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Genelle Trader

Corporate executive Genelle Trader was born on February 21, 1952 in Wilmington, Delaware to Marion Bishop Trader and Purnell Trader. She graduated from Tower Hill School, where she was the first African American student to attend the school. Trader went on to receive her B.S. degree in mathematics, cum laude, from Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts and her M.S. degree in management with an emphasis in management information systems and finance from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sloan School of Management in 1980.

From 1980 to 1982, Trader worked as a marketing representative at the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM). In 1982, she became a senior product manager at Wang Laboratories, where she managed the company’s line of minicomputers and one of the industry’s first voice mail servers. After a brief stint as the product area manager at Computer Sciences Corporation in 1985, Trader was hired as the director of portable systems at AST Research Inc. in Irvine, California, where she led the launch of the company’s first notebook computer in 1989. Then, in 1992, Trader became the vice president of marketing at Everex Systems, where she led the restructuring of the company’s marketing organization. In 1993, Trader was recruited by SunExpress President Dorothy Terrell to become the senior director of marketing for SunExpress. During her ten years at Sun Microsystems, Trader also led the company’s Workstation Products Marketing Group, and a key Internet corporate initiative. In 2002, Trader left Sun Microsystems and subsequently found her own consultant and executive coaching firm, Strategic Business Coaching Group, based in Wilmington, Delaware. Trader coaches executives at Fortune 500 corporations and nonprofits. Since 2010, Trader also works with First Cap Advisors, as a consultant.

Trader has served on the board of trustees of the National Park Foundation’s African American Experience Fund; on the board of directors at The HistoryMakers; and as the strategic planning co-chair of both the Potomac, Virginia Chapter and Wilmington, Delaware chapters of The Links, Incorporated. She also served on the board of directors of the Serviam Girls Academy in New Castle, Delaware.

Genelle Trader was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 13, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.153

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/13/2018

Last Name

Trader

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

Scotia

Occupation
Schools

Tufts University

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

First Name

Genelle

Birth City, State, Country

Wilmington

HM ID

TRA04

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Delaware

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris/Morocco

Favorite Quote

Okay Genelle, We Can Do This.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Delaware

Birth Date

2/21/1952

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Wilmington

Country

United States of America

Favorite Food

Collard Greens

Short Description

Corporate executive Genelle Trader (1952 - ) served as the senior director of marketing at Sun Microsystems, Inc. for ten years, and founded Strategic Business Coaching Group, a consultant firm based in Wilmington, Delaware.

Employment

Strategic Business Coaching Group

First Cap Advisors

Sun Microsystems

Everex Systems

AST Computers

Computer Sciences Corporation

Wang Laboratories

IBM

Favorite Color

Purple

Dr. Charles Whitten

Pediatrician and sickle cell anemia expert Dr. Charles Francis Whitten was born on February 2, 1922 in Wilmington, Delaware to school teachers Emma Clorinda Carr Whitten and Tobias Emmanuel Whitten. He grew up on Wilmington’s East Side next door to future jazz trumpeter Clifford Brown. Whitten attended Number 5 Elementary School and graduated fourth in his class from Howard High School in 1940. In 1942, he earned his B.S. degree in zoology from the University of Pennsylvania. Whitten then studied medicine at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee and earned his M.D. degree in 1945 at age twenty-three.

After his internship at Harlem Hospital, Whitten worked as a general practitioner in Lackawanna, New York from 1946 to 1951.Whitten then served two years as a captain in the United States Medical Corps before returning to the University of Pennsylvania’s Graduate School of Medicine for a year of advanced study in pediatrics. In 1953, Whitten began a two-year residency in pediatrics at Children’s Hospital in Buffalo, New York. In 1955, he moved to Detroit, Michigan for a one year fellowship to study pediatric hematology under Dr. Wolf Zeltzer. Whitten became the first and only African American to head a department in a Detroit hospital when he was selected clinical director of pediatrics at Detroit Receiving Hospital in 1956. Whitten worked as an attending pediatrician at Children’s Hospital of Michigan from 1962 to 1999. He started teaching medicine as an instructor in pediatrics at Wayne State University in 1956. Whitten was named assistant professor in 1959, served as full professor of pediatrics from 1970 to 1990, and became associate dean of curricular affairs in 1976 and of special programs in 1992.

Whitten joined Dr. Charles Wright in establishing the African Medical Education Fund in 1960. In 1969, Whitten instituted Wayne State University’s Post Baccalaureate Enrichment Program to better prepare black students for medical school. In 1971, Whitten with Dorothy Boswell spearheaded the National Association for Sickle Cell Disease, now the Sickle Cell Disease Association of America. He also formed the Sickle Cell Detection and Information Center. Whitten became program director for the Comprehensive Sickle Cell Center at Wayne State University in 1973. In 2002, Whitten was named Michiganian of the Year, and in 2004, was named distinguished professor of pediatrics, emeritus at Wayne State University.

Whitten passed away on August 14, 2008 at the age of 86. He is survived by his wife, Eloise Culmer Whitten, an expert on pre-school reading. Together, they supported a number of worthy causes, including a clinic in Haiti.

