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Lt. Col. Donald Campbell

Academic administrator and lieutenant colonel Donald Russell Campbell was born on September 14, 1935 in Elizabeth, Louisiana to Luvenia and John Estes Campbell. Campbell obtained his A.A. degree from Phoenix College in 1956. Upon completion of Phoenix College, Campbell received his B.A. degree in history and political science with a minor in speech and Spanish from Arizona State University. After graduating from college, Campbell married Elizabeth Hosley on August 20, 1960, and he had two sons, Derek and Darren. In 1961, Campbell attended the University of Arizona School of Law before withdrawing from the program one year later. Campbell was also awarded his Ph.D. in education administration, business and economics from Arizona State University in 1980.

Campbell continued pursuit of his education and served in a variety of roles throughout his career. Starting as a broker and partner for Webb, Williams, and Berry Realty in Phoenix, Arizona, he worked from 1956 to 1964 and began his military service in Europe during the “Berlin Build Up”. In total, Campbell devoted twenty-eight years of service to the Arizona Air National Guard. After his military service in Europe, Campbell returned to the United States and worked for the City of Phoenix in the Human Resources Development Department from 1966 to 1969. There, Campbell became the Director of the Concentrated Employment Program, a jointly sponsored pre-employment training program between the U.S. Department of Labor, the Phoenix Urban League and the Arizona State Employment Office. In 1972, Campbell worked for Arizona State University as the Director of the Center for Services to the Disadvantaged, and later, in 1975, as the Director of Community Services, where he specialized in coordinating special interest courses for the entire Arizona State University service area.

In 1982, Campbell was also elected to the Maricopa County Community College District Board. During his twenty -five years of service on the Board, Campbell served as the Governing Board President in 1987, 1996, 2001 and 2005. He also was elected Governing Board Secretary in 1986, 1995, 2000, 2004 and 2007. Campbell pursued other endeavors including service on the Phoenix Aviation Advisory Board, the Consortium of Black Organizations for the Arts, and the NAACP.

Campbell passed away on December 30, 2017 at age 82.

Accession Number

A2007.206

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/13/2007

Last Name

Campbell

Marital Status

Married

Schools

Arizona State University

Booker T. Washington Elementary School

Paul Dunbar Lawrence School

Mary McLeod Bethune School

Herbert Hoover Junior High School

Phoenix Technical High School

Phoenix College

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Donald

Birth City, State, Country

Elizabeth

HM ID

CAM09

Favorite Season

None

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere

Favorite Quote

Keep hope alive.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Arizona

Birth Date

9/14/1935

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Phoenix

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Death Date

12/30/2017

Short Description

Academic administrator and lieutenant colonel Lt. Col. Donald Campbell (1935 - 2017 ) was a long standing member of the Maricopa County Community College District Board and a retired military veteran. Campbell was the first African American to be accepted into the Arizona Air National Guard and the first African American in the Alabama National Guard.

Employment

Webb, Williams and Berry Realty

CIty of Phoenix

Arizona State Employment Service

Arizona State University

Campbell & Associates

Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Lt. Col. Donald Campbell's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell remembers his paternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell describes the community of Elizabeth, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell remembers segregation in Elizabeth, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell describes the sounds of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell remembers his early education

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell recalls his family's move to Westlake, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell remembers his father's death

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell recalls his family's move to Phoenix, Arizona

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell describes the Booker T. Washington School in Phoenix, Arizona

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell remembers the Matthew Henson Public Housing Project in Phoenix, Arizona

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell describes his grade school teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell talks about his religious upbringing

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell remembers picking cotton

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell describes the Mary McLeod Bethune School in Phoenix, Arizona

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell recalls his move to Oakland, California

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell describes his experiences in Oakland, California

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell remembers his mother's death

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell describes his older sister's family

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell remembers his return to Phoenix, Arizona

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell remembers graduating from Phoenix Technical High School in Phoenix, Arizona

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell describes his college education

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell remembers meeting his wife, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell remembers meeting his wife, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell recalls the University of Arizona College of Law in Tuscon, Arizona

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell remembers joining the Air National Guard

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell talks about integrating the Air National Guard, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell talks about integrating the Air National Guard, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell describes his U.S. military service in Europe

