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Cassandra Jennings

Municipal official and nonprofit executive Cassandra Jennings was born on May 24, 1956 in Williamstown, North Carolina to Mary Bunch Brinkley and Bernard Brinkley. Jennings graduated from Bowie High School in Bowie, Maryland in 1974, and received her B.A. degree in urban studies from the University of Maryland College Park in 1978. She then earned her M.P.A. degree from the University of San Francisco in 1983.

Jennings worked as an analyst for the City of Oakland, California from 1978 to 1983. Jennings was then hired as a project manager for the Neighborhood Housing Services of America in Oakland. In 1987, she joined the Sacramento Housing and Redevelopment Agency, where worked in various positions, including that of deputy executive director. During her time there, Jennings founded the consulting firm of Jennings & Associates in 2000. After leaving the Sacramento Housing and Redevelopment Agency in 2005, Jennings was hired by the City of Sacramento as an assistant city manager, a position she held until 2011. She then briefly returned to the Sacramento Housing and Redevelopment Agency as the deputy executive director, handling special projects and evaluating special entities. From 2012 to 2016, Jennings served as a senior advisor to Sacramento Mayor Kevin Johnson. In this role, Jennings worked on a number of city-wide initiatives, including For Arts’ Sake, Sacramento Steps Forward, and Volunteer Sacramento. Jennings became the president and chief executive officer of the Greater Sacramento Urban League in 2016.

Jennings has received numerous awards, including a Repairer of the Breach Award in 2010 and an Award of Excellence from Zeta Phi Beta Sorority in 2011. In 2016, she received the Community Leader Award from Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, and was a California Legislative Caucus Black History Month Honoree. Jennings also received an Al Geiger Memorial Award from the Sacramento Metropolitan Chamber of Commerce and a Chancellor’s Achievement Award for diversity and community from the University of California, Davis in 2018. Jennings served as chair of the American Leadership Forum and the Florin Road Foundation boards as well as on the boards of the California Musical Theater and the Golden 1 Credit Union. She served as president of the Sacramento chapter of The Links, and was co-chair of the Career Education African American Advisory Panel.

Jennings and her husband, Richard T. Jennings II, have two children, Richard Jennings III and Asha Jennings.

Cassandra Jennings was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 3, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.061

Sex

Female

Interview Date

4/3/2018

Last Name

Jennings

Maker Category
Schools

University of Maryland

University of San Francisco

First Name

Cassandra

Birth City, State, Country

Williamstown

HM ID

JEN11

Favorite Season

Summer

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Abu Dhabi

Favorite Quote

Weeping May Endure For A Moment But Joy Comes In The Morning.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

5/24/1956

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Sacramento

Favorite Food

Crab

Short Description

Municipal official and nonprofit executive Cassandra Jennings (1956 - ) held various positions with the Sacramento Housing and Redevelopment Agency, the City of Sacramento, and the office of Sacramento Mayor Kevin Johnson before becoming the chief executive officer of the Greater Sacramento Urban League.

Employment

Greater Sacramento Urban League

City of Sacramento

Sacramento Housing and Redevelopment Agency

Neighborhood Housing Services of America

City of Oakland

Favorite Color

Blue

Dabney N. Montgomery

Tuskegee Airman Dabney N. Montgomery was born on April 18, 1923 in Selma, Alabama to Lula Anderson Montgomery and Dred Montgomery. He attended the Alabama Lutheran Academy and then Selma University High School, graduating in 1941. After high school, he joined the U.S. Army and was sent for basic training at Keesler Field in Biloxi, Mississippi. After that, Montgomery was sent to Quartermaster Training School at Camp Lee, Virginia (outside of Petersburg), where he received special training in supplies.

In 1943, Montgomery of the 1051st Quartermaster Company of the 96th Air Service Group, attached to the 332nd Air Fighter Group was deployed to Italy. He served there until the end of World War II. In 1946, after returning to the United States, Montgomery entered Livingstone College in Salisbury, North Carolina. Montgomery became a member of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity and graduated with his B.A. degree in religious education in 1949. Between 1949 and 1950, he returned to Livingstone College and acquired thirty hours in economic study. He briefly studied economics at the University of Michigan and Wayne State University before going to Boston, Massachusetts, where he enrolled at the Boston Conservatory of Music, studying dance. Montgomery later studied dance with the New York City Metropolitan Opera Dance School before an injury forced him to end his career. In 1955, he began working for the city, first as a Social Service Investigator in the Department of Social Services and later for the Housing Authority. He retired in 1988.

Montgomery passed away on September 3, 2016.

Montgomery was heavily involved in the Civil Rights Movement. He participated in marches in New York City and in the 1963 March on Washington. In 1965, Montgomery was one of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s bodyguards on the historic Selma to Montgomery march.

