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Frank Savage

Investment banker Frank Savage was born on July 10, 1938 in Rocky Mount, North Carolina to Grace Savage and Frank Savage, Sr. When Savage was six months old, his mother and his twin sister, Frances, moved to Washington, D.C., where Savage’s mother opened up a beauty salon. In 1961, Savage earned his B.A. degree from Howard University, and in 1964, he received his M.A. degree in international relations from Johns Hopkins University.

In 1962, Savage joined Crossroads Africa where he was assigned, along with two hundred and fifty other students, to build tennis courts at an all-boys school in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia). Upon earning his M.A. degree in 1964, Savage joined Citibank, as the first African American in its international division, and worked in the Middle East and Africa. In 1970, Savage joined Equitable Life Insurance as president of Equico Capital Corp., the largest Minority Enterprise Small Business Investment Corporation in the United States. In 1973, Savage joined TAW International Leasing as executive vice president. He then went on to become vice chairman of the board and head of international operations for Equitable Capital Management Corporation; and, in 1987, he was named senior vice president of The Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States (now the AXA Equitable Life Insurance Company). In 1992, Savage became chairman of Equitable Capital Management Corporation, where he spearheaded the firm’s global investment management business. Following the merger of Equitable Capital Management Corporation and Alliance Capital Management International in 1993, he served as chairman emeritus of Alliance Capital.

In 1998, Savage became a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, and in 2001, he resigned from Alliance Capital to form the Africa Millennium Fund. After the events of September 11, 2001, Savage delayed his plans for the Africa Millennium Fund and started Savage Holdings, where he serves as CEO.

Savage is chairman emeritus of the SAIS advisory board and of Howard University’s board of trustees. He has also served on the boards of Bloomberg LP, New York Academy of Medicine, Lockheed Martin, Qualcomm, and the New York Philharmonic. He was awarded an Honorary Doctorate in Humane Letters from Hofstra University and an Honorary Doctorate of Humanities from Howard University. In addition, Savage won the Lord Nelson Trophy as part of the 2003 Antigua Race Week Regatta, the premier sailing event in the Caribbean.

Savage is married to Lolita Valderrama Savage. They have six children.

Frank Savage was interviewed The HistoryMakers on May 5, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.122

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/5/2014 |and| 5/7/2014

Last Name

Savage

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

Thomas P. Morgan Elementary School

Benjamin Banneker Academic High School

Paul Laurence Dunbar High School

Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies

Howard University

First Name

Frank

Birth City, State, Country

Rocky Mount

HM ID

SAV02

State

North Carolina

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

7/10/1938

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Short Description

Investment banker Frank Savage (1938 - ) was CEO of Savage Holdings. He held leadership roles at Equico Capital Corp, TAW International, Equitable Capital Management Corporation, AXA Equitable Life Insurance Company, and Alliance Capital Management International. In addition, he was the first African American to work in Citibank’s international division.

Employment

Citibank

Equico Capital

TAW International

Equitable Life Assur. Co.

Equitable Capital Management

Alliance Capital Mgmt Intl.

Savage Holdings LLC

The Honorable Robert Mack Bell

Judge Robert Mack Bell was born on July 6, 1943 in Rocky Mount, North Carolina to Thomas and Rosa Lee Bell. His father was a construction worker while his mother worked as a domestic and care giver. His parents separated when he was a young, and Bell was raised by his mother who moved to Baltimore, Maryland, in search of better jobs. He attended Baltimore public schools and graduated from Dunbar High School in 1961. While finishing his senior year at Dunbar in 1960, he, along with eleven other students, were recruited by Morgan State College students to participate in a sit-in at Hooper’s Restaurant, a segregated business. The students were subsequently arrested and convicted for trespassing. Bell was the lead defendant for an appeal of the verdict in the landmark civil rights case, Bell v. Maryland, which was argued before the U.S. Supreme Court and eventually ended racial segregation in Maryland.

After high school, Bell enrolled at Morgan State College in 1961 but was forced to take a year off from school after being hospitalized with tuberculosis. In 1963, he returned to Morgan where he was active in student government, and a member of the honor society and of the Alpha Phi Omega Fraternity. After he graduated second in his class with his A.B. degree in history and political science in 1966, he enrolled at Harvard Law School. The first student from Morgan to attend Harvard’s prestigious law school, Bell received his J.D. degree from there in 1969.