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell recalls implementing the War on Poverty in the City of Phoenix

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell describes the War on Poverty

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell recalls working at Arizona State University in Tempe, Arizona

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell talks about his children

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell talks about the drug epidemic

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell recalls serving on the Phoenix Aviation Advisory Board

Tape: 3 Story: 13 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell recalls his work for the Roosevelt Elementary School District

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell recalls his election to the Roosevelt Elementary School District board

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell recalls serving as an affirmative action officer in the Arizona Air National Guard

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell recalls teaching at Arizona State University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell describes his affirmative action training

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell recalls serving on the Maricopa County Community College District board, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell recalls serving on the Maricopa County Community College District board, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell talks about the importance of education

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell describes his career in higher education

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell talks about his career in real estate

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell recalls his promotion to lieutenant colonel

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell describes his experience as an interim vice provost

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Lt. Col. Campbell describes the Arizona Project ChalleNGe

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell talks about his board memberships

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell shares a message to future generations

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Lt. Col. Donald Campbell narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

5$5

DATitle
Lt. Col. Donald Campbell talks about integrating the Air National Guard, pt. 2
Lt. Col. Donald Campbell recalls serving on the Maricopa County Community College District board, pt. 1
Transcript
Was there any active mention maybe in the papers or anything about you being the first African American in the Air National Guard? Was there any ceremonious events around that?$$Not at that time. It didn't occur until it was later years after I had gotten out of guard in '74 [1974]. It was '73 [1973], I guess the guy I mentioned, Lincoln Ragsdale [Lincoln Ragsdale, Sr.], who had been with the, you know, the [U.S.] Air Force with the blacks, he jumped on the Air Guard out here because they didn't have any African Americans then. That's when they pointed out that I had been in the Air Guard. And then one of the guys who was a Spanish fellow, he was in charge of personnel. He and I were doing consultant work together. He had a consultant firm. He said, "Look man," he said, "we got a problem out at the guard." He said, "You know, they don't have any blacks in the guard anymore. Why don't you come on back into the guard with this?" I said, "What the heck I'm gonna do back in the Air National Guard?" He said, "Well, you may be able to make--get into an officer's rank." So, he took me out there one day. We went out on a Saturday, talked to one of the colonels there. There was a guy named Colonel Angulo [ph.], Spanish guy, and he took me in to see another colonel. And I talked with him and the guy was pretty impressive 'cause he's also a full-time principal at one of the high schools. So, he sold me on the idea of coming back in and they signed me up right then. He said, "Now what we're gonna do, we're gonna bring you in as a top sergeant." He said, "When the commissions come back from Washington [D.C.], because you have a degree, you will be coming in as a lieutenant colonel--I mean, as a lieutenant." I said, okay, that sounds fine. And I didn't have to go back to basic training. I was going back on the weekends. I said, heck, I was gonna take this money I got through the guard and buy me some more real estate (laughter), which I did. But, I got in there and then after about two or three months, the commission came through and I was appointed a captain. So, I became back in as a captain and I was the first black in there initially, I was the first black officer, and I was the first black captain in there.$$A series of first. So, back--backing up a little bit, were there any other blacks in the other branches of the National Guard, i.e., the [U.S.] Army.$$In the Army, yes. For whatever reason--$$Naval reserves [U.S. Navy Reserve].$$--in the--I don't know about the [U.S.] Navy, but in the Army Guard [Army National Guard], there were a number of guys. In fact, there's a guy named Charles Lucky [ph.]. He's still here. He has a whole bunch of real estate. But he was in the Army Guard--I mean in the Air Guard, but he didn't stay in there.$$Why do you think the Air Guard, guard was so (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) I think--$$--slow?$$--the Air Guard considered itself elitist because most of the people in there had degrees and all that type of stuff. And the Army Guard, they had had blacks in the regular army long before they got into the Air Force, so it was easier probably for them.$You do that and through the '80s [1980s], you take various courses along with your regular position [at Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona]. In about '82 [1982], you get--you get elected to the Maricopa County Community College District ward [Maricopa Community Colleges, Tempe, Arizona].$$Um-hm, um-hm.$$Explain what that is and how you--that came about, please.$$Okay, well first of all, the Maricopa Community College governing board consists of community colleges. At that time, they were called junior colleges.$$How many were there?$$In 1982, there were five. Prior to that, the district, if you go back far enough, at one time, there was only Phoenix College [Phoenix, Arizona] and it was a part of the Phoenix Union High School system [Phoenix Union High School District]. Then, in 1962, the voters of the county voted to set up a community college district. Then, the district bought Phoenix College, which I don't they ever paid them for, but it was the first college in the district. And then they set up Scottsdale College [Scottsdale Community College, Scottsdale, Arizona], Glendale College [Glendale Community College, Glendale, Arizona], and Mesa College [Mesa Community College, Mesa, Arizona], and then one other because there were five when I came on the board, and we then began to set colleges based upon what the population was in a given six mile radius, and we would say once at a certain population, in that radius, we'd set a camp- a college up in that campus. At that time, finally, Paul Elsner [Paul A. Elsner] was the chancellor of the district for like twenty-two years. And then we had a couple other guys there for a while. And, what, three years ago, we hired the first black chancellor for that district by the name of Rufus Glasper who had been for fifteen years the financial officer for the district, and he had a CPA [certified public accountant], and at the same time, he was working on a Ph.D. through the University of Arizona [Tucson, Arizona]. So, we eventually hired him as the chancellor of the district and he got right in the middle of all the controversial problem, which we are having now.$$Well (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) And he's still trying to resolve those.