Since his retirement, Montgomery has worked as a Social Outreach Worker for Project FIND, a non-profit organization assisting older adults on Manhattan’s West Side. Montgomery is also very active with Harlem’s Mother African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, which is the oldest organized black church in New York, founded in 1796. Montgomery is also active on the Parks Committee and Harlem’s Interfaith Committee of the Tenth Community Board of Manhattan.

Montgomery has been married to his wife, Amelia Montgomery, for thirty-seven years (as of 2007). They have no children.

Montgomery was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 7, 2007.

Montgomery passed away on September 3, 2016.

Accession Number

A2007.226

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/7/2007 |and| 2/5/2008

Last Name

Montgomery

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

M.

Schools

Selma University

Concordia College Alabama

Livingstone College

Metropolitan Opera Ballet School

Boston Conservatory at Berklee

University of Michigan

Wayne State University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Dabney

Birth City, State, Country

Selma

HM ID

MON06

Favorite Season

None

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Los Angeles, California

Favorite Quote

If You Have A Problem, Look At Your Feet. You May Be Standing On The Solution.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

4/18/1923

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Sweet Potatoes, Greens (Collard)

Death Date

9/3/2016

Short Description

City government employee, tuskegee airman, and civil rights activist Dabney N. Montgomery (1923 - 2016 ) was a social services investigator in the Department of Social Services and for the New York Housing Authority.

Employment

U.S. Army Air Corps

New York City Housing Authority

Amsterdam Welfare Center

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:798,9:89842,1033:97616,1121:98240,1130:98942,1140:99332,1146:104293,1200:106810,1216:107310,1223:128620,1451:128960,1456:131160,1478:148861,1648:151322,1682:154810,1701$0,0:1391,18:2247,26:6422,57:6818,62:21226,239:25178,301:54784,576:55276,589:55768,596:62595,661:88030,933:92478,970:95610,1030:96045,1036:125686,1353:129557,1422:130031,1429:142500,1543:143300,1586:145140,1616:145460,1621:171264,1955:174232,2003:185955,2079:195222,2190:203654,2276:210124,2336:224734,2493:233492,2593:265754,2907:269665,2966:269965,2971:270265,2976:270565,2981:279859,3095:280294,3101:289634,3197:293089,3231:336260,3626:341920,3683
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dabney N. Montgomery's interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dabney N. Montgomery lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his mother's family

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dabney N. Montgomery talks about his father's marriages

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his half-brother, Joe Montgomery

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his father's career

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dabney N. Montgomery talks about his father's standing in his career

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his brother, Mitchel Montgomery

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dabney N. Montgomery talks about his sister, Fairrow Belle Montgomery Prewitt, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dabney N. Montgomery talks about his sister, Fairrow Belle Montgomery Prewitt, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his two youngest siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers the Clinton Chapel A.M.E. Zion Church in Selma, Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls his mother's death

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers the holidays

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his neighborhood in Selma, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers the black community in Selma, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his home life

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers the Alabama Lutheran Academy in Selma, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls his leadership at the Clinton Chapel A.M.E. Zion Church in Selma, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls attending high school at Selma University in Selma, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers the Clinton Chapel A.M.E. Zion Church in Selma, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls his decision to study religion

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes race relations in Selma, Alabama

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls being drafted during World War II

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his assignments in the U.S. Army Air Corps

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers his colleagues in the U.S. Army Air Corps

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his experiences on segregated trains

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers the formation of the 332nd Fighter Group

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls the Tuskegee Airmen

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers serving as a chaplain to the Tuskegee Airmen

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dabney N. Montgomery talks about his friends among the Tuskegee Airmen

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes the Claude B. Govan Tri-State Chapter of Tuskegee Airmen, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers the treatment of black soldiers in Europe

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes the missions of the 332nd Fighter Group

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dabney N. Montgomery talks about the integration of the U.S. Army

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dabney N. Montgomery talks about his Congressional Gold Medal

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes the end of World War II

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls his return from the U.S. military to Selma, Alabama

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers Livingstone College in Salisbury, North Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers studying economics

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers studying ballet at the Boston Conservatory of Music in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls meeting Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dabney N. Montgomery talks about his brief engagement in Spain

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls his return from New York City to Selma, Alabama

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his first civil rights protest in Selma, Alabama

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers the impact of the Selma to Montgomery March

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dabney N. Montgomery narrates his photographs

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Slating of Dabney N. Montgomery's interview, session 2

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes the civil rights march on Washington, D.C. in 1957

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers Paul Robeson

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes the influence of Dean John H. Satterwhite

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers his father's friendship with A. Philip Randolph

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers the March on Washington

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Dabney N. Montgomery talks about his decision to study economics