After passing the Maryland State Bar Examination in 1969, Bell was hired by Piper & Marbury, where he became the Baltimore law firm’s first black associate. In 1975, he became a judge on the District Court of Maryland for Baltimore City in his first judgeship. In 1980, Bell served as a judge for the Circuit Court for Baltimore, remaining until 1984. He was then appointed to the bench of the Court of Special Appeals in Maryland, serving in that post until 1991 when he was elected Judge of the Court of Appeals of Maryland. In 1996, Bell was appointed by Maryland Governor Parris Glendening as Chief Judge of the Court of Appeals, the state’s highest court. With that appointment he became the only active judge in Maryland to have served at least four years on all four levels of Maryland’s judiciary and the first African American to be named the state’s chief jurist.

Bell is a member of several legal organizations including the National, American and Maryland State Bar Associations. He has received numerous awards and recognition for his work in the legal field and lectures often at schools and at community functions.

Appellate Court Judge Robert Mack Bell was interviewed by TheHistoryMakers on August 17, 2004.

Accession Number

A2004.129

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/17/2004

Last Name

Bell

Maker Category
Marital Status

Single

Middle Name

Mack

Schools

P.S. 101A Elementary School

P.S. 139 Elementary School

Dunbar High School

Morgan State University

Harvard Law School

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Depends on Schedule

First Name

Robert

Birth City, State, Country

Rocky Mount

HM ID

BEL02

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

No preference

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

No

Favorite Season

Summer

Speaker Bureau Notes

Preferred Audience: No preference

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Maryland

Birth Date

7/6/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Baltimore

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pork

Short Description

Judge The Honorable Robert Mack Bell (1943 - ) was the lead defendant in the 1964 civil rights case, Bell v. Maryland, which was argued before the U.S. Supreme Court and helped end racial segregation in Maryland. Since 1996, Bell has been Chief Judge of the Maryland Court of Appeals.

Employment

Piper & Marbury

District Court of Maryland

Circuit Court for Baltimore City

Maryland Court of Special Appeals

Court of Appeals of Maryland

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
0,0:1264,41:1580,46:9243,180:9559,185:10428,198:16730,231:17170,237:19764,250:20132,255:20868,268:22892,305:23628,314:25284,340:36844,480:37876,498:42176,527:42778,536:43466,547:44154,556:46734,606:62485,850:62777,855:63580,900:75769,1163:82551,1265:83586,1280:85311,1309:85794,1317:87381,1346:87657,1351:88623,1376:93890,1396:98426,1438:103594,1521:121650,1789:123344,1816:132400,1910:136080,1934:136400,1939:137280,1950:138000,1962:138320,1967:138800,1975:139120,1980:139920,1991:141120,2014:141600,2022:142080,2035:149213,2105:149710,2114:149994,2119:150278,2129:150562,2134:157449,2276:171788,2486:172424,2493:173166,2502:176876,2543:180215,2559:180555,2565:180895,2570:181320,2576:203160,2902:208476,2943:209496,2975:210210,2984:210720,2990:218310,3097:219054,3106:220077,3127:221565,3151:230134,3197:229804,3207:232700,3285:236512,3348:237844,3396:240878,3610:241248,3617:246110,3663$0,0:4108,44:10854,111:19445,252:19865,271:28290,325:28610,341:28930,346:29410,354:29890,361:30850,370:38556,435:39934,457:40718,466:44966,514:46436,563:49474,651:64110,859
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Robert Mack Bell's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell describes his father's childhood and explains how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell describes his mother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell talks about his parents moving to Baltimore, Maryland and their eventual separation

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell reflects upon his knowledge of his family's history

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell talks about his parents' jobs

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell remembers his maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell remembers his paternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell remembers childhood holiday traditions

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell remembers childhood activities and early lessons from his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell describes his childhood neighborhood in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 1 Story: 16 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 1 Story: 17 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls his elementary school experiences at P.S. 101-A in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell explains why he completed elementary school at P.S. 139 in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls his favorite subject from elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell talks about his aspiration to become a lawyer

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell describes his childhood personality and interests

