005

Last Name

Gaston

Maker Category
Middle Name

R.

Schools

Ecole Frere Andre

College Laval

College Francais

Matignon High School

Northeastern University

Boston State College

University of Massachusetts Boston

First Name

Patrick

Birth City, State, Country

Port Au Prince

HM ID

GAS01

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris, France

Favorite Quote

I Love You, Daniel.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

8/5/1957

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

Haiti

Favorite Food

Spicy Food

Short Description

Telecommunications executive Patrick R. Gaston (1957 - ) was appointed president of the Verizon Foundation in 2003. In 2007, Gaston took on the additional role of independent director and member of the audit committee of Bed Bath & Beyond, Inc.

Employment

Gaebler Children's Center

Kennedy Memorial School

Kendall Corporation

The Boston Globe

Verizon Communications

Verizon Foundation

Favorite Color

All Colors

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Patrick R. Gaston's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Patrick R. Gaston lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Patrick R. Gaston describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Patrick R. Gaston describes his mother's life in Port-au-Prince, Haiti

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Patrick R. Gaston describes his father

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Patrick R. Gaston describes his parents' meeting

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Patrick R. Gaston describes his understanding of slavery in Haiti

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Patrick R. Gaston describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Patrick R. Gaston recalls holidays in Haiti

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Patrick R. Gaston describes his early education in Haiti

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Patrick R. Gaston describes his childhood role models

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Patrick R. Gaston describes his aspirations while at Ecole Frere Andre in Port-au-Prince, Haiti

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Patrick R. Gaston remembers his mother moving to the United States

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Patrick R. Gaston remembers his mother's time alone in the United States

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Patrick R. Gaston remembers his family's move to Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Patrick R. Gaston recalls encountering discrimination in the United States

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Patrick R. Gaston remembers the Haitian community in Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Patrick R. Gaston remembers attending boarding school in Montreal, Canada

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Patrick R. Gaston describes differences between race relations in Canada and the United States

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Patrick R. Gaston describes attending high school in Montreal and Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Patrick R. Gaston recalls choosing to study business at the University of Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Patrick R. Gaston describes working for International Weekends

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Patrick R. Gaston remembers his social life

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Patrick R. Gaston describes his father's lifestyle

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Patrick R. Gaston recalls getting hired at New England Telephone

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Patrick R. Gaston recalls his first year at New England Telephone

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Patrick R. Gaston remembers seeking support and opportunity at New England Telephone

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Patrick R. Gaston describes the environment of NYNEX in the 1980s

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Patrick R. Gaston remembers his job training employees at NYNEX

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Patrick R. Gaston remembers being hired in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Patrick R. Gaston describes working in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Patrick R. Gaston describes lobbying for the Telecommunications Act of 1996

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Patrick R. Gaston remembers his government relations work for NYNEX and his father's death

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Patrick R. Gaston describes working as assistant vice president for NYNEX in New York City

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Patrick R. Gaston describes serving on various boards

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Patrick R. Gaston describes being hired as executive director of the Verizon Foundation

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Patrick R. Gaston describes establishing a platform for the Verizon Foundation

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Patrick R. Gaston describes the Verizon Foundation's platforms

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Patrick R. Gaston describes the Verizon Foundation's literacy programs and domestic violence prevention, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Patrick R. Gaston describes Verizon Foundation's literacy programs and domestic violence prevention, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Patrick R. Gaston shares advice for people following in his footsteps

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Patrick R. Gaston talks about his wife

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Patrick R. Gaston shares his hopes for the future

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Patrick R. Gaston reflects upon the importance of history

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Patrick R. Gaston describes his hopes for minority communities

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Patrick R. Gaston narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