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his experiences as an economics student

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls his ballet training at the Boston Conservatory of Music in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 8 Story: 10 - Dabney N. Montgomery talks about his interest in black history

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers traveling in North Africa

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls reconnecting with his Spanish fiancee, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls reconnecting with his Spanish fiancee, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers receiving a vision of angels

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his travels in Egypt

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his acquaintance wiht Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his start as an activist in Selma, Alabama

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers staying at a hotel in Selma, Alabama

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls speaking at the Clinton Chapel A.M.E. Zion Church in Selma, Alabama

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls drinking from a white water fountain in Selma, Alabama

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers his decision to join the second Selma to Montgomery March

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls his arrival at the second Selma to Montgomery March

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes the second Selma to Montgomery March

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls his sister's role in the Selma to Montgomery March

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Dabney N. Montgomery talks about the decision to remain nonviolent during the second Selma to Montgomery March

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Dabney N. Montgomery recalls his experiences during the second Selma to Montgomery March

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Dabney N. Montgomery reflects upon his life

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers the Harlem community in New York City

Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes the changes in New York City's Harlem neighborhood

Tape: 11 Story: 6 - Dabney N. Montgomery talks about the history of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion church

Tape: 11 Story: 7 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 11 Story: 8 - Dabney N. Montgomery reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 11 Story: 9 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers joining the Tuskegee Airman, Inc.

Tape: 11 Story: 10 - Dabney N. Montgomery talks about his membership at the Mother Zion A.M.E. Church in New York City

Tape: 11 Story: 11 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers meeting his wife, pt. 1

Tape: 12 Story: 1 - Dabney N. Montgomery remembers meeting his wife, pt. 2

Tape: 12 Story: 2 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes the Tuskegee Airmen, Inc. organization

Tape: 12 Story: 3 - Dabney N. Montgomery talks about his great-grandfather's U.S. military service

Tape: 12 Story: 4 - Dabney N. Montgomery describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 12 Story: 5 - Dabney N. Montgomery shares his memorabilia from the Selma to Montgomery March

DASession

1$2

DATape

4$10

DAStory

7$3

DATitle
Dabney N. Montgomery remembers serving as a chaplain to the Tuskegee Airmen
Dabney N. Montgomery recalls drinking from a white water fountain in Selma, Alabama
Transcript
You see, what we did [as part of the 1051st Quartermaster Service Group Aviation Company], were to supply food and clothing, and that was it. We, we didn't have--for example, a chaplain of 332nd [332nd Fighter Group; 332nd Expeditionary Operations Group], because we were--we dealt with food and clothing. We needed a warehouse made out of brick. And they put us in brick warehouses, and we worked out of these warehouses. We tried tents, but tents would not do it. So we worked out of a brick environment. And because we worked out of a brick environment, we were isolated from the airfield. They had to come to us, and the chaplain seldom came to us. So I started, you know what? A Sunday school class, and every Sunday morning I would have service through my Sunday school class. I kept up with it a little bit too. And the lieutenant came to me one day and said, "You know, we haven't had communion in a long time. Since you teach Sunday school here, can you give us communion?" Well, I thought about it. I'm not a preacher, and I had no authority to give communion, to bless communion. However, in an isolated situation where there is no preacher, and I'm the one teaching Sunday school, I think that I also have the authority to give communion if the men want it. And on those grounds, I'll give you communion. And for the first time in my life, I went out and bought wine, went out and bought wine. And I knew the rituals. I came back, had the cook to cook me some bread that was without salt, broke it up, and had prayer over this. And then I served it to them, and we had communion (laughter). Maybe they'll put me in jail for being a preacher without license (laughter).$I went to the bus station which was three blocks or more away from the church, Clinton Chapel A.M.E. Zion Church [Selma, Alabama]. It was closed, locked, I couldn't go in there, but there was a Carter drugstore [Carter Drug Co.] on Broad Street [Selma, Alabama] that a good number of young white men just hung out there and I said, "I'll go there and sit at the counter and ask for ice cream, a Coke [Coca-Cola] or something and wouldn't move." I went there and they were closed. Okay. They're closed, I'll go to the jailhouse, the police headquarters, and that's where I went, to the police headquarters and asked to speak to the police in charge. And he came out with two other police, and I told them, "Sir, my name is Dabney Montgomery [HistoryMaker Dabney N. Montgomery]. I had come here to break segregated laws because it's wrong and it is the will of God that these laws be erased." And there was a fountain for white people only, for color peopled only, another fountain, I went and drank out of that fountain for white people only. He stood right there and said, "This man must be crazy," (laughter). "Take him out." Two cops came, grabbed me by the arm and took me out. I landed on the curb of the street at the jail. That's all. To show you how dangerous this was when the King's [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] movement came to Selma [Alabama], two white men ate at a black restaurant two blocks from that jail and both of them were shot, one was killed.$$Two--$$One died from the wound. Two white men--$$Two white men ate at a black restaurant?$$At a black res--$$Okay.$$Two black from that jail and one was killed, the other received the shots. And I thought at the time that SNCC [Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee] was there. I went to a SNCC movement when King movement was there and they said, "Look, never go out alone and break a segregated law (unclear) and never go at night if you're with a group of people, don't go at night." And there I was at night and alone and the angels of the Lord protected me. Well, as I sat on that curb, a black fellow in an automobile came by and said, "What are you doing out here, son? You don't see people sitting on the curb at night, not in Selma. What can I do for you?" "You can take me home." "Where you live?" "Corner, corner of Green Street and 1st Avenue." So he took me in his car home. When we arrived in front of my house, I noticed a few cars parked out in front of the house and the lights on in the house. All those people in the church had gone to my father's house and told them that Dab is in town breaking segregated laws (laughter). I knocked on the door, my father [Dred Montgomery] came to the door, the old man. "There he is." He opened the door and fell on the knees. They had told him about the experience. "Son, whatever you do, don't do it again. They'll come out and burn the house down; they might kill you, they might kill--we don't know what will happen. Please, son," down on his knee. I never had seen my father on his knees before and he was a fireman for forty years on the Southern railroad [Southern Railway]. Strong man. And I listened to him, and the people all left and words got out that Dab was in town and he was mentally deranged, a little crazy. My father get in a car and he goes up to the police office and tell them that my son is World War II [WWII] veteran and he is shell shocked. He is in town now, don't pay him any attention because he's shell shocked. The police went, "Yeah, that boy was up here. We knew something was wrong with his brain." That's why, for that reason, they didn't whatever they had planned to do.