Whitten was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 8, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.079

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/8/2007

Last Name

Whitten

Maker Category
Middle Name

Francis

Occupation
Schools

University of Pennsylvania

Meharry Medical College

Howard High School of Technology

No. 5 School

First Name

Charles

Birth City, State, Country

Wilmington

HM ID

WHI13

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Delaware

Favorite Vacation Destination

Nassau, Bahamas

Favorite Quote

Do The Best You Can.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Michigan

Birth Date

2/2/1922

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Detroit

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Paella

Death Date

8/14/2008

Short Description

Pediatrician Dr. Charles Whitten (1922 - 2008 ) was an expert on sickle cell anemia.

Employment

Wayne State University School of Medicine

Detroit Receiving Hospital

General Practice

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Charles Whitten's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Charles Whitten lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his maternal grandfather's farm, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his maternal grandfather's farm, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Charles Whitten talks about his father's teaching career

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his mother and paternal aunt

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his neighborhood in Wilmington, Delaware

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Charles Whitten remembers Clifford Brown

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his childhood hip injuries

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his early personality

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Charles Whitten remembers delivering African American newspapers

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Charles Whitten remembers his early educational experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Charles Whitten recalls his early religious experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Charles Whitten remembers the radio programs of his youth

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes Howard High School in Wilmington, Delaware

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Charles Whitten remembers his family's boarders

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Charles Whitten remembers his decision to attend the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his experiences at the University of Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. Charles Whitten remembers Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dr. Charles Whitten recalls the establishment of his medical practice in Lackawanna, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his medical practice in Lackawanna, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Charles Whitten recalls his residency at The Children's Hospital of Buffalo in Buffalo, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Charles Whitten remembers his courtship with his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Charles Whitten remembers his move to Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Charles Whitten remembers the sickle cell disease clinic at the Children's Hospital of Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Charles Whitten talks about sickle cell diseases

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Charles Whitten remembers the African Medical Education Fund

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Charles Whitten remembers the all-black hospitals in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Charles Whitten recalls his challenges at the Detroit Receiving Hospital in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Charles Whitten reflects upon his career in medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his advocacy for sickle cell patients

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Dr. Charles Whitten talks about the evolution of the sickle cell trait

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes the National Association for Sickle Cell Diseases

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Charles Whitten remembers his partnership with the March of Dimes Foundation

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes the National Sickle Cell Anemia Control Act of 1972

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes the advancements in sickle cell research

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Charles Whitten talks about the incidence of sickle cell disease among African Americans

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Charles Whitten recalls his diversity initiative at the Wayne State University School of Medicine

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes the post baccalaureate program at the Wayne State University School of Medicine

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Charles Whitten talks about sickle cell education in Africa and the Caribbean

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his preschool literacy program

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes the findings from his preschool literacy program

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his motivation for researching literacy

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes the success of the post baccalaureate program at the Wayne State University School of Medicine

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Charles Whitten talks about sickle cell disease awareness

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Charles Whitten talks about the closure of all-black hospitals

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Charles Whitten reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes his family

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Charles Whitten talks about his medical clinic in Haiti

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Charles Whitten describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Charles Whitten narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

3$6

DATitle
Dr. Charles Whitten describes the National Sickle Cell Anemia Control Act of 1972
Dr. Charles Whitten recalls his diversity initiative at the Wayne State University School of Medicine
Transcript
What was your interaction with Congressional Black Caucus in terms of the sickle cell program (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Oh, that was later over some funding issues where we needed, needed some, some help. And Lou Stokes [HistoryMaker Louis Stokes] was very, very helpful with that. But it's a question of--one of the things that was happening was that since sickle cell had been so successful as in getting some, some congressional support that the other genetic diseases wanted to have the same. So they wanted to have a law, we have a law now, a sickle cell--called Control Act [National Sickle Cell Anemia Control Act of 1972] that Nixon [President Richard Milhous Nixon] put in place. And they wanted to have something similar to this and that's what we were considered about, this (unclear) of funding if everybody had it had a act in the, in the picture that's where the Congressional Black Caucus was very helpful.$$Okay, now, now what was--what did the--what were the previsions of the sickle cell act?$$Well basically now it says that [U.S.] Congress is mandated to have ten comprehensive sickle cell centers, didn't say how much funding. But they mandated to have ten comprehensive sickle cell--that's unique, a mandate of Congress. So we've come a long way with, with the congressional--the governmental regulation of the sickle cell problem, what needs to be done about it.$$So are these--$$That's one of the big, the big advances.$$Okay, so are--there are ten centers now?$$Ten, yes.$$All right.$$There were--we had fifteen. I, I was program director for one of the centers [Sickle Cell Detection and Information Center] at Wayne State [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan] for nineteen years. And we started with, with fifteen and then they went down to ten. And at the last--when I was still active--the last application was after I was active we no longer had a solid research program. We weren't competitive for nineteen years we were, so we di- weren't funded from that time on. But for nineteen years and during the course that time we had of $17 million to come in for the comprehensive sickle cell centers. And we were very proud national- locally that Wayne State University, that was the largest research funds, that ever come to a university in any one, for any one program, for the whole university, was my sickle cell program.$$That is something.$You were director of the center [Sickle Cell Detection and Information Center] for nineteen years and then?$$Yeah, I was dire- yes I directed the center for nineteen years, I was president of the, of the sickle cell association of America [National Association for Sickle Cell Diseases; Sickle Cell Disease Association of America, Inc.] for nineteen years, the leader there.$$Okay, now you also have a academic career at Wayne State [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan]--$$Yes.$$--in the meantime? You began to teach, you were teaching at Wayne State back in the early '60s [1960s] right?$$(Nods head).$$And then, so tell us about your career at, at Wayne State, your teaching (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Well the thing that--the only thing significant I've done at Wayne is that I became concerned about the fact that we have very few black physicians. And that we needed to increase the number. And to do so it didn't seem likely that, that we had enough qualified applicants of individuals who qualify, not just applicants, but qualified applicants. And I developed a pra- program at Wayne based on the premise that there were individuals who have the native ability, basic intelligence, so forth to become successful physicians. But they--when they applied to medical school their academic credentials did not suggest that they will be successful. And hence they were denied admission. But I believe that they had the potential and the reason that they didn't have the necessary academic credentials is that that they had been disadvantaged, educationally disadvantaged, emotionally disadvantaged, physiologically disadvantaged, economically disadvantaged. Many had to work through the four years of school and hence didn't have the grades that--. And if these individuals were given the opportunity for another year's program they could be successful in medical school. I convinced the medical school administration of this, and we started off with five black students. Eventually ten then fourteen; we had to increase it because we couldn't have a program exclusively for blacks. And as of last year we're over two hundred black doctors now, who graduate from med- Wayne med school who had originally been denied admission to the medical school and about sixty others--racial groups. And it's based upon the premise that they had the ability but had been disadvantaged and hence had not been (unclear). This was an outstanding--it's a unique program that I started in 1961.

