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Lt. Gen. Russel L. Honore

United States Army Lieutenant General (Retired) Russel L. Honoré, was born in 1947 to Udell and Lloyd Honoré in Lakeland, Louisiana. Honoré was the eighth of twelve children. Raised on a subsistence farm in Pointe Coupee Parish, Louisiana, Honoré was taught to value hard work. Honoré attended Southern University and A&M College in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, where he earned his B.S. degree in vocational agriculture. After completing ROTC training at Southern University, Honoré entered the U.S. Army as an Infantry Officer for the United States Army Combat Development Command in 1971.

During his 37 year career in the United States military, Honoré held a variety of positions and served in a number of commanding and supervisory positions, including Instructor at the United States Army Armor School; Commander for the C Company, 4th Battalion, 5th Infantry; and Assistant G-1 (Personnel) for the 1st Infantry Division (Forward), United States Army Europe and Seventh Army. In 1989, Honoré became the commander for the 4th Battalion, 16th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division (Forward) in support of Operations Desert Shield/Storm. Between 1999 and 2000, Honoré served as the Vice Director for Operations for the Joint Staff, where he supported the Department of Defense planning and response for Hurricane Floyd, as well as the United States’ military response to the devastating flooding in Venezuela (1999) and Mozambique (2000).

In 2004, Honoré became the 33rd commanding general of the U.S. First Army at Fort Gillem, Georgia. In this position, Honoré coordinated the U.S. military’s preparedness and response to Hurricane Charley, Frances, Ivan, and Jeanne. When Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast in 2005, Honoré was designated commander of Joint Task Force Katrina. Honoré’s arrival in New Orleans came after what was widely believed to be a poor performance by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Honoré gained media celebrity and accolades for his apparent turning around of the situation in the city as well as his gruff management style which contrasted with what many felt were the empty platitude of civilian officials.

Following his retirement from the military on January 11, 2008, Honoré declared that he would spend the second half of his life committed to creating a culture of preparedness in America. In this regard, Honoré joined The Gallup Organization as a Senior Scientist; the faculties of Emory University’s Rollins School of Public Health and Nell Hodgson School of Nursing. Honoré also served as a CNN Preparedness contributor. Since 2008, Honoré has worked as a public speaker with Keppler Speakers out of Arlington, Virginia. In 2009 he wrote a popular radio segment entitled “Work is a Blessing” for National Public Radio (NPR)’s program, This I Believe. Honoré has published many written works including his 2009 book, Survival: How a Culture of Preparedness Can Save You and Your Family from Disasters and soon to be published, War Stories: Leadership in the New Normal.

Honoré is the recipient of numerous military and civilian awards, including six honorary doctorates from schools such as Stillman College and the United States Army War College. He received the 2006 NAACP Humanitarian Award, National Newspaper Publishers Association Newsmaker of the Year Award; Defense Distinguished Service Medal; and Army Distinguished Service Medal; as well as Keys to the City for Chrisholm, Minnesota, Riverdale, Georgia, St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana, and New Orleans, Louisiana.

Honoré lives in Baton Rouge, Louisiana with his wife Beverly.

Russel Honoré was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 29, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.091

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/29/2012

Last Name

Honore

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

L.

Organizations
Schools

Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Troy University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Russel

Birth City, State, Country

Lakeland

HM ID

HON01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

Home

Favorite Quote

Ignorance can be fixed, stupidity is for life.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Louisiana

Birth Date

9/15/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Baton Rouge

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Gumbo

Short Description

Lieutenant general (retired) Lt. Gen. Russel L. Honore (1947 - ) is an expert on emergency preparedness and is widely credited for turning around the U.S. government’s response to Hurricane Katrina as the commander of Joint Task Force Katrina.

Employment

United States Army

Gallup Organization

Emory University

Vanderbilt University

Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
0,0:2186,37:4945,86:5301,91:24786,287:43780,420:54418,596:61826,672:62722,681:63170,686:67594,728:71546,793:74770,830:78600,851:116155,1201:120050,1242:120410,1247:137136,1435:176485,1714:178430,1846:183880,1892:189378,1999:189768,2093:242130,2545:249929,2621:254128,2759:260902,2829:275790,3001$0,0:1056,54:12232,299:17424,400:31992,527:38157,683:38696,798:40159,827:51168,998:52473,1017:54300,1043:56040,1096:61018,1145:61508,1151:62194,1159:63174,1172:67006,1199:67638,1209:110286,1627:114720,1683:117576,1697:117928,1702:119512,1729:144657,1955:164688,2227:173622,2276:186753,2439:192580,2519:198828,2633:223848,3055:227713,3085:239190,3228:246192,3318:283251,3764:291736,3867:294578,3932:310630,4151:311470,4166:322103,4286:322751,4296:323430,4301
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Lieutenant General Russel Honore's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore describes his family's Creole culture

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore talks about his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore talks about floods in Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore talks about his father

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore talks about his parents

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore talks about his siblings and his household

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore describes his earliest memory growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore talks about his grade school

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore talks about the differences between Creoles and African Americans

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore describes the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore talks about his involvement in the 4-H Club

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore talks about his involvement in 4-H during high school

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore talks about his lack of athletic ability

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore describes the mentors who directed him towards college

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore describes why he chose to attend Southern University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore talks about his high school peers

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore talks about his leadership in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore talks about his grandfather

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore describes working for his cousin while at Southern University pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore describes working for his cousin while at Southern University pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore talks about how he came to own a horse during college

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore talks about his cousin Raymond Honore

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore talks about Dr. Booker T. Whatley at Southern University

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore talks about his ROTC teachers at Southern University

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore talks about his mentors at Southern University

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore talks about Felton G. Clark pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore talks about Felton G. Clark pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore talks about the sit-ins at Southern University

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore describes his time in the ROTC at Southern University

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore talks about the Vietnam War

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Lieutenant General Russel Honore describes why he chose a career in the Army