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls attending Faith Baptist Church in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell describes his experiences at Paul Laurence Dunbar Junior High School in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls his teachers and principal at Paul Laurence Dunbar Junior High School in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell describes his interests while attending Paul Laurence Dunbar Junior High School in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls meeting Reginald F. Lewis at Paul Laurence Dunbar High School in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls his first sit-in experience at Hooper's Restaurant in Baltimore, Maryland in 1960

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell speculates about the reasons high school students were recruited for civil rights sit-ins

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell talks about his trespassing conviction during a sit-in at Hooper's Restaurant which led to Bell v. Maryland (1964)

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell talks about the outcome of the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in Bell v. Maryland (1964)

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell talks about the careers of the lawyers and judges involved in the circuit court trial of Bell v. Maryland (1964)

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls the impact of the Bell v. Maryland (1964) trial on his senior year of high school

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell explains his decision to attend Morgan State College in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls keeping up with his studies at Morgan State College after he was hospitalized for a year

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell describes his experience at Morgan State College in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell explains his decision to attend Harvard Law School in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell describes his experience at Harvard Law School in Cambridge, Massachusetts in the late 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls the founding of BLSA, the Black American Law Students Association

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell explains how his academic success at Harvard Law School opened doors for other African American students

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls his classes and professors at Harvard Law School in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls his first job after law school with Piper & Marbury in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell talks about being one of five African Americans to pass the Maryland State bar exam in 1969

Tape: 3 Story: 13 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls his experience at the law firm Piper & Marbury in 1969

Tape: 3 Story: 14 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell talks about Piper & Marbury's plan to provide community legal services

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell talks about his appointment to the District Court of Maryland for Baltimore City in 1975

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell explains his decision to become a judge

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell explains the difference between the duties of a district court judge versus a circuit court judge

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell explains why he chose to move from the District Court of Maryland to the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell reflects upon the value of his judgeship

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls memorable cases from his years as a judge for the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell talks about the challenges of serving as a judge

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell describes changes he has observed in criminal cases throughout his career as a judge

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell talks about his experience on the Maryland Court of Special Appeals

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell talks about his interest in the legal process as a judge on the Maryland Court of Special Appeals

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell explains the difference between the Maryland Court of Special Appeals and the Court of Appeals of Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell describes the pace of work on the Court of Appeals of Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell describes his responsibilities as chief judge on the Court of Appeals of Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 14 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell reflects upon his achievements in light of his family background

Tape: 4 Story: 15 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell defines his judicial philosophy and approach

Tape: 4 Story: 16 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 17 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell narrates his photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