Lawrence Guyot

Lawrence Thomas Guyot, Jr was born on July 17, 1939 in Pass Christian, Mississippi. He was a raised in a traditional Catholic home, attending parochial schools until high school. His mother was a domestic and his father was a builder and carpenter. His great-uncle, Louis Piernas was interviewed for the Slave Narratives Federal Writers Project in the 1930s. Guyot earned his high school diploma in 1957 from Randolph High School, where he was a member of the debate and basketball teams. As a young man, Guyot held a number of part-time jobs including janitor, longshoreman and waiter.

Guyot earned his B.S. degree in biology and philosophy from Tougaloo College in 1964. While at Tougaloo, he became active in civil rights and was one of the original members of SNCC. In 1964, Guyot directed the Freedom Summer Project in Hattiesburg, Mississippi. That same year, he was elected chairman of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. He was unable to accompany the delegation to the Democratic National Convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey because he was jailed for registering black voters. The MDFP’s actions in New Jersey ultimately led to the DNC desegregating future conventions and the party itself. In 1966, Guyot ran for Congress as an anti-war candidate. After earning his law degree in 1971 from Rutgers University, he worked as a fundraiser for Mary Holmes Junior College in Mississippi. From 1971 until 1972, he worked for Pride Inc., a youth job-training program in Washington, D.C. In 1972, Guyot was hired to work in the D.C. Government by a SNCC colleague, former Mayor Marion Barry.

Guyot continues to work for the Department of Health and Human Services for the District of Columbia Government. He has also remained active in local politics and civil rights issues. He is an Advisory Neighborhood Commissioner for his Le Droit Park community. Guyot conducts leadership trainings for a number of organizations including Operation Understanding; the University of Ole Miss; Georgetown University and Americorp.

In 2004 Guyot co-authored Putting the Movement Back Into Civil Rights Teaching, a resource guide for K-12 classrooms. He has been featured in several documentaries, including Eyes on the Prize, Making Sense of the Sixties, The War on Poverty and Tales of the FBI.

Lawrence Guyot passed away on November 23, 2012.

Accession Number

A2004.228

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/9/2004 |and| 11/17/2004

Last Name

Guyot

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Randolph High School

Tougaloo College

First Name

Monica

Birth City, State, Country

Pass Christian

HM ID

GUY01

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Mississippi

Favorite Quote

Power is everything.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Mississippi

Birth Date

7/17/1939

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Mississippi Delta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Apples

Death Date

11/23/2012

Short Description

City government employee and civil rights activist Lawrence Guyot (1939 - 2012 ) directed the Freedom Summer Project in Hattiesburg, Mississippi, and was elected chairman of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. He also co-authored Putting the Movement Back Into Civil Rights Teaching, and has been featured in several documentaries including: Eyes on the Prize, Making Sense of the Sixties, The War on Poverty and Tales of the FBI.