1$7

DATitle
Patrick R. Gaston describes working for International Weekends
Patrick R. Gaston describes establishing a platform for the Verizon Foundation
Transcript
You were completing the story at The Boston Globe.$$Yes. I, I forget exactly where, where I was with that.$$You--well, we'll just take it back a little. He said--you says, "No, Tom [Thomas Winship], I'm, I'm going to be--"$$Yeah, I said--I told--I said, Tom, I (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) I wanna be a businessman.$$"I wanna be a businessman. I don't wanna be a writer." And so--you know, and by the way--and I think the, the thing is, the opportunity to write for The Boston Globe is a huge opportunity and I didn't have anything else to show for it but my--you know, I didn't have anything else in contrast except going to school so, and working for Tom. But something said to me, stick with your guns. Go to school and get your business degree, which I did. So when I finished--you know, I graduated in 1984, one of the things I'd always wanted to do was go live and work in Paris [France] which--and, and I remember I was up for this job and I was interviewed for Carol Remick who was the director of our student office, right, at, at UMass [University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, Massachusetts], you know, said to me you should apply for this job and it was a group called International Weekends. And so I said, okay, I'll apply for the job. I applied and I said, I'll probably not have a chance on earth, and I applied for this job and I wanted it so bad to be working in Paris, oh. You know, at the--at, at twenty-three, twenty-four years of age and then eventually I got the job. So I wound up in Paris as the tour director for International Weekends, lived in Montparnasse, the Montparnasse Hotel, which is now the Meridien [Le Meridien Montparnasse; Pullman Paris Montparnasse, Paris, France] and, and just went about doing my thing in Paris--$$(Laughter).$$--for eight months, which was fascinating, fascinating. I thought I'd never come back. Of course, you know, I, I had to come back. A couple of things, though, about that experience, is back then I was traveling, I had--I, I was still--I still had Haitian citizenship. So and go--in traveling through Europe, particularly Switzerland when--they would scrutinize my passport a whole lot more. I mean, do--if you had a--an American passport, you just go right by. And in my case, you know, they would make a stink out of my Haitian passport. And I said--I was thinking, I said, you know what, I--when I get back to the United States, I need to become naturalized. I need to get--to become a citizen. And so, you know, after eight months of that experience, I had an opportunity to go to--because the way International Weekends was, is you would do six to eight months there, then you go six to eight months there and et cetera, and that becomes your career. And I was thinking, I said to myself, you know, this is not much of a career. I mean, I'm not gonna go, go to the Caribbean. It may seem like a wonderful lifestyle, but I wanna start my career in earnest, so then that's when I came back to the United States.$So do you come in with your own platform? Or Verizon [Verizon Communications, Inc.] had a platform that you had to work within [as president of the Verizon Foundation]?$$It--it's a little bit of both. I think in America--in corporate America or even, even in society at large, you know, it's like you may come in with your own platform, but it'll get tweaked just a little bit and then you should be prepared to, to work with it. And so I think in my case, I obviously I came in, I think--I knew that we had to make sure that we align ourselves with technology, that we leverage our technology to be able to deliver on the grants that we were making, you know--$$But give me an example of that.$$I'll give you an example. For example, if you are in the business--let's take literacy, right? Literacy--basic literacy is, is a skill that we're trying to get people to acquire. There are ways in which you can acquire that skill. I can read a book to you or I can provide you with a computer connection, an Internet connection to the web, I can deliver applications that fit your learning style, it can interface with you in a way that allows you to learn without having to have a person be there to do that to guide you. So that is one way of leveraging technology, connectivity, applications, et cetera, to be able to get you to learn. And then by the way--and that has the--you have the ability to replicate it and to scale it. So the idea is how do you have a much more strategic and thoughtful approach to social investments that we make? So I was thinking it along those lines and I was thinking, well, you know, we--it's, it's philanthropy but it should be run with, you know, using business like disciplines, you know, and, and using management disciplines to get it done and leveraging our core competencies as a business. We should also make sure that we have more people behind us with regards to our social investments. It's not enough that ten people that work for me in this room know about it, the entire corporation should know what we're trying to do. They should be ambassadors. They should embrace it. They should be ambassadors out there in the communities around some of the things that we're trying to do. There was also a knowledge that, you know, having been--coming from a place where I came from, right, where, you know, I--Haiti and, et cetera, where I remember learning how to read (laughter) and I remember not having. And I remember what it's--the--that a dollar invested somewhere made a big difference where I came from. So I saw it--I mean, I have--we invest about $48 million of the $72 million budget that I have. So that $48 million I think can make a difference.$$You invest it--$$Social investments.$$Social investment.$$Meaning we, we, we invest it in--$$You--$$--organizations.$$Communities.$$Communities, yes. So I--so that--it, it--it's more or less an entire approach. Now, my predecessor [Suzanne Dubose] did a fantastic job at, you know, mechanizing our system, professionalizing it and I think I'm just basically building on what she's--the platform that she's provided. But the entire thing is--in my view is how do you bring your heart, your soul, your competencies to bear when you're doing a job, your commitment and, et cetera, to bear when you're doing a job and to be smart at it?

Ray Robinson

Business executive, community developer, and golf enthusiast, Ray M. Robinson was born on November 30, 1947, in McKinney, Texas. Robinson grew up in Dallas, and while still in high school worked as a communication technician, beginning a thirty-five-year career with AT&T.

