The Nation’s Largest African American Video Oral History Collection Mobile search icon Mobile close search icon

Search Results

Advanced Biography Search
Mobile navigation icon Close mobile navigation icon

city

Edith Armstead Gray

High school home economics teacher Edith Armstead Gray was born on November 19, 1910 in Galveston, Texas to Millie and Henry Armstead. Although Gray and her family sometimes worked as farm laborers picking cotton, her parents valued education and encouraged their children to attend college. She attended Lamarque Public School and Booker T. Washington School in Lamarque, Texas before earning her high school diploma from Central High School in Galveston in 1930. The following year, Gray enrolled at Tuskegee Institute, slowly working her way towards her degree. As a member of the Tuskegee 100 Voice Choir, she traveled with the group across the country for six weeks singing at Radio City Music Hall in New York and for President Franklin Roosevelt's mother's birthday in 1932.

In the mid-1930s, when she was no longer able to pay tuition, she returned to Texas where she worked as a seamstress. In 1934, she received her first and only teaching job with the Conecuh County Board of Education in Alabama, teaching home economics until she retired in 1976. While teaching, she completed her studies at Tuskegee and earned her B.S. degree in 1940, nearly ten years after she enrolled. In 1966, Gray joined the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and served as the first secretary for the Conecuh County chapter, where she helped to organize people for civil rights protests and tried to increase the membership.

Gray is widowed and has three adult children, Frederick, Jerome and Phyllis.

Edith Armstead Gray was interviewed by TheHistoryMakers on May 18, 2004.

Accession Number

A2004.051

Sex

Female

Interview Date

5/18/2004

Last Name

Gray

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widowed

Middle Name

Armstead

Schools

Lamarque Public School

Booker T. Washington Public School

Central High School

Tuskegee University

First Name

Edith

Birth City, State, Country

Galveston

HM ID

GRA04

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere New

Favorite Quote

War Is The Surgery Of Crime. Bad As It Is Within Itself, It Always Implies That Something Worse Has Gone Before.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Interview Description
Birth Date

11/19/1910

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

USA

Death Date

12/1/2009

Short Description

High school home economics teacher Edith Armstead Gray (1910 - 2009 ) taught home economics for the Conecuh County Board of Education in Alabama for over forty years. Gray was the first secretary for the Conecuh County chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.

Employment

Conecuh County Training School

Favorite Color

Yellow

Timing Pairs
0,0:1240,21:1840,27:14200,226:17434,251:19436,287:25200,342:25520,347:26320,361:27120,375:27440,380:28320,394:32560,474:34240,514:36560,552:36960,558:39360,607:39920,615:44400,655:44800,662:46880,729:56240,855:56800,864:57200,870:60790,877:65846,977:66162,982:66952,994:71929,1100:72245,1105:77958,1191:88917,1365:89664,1396:89996,1401:92071,1438:93731,1463:94229,1470:96055,1500:96387,1505:96802,1512:98462,1541:98960,1548:101948,1595:102363,1601:110026,1640:114586,1717:116562,1754:117018,1761:117550,1772:118082,1781:118462,1787:131220,1940$0,0:1134,13:1462,18:2528,28:3020,35:13480,139:18320,201:21221,217:30811,391:36226,432:38746,477:39322,487:48212,595:48468,638:57620,762:83136,1026:84080,1073:93100,1178:97690,1256:98860,1273:101470,1324:101920,1330:102280,1335:106220,1354:106595,1360:106895,1365:107420,1373:108020,1384:119556,1531:130985,1670:131447,1680:131832,1686:132140,1691:132448,1696:132756,1701:135528,1774:135836,1779:136760,1805:150006,1941:153082,1964:153586,1972:166872,2168:167256,2175:174460,2255
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Edith Armstead Gray's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Edith Armstead Gray lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Edith Armstead Gray talks about her mother and describes her personality

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Edith Armstead Gray describes visiting her maternal grandparents' farm in Cedar Lake, Texas and her mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Edith Armstead Gray talks about her father

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Edith Armstead Gray recalls stories her father shared about his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Edith Armstead Gray recalls how her parents met and married

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Edith Armstead Gray recalls the account of her great-grandmother's enslavement

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Edith Armstead Gray recalls the account of her great-grandfather's enslavement

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Edith Armstead Gray recalls the account of her grandmother being sexually assaulted by a plantation owner during slavery