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$5

DAStory

3$5

DATitle
Lieutenant General Russel Honore talks about the sit-ins at Southern University
Lieutenant General Russel Honore talks about the Vietnam War
Transcript
Do you kind of reflect on that time, from time to time, and about how that, you know, this crisis--?$$Oh, yeah. I mean, let's say we go from-- We had a ROTC [Reserve Officers' Training Corp] student got shot. I mean, this was right across from the ROTC building. I think I was on my first assignment when I read about this in the paper. The students were doing a sit-in at the old Administration Building, and they said, "We got to break this sit-in up." So the college police went there and the sheriff came in, and they said, "You know we got people shot over a sit-in on campus." I was already in the Army, and that was--that was pretty disturbing.$$I think two students were shot, what, in 1970?$$Right.$$On campus.$$That was most unfortunate.$$There was a mysterious-- They never found who shot them or never been an arrest.$$So, I mean, those things left an indelible mark on the university. I remember being in my dorm and again, from a sit-in, the sheriff come in, you could see the scenario. They got these old armored cars, and they had these gas masks on, and you go from a sit-in to damn near a riot where people shooting--with them shooting tear gas and running people down the street, dogs running after them. And in many cases it was over a sit-in. And they said, "Power to People." And that was most disturbing. I always remember that one, right there on the campus. People running and--to get away from that tear gas, and closing my window and hunkering down in my-- Two hours later, you never knew it happened but other than a few sheriff cars around.$$When you look back on that, do you think they could have--the authorities could have handled it a different way?$$Oh, yeah. I didn't (unclear), I think both sides got what they wanted or thought they got what they wanted, because people in our community say that the only way, if it takes me sacrificing myself for this movement [Civil Rights Movement] in that the police may, who think they're doing the right thing and coming in with overwhelming force to break up a sit-in, that at the end of the day, that truth will be on our side, that we were sitting in for basic inalienable rights promised to us by the Declaration of Independence, that history will be on our side. On the other hand, the police in their own historical way of using force, say, "No, you cannot assemble, you do not have a permit to be here, and we're just going to beat the hell out of you until you leave or put you in jail." And, you know, it's almost like we bred that in the police forces, 'cause they have a tendency to go back, right to that jungle rule, that soon as something happen, break out the batons, get the sticks out and start beating the hell out of people. And I'm speaking that as a generality, 'cause I know not every police department think that way, but it seem to be a representation of many of them, because we have never come to grips with how our law enforcement deal with civil disobedience in this country.$There weren't that many voices in the black community that, you know, came out against the war [Vietnam War], but I know, in '67 [1967] or so, Dr. [Martin Luther] King [Jr.] came out against it.$$Yeah, he did.$$And was, you know, criticized by the [President Lyndon B.] Johnson Administration, "How could he betray his country by speaking out against the Vietnam War?" But there are a lot of people that thought that the war was--$$Yeah, going on too long.$$--yeah, in a way, you know--(unclear) (simultaneous).$$I mean, back then that was the longest war we ever participated in, and they weren't going nowhere.$$Yeah, for right reasons, we weren't there for the right reasons and that sort of thing, you know.$$Yeah.$$And so, did you have to--. I mean, did you have any--what were--. In those days, so you--. How did you feel about it in those days? Were you following that critique of it or did you--.$$No. Certainly, I was aware of the critique and--$$Aside from the heckling aspect that people--.$$Right.$$That kind of thing is one thing, but the critique of it, by, I mean, like, Dr. King.$$Yeah. No, I mean, again, it's one of the first lessons that, at the national and global issue, there are many ways to look at the appreciation of the problem we face. The more global, the more international we get, it becomes more complex. And there are no simple answers. I mean, we went in to Vietnam with all the right reasons. Our fear of Communist exploitation, and what was then identified as a domino effect in Asia. Well, you know, fifty thousand troops later, we still, you know, what's going on? This is not changing. And you got an endless flow of troops out of China who, at that time, was a kingmaker, and still is today, and who's a part of the National Security Council on what they will and will not support. And, through a restraining, a lot of people who did not want this to escalate to a nuclear event between China and the U.S. and Russia, we needed to get out of Vietnam. And I think those voices of discontent about staying there had an influence on the government, which is about the way a democracy is supposed to work. The people speak and the government can get in the war, but it's the people that force them out. We'll always find a reason to stay.$$Okay. And we're in two wars now, war one just ended and this--$$Right. It's going to the people that get us out of Afghanistan, because there's always folks who, "Oh, just give us two more years," and many of them are folks that come from the same cut of cloth I come from. "Give us two more years, get a few more billion dollars." But there come a time that each one of these things has got to be over with.$$Okay.$$And I think, in a positive way, Dr. King helped influence that movement that it was time to leave Vietnam.$$As a soldier--a soldier has to think a little bit differently about the war, right? I mean (unclear)(simultaneous).$$Yeah, because your mission is to fight it. I mean, your mission is to win it. It's to fight and win, that's your mission. And there's nothing short of fighting and winning. And that's why we exist. And, even though there may be discontent as there's always discontent with war. And there was discontent among Americans over even fighting the Revolutionary War against the British. There are people who are content say, "Yeah, well, King George the Third, you know, he's a nice guy, and the fact that we can't vote and we've got to pay tax; no big deal, you know. We're doing all right." But to the little guy, it's a big problem. And so, there is--there's always both sides of the story. In this particular case, I think with the impact television had on that war [Vietnam War], which we hadn't had on any war in history before or seen those guys coming off the battlefield every day and put on helicopters, I think that influenced American people significantly. And then so many people served in Vietnam; 'cause you had the draft, and then they'd come in for eighteen months, your six months' training, go to Vietnam, come back in two years, they home. So, we had a lot of people serve in Vietnam because of the draft. And they would go for one tour and come back and go home. So, we generated a lot of veterans from Vietnam as a result of that.

The Honorable Charles Z. Smith

Retired Justice of the Washington Supreme Court and prosecutor for the United States Department of Justice, Charles Zellender Smith was born on February 23, 1927, in Lakeland, Florida. Son of John R. Smith, Sr., a Cuban immigrant, and Eva Love Smith, he attended school in Franklin, North Carolina at age three, Washington Park School in Lakeland and Hungerford School in Maitland, Florida. Mentored by Dr. William H. Gray, Jr., President of Florida A&M College, he served as Gray’s administrative assistant. From 1945 to 1946, Smith served in the United States Army as a court reporter. He later joined the Gray family in Philadelphia attending Temple University, where he earned his B.S. degree in 1952. Smith then moved to Seattle, Washington, where he entered the University of Washington Law School. He was one of four minority students in a class of 120. He was the only African American or person of color in the graduating class. While in law school, Smith met Hawaii-born Eleanor Martinez, whom he married in 1955.