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:357,3:952,9:1428,14:10730,174:11432,185:12212,197:15348,238:16184,252:18008,291:18388,297:19224,310:19604,317:25304,425:26064,437:26672,446:27356,457:31949,473:33758,520:34160,527:39958,581:40630,590:41470,603:42394,617:44914,705:50360,790:51200,809:57444,863:57913,872:60640,901:61150,908:64550,978:65060,1002:71095,1114:71605,1125:79506,1240:81707,1301:84263,1371:85399,1406:85967,1415:86606,1426:92699,1462:97380,1529:101918,1579:103010,1593:108270,1627:117635,1746:118724,1783:121196,1789:122056,1801:122572,1808:124710,1836:125258,1844:135066,1931:136794,1966:150419,2145:156727,2275:160895,2315:161220,2321:161935,2337:168902,2422:169182,2428:169462,2434:169742,2440:169966,2445:170190,2450:170694,2461:172312,2472:172951,2497:175365,2564:175933,2582:178489,2648:178844,2654:180193,2683:181116,2699:181471,2705:181897,2717:182749,2731:189372,2854:190092,2866:190380,2871:190740,2877:191316,2886:191892,2895:196210,2946:196834,2980:197910,2985
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Lawrence Guyot's interview, session one, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Slating of Lawrence Guyot's interview, session one, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Lawrence Guyot lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Lawrence Guyot describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Lawrence Guyot talks about his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Lawrence Guyot talks about his father

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Lawrence Guyot talks about the legal aid that he received from Mississippi attorney and former lieutenant governor, Cayton Bidwell Adam, Sr.

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Lawrence Guyot describes his family's ancestry

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Lawrence Guyot talks about his paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Lawrence Guyot talks about his maternal grandfather, Jules Piernas

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Lawrence Guyot describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Lawrence Guyot describes the town of Pass Christian, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Lawrence Guyot talks about a formerly enslaved woman who lived in his hometown, Pass Christian, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Lawrence Guyot lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Lawrence Guyot describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Pass Christian, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Lawrence Guyot talks about being the school janitor while a student at J.W. Randolph School in Pass Christian, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Lawrence Guyot describes his experience at St. Philomena School in Pass Christian, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Lawrence Guyot remembers holidays and religious rituals from his childhood in Pass Christian, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Lawrence Guyot describes his personality and aspirations as a youth in Pass Christian, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Lawrence Guyot describes his experience at J.W. Randolph School in Pass Christian, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Lawrence Guyot talks about his role models in high school and his decision to go to college

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Lawrence Guyot talks about his thwarted plan to earn money from slot machines as a teenager

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Lawrence Guyot talks about the influential people he met while at Tougaloo College in Tougaloo, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Lawrence Guyot discusses his introduction to the Civil Rights Movement at Tougaloo College in Tougaloo, Mississippi, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Lawrence Guyot discusses his introduction to the Civil Rights Movement at Tougaloo College in Tougaloo, Mississippi, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Lawrence Guyot talks about his initial involvement with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Lawrence Guyot describes the background to the Civil Rights Movement in Mccomb, Mississippi in the early 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Lawrence Guyot talks about Fannie Lou Hamer and the use of religion in building the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Lawrence Guyot talks about the consolidation of civil rights organizations into the Council of Federated Organizations in 1962

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Lawrence Guyot remembers organizing for Freedom Summer, the 1964 voter registration drive in Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Lawrence Guyot describes the reaction in Pass Christian, Mississippi to his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Lawrence Guyot talks about the establishment of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party in 1964

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Lawrence Guyot talks about the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party at the 1964 Democratic National Convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Lawrence Guyot talks about the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party at the 1964 Democratic Convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Lawrence Guyot reflects upon the membership and goals of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Lawrence Guyot talks about the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party's role in desegregating the Democratic Party conventions and the party as a whole

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Lawrence Guyot talks about the role of women in the Civil Rights Movement and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Lawrence Guyot reflects upon his experiences as a political prisoner and the achievements of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Lawrence Guyot talks about his 1966 congressional run on an anti-Vietnam War platform

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Lawrence Guyot talks about attending Rutgers Law School in Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Lawrence Guyot talks about HistoryMaker Marion Barry's support of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Lawrence Guyot talks about his work with Pride Incorporated and with the Washington, D.C. government

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Slating of Lawrence Guyot's interview, second session

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Lawrence Guyot talks about his work with the Coalition for the Homeless

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Lawrence Guyot discusses HistoryMaker The Honorable Marion Barry's political career

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Lawrence Guyot discusses his efforts for Washington, D.C. statehood and race relations in America

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Lawrence Guyot talks about his work with the Department of Human Services and after-school programs in the public school system in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Lawrence Guyot talks about his service in three mayoral administrations in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Lawrence Guyot describes his service as an advisory neighborhood commissioner in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Lawrence Guyot shares his views on race relations in America