In 1970, Robinson earned his B.A. degree in finance from the University of Denver, and the following year he received his M.B.A., degree also from that same institution. Simultaneously, Robinson began his climb up the corporate ladder at AT&T, relocating thirteen times as he took new assignments in marketing, sales, and regulatory affairs. Robinson finally settled in Atlanta, where he became president of the company's southern region.

Upon his retirement from AT&T in 2003, Robinson, an avid golfer, assumed the presidency of Atlanta's East Lake Golf Club and became vice chairman of the East Lake Community Foundation. Robinson helped revive Atlanta's historic golf course and revitalize the inner-city neighborhood surrounding it through redevelopment. This redevelopment included East Lake Family YMCA and Eastlake Junior Golf Academy. Under Robinson's leadership, the golf club signed a multiyear partnership with the Professional Golf Association, making the East Lake Course the primary host venue for the PGA Championship Tour.

Robinson served on the board of directors for several businesses and organizations, including Citizens Trust Bank, the Atlanta Metro Chamber of Commerce, and the Atlanta Tribune Editorial Advisory Board. Additionally, Robinson belonged to several civic groups, including the 100 Black Men of Atlanta and the NAACP. Robinson and his wife, Arlane, were married in 1969; the raised two children.

Accession Number

A2003.191

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/14/2003

Last Name

Robinson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

M.

Organizations
Schools

Hamilton Park Elementary School

Hamilton Park High School

University of Denver

Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School

First Name

Ray

Birth City, State, Country

McKinney

HM ID

ROB07

Favorite Season

Fall

Sponsor

100 Black Men of Atlanta

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Skiing

Favorite Quote

If you want to do something important, the very first thing you must do is get started.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

11/30/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken

Short Description

Telecommunications executive Ray Robinson (1947 - ) is the retired president of AT&T's southern region and the president of Atlanta's historic East Lake Golf Club.

Employment

AT&T

Cousins Foundation

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Earth Tones

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Ray Robinson interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Ray Robinson's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Ray Robinson discusses his mother's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Ray Robinson talks about his mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Ray Robinson explains his father's name

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Ray Robinson describes his paternal grandfather, Vernon Robinson

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Ray Robinson talks about his father starting his own janitorial service

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Ray Robinson tells how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Ray Robinson describes his first childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Ray Robinson talks about the sights, sounds and smells of his youth

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Ray Robinson describes his childhood neighborhood in Dallas

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Ray Robinson describes his childhood personality

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Ray Robinson recalls his involvement in church while growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Ray Robinson remembers experiences from grade school and high school

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Ray Robinson describes segregation in Dallas while growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Ray Robinson explains his childhood experience with music

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Ray Robinson talks about his enjoyment of high school

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Ray Robinson recalls memorable high school teachers and pranks

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Ray Robinson discusses his involvement in high school activities

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Ray Robinson describes his motorcycle accident

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Ray Robinson explains his job with AT&T

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Ray Robinson remembers the March on Washington

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Ray Robinson recalls the day John F. Kennedy was assassinated

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Ray Robinson talks about his decision between working and college

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Ray Robinson explains how he chose to attend the University of Denver

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Ray Robinson remembers his experiences at the University of Denver

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Ray Robinson talks about working summers at AT&T

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Ray Robinson explains how John King assisted him with college and his military obligation

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Ray Robinson tells how he decided to work for AT&T after graduate school

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Ray Robinson speaks about his qualifications in being hired at AT&T

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Ray Robinson remembers working at NORAD

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Ray Robinson explains a DEFCON four status at NORAD

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Ray Robinson talks about being operations manager at NORAD at a young age

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Ray Robinson recalls his various positions with AT&T

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Ray Robinson remembers a career crisis at AT&T

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Ray Robinson explains how he restored AT&T's image in the black community after a racist incident

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Ray Robinson tells how he became involved with the East Lake Golf Club

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Ray Robinson talks about African American participation in golf

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Ray Robinson details the origins and successes of the new golf course and housing development at East Lake Golf Club

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Ray Robinson explains East Lake Golf Club's TOUR Championship

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Ray Robinson talks about African American support of East Lake Golf Club

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Ray Robinson tells how profit is generated at THE TOUR Championship

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Ray Robinson's hopes and dreams for the black community

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Ray Robinson discusses the possibility of replicating mixed income housing in other communities

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Ray Robinson considers his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Ray Robinson considers how he would like to be remembered