After graduating from law school, Smith served as a law clerk for Supreme Court Justice Matthew W. Hill. From 1956 to 1960, he served as a Deputy Prosecuting Attorney for King County. In 1961, Smith was recruited by U.S. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy to join his staff. Smith’s assistance was sought by the Attorney General in investigating mismanagement of the Central States Teamsters Pension Fund. He led a team conducting grand juries around the country, culminating in indictment and successful prosecution of James R. Hoffa and five business men for mail fraud and wire fraud in the Northern District of Illinois in 1964.

In 1965, Smith returned to Seattle where he became the first African American or person of color to become a judge in the State of Washington, being appointed as Judge of the Seattle Municipal Court. In 1966, again as a “first,” he was appointed to the King County Superior Court and subsequently reelected unopposed until he left the court in 1973. Also, in 1973, Smith was appointed Professor of Law and Associate Dean at the University of Washington Law School where he served until his retirement in 1986. Later in 1973 Smith was commissioned in the United States Marine Corps Reserve where he served in the Judge Advocate Division as a military judge until his retirement as a Lieutenant Colonel in 1986.

Smith served as President of the American Baptist Churches, USA in 1976 and 1977 and participated with the National Inter-religious Task Force on Soviet Jewry. He served as a delegate to Task Force follow-up conferences in Rome, Italy, Belgrade, Yugoslavia and Madrid, Spain.

On July 18, 1988, Smith became the first African American or person of color to serve on the Washington Supreme Court. He served three terms retiring in 2002. In 1999, he was appointed by President William J. Clinton to the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom, created by Congress to monitor the status of freedom of thought, conscience and belief abroad. In 2001, the Student Bar Association at the University of Washington Law School established the Charles Z. Smith Public Service Scholarship. He received the Distinguished Service Award from the National Center for State Courts in 2004 and was honored by Pioneer Human Services in Seattle with naming of one of its low cost housing properties as the Chares Z. Smith House.

Smith lived in Seattle, Washington with his wife, Eleanor Martinez. The couple had four adult children and six grandchildren.

Accession Number

A2007.308

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/3/2008 |and| 6/4/2008 |and| 10/27/2007

Last Name

Smith

Middle Name

Z.

Schools

Washington Park School

Robert Hungerford Industrial School

Temple University

Florida Memorial University

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

Washington University School of Law

National Judicial College

Naval Justice School

First Name

Charles

Birth City, State, Country

Lakeland

HM ID

SMI21

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Truth, Justice And Freedom.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Washington

Birth Date

2/23/1927

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Seattle

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chocolate

Death Date

8/28/2016

Short Description

Federal government appointee, law professor, and state supreme court judge The Honorable Charles Z. Smith (1927 - 2016 ) was the first African American to serve on the State of Washington's Supreme Court. In addition to holding this Washington Supreme Court position from 1988 until his retirement in 2002, Justice Smith was also known for serving on the staff of U.S. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, and being appointed to the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom by President William J. Clinton.

Employment

Municipal Court of Seattle

Washington Supreme Court

U.S. Army

King County Prosecuting Attorney's Office

U.S. Department of Justice

King County Superior Court

University of Washington School of Law

U.S. Marine Corps

Favorite Color

Orange

Timing Pairs
0,0:680,26:3570,72:46056,704:48516,716:49462,730:51784,756:57718,836:58062,841:58406,846:73750,968:78070,1024:78550,1031:81190,1060:82310,1078:83030,1089:94007,1206:106842,1338:109520,1371:174598,2302:189876,2414:219876,2732:220578,2743:222138,2760:223386,2786:228300,2884:228612,2889:238892,3007:246823,3154:247516,3164:269972,3443:270752,3454:276580,3483$0,0:1428,31:1764,36:10668,219:52860,728:56470,772:57990,792:58560,805:95730,1165:96318,1172:96990,1180:105390,1291:105726,1296:113450,1361:144030,1811:155382,1934:155772,1940:233694,2902:234773,2928:239670,3009:241745,3041:264968,3297:265472,3304:285068,3490:286212,3505:286652,3511:315310,3886:315926,3894:325062,3968:331038,4066:356170,4364
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Charles Z. Smith's interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes the race relations in Franklin, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about his mother's formal education

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about his mother's move to Lakeland, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about the origin of his father's name

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about his father's education

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his early education

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his early musical interests

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about his sisters' radio show on WLAK Radio in Lakeland, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls attending Robert Hungerford Normal and Industrial School in Eatonville, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers meeting William H. Gray, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his decision to study law

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about his academic accomplishments

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers enlisting in the U.S. Army

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his experiences in the U.S. Army

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about his discharge from the U.S. Army

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about why he moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his study of group dynamics at Temple University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers applying for law school

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about his admittance to the University of Washington School of Law

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his experiences in Olympia, Washington

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls meeting his wife, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls meeting his wife, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his position as a deputy prosecuting attorney in King County, Washington

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about Washington's criminal justice system

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers prosecuting drug related cases

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his experiences with racial discrimination

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls being recruited by Robert F. Kennedy

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about Dave Beck and the International Brotherhood of Teamsters

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes the feud between Robert F. Kennedy and Jimmy Hoffa

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes the reasoning behind Jimmy Hoffa's pardon

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls the Jimmy Hoffa case he tried in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes the tensions between J. Edgar Hoover and Robert F. Kennedy

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers J. Edgar Hoover

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his appointment to the Municipal Court of Seattle

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his role in decriminalizing public intoxication, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his role in decriminalizing public intoxication, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his appointment to the King County Superior Court

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers a murder case he presided over in the King County Superior Court, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers a murder case he presided over in the King County Superior Court, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes the sentencing criteria in the State of Washington

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his cases while serving on the King County Superior Court

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about Seattle's discriminatory housing practices, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about Seattle's discriminatory housing practices, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his further judicial studies and education

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his judicial appointment in the U.S. Marine Corps

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers one of his U.S. Marine Corps cases

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about the differences between civilian and military courts

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his teaching schedule at the University of Washington School of Law

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about the University District Defender Services clinical program

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his work as a commentator on KOMO Radio and KOMO-TV

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his television segments on KOMO-TV in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his work on the Juvenile Justice Standards Commission

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about the enforcement of constitutional rights for juveniles

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes the juvenile courts in the State of Washington

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls one of his juvenile court cases

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith shares his stance on incarceration

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about Gary Ridgway's trial

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers one of his King County Superior Court cases

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes the American Baptist Churches USA

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about the memberships of Baptist churches in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes the National Interreligious Task Force on Soviet Jewry

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his involvement with various Washington task forces

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers his appointment to the Washington Supreme Court

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his tenure on the Washington Supreme Court