10$17

DATitle
The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls his first sit-in experience at Hooper's Restaurant in Baltimore, Maryland in 1960
The Honorable Robert Mack Bell reflects upon his life
Transcript
Were you starting to become a little bit more socially aware?$$Oh yeah. Oh yeah. I--you know, as you grow older--I mean, as I say, we were beginning to notice the, the women, we were beginning to notice a lot of things. But you gotta remember, we were still rather segregated in those days. I mean, I remember going to some conferences outside of the ghetto area [in Baltimore, Maryland], but that was an eye-opening experience. But I did have--in 1960, I did have a, a very interesting and I think important occurrence. That was when I got involved with sit-ins myself.$$And let's talk a little bit about your sit-in (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Yeah, see--$$--experience.$$Yeah, see we, we were--we [Bell and Reginald F. Lewis] ran for student government president in my junior--at the end of our junior year, so it would've been for the next year. So at the time that--at the spring of that year, I was student government president elect and this Morgan [State College; Morgan State University, Baltimore, Maryland] student came to [Paul Laurence] Dunbar [High School; Paul Laurence Dunbar High School for Health Professionals, Baltimore, Maryland] seeking some assistance.$$Morgan college students.$$Morgan State College. In, in those days it was a college, yeah, seeking some assistance in a planned demonstration that was gonna take place on the last day of school in June, and they needed someone to be point person in recruiting students. As student government president, you know, we--I was the one that they checked with and we got some--took some responsibility for trying to get the people together. And in fact when the day came, we did have some people. We got on the bus and we went downtown and participated in some picketing and ultimately, the group I was with ended up going in and sitting in at Hooper's Restaurant [Baltimore, Maryland].$$Hooper's?$$Hooper's, H-O-O-P-E-R-S, with the result that we were arrested. That didn't mean that we were physically arrested on the spot. What it does mean is that we were permitted to go home, that was a Friday, permitted to go home and come back that next Monday and then be fingerprinted and processed.$$So you weren't taken to jail.$$Not right then. No, we weren't taken to jail at all, did not spend a day in jail, but we were prosecuted. I was sixteen (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Were you scared?$$--at that time. Well, you're always scared when you don't know what's happening or you don't know what's going to happen. Yeah, I was scared in two ways, scared of what, what, what might happen, but also scared not to do it in a sense because it was something that I, I decided was important to do. And, and there was a third way, I guess, I was also a little bit concerned about what my mother [Rosa Lee Jordan Bell] would say and do because--$$What did your--what was your mother's reaction?$$She--once it was done, she was very supportive. If I had told her in advance, I'm not so sure she would have permitted me to do it. For that reason, I didn't tell her (laughter).$$And this was in 1960, right?$$Nineteen sixty [1960], yeah. This was--this would've been June 16th or 17th of 1960. Now, this is after the southern thing [Atlanta Student Movement]--$$Right.$$--because they--that all started in--that all started before.$$Right, I think it was in March--$$That's right, see, and--$$(Unclear) in March at southern--$$--and then before March, you had A & T [Agricultural and Technical College of North Carolina; North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, North Carolina]--$$Um-hm. Right, exactly.$$--and so it moved up the coast, so--$Any regrets?$$Oh, no. Absolutely not. Why would I have any?$$None?$$That's right, I don't. I really don't.$$What haven't you done yet that you'd still like to do?$$Retire.$$(Laughter) And--$$I'm tired, that's all (laughter).$$When do you anticipate that happening?$$I have no idea. I--you know, I could retire tomorrow. I've been--I've been able to retire from the standpoint of the vesting of a pension since I was sixteen--see, sixteen years--almost fourteen years ago, but I don't know. I, I'm--I have no idea yet. I'll have to see. But I'm just tired right now, that's why I said that (laughter).$$And quickly, what, what are you gonna do when you retire?$$Again, I'll refer to Thurgood [Marshall]. Thurgood said, "I'm gonna sit on my butt, and that's right," (laughter).$$Thank you very much, [HistoryMaker] Judge [Robert Mack] Bell.$$Thank you.

Thurbert Baker

Born December 16, 1952, in Rocky Mount, North Carolina, Georgia Attorney General Thurbert Baker was raised by his mother, Mary H. Baker, on a small rural farm. He attended public elementary and high schools in Rocky Mount and, in 1975, received a B.A. in political science from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He graduated from Emory University School of Law in Atlanta in 1979.

From 1979 to 1985, Baker worked as a public defender before entering private practice. He was senior partner of the Baker and Shivers law firm from 1985 to 1997, during which time he won election to the Georgia House of Representatives, where he served from 1989 to 1997. He was named assistant floor leader for Governor Zell Miller in 1990 and floor leader in 1993.

Since 1997, Baker has served as the attorney general for the state of Georgia, the first African American to hold this position. Baker initiated the passage of legislation that increased penalties for domestic abuse cases, including a provision that made it a crime to commit an act of domestic violence in the presence of a child.

Baker serves on the executive committee of the National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG), is convenor of the NAAG Civil Rights Committee, and also served as chairman of NAAG's Conference on Violence Against Women. He is also an adviser to the Harrell Center for the study of domestic violence at the University of South Florida.

Baker has been a board member of the DeKalb County Library, the National Medical Society at Emory University, and the DeKalb College Foundation, and is a trustee of the Ebenezer Baptist Church. Baker, the 1975 Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) individual sabre champion, was recognized in 2002 by the ACC as one of the top fencers in conference history when named to its fiftieth anniversary fencing team.

Baker and his wife, Catherine, live in Stone Mountain, Georgia. They have two daughters, Jocelyn and Chelsea.