Phillip L. Clay

When Phillip L. Clay, Ph.D., was appointed as the chancellor of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology on July 1, 2001, he became the highest-ranking African American official in the Institute’s 136-year history. As chancellor, Clay has oversight responsibility for undergraduate and graduate education, student life and services, research policy, strategic planning, campus development, international initiatives and the management of MIT’s large-scale institutional partnerships.

Born on May 17, 1946, Clay grew up in Wilmington, North Carolina and graduated with honors from the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill in 1968. In 1975, he received a Ph.D. in city planning from MIT. Upon graduating from MIT, he was appointed immediately as an assistant professor in MIT’s Department of Urban Studies and Planning. He rose through the ranks, first becoming associate professor and then becoming a full professor in 1992. Between 1980 and 1984, Clay also served as the assistant director of the Joint Center for Urban Studies of MIT and Harvard University.

Clay is recognized as a national authority on urban housing policy and community-based organizational development. He has been the principal investigator in several studies examining affordable housing, housing preservation and urban gentrification. For example, in a 1987 study commissioned by the Neighborhood Reinvestment Corporation, he identified the market and institutional conditions contributing to the erosion of low-income rental housing and documented the need for a national preservation policy. He later served on the national commission that recommended the policy that became part of the Housing Act of 1990. In research sponsored by several national foundations, Clay has evaluated the effectiveness of various initiatives to build organizational and developmental capacity in community-based development entities.

Clay is also a founding member of the National Housing Trust, which addressed the issue of housing preservation in urban areas. At the time of the interview, he the vice-president of the board of The Community Builders, one of the country’s largest non-profit producers of affordable housing.

Clay and his wife, Cassandra, live in Boston, and have a daughter, Elizabeth.

Accession Number

A2004.201

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/13/2004

Last Name

Clay

Maker Category
Middle Name

L.

Schools

William Harry Blount Elementary School

Gregory Elementary School

Williston Middle School of Math, Science & Technology

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

First Name

Phillip

Birth City, State, Country

Wilmington

HM ID

CLA09

Favorite Season

Summer

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

5/17/1946

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken

Short Description

Academic administrator Phillip L. Clay (1946 - ) was the first African American Chancellor of MIT, where he was also a professor of urban planning. Clay is recognized as a national authority on urban housing policy and community-based organizational development, and is a founding member of the National Housing Trust, which addressed the issue of housing preservation in urban areas.

Employment

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Joint Center for Urban Studies

Favorite Color

Blue

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Phillip Clay interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Phillip Clay's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Phillip Clay remembers his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Phillip Clay remembers his maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Phillip Clay describes his relationship with his father

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Phillip Clay describes life with four brothers

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Phillip Clay recalls his earliest memories

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Phillip Clay recalls his childhood environs in Wilmington, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Phillip Clay describes family life in his childhood home

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Phillip Clay describes the role of the church in his early life

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Phillip Clay remembers influential individuals from his early life

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Phillip Clay describes the sights, smells and sounds of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Phillip Clay describes his elementary school experience

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Phillip Clay discusses education and politics in the 1950s

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Phillip Clay shares memories from his school life

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Phillip Clay describes his early career aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Phillip Clay explains his decision to attend the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Phillip Clay recalls his undergraduate years at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Phillip Clay discusses his interest in the politics of the 1960s, part I

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Phillip Clay discusses his interest in the politics of the 1960s, part II

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Phillip Clay describes his efforts toward the desegregation of schools

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Phillip Clay describes his student involvement at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Phillip Clay remembers his college mentor

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Phillip Clay describes his pursuit of graduate education

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Phillip Clay recalls being drafted to serve in the Vietnam War

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Phillip Clay recalls his experience as a doctoral student

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Phillip Clay discusses his family

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Phillip Clay discusses occupational opportunities upon receiving his Ph.D.