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his experiences with discrimination in the Washington Supreme Court, pt. 1

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his experiences with discrimination in the Washington Supreme Court, pt. 2

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about his colleagues at the Washington Supreme Court

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith remembers the executive committee of the Washington Supreme Court

Tape: 11 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith reflects upon his status in the Washington Supreme Court

Tape: 11 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about the civil rights leaders in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 11 Story: 7 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference protests

Tape: 12 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith reflects upon his judicial career

Tape: 12 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about the importance of community programs

Tape: 12 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 12 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith talks about his family

Tape: 12 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

2$2

DATape

8$10

DAStory

8$6

DATitle
The Honorable Charles Z. Smith describes his work on the Juvenile Justice Standards Commission
The Honorable Charles Z. Smith recalls his tenure on the Washington Supreme Court
Transcript
Seventy-three [1973], you also served as co-chairperson of the Juvenile Justice Standards commission [IJA/ABA Joint Commission on Juvenile Justice Standards]. Now, that's, that sounds very important and, with the juvenile court over a hundred--we were talking about it before we started--$$Yeah.$$--doing this interview.$$Well, my background had included service in the juvenile court. When I was on the King County Superior Court, I was assigned on rotation to the juvenile court. So I had a background in juvenile courts. The American Bar Association and the Institute of Judicial Administration [New York, New York] had foundation grants to conduct an extensive study on juvenile practices. And I was initially a member of the commission, and through a transition of changes, I became co-chairperson of the, of the commission in the last five years of its existence. But we conducted studies. We hired researchers to do studies, but we had meetings of lawyers--the commission consisted of lawyers, judges, psychiatrists, social workers. And we would have a meeting somewhere around the country every three months. And all of this was, you know, developed and cataloged, and over a period of about--that started in '73 [1973]. Nineteen seventy-eight [1978] we published thirty-seven volumes of books on juvenile court practices. It was initially published by Ballinger Publishing [Ballinger Publishing Company] in Boston [Massachusetts]. And it was circulated throughout the country. And the Ballinger company was going to destroy the printing plates and the American Bar Association purchased the printing plates. So back in those days, we had printing plates. So it has been republishing, and since 1978, there is a current version of those juvenile justice standards, thirty-seven volumes. I, I pulled off the shelf a copy of it to give you some idea of what the volumes were like. But it's not necessary for this particular interview, but after it, I'll show you what it amounted to. But they sort of set the tone for creating a new approach to the treatment of juveniles and particularly, after a case called In re Gault [In re Gault, 1967], G-A-U-L-T where the United States Court of Appeals in the District of Columbia [U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit] had a ruling that indicated that juveniles are entitled to constitutional rights. And up until that time, juveniles were not entitled to constitutional rights. And in the Gault case, very simply, Gerald Gault was charged with disorderly conduct for making an obscene telephone call to a neighbor woman. He was charged with a felony in Arizona. He went before the judge, and the judge says, you don't need to deny it. I know you did it. You're guilty and sentenced him to detention in the juvenile system until he reached the age of twenty-one years. And Gerald Gault then was sixteen years old. That case was appealed by a volunteer lawyer who took it all the way to the United States Supreme Court, and they ended up saying that juveniles had a constitutional right. And that changed the tone of juvenile courts throughout the country. And so the Juvenile Justice Standards commission was sort of using the Gault case as a platform for saying we have to do things differently now than we have been doing it in the past. And so that's what the Juvenile Justice Standards commission was, and we completed our work in 1978, published our materials and the commission itself went out of existence.$So what were the highlights of your term on the supreme court of the State of Washington [Washington Supreme Court]? And I don't know if that's the best way to ask it, but what happened there? What were the significant events, I guess, for you?$$Well, the--it's, again, an interesting thing. I was on the court for fourteen years, and I wrote 350 opinions. And the most--and I cannot remember any particular one. You know, if someone called one to my attention, I would remember, but the collegiality on the court, we have nine justices on the supreme court, and you either get along with them or you don't get along with them because everything is done by group. All opinions are based upon the consensus of the group, so that even though I might write an opinion, and I recommend it to the others, they have to vote on it. And if I write an opinion and we take a vote on it, if I get five votes, then that becomes the court's opinion. But if I don't get five votes, it shifts. And it's not my opinion anymore. But the--it's sort of like, I guess, a fencing game. It's parry right, parry left, and you touche and you (laughter), you win your point by scoring. And with a supreme court such as ours and most supreme courts operate in the same way, it's a matter of intellectually convincing your colleagues of a position that you take on a particular case. Our cases are preassigned. And so at the beginning of a term, I knew, which cases were assigned to me, but they weren't assigned to me because of background. They're randomly assigned. Someone in the clerk's office pulls a, literally pulls a name out of a hat and says, this goes to Smith [HistoryMaker Charles Z. Smith], this goes to this person, this goes to that person, so that at the beginning of a term, I would get my assigned cases. So I had two judicial clerks, law clerks who worked with me doing the research, reading everything relating to the case, the briefs and other documents and things like that. Then I would prepare a presentence report, which was distributed to the other judges prior to the hearing. And then we would have the hearing where the lawyers would appear. And then we would go into recess to consider a case based upon the prehearing memorandum, prepared by the judge responsible for the case and the arguments presented by counsel. And then a recommendation is made for a result, and then the vote is taken. The chief justice presides over those meetings. So that's the way it would go. I found that, that experience was a good experience. I had some non-good experiences on the supreme court, but it had nothing to do with the routine process. And I have threatened to write a book called 'The Dark Side of the Temple,' and the Temple of Justice [Olympia, Washington] is where our supreme court is located. And the word dark has many meanings. I'm not white. Therefore, I am dark. As the junior justice on the court, I was assigned the worst courtroom, worst chambers in the building, next to the helicopter pad, and little things would happen. And then there was a cabal, C-A-B-A-L, against me from five of the nine justices, the chief justice and four of the others on a committee that ostensibly was based on seniority. And I had seniority over two of the people (laughter) in the group. But they were making decisions that affected me, and, and I chose not to make an issue of it while I was on the court and decided after I retired I would write a book. But I haven't had the time, energy nor inclination to begin writing the book yet. But when I write the book, I will tell of the negative experiences I had on the court. But--and they had nothing to do with race, which is very interesting. And I think it had to do with, one, my credentials, and two, my arrogance. I, I never took a second seat to anyone from an intellectual standpoint, and nobody on the court had my credentials. The highest ranking [U.S.] military person on our court was a first lieutenant in the Second World War [World War II, WWII]. And none of them had been law professors, and I was a full tenured law professor (laughter). And so I came to the court with a lot of credentials. My international activities, all those other things were unique in the sense that compared to other members on the court, who were provincial. And so these things created an atmosphere of resentment against me.

Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray

Reverend Cecil L. Murray was born on September 26, 1929, in Lakeland, Florida, to Janie Belle Williams Murray and Edward Wilder Murray, Sr. Murray’s mother passed away when he was only four years old; he would be raised by his father who was devastated by his wife’s untimely passing. Growing up in the segregated South, Murray, his father, and his brother experienced profound racism firsthand.

Murray earned his undergraduate degree from Florida A&M University, but joined the United States Air Force after graduation where he served during the Korean War as a jet radar intercept officer in the Air Defense Command, and as a navigator in the Air Transport Command. Murray retired as a reserve major in 1958, after ten years, and was decorated with a Soldier’s Medal of Valor. After Murray left the U.S. Air Force, he attended the School of Theology at Claremont College in California, where he earned his Ph.D. degree in religion.

Murray’s first church was in Pomona, California, where he helped grow a congregation of just twelve members to a group of 150. Murray later served at Trinity A.M.E. in Kansas City from 1966 to 1971; the First African Methodist Episcopal (FAME) Church in Seattle; and Los Angeles’ FAME Church in 1977, after Bishop H.H. Brookins recruited him to join. Under Murray, the congregation grew from several hundred members in 1977, to roughly 18,000.

Murray became a nationally known figure in the wake of the 1992 Los Angeles riots; he also became actively involved in the issues of job-training, homeowner loans, affordable housing, condom distribution, and HIV/AIDS awareness. Murray started FAME Renaissance, a non-profit organization that focused on economic development.

Murray retired as Senior Pastor from the FAME church on September 25, 2004. In 2005, Murray became a senior fellow at the Center for Religion and Civic Culture (CRCC) and continues to work as a liaison to the Los Angeles area, and to African American and Latino constituents. Murray also works on the Passing the Mantle project, which aimed to train clergy from African American churches across California in effective community development and organizing skills.

Accession Number

A2005.225

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/3/2005 |and| 3/28/2006

Last Name

Murray

Maker Category
Middle Name

L. "Chip"

Schools

U.B. Kinsey/Palm View Elementary School for the Arts

Claremont School of Theology

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

First Name

Cecil

Birth City, State, Country

Lakeland

HM ID

MUR08

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Pacific Ocean

Favorite Quote

I Know That God's Tomorrow Will Be Better Than Today.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

9/26/1929

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Ox Tails, Rice

Short Description

Community activist and pastor Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray (1929 - ) served as senior pastor of the First African Methodist Episcopal Church in Los Angeles from 1977 to 2004.

Employment

Trinity AME Church

First A.M.E Church

University of Southern California

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray describes his mother's upbringing in Hemingway, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray describes his father, Edward Murray, Sr.

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray describes his family

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray describes growing up during the Great Depression

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray describes his father's occupation

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray remembers working on his maternal family's farm

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray recalls race relations in his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray describes his education in Florida and South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray remembers his influential teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray remembers Ulysses Bradshaw Kinsey and HistoryMaker Bernard Kinsey

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray recalls his favorite school subjects

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray describes his family's education

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray describes his time at West Palm Beach's Industrial High School

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray remembers wanting to be a preacher

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray remembers deciding to join the ministry, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray remembers deciding to join the ministry, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray recalls being a Boy Scout

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray recalls attending college on a scholarship

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray describes Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray remembers meeting his wife, Bernardine Cousin Murray

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray recalls attending Southern California School of Theology

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray remembers pastoring in Pomona, California

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray remembers the Civil Rights Movement in Pomona, California

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray recalls working at Trinity AME Church in Kansas City, Kansas

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray remembers working at First AME Church in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray gives the history of the African Methodist Episcopal Church

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray explains why Jesus Christ was African

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray recalls displaying images of Jesus Christ as an African

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray describes the community outreach of Los Angeles' First AME Church

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray remembers founding FAME Renaissance

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray remembers the 1992 Los Angeles Riots

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray recalls the private sector's support for his programs

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray describes his work at University of Southern California, Los Angeles

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray describes his hopes for future generations

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray describes the theologians who influenced him

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray remembers Malcolm X

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray reflects upon his philosophical influences

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray shares his message to America