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Lawrence Guyot talks about his involvement in economic development and revitalization projects in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Lawrence Guyot talks about racism and gentrification in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Lawrence Guyot talks about suffering police brutality while jailed in Winona, Mississippi and Medgar Evers's death in 1963

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Lawrence Guyot discusses voter registration numbers among African Americans in the 2004 presidential elections

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Lawrence Guyot discusses the book 'Putting the Movement Back into Civil Rights Teaching' and other means to teach the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Lawrence Guyot reflects upon his life

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Lawrence Guyot shares his views on current African American leaders, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Lawrence Guyot shares his views on current African American leaders, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Lawrence Guyot talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Lawrence Guyot reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Lawrence Guyot names important books about the Civil Rights Movement

DASession

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DATape

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DAStory

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DATitle
Lawrence Guyot remembers organizing for Freedom Summer, the 1964 voter registration drive in Mississippi
Transcript
So let's talk about Freedom Summer.$$All right. Freedom Summer, okay.$$And what was happening in Hattiesburg [Mississippi]?$$Well, Hattiesburg is a little bit different now because we started our activity in Hattiesburg in 1963. As the leader of the project there, I issued a call for all major religions to send a delegation to Hattiesburg.$$Was that a nucleus of Freedom Summer pretty much?$$It begins.$$Okay, okay.$$See because the National Council of Churches sent a representative from every major religion. You name a religion, it was a representative in Hattiesburg. We expected people to be arrested, and this is all covered in 'Pillar of Fire[: America in the King Years, 1963-65'] by Taylor Branch. Well, the State of Mississippi we can't be arresting all of these religious people. How do we explain it to--? They didn't arrest us. So then, it became a question of mental jujitsu. People outside the line had to get in the line not to be arrested, so that's what happened. But, in effect, what we did was involve the National Council of Churches in the Freedom Day in Hattiesburg, Mississippi around the question of voting in which there was no arrests. That was unparalleled in Mississippi. So we then decided, well from that flowed a couple of things. The Delta Ministry was established in the state. We now had a working relationship with the National Council of Churches. The National Council of Churches worked with recruiting and training the volunteers for the '64 [1964] summer project and they later on worked with us in the 1965 [Mississippi] Congressional Challenge. The (unclear)--me and James Forma, [HistoryMaker James] Forman, Forma of CORE [Congress of Racial Equality] got in to see the president that replaced [President Richard Milhous] Nixon because his bishop told him to see us. And he made it clear that his bishop had told him and he does what his bishop says. My point is, the National Council of Churches was a very effective ally that opened a lot of doors that we couldn't open. Now '64 [1964], Freedom, Freedom Summer of '64 [1964] was multi-faceted. The NEA and the AFT, the National Education Association and the American Federation of Teachers both came to Mississippi to fight for the curriculum of the freedom schools. It was just that good. It is still considered that good today. You had the Wednesday group headed by [HistoryMaker] Dorothy Height, in which white women came from across the country to Jackson [Mississippi] on Wednesday. They were briefed on what was happening throughout the state. They then left and went and talked to their senators, their congressman and local newspapers because it made a difference if a white person from Minnesota was arrested. It made quite a few difference if [HistoryMaker] Lawrence Guyot from Pass Christian [Mississippi] was arrested, because you were about building national attention, national mobilization and the Wednesday group was very effective in doing that.

Irma Josephine Barber

Irma Josephine Barber was born Irma Josephine Mason on March 13, 1904, in New Orleans, Louisiana. Raised Catholic by her parents, Barber enjoyed attending a private Catholic school and planned to become a nun. When her father, who had supported the family by working for the city of New Orleans, died, she had to leave school to help her mother, brother and three sisters. In 1918, the family moved to Chicago, seeking greater opportunity. In the city, Barber and her sisters were able to earn money working as seamstresses.

Barber was living in the Black Belt when the murder of a young black man at the 31st Street Beach triggered the infamous Chicago Race Riot of 1919. The riot went on for days. She later married and stayed at home to raise her four children. When her husband died in 1949, Barber took a job as a calculator in the Chicago Department of Forestry. She worked for the Forestry Department for thirty-eight years before finally retiring at age eighty-three.

Her four children rated as Barber's greatest successes. All four of her children went on to earn advanced college degrees and worked as teachers. The oldest, Shirley Dillard, worked as a teacher and assistant principal before retiring. Daughter Barbara Bonner was a teacher of special education before her death. Barber's only son, Vaughn Barber, taught school before earning a law degree and starting his own firm, from which he retired. The youngest of Barber's children, Beverly Martin, was a retired teacher who taught at Truman College and DePaul University.