Lt. Col. Harry B. Johnson

Security executive and retired U.S. Army Lieutenant Colonel Harry B. Johnson was born in Tip Top, Virginia, on August 21, 1940. On his father's side, he is related to the first black U.S. Senator, Hiram R. Revels. Johnson was raised in humble circumstances by his aunt, Addie M. Hairston, in Bluefield, West Virginia. There, he attended Jones Street Elementary School and was a basketball star at Park Central High School. In 1958, Johnson earned an athletic scholarship to Morgan State College in Baltimore, Maryland, where he received a B.A. in history in 1962. That same year, he fulfilled his ROTC obligation by being inducted into the U.S. Army as a second lieutenant.

Johnson served two tours of duty in Vietnam, where he was a tank commander for Company A of the 504th Military Battalion. He volunteered for and successfully completed Ranger training and at one time reported directly to General William Westmoreland. Choosing the military as a career, Johnson was drawn to security-related assignments. He served as provost marshal of the North Baden Area, West Germany; provost marshal of Fort Leavenworth, Kansas; chief of the U.S. Army Corrections Program; and program manager of the Military Personnel Center.

Johnson went on to earn an M.P.A. from Central Michigan University and an M.A. from Wichita State University. In 1983, Johnson retired from the army and accepted a section chief position with the World Bank, eventually rising to senior manager and division chief. Today he is an executive consultant for Security, Education and Environmental Enterprises. His numerous military awards include the Legion of Merit, three Bronze Stars and the Morgan State University Military Hall of Fame.

Johnson lives in Washington, D.C., with his wife, Sandra, where he enjoys lecturing on African American history.

Accession Number

A2003.223

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/17/2003

Last Name

Johnson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

Park Central High School

Jones Street Elementary School

Morgan State University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Harry

Birth City, State, Country

Tip Top

HM ID

JOH13

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Mountains

Favorite Quote

Be Still, Sad Heart, And Cease Repining; Behind The Clouds The Sun Is Shining; Thy Fate Is The Common Fate Of All, Into Each Life Some Rain Must Fall, Some Days Must Be Dark And Dreary. - Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

8/21/1940

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pork Chops

Short Description

Lieutenant colonel Lt. Col. Harry B. Johnson (1940 - ) is a retired Lieutenant Colonel who served as the Chief of Army Corrections.