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$5

DAStory

1$2

DATitle
Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray remembers founding FAME Renaissance
Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray remembers the 1992 Los Angeles Riots
Transcript
Reverend Murray [HistoryMaker Reverend Cecil L. "Chip" Murray] throughout your life you're known as a teacher, not only just a minister, but a very important teacher, especially in this community. And, of course, during the riots, not the first riots but the first following--$$Ninety-two [1992].$$King's death [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.]; the assassination. Tell us how you came to that position and why you wanted to make your church [First African Methodist Episcopal Church (FAME), Los Angeles, California] such an important element. We saw you every night on 'Nightline.' And, for the first time some of the truth got out of what was really going on. We saw the president of the United States--$$Yes.$$--come over and so forth. Tell us, how you came to that philosophy that you wanted the people, you wanted to educated, sensitize the people of Los Angeles [California].$$I think when the civil unrest of 1992 broke out, we were in place to do whatever good was done. Because we'd had fifteen years of steadily building, the machinery was there. A Skid Row ministry, a men's ministry, a business development ministry, a housing ministry, a youth ministry, an AIDS [acquired immunodeficiency syndrome] ministry because AIDS was decimating our people at the time. We sent out kits to all of the black churches and some of them were utterly offended that those kits condamed--contained condoms. And, we were saying, "Whatever happens abstinence is number one. But, if you can't abstain it at least protect by using this condom." Some of them sent them back. One gentleman came from a prominent church and in the midst of our worship he stood up and said, he's a prophet and we're all going to hell for sending those--he call them condos, to the churches. And, soon he, he went on out and we went on with, with church. But, the ministries needed to be there. Substance abuse ministry because in the '60s [1960s] and the '70s [1970s] drugs infused our community. At first it was the white community with powder cocaine but it was so expensive, we couldn't afford it. And, then when it was watered down and made sellable, the white marketers sent it into the black communities and the drugs began killing our people and we began killing each other. Then, in the '80s [1980s] and the '90s [1990s] weapons came into our community. And, then in 2000s negative imaging; the DVDs and CDs where we were painting a poor picture of black people. So, the black industry had to be there in the church. We had to do something about the negative imaging. We had to do something about the poverty of pocket so that we formulated FAME Renaissance, an economic development component. That ultimately would let us go and hire 180 people in the church totality. And, to have an inventory of about $60 million in properties and evaluations and a budget of about $13, $14, $15 million a year.$So we were in place [in Los Angeles, California]. We had been meeting with the mayor [Tom Bradley] for about a week to two weeks before the blowup came. We had been getting ready in the event the jury comes in with a negative verdict. We would send twenty men to twenty different locales. Your jobs is to keep the peace there. You job is to keep the people under control. Otherwise, this might be explosive. The night we were in First AME [First African Methodist Episcopal Church (FAME), Los Angeles, California] as a community meeting, the night of the verdict is the night we were ready to go out to the sites we had allotted. We were all different denominations and all. When we got the word that the city was on fire, and, walking out of the church quickly, you would look on the horizon and see it was like Dante's Inferno, fires were everywhere. And, crowds were everywhere. So, it was too late to implement that situation that we planned. And, now we had to go into damage control. I remember the men of the church coming together, it was some two hundred that were willing to go with us. We went down to Adams Boulevard where there were about 150 young street fellows and they were intimidating the firemen who were there to put out the fires. Included was the African American life insurance company right there on Adams--$$Golden State [Golden State Mutual Life Insurance Company].$$And Western, Golden State. And, their wall was burning. And, we promised the firemen, if you would continue, we will protect you. So, they formed a double line, those two hundred brothers and they bounced back and forth between the gangs, them, a line of police were behind us. And, they, they really wanted to attack the crowds. But, we said that would only inflate it, if we could. So, we tried to keep them and the firemen working. We went from 10:00 P.M. that night 'til about 2:00 P.M.--a--2:00 A.M. the next morning, and the fires were out, the gangs had dispersed and we were able to go. Then it was a matter of going to those families that were burned out, bring them in to the plaza level of the church, feeding, clothing when necessary, housing temporarily until the Red Cross [American Red Cross] units came in. And, they just about took everybody. A couple of weeks later all were gone. And, we were able then to go into emergency feeding, working with families in the communities for a couple of years.

Floretta Dukes McKenzie

Floretta McKenzie has a distinguished record of more than forty years of service to education as both a school administrator and educational consultant. Born in Lakeland, Florida, on August 19, 1935, she went on to earn her B.A. degree from D.C. Teachers College in 1956 and her M.Ed. degree from Howard University in 1957 before beginning her career as a teacher in Maryland. McKenzie later rose through the Washington, D.C., school system and became deputy superintendent in 1973. In 1974, she returned to Maryland and was hired as area assistant superintendent for Montgomery County Public Schools. McKenzie worked for the U.S. Department of Education as a deputy assistant secretary in the Office of School Improvement, managing fifteen federal education discretionary programs and initiatives. She also served as the U.S. delegate to the UNESCO General Conference in Yugoslavia.

In 1981, McKenzie returned to D.C. Public Schools as the superintendent of schools and chief state school officer. In this capacity, she oversaw the country's twenty-first-largest school system, managing 89,000 students, 13,000 employees and a $400 million budget. Under her leadership, the district established several public and private partnerships to improve instructional programs and district management. McKenzie also oversaw the implementation of the Five-Year Computer Literacy Plan, one of the country's first long-range programs for integrating technology into the public school curriculum.

McKenzie left her position in 1988 to form her own company, The McKenzie Group, an educational consulting firm. She served as its first president until 1997, when she became the company's chairperson. The McKenzie Group specializes in educational management and planning.

McKenzie served on several boards of directors, including the National Geographic Society, Marriott International, the White House Historical Association, Howard University and the Johns Hopkins Leadership Development Program. She also lectured in the American University's Graduate School of Education.

Floretta McKenzie passed away on March 23, 2015 at the age of 79.

Accession Number

A2003.253

Sex

Female

Interview Date

9/12/2003

Last Name

McKenzie

Maker Category
Middle Name

Dukes

Organizations
Schools

Paul Laurence Dunbar High School

University of the District of Columbia

Howard University

First Name

Floretta

Birth City, State, Country

Lakeland

HM ID

MCK04

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Solomons Island, Maryland

Favorite Quote

I'm Doing The Best I Can.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

8/19/1935

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken

Death Date

3/23/2015

Short Description

School superintendent and education consultant Floretta Dukes McKenzie (1935 - 2015 ) oversaw Public Schools of the District of Columbia from 1981 to 1988 before founding The McKenzie Group, an educational consulting firm.

Employment

District of Columbia Public Schools

Montgomery County Public Schools

United States Department of Education

McKenzie Group

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Floretta Dukes McKenzie's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie names her parents

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes her mother's family background and how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes her maternal grandfather's value for education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie talks about her family's relationship with Mary McLeod Bethune

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes the sights, sounds, and smells of her childhood in Lakeland, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie talks about her paternal grandparents' medical practice

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes her father's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes her experience at Washington Park Elementary School

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie talks about her childhood interests in geography and social science

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie talks about playing trombone in the Washington Park High School marching band

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie talks about her childhood involvement in the church

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes her father's relationship with Mary McLeod Bethune

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes moving from Lakeland, Florida to Washington D.C. in her senior year of high school

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes the sociopolitical climate of America in 1952 Washington D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes her decision to attend the District of Columbia Teachers College

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes earning a graduate fellowship at Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes her graduate school experience at Howard University, in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie lists notable professors at Howard University in 1956

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie talks about visiting the Howard Theatre in the 1950s

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie talks about Howard University's role in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie talks about teaching in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes the issues she observed as a teacher and administrator in the Washington, D.C. public school system

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie talks about civil rights activity in 1963 Washington D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie talks about Washington, D.C.'s role in civil rights organizing during the 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes her career in public school administration, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes her career in public school administration, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie talks about leaving the public school system to start an education consulting firm

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie considers what changes could help improve urban school districts

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie remembers lessons as an administrator in an urban school district

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie talks about her hopes and concerns for the black community