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Edith Armstead Gray recalls her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Edith Armstead Gray shares memories from her childhood in La Marque, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Edith Armstead Gray remembers holidays during her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Edith Armstead Gray describes her maternal grandmother

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Edith Armstead Gray talks about her oldest sister

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Edith Armstead Gray talks about her brother Otis Armstead

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Edith Armstead Gray talks about her maternal uncle attending Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute while George Washington Carver was on the faculty

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Edith Armstead Gray recalls her brother earning money by picking cotton near Bay City, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Edith Armstead Gray recalls the impact of her brother's refusal to attend Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Edith Armstead Gray recalls her early elementary school education in La Marque, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Edith Armstead Gray recalls spelling matches in elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Edith Armstead Gray explains how she decided to study home economics

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Edith Armstead Gray describes the smells of growing up in Galveston, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Edith Armstead Gray talks about the benefits of stocking up on groceries

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Edith Armstead Gray recalls attending church as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Edith Armstead Gray recalls an unpleasant teacher from Booker T. Washington School in Bay City, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 14 - Edith Armstead Gray recalls an influential teacher from Booker T. Washington School in Bay City, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 15 - Edith Armstead Gray describes her personality as a child

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Edith Armstead Gray recalls her experience at Central High School in Galveston, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Edith Armstead Gray remembers her home economics teacher at Central High School in Galveston, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Edith Armstead Gray talks about her family's education

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Edith Armstead Gray recalls her maternal uncle's influence in her decision to attend Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Edith Armstead Gray recalls her experience at Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Edith Armstead Gray explains how financial difficulties delayed her plans for graduating from Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Edith Armstead Gray recalls obtaining her job as a home economics teacher at Conecuh County Training School in Evergreen, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Edith Armstead Gray remembers encountering George Washington Carver during her time at Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Edith Armstead Gray remembers her mother's reaction when she obtained her first job

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Edith Armstead Gray explains the reason Conecuh County Training School in Evergreen, Alabama changed its name to Thurgood Marshall High School

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Edith Armstead Gray describes her experience teaching home economics at Conecuh County Training School in the 1930 and 1940s

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Edith Armstead Gray expounds on why home economics should continue to be taught

Tape: 3 Story: 13 - Edith Armstead Gray talks about the lack of integration in Conecuh County, Alabama School system

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Edith Armstead Gray recalls Montgomery, Alabama during the Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955-1956

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Edith Armstead Gray explains the lack of protests in Evergreen, Alabama during the height of the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Edith Armstead Gray recalls her involvement with the NAACP in Evergreen, Alabama during the late 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Edith Armstead Gray describes the dilapidated conditions of the white high school in Evergreen, Alabama

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Edith Armstead Gray describes changes that she saw in student attitudes throughout her teaching career

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Edith Armstead Gray describes her sons' educational achievements

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Edith Armstead Gray describes her concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Edith Armstead Gray expounds on the educational importance of listening to children and providing them with opportunities

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Edith Armstead Gray reflects upon her life

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Edith Armstead Gray shares advice for aspiring educators

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Edith Armstead Gray reflects upon her legacy, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Edith Armstead Gray describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Edith Armstead Gray remembers her late husband

Tape: 4 Story: 14 - Edith Armstead Gray reflects upon the importance of sharing African American history to younger generations

Tape: 4 Story: 15 - Edith Armstead Gray reflects upon her legacy, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 16 - Edith Armstead Gray narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