Employment

United States Army

World Bank

Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Harry B. Johnson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Harry B. Johnson lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Harry B. Johnson talks about when and where his parents, Joseph Johnson and Eunice Revels, were born

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Harry B. Johnson talks about his father, Joseph Johnson, and his family

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Harry B. Johnson describes his mother's, Eunice Revels, family history, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Harry B. Johnson describes his mother's, Eunice Revels, family history, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Harry B. Johnson shares stories about his mother, Eunice Revels', immediate family

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Harry B. Johnson talks about his mother, Eunice Revels', death and the family members he lived with as a child in Tiptop, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Harry B. Johnson describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Tiptop, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Harry B. Johnson describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Bluefield, West Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Harry B. Johnson talks about going to Jones Street Elementary School, in Bluefield, West Virginia, and his childhood personality

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Harry B. Johnson recalls playing sports at Park Central High School in Bluefield, West Virginia and nearly losing an arm from a sports injury

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Harry B. Johnson recalls being adopted by his aunt, Attie M. Hairston, and her kindness towards him, pt.1

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Harry B. Johnson recalls being adopted by his aunt, Attie M. Hairston, and her kindness towards him, pt.2

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Harry B. Johnson describes regaining the use of his right arm and how his aunt, Attie M. Hairston, took care of him

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Harry B. Johnson talks about his activities at Park Central High School in Bluefield, West Virginia and the insensitivity of some teachers and students

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Harry B. Johnson talks about his grades and basketball career at Park Central High School in Bluefield, West Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Harry B. Johnson describes his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement at Morgan State University in Baltimore, Maryland from 1958 to 1962

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Harry B. Johnson describes the ROTC program at Morgan State University in Baltimore, Maryland and Colonel Fowler

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Harry B. Johnson lists football players at Morgan State University and considers the different levels of financial support male and female college students received

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Harry B. Johnson talks about Benjamin Quarels' classes at Morgan State University, in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Harry B. Johnson talks about Storer College in Harpers Ferry, West Virginia and HistoryMaker Richard McKinney

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Harry B. Johnson reflects on meeting Malcom X and his influence

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Harry B. Johnson reflects on the life lessons he learned at Morgan State University in Baltimore, Maryland from 1958-1962

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Harry B. Johnson describes a segregated bus ride from Baltimore, Maryland to Louisville, Kentucky in 1962 serving in the U.S. Army

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Harry B. Johnson shares a story about being kicked out of a drive-in movie in Kentucky and the impact of segregation laws on African Americans in the 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Harry B. Johnson talks about racial discrimination while looking for a home and in the U.S. military

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Harry B. Johnson explains how he became the platoon leader of the 4th Armored Division in the U.S. Army, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Harry B. Johnson explains how he became the platoon leader of the 4th Armored Division in the U.S. Army, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Harry B. Johnson talks about racial discrimination and segregation within the U.S. Military in the 1960s and in the present

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Harry B. Johnson talks about playing basketball in the U.S. Army and the opportunity to play professionally

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Harry B. Johnson describes his experience in the Vietnam War, pt.1

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Harry B. Johnson describes his experience in the Vietnam War, pt.2

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Harry B. Johnson explains the pitfalls of feeling the need to prove oneself during war

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Harry B. Johnson talks about the opposition to the Vietnam War from American civilians and the challenges of leading an integrated platoon

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Harry B. Johnson reflects on how the Vietnam War changed him

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Harry B. Johnson explains his decision to stay in the U.S. Army professionally

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Harry B. Johnson talks about the challenging decisions he had to make during the Vietnam War

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Harry B. Johnson talks about what he did upon returning from the Vietnam War

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Harry B. Johnson talks about how opposition to the Vietnam War affected him upon returning to the United States

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Harry B. Johnson describes hearing Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s damaging taped conversation which J. Edgar Hoover recorded

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Harry B. Johnson describes his impression of Reverend Ralph Abernathy

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Harry B. Johnson describes U.S. Army Ranger training

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Harry B. Johnson talks about his second tour of duty in the Vietnam War

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Harry B. Johnson describes how his experience in the U.S. Army led him to work as a Special Assignment Officer in the White House until 1983

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Harry B. Johnson talks about the history of the World Bank, in Washington, D.C. and its function

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Harry B. Johnson talks about his roles at the World Bank in Washington, D.C. and the lack of African Americans employed there

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Harry B. Johnson describes the benefits of African Americans working for the World Bank in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Harry B. Johnson shares his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Harry B. Johnson considers what he would do differently in his life

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Harry B. Johnson reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Harry B. Johnson talks about hiking in his free time

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Harry B. Johnson talks about lecturing on African American history

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Harry B. Johnson talks about his family's pride in his success

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Harry B. Johnson describes how he'd like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Harry B. Johnson narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Harry B. Johnson narrates his photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