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

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DATape

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DAStory

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DATitle
Floretta Dukes McKenzie describes her career in public school administration, pt. 1
Floretta Dukes McKenzie talks about leaving the public school system to start an education consulting firm
Transcript
Well tell, tell me about your career as a school administrator. Now you, you went back to school at a certain point.$$Well--$$Well you started administrating before you--$$Yeah, yeah I was teaching and heard about TRIO Program looking for a director and I was already a counselor at a high school, getting kids into college and getting financial aid, so I did that for a while. Then I decided that maybe after about three years of that, my place--I could better serve by being in school systems, so I came back to the school system, applied for a job as a, an exec in the secondary school office. Had never been a principal, but got the job supervising principals. Stayed in that for maybe a year, turned over to superintendent, I became an Executive Assistant to the new superintendent who was Hugh Scott from Detroit [Michigan]. And Hugh had a, a kind of--it was a rocky time with the board and, and he decided to make me a deputy superintendent. I was about thirty-three then. And I accepted. Then Hugh decided that he was tired of the battles with the board and accepted a position at Hunter College [New York City, New York], and recommended me to be acting superintendent, about thirty-three, thirty-four. And I accepted and I was a ninety day wonder. I managed the school district, opened schools and all. And they were doing a superintendent search. And [HM] Marion Barry had--was president of the school board. So Marion said, "Flo, why don't you compete for superintendent? You're doing a good job." I said you guys will eat me up and spit me out in the little time. I said I don't have enough experience, you know, I didn't have enough grounding. I didn't think I was ready, so I refused to be considered. And then Barbara Sizemore was selected, and I became her deputy superintendent because I knew the system and generally could get things done. And one thing, an op--I was an operations type. You know getting things done, getting books and you know people, and so I still didn't feel that I had enough experience to be at the level that I'd managed to, to get to. So folks in Montgomery County had been talking to me about coming over there. And so they were--every position they would have, they'd call and say you interested in this? And finally they offered me a, a regional superintendent's job, assistant superintendent. So I took my career from a deputy superintendent, number two, to about number three job over in Montgomery County [Maryland] 'cause I did hear that one of the board members had said that you--that we wouldn't have these positions, African Americans, if we weren't working in a blue, a black system. So I said I don't believe that's true; I think I'm pretty good. And if I'm--you know I've got to go and test it. And if I'm not good, you know, I'm just not good. But I need to go and find out if I am. So I accepted the job in Montgomery County. And served very successfully running schools there. So much so until it was a superintendent of Philly [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania]--his name--Hornbeck, invited me to the state to be the number three person at the Maryland State Department of Ed. [education]. So I did that. But then I looked outside and I said I have no constituency at the state, and you use to knowing who you work for and the folks, if they didn't like what you're doing, they let you know. But I didn't have a, you know it didn't have that kind of thing.$So the system was doing well. People said well why are you going? I said some of the problems that I thought I'd solved are coming back. And I think you need somebody fresh to try to make a go at it. And then a major law firm here had an educational litigation section, said, "Flo if you want to run your own consulting firm, we'll back you with it and you can support our efforts in litigation." So I said hey, 'bout time I try running something, a business on my own because I always thought--you know educators think that they can only teach or only do education type stuff. But I think skills are transferrable. And I'd been working with the private sector on a couple of corporate boards, so I said I'll try that. And so I decided in '88 [1988] that I would set up the consulting firm and the law firm supported, funded, you know funded it. And I of course had part ownership. And so we were doing good. But the American Bar Association [ABA] said law firms, you guys cannot have consulting firms, it's not ethical. And they had made me a partner in the law firm. And so they said you gotta, you know, get rid of this consulting firm. So I said well fine. So we worked out a separation agreement that really worked in my favor. And that I was in their very plush quarters, so I moved down here and we've been here and I think we do quality work. We do a lot of what we want to do in education. Sometimes we don't make any money because we take some of those projects that--where they think you're, you know, you do charity work, but hey that's, that's the way we are. So while we've--don't make a lot of money, we've managed to stay open for sixteen years and it's still very exciting work. It's very different. No project is the same; we work for EPA, the Environmental Protection Agency, helping them with curriculum on--for skin cancer. We work with organ donors to try to get people who treat--teach driver's ed., to get kids to sign or people to sign their organs over. We work for the National Science Foundation in trying to improve achievement in math and science. So it's just a wide range of things. One time we were training superintendents, trying to make sure that women and minorities got more leadership. So it's been quite a, a, an opportunity for a little girl from Florida started out very, very poor. I'm not affluent now, but to really get some wonderful experiences and work with some exciting people.

Bishop William L. Sheals

Teacher, preacher and evangelist, Dr. William L. Sheals has been the Senior Pastor of Hopewell Baptist Church in Norcross, Georgia since 1980. He received a business degree from New York University and holds theological degrees from Florida Memorial Seminary and International Bible College.

Sheals' experience in the business world includes acting as the former Vice President of the Mortgage Department of Carver Federal Savings and Loan Association in Harlem, New York. Subsequently, he managed the branch office of Beneficial Financial Company in the Bronx and worked as a disc jockey, a concert promoter and an actor and director off-Broadway. In Florida, he served as the Assistant Director of the Lakeland Housing Authority while pursuing his advanced studies there. He moved to Atlanta in 1979 to work as the Assistant Director of the Atlanta Housing Authority, but left the position after ten years to devote himself entirely to the rapidly-growing Hopewell Baptist Church, which was founded by former slaves after the Civil War.

Under Sheals' direction since 1980, Hopewell has grown from a two-acre, one-building facility with 200 members to a thirty-acre campus called "The City of Hope," with a membership of nearly 17,000, including over 60 ministries and auxiliaries. The City of Hope includes a senior citizens facility, a 500-member youth church, a child development center, a Christian Academy that teachers pre-school through eighth grade and a Bible College.

Sheals' leadership and civic service has been honored with the Martin Luther King, Jr. Drum Major Award for Community Service (1999) the Civic Leader of the Year Award, Gwinnet County (1995) the African American Community Service Award (1994) the Outstanding Humanitarian Award, National Kidney Foundation (1988) and the Presidential "Special Citizen" Award for acting as Director of "Ministries Against Drugs" (1989). He is the founding President of the North Metro 100 Black Men and member of the United Way Special Committee, the Rotary Club, the Human Relations Commission and the Mayor's Advisory Council.

Accession Number

A2002.026

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/13/2002

Last Name

Sheals

Maker Category
Middle Name

L.

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Any

First Name

William

Birth City, State, Country

Lakeland

HM ID

SHE01

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Any

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Depends on audience

Favorite Season

Fall

Speaker Bureau Notes

Availability Specifics: No Sundays
Preferred Audience: Any

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cruises

Favorite Quote

Father, Nothing Is Going To Happen To Me Today That You and I Together Cannot Handle.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

1/15/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Steak (T-Bone Smothered)

Short Description

City government official and pastor Bishop William L. Sheals (1947 - ) was the director of the Hopewell Baptist Church in Norcross, Georgia and the winner of the 1999 Martin Luther King, Jr. Drum Major Award for Community Service.