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Phillip Clay lists influential instructors at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Phillip Clay lists his first course offerings as a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Phillip Clay discusses his appointment at the Joint Center for Urban Studies, Harvard University/The Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Phillip Clay reviews his career as faculty of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Phillip Clay describes his responsibilities as Chancellor of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Phillip Clay reflects on his students' successes

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Phillip Clay discusses improving student life at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Phillip Clay details his involvement in community development and housing initiatives

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Phillip Clay describes his leadership at Roxbury Community College

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Phillip Clay reflects on his life and career

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Phillip Clay describes how he'd like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Phillip Clay shares his hopes and concerns for the black community

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Phillip Clay evaluates difficulties facing young black people

Benjamin Whitten

Benjamin Carr Whitten was born on July 25, 1923, in Wilmington, Delaware. Both of his parents were teachers. His father died when he was just six years old, forcing his mother to teach school at night while working as a receptionist for a doctor during the day. In 1939, Whitten earned his diploma at the age of fifteen from Howard High School. While attending Howard he enjoyed playing tennis, roller-skating, reading and listening to the radio.

Whitten earned his bachelor’s of science degree from Pennsylvania State University where he was active in the Industrial Arts Club and became the first African American member of the honor fraternity Iota Lambda Sigma. He was also a member of Omega Psi Phi fraternity, made the Dean’s list for six semesters and graduated with honors. After graduation he was drafted into the military and served in the United States Army from 1943 to 1946. He furthered his education at Penn State, earning his master’s degree in 1948 and his Ed.D in 1960.

In 1948, he joined the staff of the Baltimore City Schools as an industrial arts teacher. He would spend the next thirty years moving up the ranks of the school system serving as a vice principal, principal and assistant superintendent for vocational education. In 1976, he was a candidate for superintendent of Baltimore City Schools. He retired from the school system in 1979.

After his retirement, Whitten served as director of the Minority Contractors Technical and Assistance Program. In this position he operated a program designed to assist minority contractors to enter and succeed in the construction industry. He served in this post until 1983, when he accepted the position of Baltimore City Urban League President, a job he held until 1988.

In 1987, Whitten received the Parren J. Mitchell Unity Award from the Baltimore NAACP. In 1989, the wing of a Baltimore vocational facility, the Westside Skill Center was dedicated in Dr. Whitten’s honor.

Benjamin Whitten passed away on September 21, 2012.

Accession Number

A2004.061

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/2/2004

Last Name

Whitten

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Howard High School of Technology

Pennsylvania State University

First Name

Benjamin

Birth City, State, Country

Wilmington

HM ID

WHI02

Favorite Season

Football Season

State

Delaware

Favorite Vacation Destination

Atlantic City, New Jersey

Favorite Quote

If not when? What now?

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

7/25/1923

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken, Pork Chops, Hamburger, Oatmeal

Death Date

9/21/2012

Short Description

Nonprofit chief executive and high school administrator Benjamin Whitten (1923 - 2012 ) was the first African American member of Iota Lambda Sigma honor fraternity, and has been a teacher and administrator in Baltimore City Schools for over thirty years. White is also a former president of the Baltimore Urban League.

Employment

United States Army Transportation Corps.

Carver Vocational-Technical School (Baltimore, MD)

Edmondson High School

Granville T. Woods Vocational School

Cherry Hill Junior High School

Baltimore City Public School System

Baltimore Urban League

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
522,0:870,7:1102,12:1566,21:3364,91:3770,103:5220,132:5568,139:6148,152:6496,159:6844,166:7366,177:7598,182:16456,265:19370,302:26963,362:27461,369:27793,374:29204,388:32441,428:32856,434:34101,454:34682,463:40680,476:41142,483:45294,531:45598,536:45978,542:50180,577:50540,582:51980,595:63286,703:70565,749:70955,756:71215,761:75330,803:75815,809:83130,866:84270,884:92191,919:100552,984:101896,1000:109734,1136:110006,1141:116491,1224:117030,1232:119970,1247:121006,1262:122460,1272:125395,1325:126445,1359:126970,1369:127270,1374:128545,1422:131446,1455:133966,1495:134758,1507:135550,1523:136054,1532:138430,1605:152055,1704:154914,1730:155844,1758:156588,1776:157084,1786:157332,1791:157642,1797:157890,1802:159564,1844:162230,1890:168672,1944:169358,1953:176482,2027:177058,2034:183640,2113:184729,2139:187501,2185:187897,2190:191092,2222$0,0:567,7:891,12:1377,19:1863,26:2430,35:6399,96:6885,103:7452,134:7776,139:9315,165:12231,228:12555,233:12879,238:13770,247:14985,272:19932,289:22755,304:24531,321:29940,358:30440,364:34186,401:35796,411:36540,424:38410,429:43235,464:44085,473:44935,484:46040,504:52492,554:52900,561:53172,566:53784,579:54260,590:54872,600:55416,611:57922,631:59982,650:61362,671:62970,676:63672,687:69978,730:70523,736:73740,743:79900,817:80300,823:80620,828:81580,843:83790,856:84126,863:84350,868:85862,911:86086,916:86366,922:86982,934:88158,989:88774,1009:92294,1045:92926,1055:94111,1072:94822,1087:95217,1093:95691,1100:98874,1123:99284,1129:104122,1208:104450,1213:104778,1218:105434,1227:106172,1238:110706,1280:111399,1290:111707,1295:112015,1300:112708,1311:113247,1319:114094,1332:114556,1339:115249,1352:115634,1359:118800,1366:119458,1375:119834,1380:120586,1393:120962,1398:121338,1403:123312,1429:123876,1436:124252,1441:127978,1450:129076,1461:129564,1466:130174,1472:132980,1499:135498,1508:135874,1513:137800,1519:138256,1526:140384,1556:140916,1565:141372,1572:142208,1595:142664,1603:142968,1608:145020,1652:147061,1657
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Benjamin Whitten interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Benjamin Whitten's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Benjamin Whitten remembers his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Benjamin Whitten describes his family history