8$8

DATitle
Edith Armstead Gray remembers encountering George Washington Carver during her time at Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama
Edith Armstead Gray expounds on the educational importance of listening to children and providing them with opportunities
Transcript
Tell me a little bit about just what it was like to attend Tuskegee [Normal and Industrial Institute; Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, Alabama] with Dr. [George Washington] Carver and just what was that like?$$Well, when I went there, Dr. Moton was the director of the school. He was the president, Dr. Robert Russa Moton. And Dr. Carver, at that time, was not teaching. He just worked in his laboratory over in the agricultural building that was along the far side of the campus. But I took biology in that, in that same building. And we'd see him every time we had a class over there, I think. I took biology about three days a week in the lab, two days a week, but we would see him in his lab working. And then, not only that, we'd see Dr. Carver every morning when he passed by White Hall. He'd have a little basket on his arm, you know, and he would be going around picking up little grasses and little flowers and different things, putting in his basket. And they said that he was running experiments on those things, and you'd see out there every morn. And he wore the same--the whole time that I was there, because Dr. Carver didn't die until about 1941 [sic. 1943], he wore that same little brown coat. He had worn it so long that it had lost its color. And that's what he was--a very, very smart man. And he had--the [George Washington Carver] Museum [Tuskegee, Alabama] had been opened, and you would see all of his paintings and all of the things that he had done. Oh, he was just such a marvelous person--all of the things that he had made from the peanut, and from the sweet potato, and that sort of thing, but he never taught any of us. But he would have Bible study every Wednesday night down on the Tompkins Hall that was a dining hall. And that was right across from White Hall. All I'd have to do is walk out my building and go--I'd say about a half block and get Tompkins Hall where you'd have your meals.$Do you think that there are things that teachers nowadays don't do that they did when you were teaching?$$I really talk about teachers now because I've been a teacher for so long, you know. And I not only taught the students, but during my career, I taught adults as well. And during the lifetime of my late husband [Philander A. Gray], he and I would go out. He taught the farmers and I taught the farm woman. I taught them to make quilts. I taught them to do all of the things in their home to help improve it that they could. I taught them how to listen to your children. You know, so many people--you know, when I was a child, people used to say, "Shut your mouth, and you be quiet." They wouldn't listen, but we need to listen to our children. And just because you're an adult, it doesn't mean that you're always right. Here, what I tell my children, "I want to hear your side of it. And then, I'll give you my side of it, but in the end, I will decide what is best for you to do." My children tell you I did that, open, and it--I still do it (laughter). Even though they're good and grown. But I think we're going to have to do more listening, and see if we can't develop stronger leadership in young people, you know, and give them an opportunity. So many of us who are old, we want to hold on to what we've been doing so long. We don't want anybody else to do anything. I know in my church--I had a little girl named Jessica Kyles [ph.]. She was a very smart girl. And I had taught Sunday school for all those forty-some odd years. And I said to the superintendent of the Sunday school, "Do you have any objection if I train Jessica Kyles to teach the class that I've been teaching so long?" I said, "She's thoroughly capable." "Well, we don't know about that, we don't know about these children doing so and so." I said, "Well, how is she going to ever learn unless she's trained?" "Well, you can try it and we'll see." And so, I started training the girl, and I gave her an agenda, you know, that she was to follow. I said, "This is the same agenda that I've been using with you all." Come to find out the child to me was doing it better than I was doing it. So, we had--and she's now a teacher in that Sunday school.

Asa Hilliard, III

A professor of educational psychology, Asa Hilliard, III, was born in Galveston, Texas, on August 22, 1933. After completing high school, Hilliard attended the University of Denver, earning his B.A. degree in 1955; his M.A. degree in counseling in 1961; and his Ed.D. degree in educational psychology in 1963.

After earning his bachelor’s in psychology, Hilliard began teaching in the Denver Public School system, where he remained until 1960; that year, he began as a teaching fellow at the University of Denver, where he remained until he earned his Ph.D. Joining the faculty at San Francisco State University in 1963, Hilliard spent the next eighteen years there. While at San Francisco State, Hilliard first became department chairman, then went on to spend his final eight years as dean of education. Hilliard also served as a consultant to the Peace Corps and as superintendent of schools in Monrovia, Liberia, for two years. Departing from San Francisco State, Hilliard became a professor at Georgia State University; he served as the Fuller E. Callaway Professor of Urban Education, serving in both the Department of Educational Policy Studies and the Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education.

Hilliard was a founding member of the Association for the Study of Classical African Civilizations and served as vice president. He served as an expert witness in court testimony on several federal cases regarding test validity and bias, and was the co-developer of an educational television series, Free Your Mind, Return to the Source: African Origins. Hilliard wrote hundreds of articles on a wide variety of topics, including ancient African history, teaching strategies, and public policy. Hilliard was the recipient of the Outstanding Scholarship Award from the Association of Black Psychologists; a Knight Commander of the Human Order of the African Redemption; and the Distinguished Leadership Award from the Association of Teachers of Education.

Hilliard and his wife, Patsy Jo, raised four children.

Asa Hilliard, III, passed away on Sunday, August 12, 2007, at the age of seventy-three.

Accession Number

A2003.098

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/6/2003

6/20/2005

Last Name

Hilliard

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

G.