Employment

Carver Federal Savings & Loan

Beneficial Financial Company

Lakeland, Florida Housing Authority

Atlanta Housing Authority

Hopewell Baptist Church

Favorite Color

Blue

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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of William Sheals' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - William Sheals lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - William Sheals describes his family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - William Sheals describes his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - William Sheals talks about his childhood business, The Sheals Theater

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - William Sheals talks about delivering groceries as a youth

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - William Sheals talks about his childhood love of football and acting

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - William Sheals shares stories about his childhood experiences with discrimination

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - William Sheals talks about the teachers who influenced him as a youth

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - William Sheals describes the role of the church in his childhood community

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - William Sheals describes his father

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - William Sheals describes how the Civil Rights Movement affected his childhood community

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - William Sheals describes when he discovered his dream of being an actor

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - William Sheals talks about being drafted to serve in the military

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - William Sheals describes the work he performed during his military service

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - William Sheals describes his occupations in the years after the Vietnam War

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - William Sheals talks about his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - William Sheals talks about being a radio disc jockey in Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - William Sheals describes being a concert promoter

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - William Sheals remembers being called to the ministry, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - William Sheals remembers being called to the ministry, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - William Sheals talks about ending his career as a disc jockey

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - William Sheals talks about being hired as Deputy Director of the Lakeland Housing Authority

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - William Sheals describes acknowledging the call to the ministry

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - William Sheals recalls his first sermon

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - William Sheals considers how his experiences in radio, acting, and banking shaped his preaching skills

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - William Sheals describes what influenced him to move to Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - William Sheals talks about being hired by the Atlanta Housing Authority

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - William Sheals describes how he was called to preach at Hopewell Missionary Baptist Church, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - William Sheals describes how he was called to preach at Hopewell Missionary Baptist Church, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - William Sheals talks about the vision he received for The City of Hope

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - William Sheals describes how he acquired the property for The City of Hope, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - William Sheals describes how he acquired the property for The City of Hope, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - William Sheals talks about church bonds

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - William Sheals describes how he acquired the property for The City of Hope, pt. 3

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - William Sheals talks about the 1993 dedication of the City of Hope sanctuary

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - William Sheals describes how relying on faith allowed him to fulfill his vision

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - William Sheals describes the significance of Hopewell Missionary Baptist Church to Norcross, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - William Sheals comments on the significance of the black church

Tape: 3 Story: 13 - William Sheals talks about the programs and services The City of Hope offers, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 14 - William Sheals talks about the programs and services The City of Hope offers, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - William Sheals talks about chartering 100 Black Men of North Metro Atlanta

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - William Sheals describes how Hopewell Missionary Baptist Church serves the community

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - William Sheals describes what motivated him to become an author

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - William Sheals describes what motivated him to write 'Pastor Help! My Marriage is in Trouble!'

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - William Sheals talks about some of the themes in 'Pastor Help! My Marriage is in Trouble!'

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - William Sheals shares his plans for the future of Hopewell Missionary Baptist Church, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - William Sheals shares his plans for the future of Hopewell Missionary Baptist Church, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - William Sheals talks about his beard

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - William Sheals describes his church's annual reenactment of the Upper Room scene

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - William Sheals describes the sights, smells, and sounds of his childhood

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - William Sheals shares a message for the youth

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - William Sheals talks about the challenges and advantages mega-churches face

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - William Sheals comments on the concepts of "black theology" and "black Christianity"

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - William Sheals reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - William Sheals narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - William Sheals narrates his photographs, pt. 2

DASession

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DATape

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DAStory

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DATitle
William Sheals talks about his childhood business, The Sheals Theater
William Sheals talks about the vision he received for The City of Hope
Transcript
But--I think I was sharing with you earlier about the Sheals Theater. At the age of twelve, of developing a movie theater out of a cardboard box, mom's [Elma Sheals] lamp off her end table, a magnifying glass that was then wedged in a piece of construction paper, and then I would cut out the comics from Sunday newspaper or from a color comic book, turn the image upside down, and place it between the light and the magnifying glass, and it would show right side up onto a white wall, and I would cut off the bottom script on the bottom so I can make up the stories. On Saturdays after mom would leave to go to her job at the hospital, her room, bedroom, had the largest clear, pretty white wall, and she didn't know until I was a young adult that we used her bedroom for my theater. We would have kids lined up--sometimes 35, 40--a dime to come in for a 15-minute movie, and a nickel for your ice cup, and we would buy--my sister and I would go to the store, buy three packs of grape, orange and strawberry Kool-Aid and make the cups. And by the time the Saturday afternoon rolled around, we'd have a pocket full of money to go to the real theater. But then I would save monies; I didn't know--we didn't go to the bank at that time--go save money so that by the end of the year I would have quite a lump sum of money; we would do sometimes fifteen, $20.00 on a Saturday.$Tell me about the vision.$$The vision occurred 10 years ago. While standing at the top of the hill looking down at the--what was then the junkyard; it was a junkyard that was filled with old cars, filled with tires, filled with just ditches and holes in the ground; it was a very unattractive piece of property that was right in the back door of my church. The church then had grown to about 1500. Being 1500 and not havin' the space to expand and to grow, we built an intermediate building, which was a multi-purpose building, a metal frame building, and we began worshipping then a couple-a times a Sunday, then three times a Sunday. The first service was 6:45 a.m. in the morning, then 8:00, then 11:00, then at 6:00; we have four services--three morning services to accommodate, and we could seat a thousand people at that time, and the growth was phenomenal to be, again, in a rural area outside the city. The media start coming and writing about this little church bursting at the seams, and television cameras started coming. And while standing up on the trailer that's still there--my office used to be in that trailer--one Wednesday evening before bible study, I saw the vision of the church rising up out of the junkyard like the Phoenix, and I have a drawing right there by my desk that I drew of this vision. I ran back into my office; when I came back, the vision was gone, so I prayed and asked the Lord to bring it back and he did. And I didn't have any paper left because I drew--there was one sheet left on a legal pad, and I drew what I thought I saw, and so then the cardboard backing for the legal pad, I took a pen and began to sketch this church that you see here now, in the middle of the junkyard. And you'll see then 10 years ago, almost a duplicate drawing, except that one building is--this building we're in now is on the left instead of the right.