Accession Number

A2003.193

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/15/2003

Last Name

Baker

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Organizations
Schools

Rocky Mount High School

O R Pope Elementary

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Emory University School of Law

First Name

Thurbert

Birth City, State, Country

Rocky Mount

HM ID

BAK02

Favorite Season

Spring

Speaker Bureau Notes

Natalie DiSantis (assistant)

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Florida

Favorite Quote

It Doesn't Get Any Better.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

12/16/1952

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Hamburgers

Short Description

State attorney general Thurbert Baker (1952 - ) served two consecutive terms in the Georgia House of Representatives before becoming the first African American elected as attorney general for the state of Georgia, where he initiated legislation in the General Assembly increasing penalties for domestic abuse cases.

Employment

Baker & Shivers

George House of Representatives

State of Georgia

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
596,0:9452,219:31460,544:31880,556:34260,603:36570,656:38530,704:41120,762:50400,849:50696,854:56690,967:57726,1004:76745,1254:81420,1315:86720,1350:88020,1375:88475,1383:97965,1620:147208,2093:149161,2157:161390,2321:167730,2383:168018,2388:169242,2421:169674,2428:178242,2636:178530,2641:179178,2651:181626,2707:194560,2797:201136,2857:204189,2911:211854,3018:212690,3031:214818,3073:220366,3185:230514,3308:233706,3351:236820,3365$0,0:153930,2251
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Thurbert Baker's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Thurbert Baker lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Thurbert Baker describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Thurbert Baker describes his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Thurbert Baker talks about his mother's occupations in Rocky Mount, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Thurbert Baker describes his family life growing up in Rocky Mount, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Thurbert Baker recalls his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Thurbert Baker remembers the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up in rural North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Thurbert Baker talks about attending O.R. Pope Elementary School, Baskerville Elementary School, and Parker Junior High School in Rocky Mount, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Thurbert Baker recalls his favorite grade-school subjects and his desire to become a lawyer

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Thurbert Baker describes attending Primitive Baptist Church in Rocky Mount, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Thurbert Baker describes St. James Baptist Church in Rocky Mount, North Carolina, and the role of music in his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Thurbert Baker talks about the teachers that influenced him at O.R. Pope Elementary School and Parker Junior High School in Rocky Mount, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Thurbert Baker describes race relations in Rocky Mount, North Carolina, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Thurbert Baker describes race relations in Rocky Mount, North Carolina, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Thurbert Baker recalls his role in student government during the integration of Rocky Mount Senior High School

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Thurbert Baker remembers HistoryMaker Jerry Butler performing at his prom at Rocky Mountain Senior High School

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Thurbert Baker recounts his decision to attend the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Thurbert Baker describes fencing at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Thurbert Baker talks about University of North Carolina Dean and mentor, Hayden B. Renwick

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Thurbert Baker describes his years at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill from 1972 to 1976

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Thurbert Baker describes his decision to attend Emory Law School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Thurbert Baker describes the academic rigor of Emory Law School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Thurbert Baker talks about Atlanta, Georgia Mayor Maynard Jackson

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Thurbert Baker describes his legal career as a Fulton County, Georgia public defender and as a regional counsel for the Environmental Protection Agency

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Thurbert Baker recounts his decision to run for the Georgia State House of Representatives in 1989 while working in private practice

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Thurbert Baker describes his legislative career in the Georgia House of Representatives from 1988 to 1997

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Thurbert Baker explains how he became Attorney General of Georgia, and the political character of the State of Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Thurbert Baker describes his tough-on-crime initiatives as Georgia Attorney General

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Thurbert Baker talks about preventing crime in the African American community, and the roles of the family and the justice system, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Thurbert Baker talks about preventing crime in the African American community, and the roles of the family and the justice system, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Thurbert Baker describes his 2003 state constitutional conflict with Georgia governor Sonny Perdue

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Thurbert Baker describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Thurbert Baker reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Thurbert Baker talks about how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