Schools

Booker T. Washington Elementary School

Whittier ECE-8 School

Cole Junior High School

University of Denver

First Name

Asa

Birth City, State, Country

Galveston

HM ID

HIL04

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Texas, Ghana

Favorite Quote

Study To Show Yourself Approved Unto God A Workman That Need Not Be Ashamed, Rightly Dividing The Word Of Truth.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Interview Description
Birth Date

8/22/1933

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Barbecue

Death Date

8/12/2007

Short Description

Educational psychology professor Asa Hilliard, III (1933 - 2007 ) was the Fuller E. Calloway Professor of Educational Psychology at Georgia State University and author of The Maroon Within Us.

Employment

Baker Junior High School

San Francisco State University

Georgia State University

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:9409,167:10319,179:10956,188:11502,195:11866,200:12958,215:14232,232:14778,240:17140,246:17400,251:17660,256:19415,286:20845,315:21690,339:22015,345:22535,354:23445,370:23770,376:26722,393:28654,427:29137,435:30862,466:31483,476:31966,484:32449,492:33208,505:36256,533:36516,539:37608,567:37868,573:39084,586:39352,591:40022,605:40692,617:41429,630:41831,638:42166,644:43640,672:43908,677:44377,686:44712,692:48060,713:48380,718:48940,727:49740,741:50620,754:51660,769:52220,777:52700,784:54780,812:55180,818:59240,852:59814,861:60962,878:62028,938:62438,944:63094,954:64734,980:65718,995:68230,1000:69742,1023:70918,1035:71254,1040:71758,1047:72094,1052:72766,1062:74110,1094:74782,1104:78562,1207:79234,1217:79822,1225:80242,1231:81082,1244:88358,1279:88806,1284:90934,1307:93330,1312:94221,1324:94788,1332:95112,1337:95436,1342:96975,1362:97380,1368:106342,1425:106650,1442:107420,1562:107959,1572:108652,1585:109191,1594:110423,1615:110808,1622:111193,1628:111655,1636:112040,1642:112579,1650:113657,1662:114042,1668:114966,1682:119438,1705:119758,1715:120078,1721:120462,1729:123288,1760:123756,1768:124224,1775:125004,1788:125706,1799:126876,1818:127968,1835:129060,1852:134081,1886:134426,1892:135392,1918:135806,1925:136634,1968:137462,1998:137876,2006:139463,2034:142154,2086:145949,2183:146225,2188:146984,2205:147398,2213:147812,2221:152862,2233:153206,2238:154066,2249:154840,2261:155356,2268:155786,2274:157290,2281:158026,2293:159498,2309:160786,2323:162810,2358:164098,2371:168000,2400:168648,2412:170857,2424:171293,2429:172383,2442:173582,2451:174563,2465:178980,2490:179500,2503:179916,2512:181112,2540:181372,2546:186885,2627:187201,2633:188307,2648:188860,2657:189808,2672:190282,2680:190914,2689:191467,2702:192731,2729:193047,2734:193521,2741:194232,2751:205792,2921:206172,2929:207312,2964:208680,2984:209212,2992:209516,2997:209820,3002:210276,3009:211340,3023:215520,3084:215900,3090:219035,3099$0,0:624,4:990,11:1234,16:1905,26:2698,40:7910,122:9185,129:9695,136:10035,141:10375,146:10885,153:11990,169:12670,178:13350,187:24023,257:26933,318:27418,324:27806,329:29552,347:30231,355:35190,383:35710,392:37140,420:37920,436:38310,444:38635,450:40390,489:40845,498:41755,517:42470,532:49230,605:50010,618:50985,636:51245,641:52090,657:52415,663:52935,672:53780,687:54365,697:55925,720:56380,730:60872,773:61156,778:61582,785:61866,790:62221,796:63144,813:64067,830:64777,845:65345,859:65700,867:66197,875:67617,909:67972,915:68469,925:70457,955:70741,960:77012,993:78661,1015:79340,1023:80601,1041:82347,1058:84384,1081:84772,1086:86227,1100:86906,1120:94800,1177:95484,1190:95788,1195:97384,1231:98448,1250:99056,1260:99360,1265:100272,1281:100576,1286:100880,1291:101564,1302:101944,1309:102324,1315:103844,1342:104832,1361:105212,1367:106276,1390:106732,1397:111320,1402:112316,1414:112897,1422:113312,1431:114308,1445:115138,1457:116540,1466:117536,1481:118449,1495:119113,1509:119777,1521:120192,1527:121769,1552:127367,1590:127850,1599:130265,1636:130541,1641:131024,1650:134331,1683:136022,1708:136912,1719:139137,1753:140205,1768:140828,1777:141540,1786:142074,1794:145691,1809:145959,1814:146495,1823:147701,1841:148371,1852:149041,1864:150984,1906:154224,1934:155316,1950:155784,1957:156564,1968:157812,1987:159840,2010:160230,2016:162570,2058:163116,2066:163896,2079:169450,2112:169982,2120:170286,2125:170894,2131:171198,2136:171958,2147:174238,2178:175226,2195:176442,2214:177202,2234:182780,2289:183188,2296:183800,2306:186530,2339:188105,2358:189080,2369:189380,2374:190205,2387:190730,2395:191405,2408:192005,2417:192605,2432:193205,2441:195029,2448
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Asa Hilliard interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Asa Hilliard's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Asa Hilliard recalls his family history during and after slavery