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Benjamin Whitten recalls his childhood personality and his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Benjamin Whitten discusses growing up without his father

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Benjamin Whitten recalls his childhood environs

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Benjamin Whitten remembers his early school years

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Benjamin Whitten briefly talks about his childhood church

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Benjamin Whitten remembers his high school years

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Benjamin Whitten recalls his years in the Army

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Benjamin Whitten recalls his college years

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Benjamin Whitten recounts instances of race discrimination in education

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Benjamin Whitten discusses his doctoral pursuits

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Benjamin Whitten discusses his encounter with race discrimination within Baltimore's school system

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Benjamin Whitten ponders a lost opportunity to be superintendent of Baltimore's schools

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Benjamin Whitten discusses trends in education

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Benjamin Whitten discusses his appointments and honors following retirement

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Benjamin Whitten details his work with the Baltimore City Public School System in the 1980s

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Benjamin Whitten discusses his tenure as president of the Baltimore Urban League

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Benjamin Whitten shares his personal philosophy

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Benjamin Whitten recalls suffering a stroke

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Benjamin Whitten describes his daily activities

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Benjamin Whitten shares advice for prospective educators

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Benjamin Whitten reflects on changes in Baltimore city schools

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Benjamin Whitten describes how he'd like to be remembered

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Benjamin Whitten expresses his concerns for the black community

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Benjamin Whitten considers his legacy

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Photo - Benjamin Whitten and son, Benjamin Whitten, Jr., before church, 1968

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Photo - Benjamin Whitten and wife Lu on a cruise, 1980

Tape: 3 Story: 13 - Photo - Benjamin Whitten and wife Lu participate in cruise activities, 1985

Tape: 3 Story: 14 - Photo - Benjamin Whitten and wife Lu being greeted by the ship's staff at a cruise event, 1990

Tape: 3 Story: 15 - Photo - Benjamin Whitten and wife Lu escort their son Benjamin to a debutante ball, 1985

Tape: 3 Story: 16 - Photo - Benjamin Whitten with executives from the Baltimore Urban League, Baltimore, Maryland, 1987

Tape: 3 Story: 17 - Photo - Benjamin Whitten's family, including his mother, wife and siblings, 1969

Tape: 3 Story: 18 - Photo - Benjamin Whitten and wife Lu, ca. 1995

Tape: 3 Story: 19 - Photo - Benjamin Whitten's mother and his siblings, 1929

Tape: 3 Story: 20 - Photo - Benjamin Whitten's mother, wife and son, 1967

Tape: 3 Story: 21 - Photo - Benjamin Whitten's mother, father, uncle and an unidentified sibling, ca. 1922

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Photo - Benjamin Whitten, vice principal of Carver Vocational Technical High School, Baltimore, Maryland, ca. 1980s

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Photo - Benjamin Whitten's father, Tobias Emanuel Whitten, ca. 1920s

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Photo - Benjamin Whitten's aunt and uncle and a nephew, early 1930s

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Photo - Benjamin Whitten and his brother, ca. 1924

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Photo - Benjamin Whitten's mother, ca. 1915