Barber and her family were members of the NAACP. She was an excellent seamstress before her diminished vision forced her to give up sewing, and she also enjoyed gardening and tending to her roses. A devoted Catholic, Irma Barber was a member of St. Thomas the Apostle Catholic Church.

Barber passed away on February 17, 2004 at age 99.

Accession Number

A2003.051

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/18/2003 |and| 3/26/2003

Last Name

Barber

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widow

Middle Name

Josephine

Organizations
First Name

Irma

Birth City, State, Country

New Orleans

HM ID

BAR06

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

California

Favorite Quote

In One Ear And Out The Other.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

3/13/1904

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Garlic

Death Date

2/17/2004

Short Description

City government employee and seamstress Irma Josephine Barber (1904 - 2004 ) lived in Chicago for over eighty years, where she worked for the Department of Forestry.

Employment

Chicago Department of Forestry

Favorite Color

Aquamarine

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Irma Josephine Barber's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Irma Josephine Barber lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Irma Josephine Barber talks about her maternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Irma Josephine Barber talks about her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Irma Josephine Barber talks about her father

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Irma Josephine Barber talks about her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Irma Josephine Barber talks about her childhood in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Irma Josephine Barber talks about her childhood favorite foods

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Irma Josephine Barber remembers the names of her childhood churches and schools and the area she grew up in in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Irma Josephine Barber talks about her childhood hobbies

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Irma Josephine Barber talks about Mardi Gras, music, and foods of her childhood in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Irma Josephine Barber recalls her childhood personality and interest in education

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Irma Josephine Barber talks about her dreams of becoming a nun and her relationship to her relatives

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Irma Josephine Barber remembers her father's illness and death

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Irma Josephine Barber recalls moving to Chicago, Illinois as a teenager, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Irma Josephine Barber recalls moving to Chicago, Illinois as a teenager, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Irma Josephine Barber recalls working in raincoat factory and the area she lived in in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Irma Josephine Barber describes her memories of 35th Street in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Irma Josephine Barber notes differences between Chicago and New Orleans and remembers her parish in Chicago

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Irma Josephine Barber recalls the use of horses and streetcars in Chicago, Illinois in the 1910s

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Irma Josephine Barber recalls meeting her husband through church in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Irma Josephine Barber recalls her marriage and talks about her husband's work as Fred Harvey waiter

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Irma Josephine Barber recalls the demands of her husband's job and their honeymoon trip to California

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Irma Josephine Barber talks about her husband's interest in Haiti

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Irma Josephine Barber talks about her mother's adoption of a girl in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Irma Josephine Barber recalls her family's move to Englewood in Chicago, Illinois, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Irma Josephine Barber recalls her family's move to Englewood in Chicago, Illinois, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Irma Josephine Barber talks about her husband's family background and personality

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Irma Josephine Barber talks about her husband's parenting

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Irma Josephine Barber talks about her husband's death

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Irma Josephine Barber talks about her children

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Irma Josephine Barber talks about how she supported her family after her husband's death

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Irma Josephine Barber talks about her children's post-secondary education

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Irma Josephine Barber recalls working for the City of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Irma Josephine Barber talks about working for the City of Chicago, Illinois under the Daley administration and retiring at eighty-four

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Irma Josephine Barber talks about the prospects of having a black mayor in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Irma Josephine Barber remembers the 1919 riots

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Irma Josephine Barber talks about her family

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Irma Josephine Barber talks about moving out of Englewood and her concerns for young African Americans

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Irma Josephine Barber talks about the role of religion in her life and others' lives

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Irma Josephine Barber reflects upon her achievements

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Irma Josephine Barber reflects upon how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Irma Josephine Barber shares her health secrets

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Irma Josephine Barber recalls an issue with family land in Mississippi during her childhood

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Irma Josephine Barber describes how streetcars were segregated in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Irma Josephine Barber describes riding on a segregated train in the 1950s

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Irma Josephine Barber describes how her faith, exercise, and her diet have kept her healthy

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Irma Josephine Barber narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Irma Josephine Barber narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