4$3

DATitle
Thurbert Baker describes his decision to attend Emory Law School in Atlanta, Georgia
Thurbert Baker describes his tough-on-crime initiatives as Georgia Attorney General
Transcript
After graduation, you had to decide on, on--you know, you were--well, you, you had--how did you decide on going to Emory [University, Atlanta, Georgia] for law school? That's what I guess we should say.$$Two, two, two reasons: one, I decided early on that I needed to leave [University of North Carolina] Chapel Hill because I was, I was growing too fond of Chapel Hill. You know how sometime you get very complacent in what you're doing. And I, and I thought as I was getting to my junior and senior year in Chapel Hill that, you know, the rest of the world isn't like Chapel Hill. I mean you, you gotta get out and experience it. It's not, it's not always this easy. It's a small town. It was a college town, and everybody kind of caters to the, to the university. I wanted to see a, a, a, a bigger universe, and, and I didn't want to, to stay there. I thought that if I stayed in Chapel, in Chapel Hill for law school, I'd probably never leave. And I've always had it in the back of my mind that I, I wanted to expand my experiences and expand my horizons. So, you know, then it was a question of where to. And, and I had the experience of, of going to Atlanta [Georgia] on a number of occasions just to visit. I was told about Emory Law School, which I understood to be a great law school. I came down to visit. I was so impressed with the city, and I was equally impressed with the law school, and I knew. I mean soon as I set foot on campus and went to the law school, I knew that's where I wanted to go. And so I applied, and I got accepted, and of course the rest is history.$$Well, this is all history (laughter), so. Well, you know, who were some of the instructors, and--at Emory that--were there any instructors that were particularly difficult or, or helpful, or, or any that stand out?$$Both.$$Okay.$$Helpful, I'll, I'll, I'll never forget my, my, my Property instructor, Real Estate Law and Property Issues. His name was William Agner. He's now deceased, but, but he was--they called him the bull. And he, he gave me the best advice for a practicing lawyer that I ever got in law school. He says, you know, Thurbert, he says, winning a case is just half of it. The other half is you gotta get your money, and you know, you gotta get paid. And he says don't ever assume you're gonna always get paid when you, when you handle a case. But he was real practical like that. And, and I always appreciated it. Sometimes law school could be very theoretical. And, and you know, you come out and you know all the theory, but you don't know how to get from your office to the courthouse. And, and it's that practical side that you miss sometimes in law school. But he was real practical. Professor Fear struck fear in all of our hearts. He, he taught Criminal Procedure there at Emory. And I, I will tell you it--I was always intimidated in the class, and as was the other students. And, and I remember, you know, coming in some days, and you try and hide behind the book so you wouldn't get called on. That's a remedy for--that's a solution and, and, and the best way to get called on in his class. He sort of pick you out. "Mr. Baker, lower that book back there, and let me ask you this question." But he was, he was difficult, but he taught us well. But it was always a, a, a tense moment when we sat in those classes.$In terms of the attorney general's office, I know crime and safety is a big, big issue in the State of Georgia. And you were responsible for pushing through legislation for two strikes, you're out law or, or provision in the state government, right? Where--$$Yeah.$$Yeah, what--can you tell us--$$We did, we did that when I was floor leader for then-Governor Zell Miller. And what we were trying to, to address was an increasing rate of, of very crime in this state. You know, what do we need to do, as a, as a state, not only to, to, to punish those individuals who are committing your murders, and your, your armed robberies, and your rapes, and your, your child molestations, I mean what do we do to those people from a punishment standpoint, but also how do we send the right message that we aren't gonna put up with that here in Georgia? And we want to, therefore, deter those kinds of activities, and so we, we introduced and passed the two strikes and you're out legislation, which at that time and still is, some of the toughest legislation in the country to deal with violent, violent criminals. And what we've said is when you commit one of those, we call 'em the seven deadly sins, then we're gonna me sure that there's a minimum amount of time that's served for the first offense. And if you're crazy enough to come back and commit one of those crimes again, then you have to serve life without the possibility of parole. Now I've gotten calls from reporters all over the country since the passage of that, that legislation, wanting to know what we attribute the drop in violent crime rate in Georgia to. And, and I'll tell you, I can't prove this with any degree of statistical certainty, but I will stake my reputation on it, on the fact and the belief that the reason we see that drop is because criminals know that if you commit those seven deadly sins here in Georgia, there's a serious penalty to be paid. And they, they simply don't do it. I mean it's, it's real basic math here, real basic. I, I don't wanna go off and serve ten years, or I don't wanna go off and serve life without parole, so therefore, I don't do the crime. And, and I think it's been a, a tremendous support for us in the law enforcement community.