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$2

DAStory

5$7

DATitle
Benjamin Whitten discusses his encounter with race discrimination within Baltimore's school system
Benjamin Whitten discusses trends in education
Transcript
During your teaching career in Baltimore [Maryland] City [Public School System], what were some of the biggest changes that you saw taking place in the school system during the time that you taught?$$Well, you got the degration [sic, desegregation] now. That was, that was one thing right there. And number two, then we made inroads saying,"Well, white--black people take care of white schools too. You can be a principal at other places, yeah." And that's a tough, tough battle with that too. And a lot of people had, didn't care about that. I didn't like it, and I did some things and I played for--paid for it too because they were not--.$$(Simultaneously) How so?$$They would not honor my, my skill and my, my degree and the fact that I'm better than some of the others. And so it was tough, until they had, had a, if you wanted to be a--if you wanted to move up, then you have a, a test. And I had highest mark in, in the damn state--that's the truth. And they go to my school, my shop teacher and looked around, "Who is this man here? Who's this? You know, who is this person?" And after that, I became (laughs), as a vice principal, but it was tough to make it there. And a lot of the people didn't care because that's the way they had lived that way, always. It didn't make any difference, but I didn't like it. And I was in the [U.S.] Army, the same thing. I said, "Oh, no, we're gonna have to do something." But we couldn't, we couldn't, people wouldn't, wouldn't get together in saying, "Let's, let's do something." We had a meeting in my house. People who were educated and that sort of thing, well, we're gonna do something. The next meeting, they didn't come. I was by myself.$$Why do you think that was? Why do you think people weren't as active as they could have been?$$(Simultaneously) Because they were comfortable, they were comfortable, and they, they had--it was a big city, and they had, they lived that way before. And it didn't make any difference, I don't believe. But I was a rabble rouser, that's right. And I, I didn't like this stuff. And somebody told me, says, "Well, if you don't like it, Ben, why don't you go back where you came from?" It's the truth (laughs).$During your nearly twenty years of teaching, what were some of the biggest changes that you saw taking place in [Baltimore, Maryland] city schools in, you know, the late '60s [1960s] and throughout the '70s [1970s]?$$It's, it's more than just the school. It was the, the city and the job situation. So that some of the kids want to do some things and good doing that, they didn't have an outlet for that. So that was the city situation. A lot of the good kids from the vocational schools, they can't find a job. And that was, that's ridiculous, but that's what happened. I think it's happening right now, still. It happened with me. A lot of people who, who were good didn't get promoted. And that, and now, a lot of the black people don't take--don't go too, as, as a teacher, they want to be--got a lot of money from other kinds of situations. That's what happened to us.$$You think we need to have more black teachers in schools today?$$(Simultaneously) Oh, no question about that. We need good people too, not just, they're--only black but because they are good. They're smart rather than the, all the, the smart people go to MBAs [Master of Business Administration], and that's--we need, we need good teachers taking the kids.$$What do you think we need to do to encourage more good people and African Americans to become teachers?$$I wish I knew. It's not just money. It's more than that. But a lot of it is making sure that the people who have other careers decide, let's--two years or four years taking care of a, of a teacher, as a teacher, rather than, okay, and you go back to your other job again. I, I think you have to do that.

Madeline Murphy Rabb

Collector, dealer and lover of art Madeline Murphy Rabb was born in Wilmington, Delaware, on January 27, 1945. The second of five children, Rabb is the daughter of a television personality and a judge. After completing high school, Rabb attended the University of Maryland in 1961. Leaving there in 1963, she went to the Maryland Institute College of Art, earning a B.F.A. in 1966. After moving to Chicago, she attended the Illinois Institute of Technology, earning an M.S. in 1975.

Upon completing her bachelor's degree, Rabb moved to Chicago and took a position with Tuesday Publications as assistant director of art and production. After taking several years off to devote herself to her family and various civic activities, Rabb became the vice president and business manager of Myra Everett Designs in 1977. From there, she went on to Corporate Concierge as an account executive in 1978, and in 1979 she opened Madeline Murphy Rabb Studio, where she created and sold original works. In 1983, Rabb was hired by the city of Chicago to serve as its executive director of fine arts, a position she held for seven years, during which time she heightened the organization's national visibility. After working as a freelance art consultant for a few years, Rabb once again opened her own business, Murphy Rabb, Inc. (MRI), in 1992, where she remains as president. MRI serves corporate, governmental and private clients, helping them conceptualize and build important art collections. Recently, MRI implemented the art program for the John Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County.

Rabb has also traveled the country lecturing, serving on panels and participating in workshops on a wide variety of issues. She is the curator of African American art collections at Ariel Capital Management and Brown Capital Management, and she has served on the Illinois Arts Council, the Folk Art Advisory Committee of the Field Museum of Natural American History, and the Woman's Board of the Museum of Contemporary Art. She has testified before congressional panels on the National Endowment for the Arts and has had her original works published in several books. Rabb has also made several television appearances, including on the Oprah Winfrey Show. Her husband, Dr. Maurice Rabb, passed away in 2005. They have two children.

Accession Number

A2003.248

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/7/2003

Last Name

Rabb

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Murphy

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

University of Maryland

Maryland Institute College of Art

Illinois Institute of Technology

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Madeline

Birth City, State, Country

Wilmington

HM ID

RAB02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Delaware

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere

Favorite Quote

It Will Reveal Itself.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

1/27/1945

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Baby Vegetables

Short Description

Art consultant and curator Madeline Murphy Rabb (1945 - ) owns Murphy Rabb, Inc., an art consulting company. Rabb has also traveled the country lecturing, serving on panels and participating in workshops on a wide variety of issues.

Employment

City of Chicago

Delete

Murphy Rabb, Inc.