2$10

DATitle
Harry B. Johnson explains how he became the platoon leader of the 4th Armored Division in the U.S. Army, pt. 2
Harry B. Johnson describes how his experience in the U.S. Army led him to work as a Special Assignment Officer in the White House until 1983
Transcript
They'd never had a black officer.$$It was one of the divisions of [George S.] Patton's Army?$$Right.$$All right.$$Yeah, and it had never had a black officer. They did well on a test in competition. And so a congressman from New York--and I don't know his name; I wished I did because I'd like to thank him one day. Anyway, he made the observation when they had a party for these guys at the Officer's Club, you know, big deal, the officers and their wives come through, and they have a, a line that they have pass through and all. And, and when it was over, he said, "Don't you have any black officers?" He said, and the battalion commander said, "No, that's why we're great; we don't have no blacks in the outfit, never been any blacks in that outfit." So he come back to the states and said, "There got to be a black." Now the reason I know this is the personnel officer for that battalion was, turned out to be in later times a good friend of mine who was a witness to all of this, and he explained it to me, okay. And it made sense, what he said, based on what, what I could figure form what my side was. So anyway, this guy got back and, and, and said do that. So they decided okay, if we're gonna have to send a black over there, let's send, let's send, let's send them, you know, somebody that won't, won't hurt him (unclear)--so then I, you know, was a college All-American, and you know, I had decent grades, you know. And in the summer camp that I had gone through be, you know, before be, becoming an officer, you know, I had become distinguished. I had reached a what they called distinguished status, distinguished graduate. So, I wasn't, you know, they figure this guy can't hurt 'em, I guess (laughter), so they sent me over there. Now, here is what they did, they, they got a platoon, and they put together all of the people that were section eights, and section nines, in other words, people who were having problems, had disciplinary problems or some other kind of problem, medical problem, put them in a platoon, okay. And when I arrived, they appointed me to platoon leader of this outfit, destined to fail, except for one thing. I have always been a very effective leader, rather it's athletics, family or what have you. And I got those men, they--it wasn't because they were not capable of performing. It was because they had not had the proper leadership; no one seem to care. We got together and started working together. And one year later we took first platoon in Europe, okay, so it kind of backfired on 'em, the way it done--$But I think--one of the points I might just add, and it's not exactly on [the] Vietnam [War]. But it is, as a result of the various experiences and jobs and things that I had, my last assignment in the Army was an assignment that dreams are made of. I was the, what they called the Special Assignment Officer for Joint and Special Activities, the White House, Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff, Department of Defense, Secretary of the Army, and all those positions were positions that I had to, that I had to find full colonels, which was a--or senior managers to go and work in those positions. So I was--I could go in and out of the White House and sit down and talk to, to the, to the guys you see on TV all the, all the time. And the Secretary of the Army was--I wasn't on first name basis with him, but he, he was, you know, he called me. I had tremendous amount of, of influence. You know, how I did that and--so I'd sit down beside the Secretary of the Army, and we'd sit and look. I'd had this big book, and we'd talk about these guys. And he'd say okay, what you think, and then on and so forth and so on. And I'd pick this one, and I'd say well, I think this is the best guy. Then I would have to go get that guy released from wherever he was, you know. And then I'd have to see to it that that person got replaced and all that sort of thing. So it was a heck of a job. And almost every--it was called an accepted unit. Everybody that was there in that unit with me made general, and I made full colonel, and--but I got, what they say, I got an offer you can't refuse. And it was a duff--tough--decision for me, but I had a chance to work at the World Bank [Washington, D.C.], and so I, I got out.$$Okay.$$So, but my last assignment was, was really a wonderful assignment. I stayed--you're, you're only supposed to have that job for two years, 'cause you know, if you stay there much longer, you can influence a person's career more than you should be able to. Like if I got you a job in the White House, you stayed there for two years, then I could get you a job in, in the Pentagon or somewhere else, you know. And that gives a kind of an unfair advantage, you know, so they try to keep you from having to assign a guy two or three times. So, it was eighteen months, and I, I pulled that 18 months, and they asked me to stay. I stayed two more years, so, and then I finished up.$$Okay, now what, what year is this?$$Sixty-- '83 [1983].$$'83 [1983], okay.$$Right.