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Asa Hilliard remembers stories of his grandfather's youth

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Asa Hilliard tells some of his father's stories

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Asa Hilliard talks about his extended family

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Asa Hilliard gives more details about his father's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Asa Hilliard discusses his mother's life

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Asa Hilliard explains his family's involvement in civil rights activism

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Asa Hilliard discusses his parents' relationship

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Asa Hilliard reflects on his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Asa Hilliard details his early education

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Asa Hilliard talks about living in Denver, Colorado as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Asa Hilliard remembers his interests in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Asa Hilliard discusses his high school teachers and experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Asa Hilliard talks about his plans after high school

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Asa Hillliard talks about his decision to study psychology

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Asa Hilliard discusses his extracurricular activities during his undergraduate education

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Asa Hilliard remembers graduate school mentors

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Asa Hilliard explains his political influences

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Asa Hilliard tells of his military service, high school teaching job and graduate school studies

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Asa Hilliard talks about his decision to work at San Francisco State University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Asa Hilliard reflects on desegregation activity in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Asa Hilliard recalls conflict over black students' demands at SFSC in the late 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Asa Hilliard talks about his experience in Liberia with the Peace Corps

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Slating of Asa Hilliard, III's interview, session 2

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about his high education in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Asa Hilliard, III remembers his teachers at Manual Training School in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Asa Hilliard, III describes Denver, Colorado

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Asa Hilliard, III remembers his teenage activities

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about his early interest in African dance

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Asa Hilliard, III describes his early experiences of social activism

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Asa Hilliard, III recalls his start at the University of Denver in Denver, Colorado

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Asa Hilliard, III remembers his experiences at the University of Denver

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about the faculty at the University of Denver, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about the faculty at the University of Denver, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Asa Hilliard, III recalls being hired at San Francisco State College in San Francisco, California

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about his experiences of challenging racist theories

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about psychological theories of race

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about the book, 'Stolen Legacy' by George G. M. James

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Asa Hilliard, III remembers his introduction to African American history

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Asa Hilliard, III recalls joining a Peace Corps training project in Liberia

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about his experiences in Liberia, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Asa Hilliard, III recalls the work of Horace G. Dawson and Lula Cole Dawson

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about his experiences in Liberia, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Asa Hilliard, III reflects upon the contributions of the Peace Corps in Liberia

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Asa Hilliard, III recalls his return to San Francisco State College in San Francisco, California

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about the growth of mental health centers in the San Francisco Bay Area

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about his career at San Francisco State University

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Asa Hilliard, III recalls joining the faculty at Georgia State University in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Asa Hilliard, III recalls joining the faculty at Georgia State University in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Asa Hilliard, III remembers the creation of the Nile Valley Conference

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Asa Hilliard, III recalls the inaugural issue of The Journal of African Civilizations

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about the field of Egyptology, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about the King Tutankhamun exhibit

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Asa Hilliard, III describes the scholars of Egyptology

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Asa Hilliard, III remembers his first trip to Egypt, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about the Nubian ethnolinguistic group in Egypt

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Asa Hilliard, III remembers his first trip to Egypt, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Asa Hilliard, III describes his experiences in Daboud, Egypt

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Asa Hilliard, III recalls the creation of the African-American Baseline Essays

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Asa Hilliard, III describes the impact of the African-American Baseline Essays

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about the field of Egyptology, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about the critics of Afrocentrism

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Asa Hilliard, III describes his published works

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Asa Hilliard, III reflects upon the importance of learning and preserving cultural history

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about Afrocentrism

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Asa Hilliard, III describes his book, 'The Maroon Within Us'

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Asa Hilliard, III describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Asa Hilliard, III reflects upon his life

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Asa Hilliard, III reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Asa Hilliard, III describes his family