Favorite Color

Turquoise

Timing Pairs
0,0:4800,67:5488,76:14538,182:17870,224:18850,237:21104,264:21692,271:22182,277:29532,356:29824,361:30262,368:30554,373:33547,438:33985,445:35007,462:35445,469:37197,510:40426,516:56970,686:58860,734:61650,784:62100,790:66862,813:73099,923:75475,968:77158,995:95264,1285:102102,1346:102540,1353:102832,1358:103854,1375:104292,1383:110205,1512:110716,1521:111519,1534:111884,1540:112176,1545:113271,1562:119586,1610:119958,1618:124939,1662:125542,1674:125877,1681:126614,1694:127083,1702:127887,1718:132214,1787:133574,1819:133982,1826:136090,1873:137246,1894:137858,1905:138266,1912:138946,1925:139218,1930:149870,2028:154570,2063:163590,2158:165130,2189:177320,2352:177620,2358:177920,2363:178595,2373:178970,2380:179270,2385:184398,2433:187322,2547:188002,2559:188274,2564:196058,2660:196695,2669:197150,2675:214190,2854:215450,2875:216080,2886:217130,2903:217550,2910:217970,2917:218390,2925:218810,2932:219440,2942:224711,2995:227844,3021:229120,3031$0,0:4686,26:6942,51:10669,84:11317,93:15601,172:16249,184:16735,193:20785,282:26068,328:27208,348:27892,362:31538,389:35822,432:39242,498:41446,527:41750,532:46236,560:46974,571:51640,631:56536,856:93250,1283:93782,1302:94466,1313:97582,1368:97962,1374:98418,1381:104765,1475:133762,1890:140482,1985:140866,1990:146265,2020:150645,2058:151240,2066:151580,2071:152260,2082:155405,2127:156425,2142:157190,2153:157870,2163:158635,2181:158975,2186:163395,2267:164160,2277:165010,2289:169590,2296:175329,2364:179755,2435:182230,2489:182680,2496:184780,2550:186355,2581:189900,2592:190800,2600:194878,2636:195868,2655:199234,2756:200026,2767:201874,2812:203986,2855:212484,2951:212968,2957:219952,2996:221410,3008
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Madeline Murphy Rabb's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Madeline Murphy Rabb lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Madeline Murphy Rabb talks briefly about her parents' background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Madeline Murphy Rabb describes her maternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Madeline Murphy Rabb describes her paternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Madeline Murphy Rabb describes her mother, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Madeline Murphy Rabb describes her mother, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Madeline Murphy Rabb describes Cherry Hill, her childhood neighborhood in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Madeline Murphy Rabb describes her father

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Madeline Murphy Rabb describes her family's isolation from the black bourgeoisie in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Madeline Murphy Rabb talks about being involved in voter registration drives and taking over her brother's paper route

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Madeline Murphy Rabb describes her childhood personality and interests

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Madeline Murphy Rabb describes her social experience as a student at Eastern High School in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Madeline Murphy Rabb describes her family's frugalness

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Madeline Murphy Rabb describes her academic experience as a student at Eastern High School in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Madeline Murphy Rabb describes her childhood home life

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Madeline Murphy Rabb describes her college application process and attending the University of Maryland in College Park, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Madeline Murphy Rabb talks about transferring to the Maryland Institute College of Art in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Madeline Murphy Rabb talks about canceling her wedding

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Madeline Murphy Rabb describes meeting her husband, HistoryMaker Dr. Maurice F. Rabb

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Madeline Murphy Rabb describes working at Tuesday magazine in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Madeline Murphy Rabb talks about Chicago's African American cultural arts movement in the 1960s and 1970s

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Madeline Murphy Rabb describes selling original artwork at the National Medical Association Annual Convention

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Madeline Murphy Rabb describes experiencing a professional revelation

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Madeline Murphy Rabb talks about hosting a fundraiser for Harold Washington's first mayoral campaign

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Madeline Murphy Rabb describes her appointment to Executive Director of Fine Arts for the City of Chicago

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Madeline Murphy Rabb explains how she gained control of the Public Art Program as Executive Director of Fine Arts for the City of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Madeline Murphy Rabb describes being sued by a community over a controversial artist commission

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Madeline Murphy Rabb talks about the customary exclusion of artists of color from grant funding, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Madeline Murphy Rabb talks about the customary exclusion of artists of color from grant funding, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Madeline Murphy Rabb talks about the elevation of the Department of Cultural Affairs to a cabinet level position

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Madeline Murphy Rabb talks about programming at the Chicago Cultural Center during her tenure as the Executive Director of Fine Arts

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Madeline Murphy Rabb talks about Mayor Harold Washington's involvement in the City of Chicago's cultural affairs

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Madeline Murphy Rabb remembers a collaborative exhibition between the Department of Cultural Affairs and Art Institute of Chicago

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Madeline Murphy Rabb talks about controversy surrounding a Chicago artists' exhibition at the Chicago Cultural Center, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Madeline Murphy Rabb talks about controversy surrounding a Chicago artists' exhibition at the Chicago Cultural Center, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Madeline Murphy Rabb talks about controversy surrounding a Chicago artists' exhibition at the Chicago Cultural Center, pt. 3

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Madeline Murphy Rabb describes the precursor to her private art dealing enterprise

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Madeline Murphy Rabb talks about controversy surrounding a Chicago artists' exhibition at the Chicago Cultural Center, pt. 4

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Madeline Murphy Rabb describes curating an art collection for the John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Madeline Murphy Rabb talks about black-owned art galleries in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Madeline Murphy Rabb explains how an artist gets her attention

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Madeline Murphy Rabb shares her perspective surrounding whether a black aesthetic in art exists