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Asa Hilliard, III talks about his parents' support

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Asa Hilliard, III describes his non-academic employment

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Asa Hilliard, III reflects upon his upbringing

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Asa Hilliard, III describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

1$3

DATitle
Asa Hilliard explains his family's involvement in civil rights activism
Asa Hilliard remembers graduate school mentors
Transcript
Were any of your relatives involved in organizations--?$$Yeah. NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People]. My dad [Asa Grant Hilliard, II] was involved in that. My uncles were involved and I believe my aunts were as well. Plus they started organizations. My dad began the--he was one of the founders of the [Texas] State Teachers Association for black teachers. Now he also was one of the founders--the primary founder for the nation-for the statewide student council association. Because he thought that the young people oughta' began to get their feet wet. So that they would be prepared to move on into some of these other organizations. He did work with the Urban League in Texas. And then they did just a lot of work without organizations. Without formal organizations. As--like the whole thing I was telling you about the board of trustees for the university [Texas Southern University, Houston, Texas]. But other things as well. My aunts were--they were sit--they were refusing to get up and move on bus long before Rosa Parks did that. My--one of my aunts had a threat to fight on the bus. Told the bus driver she wasn't moving anywhere, you know. And I found out a lot of women did that in other parts of the country. But yeah, they were--They were some organizations and some independent efforts that were proactive as far as civil rights kind of things.$$Okay. You were saying off-camera that your father would be considered a race man.$$Yeah.$$You were explaining that. Can you explain--?$$(Simultaneously) That was a word they used when I was a child. A race man was one who gave a large part of their time to challenging white supremacy and segregation. I had one uncle who never went to school. Well, take it back he went to fourth grade and he became the richest one in the family. He was a millionaire, you know. And used to buy us clothes every time we went--when my dad became principal [of Emmett Scott High School] in Tyler [Texas] and had to move with no money. 'Cause he was always broke. It was that uncle that went and bought him a house and then bought him a car. So he could go in without being ashamed as the principal of the high school, wouldn't have to live in poverty. So that particular uncle was a strong civil rights person. And single-handedly became a lead politician in Houston [Texas]. The mayor's, the mayor's son, I guess it was, came to the funeral and said that his dad told him that, who was also mayor, that, if you intend to do anything politically in Houston, the first person you see is Sid Hilliard. And so he said, "I did." And he said, I got, you know, overwhelmingly elected, because he was able to mobilize that kind of support for him. He was a very strong political person. And he would be called--he called himself a race man. My Uncle Robie who taught at Prairie View [Agricultural and Mechanical University, Prairie View, Texas] and also at Texas Southern [University] called himself a race man. Because they were keenly interested in injustice and, and fighters for justice. That's how they saw their function.$Had pretty good grades in undergraduate school [University of Denver, Denver, Colorado]. Not great. But, I had professors that I bonded with that became important to me later in graduate school [University of Denver].$$Now who are-were some of them and did they (unclear)?$$The--one of the key people for me was a guy named Phil Purdue. Who was a teacher educator. And he just had a personal liking for me. And I didn't remember him as being a great teacher but I guess he was for--not so much for what was taught in class, but the other things. He was the one who taught me how important it was to be in professional organizations. He said that, "You will never function effectively in education unless you participate deeply in professional organizations." So he and his wife became very close friends. His son became one of my first students when I taught both in student teaching and when I taught for my first year as a teacher in high school--South High School in Denver. His--so he was very important to me. Bernard Spilka, who was a psychologist was important in kind of a role model way. He took his class--our class to his house one time. And all I saw was books for days. And he knew what was in everyone of them. And I used to sit in his class and just wait for him to drop book titles and then I would immediately go over to the university and get those titles. You know, so I became very informed in certain areas of psychology in particular. Largely, because of his model and his teaching, you know. And I still regard him as one of the really great inspirations for me. And then the third was Frances Brush who probably more than any other did everything he could to facilitate my growth and also was a model for me. He was a philosophy professor. And later in graduate school, because of the work that I'd done in trying to understand what he was doing in philosophy, he remembered me and invited me to be one of the teachers in the honors program in philosophy for the university. And it was three years of pure heaven. You know, as far as working with him and understanding his philosophy and working with these high performing students and the challenges of having to do the reading and do the thinking and all of that, that went with that made it--made him one of the really important people. So that would be Spilka, Purdue and Frances Brush that were probably the central people in my academic career through graduate school.