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Madeline Murphy Rabb describes her hopes for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Madeline Murphy Rabb reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Madeline Murphy Rabb talks about 'Mirth & Girth,' a controversial posthumous painting of Mayor Harold Washington

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Madeline Murphy Rabb describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Madeline Murphy Rabb narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

1$4

DATitle
Madeline Murphy Rabb talks about Chicago's African American cultural arts movement in the 1960s and 1970s
Madeline Murphy Rabb talks about hosting a fundraiser for Harold Washington's first mayoral campaign
Transcript
Now you said the political arts movement or what we call the black cultural arts movement is going on--$$Yeah.$$--basically. And when you were painting and--$$Yeah, and while I was political and aware of what was going on, that was not what my life was. I was a middle class woman, married to a physician, not struggling, and my subject matter had to do with things that were familiar to me. I did drawings and a lot of it was sort of social commentary on my middle class environment. I did these drawings about parties that I would go to and I was like an observer sort of observing people and I drew figures and I drew flowers, I did still lifes. And it wasn't the kind of thing that was radical or--but it was authentic and I didn't fit. I really didn't fit and so I was not taken seriously or given the respect.$$Now, are you saying in Chicago [Illinois] in those days if I can understand what's going on here, I know that now a lot of the art that was--the public art especially, the murals and stuff that AfriCOBRA [African Commune of Bad Relevant Artists] was engaged in, Mitchell Canton and [HM] Jeff Donaldson and Calvin Hill and lot of them you know, have been seen in retrospect as being great but during those days here they really making money as artists or gaining notoriety as artists?$$Well, the movement in retrospect yes, became very powerful but the Wall of Respect and all of the mural--that mural movement got a lot of recognition and a lot of respect in those days. But as far as my life was concerned, I think more than not being a part of it, I think my needing or wanting to be part of something I think--when you come out of art school, you have a community of artists around whom you work and so there's this sort of give and take. And when I left art school, I didn't have anyone to really talk to. I didn't fit with the feminists, the white feminist women because my issues were not the same issues as the white feminists, you know and so I didn't fit there. I didn't fit with Afrocentric artists and I had, I struggled but that's not to say I didn't continue to make art. And I got a studio in 1978 on South Michigan Avenue, and I had a studio for twenty years and made art and--but I did find how to get my art out there. So I exhibited--I did--I exhibited at the South Side Community Art Center. That was a very, very welcoming place, very supportive. I served on their board. I worked with the DuSable Museum [of African American History, Chicago, Illinois] and helped raise money for them so I was involved in arts circles but there was always this sort of--and maybe it was I who felt it, but I always sort of felt not taken seriously. Not you know, like oohhh, you know little artiste or little dilettante or you know, and I resented that and it always gnawed at me. And so I continued but there were always these moments during the course of my art making career where I wanted something else. I wanted to earn a pay check. I wanted to go somewhere you know and do something.$And so it was also during that period where Harold Washington was being touted as a possible candidate [for mayor of Chicago, Illinois]. There was a groundswell among the people. He became a people candidate you know, and there's all this energy for voter registration and all of that. And there was something about him that just struck a chord with me and I said I like this man and I became involved in his campaign early on. Artists for Washington, I lent art for the offices, I you know, I campaigned for him. I worked very hard for him and ultimately before the February primary, was so excited about him that I wanted to host a fundraiser. And by that time we lived in Kenwood [Chicago, Illinois]. We had an enormous house at the corner of 48th and Woodlawn. And Beverly Robinson who was married to Max Robinson at the time, and I, decided we were going to do couples. Max Robinson and [HM Dr.] Maurice Rabb and--well Max couldn't get involved in politics and so Maurice said well why don't you and Beverly do it, you know?$$Cause Max was a--$$An ABC Anchor.$$--news anchor for ABC, right.$$Um-hmm. So we did it at my house cause I had--$$He's an artist too.$$Yes.$$(Unclear).$$Yeah. So we did it at my house and you would have been astounded to know at--how--when I started talking to talking to people that I knew, by that time I was involved in the black middle class you know. I was very much a part of it and knew lots of people and called them to tell them what I was doing and said would you like to be part of the committee? And people said, "You know Mad, I think it's a great idea but I don't think I want to put my name on it." I'm saying, Huh? "Well you know if he loses, Jane Byrne is vindictive and you know that--I don't know. We'll help you but we're not going to put our name on the list." So hey, I said, more power to you. We did it. And so we had this fundraiser in my house and we had wall-to-wall people. The black bourgeoisie came out in full force. I--we raised a lot of money for him. And I liked--and I do believe that that was a significant event in that it galvanized--and people for the first time heard him talk. We had [HM] John Conyers [Jr.] there. My son did this wonderful poem about Jane Byrne. It was a wonderful evening and people heard him, touched him, talked to him, listened to him and began to support him. And it was interesting, there was a--and then there were people who were trying to tag on--some of the liberal Jewish community in Hyde Park [Chicago, Illinois], wanted to join in on my fundraiser and I said, no. This is about what it is. And so, I did it because it was the right thing to do and it was something that I felt passionate about and of course looking back at my history of political involvement I hadn't been involved politically in Chicago up until that point because I had left Baltimore [Maryland], I had politics up to here. But suddenly you know this call, this gene kicked in and so, I did it. That was it.