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Irma Josephine Barber recalls moving to Chicago, Illinois as a teenager, pt. 1
Irma Josephine Barber remembers the 1919 riots
Transcript
Did you attend high school before you moved to Chicago [Illinois]?$$No, no, I was--when I--I only went to the seventh grade. And when I came to Chicago as I told you, it was during the war [World War I, WWI]. And I, instead of going to, back to school, I went to work.$$So--$$And I worked--raincoat factory.$$Here in Chicago or in--$$In Chicago.$$All right. Before we get into that, tell me about the move to Chicago. When did you move? I mean what happened?$$That was quite a move. Okay.$$As I said, my brother [James Mason] was supposed to have made arrangements to meet my mother [Albertine Mason]. And for some reason or other, they had moved him to Iowa without telling. He wasn't able to call my mother. So we arrived in the old Dearborn Station in Chicago.$$So you came by train.$$By train. And there were--I think in the beginning I told you my sisters and my aunt, there were about seven of us or so. And at that time in the station they had Red Caps. And we arrived in the morning. And all day we were waiting for Jimmy. So when it was beg--getting ready to--it was a little late. And one of the porters came and he told my mother, he says looks like you probably have missed your son. He says you're gonna have to try to find some place to go. So he says I have an aunt that will have--rent out rooms. You know that time people had, had these rooms and they would rent them quite a bit. And he said he'd call, he will contact his aunt and ask her did she have any room. And he, he did, but she said no, but send them here and maybe we can help them to find something. So my sister and, and my Aunt Sedonia [ph.], they went there to, I don't know really how they got there, to her, her aunt, to his aunt's house. And when she--when the person opened the door to everyone's surprise it was a person, her name was Pearl [ph.] that she had graduated with in New Orleans [Louisiana]. And so then the aunt and she, she didn't have any room. But she got the Defender. She says it's always rooms in the Chicago Defender. And she looked in there and she says well, here's two rooms. And this would be maybe, I don't know whether they called or what. But try these two rooms. So Edna and my Aunt Sedonia, they came back and the, the rooms were at 22nd and Dearborn. And it was in a, a red light district.$$Okay that's the vice district.$$Yeah, it was terrible, it was terrible. And so they, they did have the two rooms. And I remember this vividly 'cause we had to sleep on the, the seats and things, nothing was clean. We slept on all--had to--just as people would leave. And in order to cook, they had to go down to the basement, and it was terrible. Now how long we stayed there, I don't, I don't know.$$The stove was in the basement?$$Everything. There, there was--we had--it was--we had to cook and bring the food up. And that's when I learned a good butternut bread and butter was--we ate quite a bit of that and I thought that was the best bread and butter. It was real hard for my mother and that's why she had came up and that's--she had to do that same type of work as--then she went out and did day's work.$What were your thoughts about the Civil Rights Movement? When you saw things changing in the South.$$Well you said what?$$How did you feel about the--some of the changes in the South brought on by the Civil Rights Movement? Did you ever think you'd see those changes?$$No. I'm still thinking there's a lot of changes yet can be made. But they're--it's better. I think some black people have a better--living down there now, than in Chicago [Illinois] is very prejudice. And a lot of them are moving south and whatnot.$$Now were, were you--backtrack way back for a minute. Now I forgot to ask you this and I, I neglected to do it, but you were in Chicago--you came here in 1918, right?$$Yeah.$$And so you were here for the riot in 1919.$$Gosh, yes.$$Yes, tell us about that.$$That was terrible, yeah. We were living--I, I remember 37th and Vincennes. And we lived in a house at that--we had a, a house because we had--my aunt was living with us, with her two children. And I remember the--right on the same block with us there was two old Jewish shoe, shoemakers we used to call them. They had their shop right down the same block from us. And the reason I'm mentioning that, because the car came through the street one day, open--they were standing in an open car and shooting from--just shooting at random from one side to the other. And they killed one of the old men. And then right across the street from where we lived, there was a, a man--it was a two flat building. And he was reading his Bible and they shot him. And he just fell over. I remember that very--but we--$$You actually saw that yourself?$$Yeah. And we all ran--we all ran quickly into the house. 'Cause we were--had been sitting outside. And of course it, it was terrible.$$So these, these are the white people from the beach, or from Bridgeport [Chicago, Illinois]?$$Well I don't--we don't know where they was from, but they, they just drove through like that.$$So did that happen all day long?$$Yeah, nobody was able to do anything, or afraid to go out. People couldn't go to work.$$And how long did it last?$$It didn't last too long.$$A day or two, a day?$$Yeah, it last more than a day. Just the other day they had something about the riot on TV.$$Did--what did you understand at the time to be the cause of the riot? Did anybody try to explain what the cause was to you?$$Of the riot?$$Yes.$$At first I thought, I thought when really until later, that the--when--what was his name? Till--Williams. What was that young fella that was, was killed down in Mississippi?$$Emmet Till?$$Yeah. I used to think it was when they--at the 31st Beach [Chicago, Illinois] when the people went to--when black people went bathing and I thought it was an incident that something had happened there. But that really wasn't it.$$What, what, what was it?$$I'm, I'm trying to remember. I don't know because the beach is when we, when we used to go to the beach, I left (unclear). We would--right there in the Jackson Park Beach, we weren't able--the blacks weren't able--they put a, a fence up and to divide the black people could only swim on one side of that fence and they weren't allowed to go on to--on the other side. And that was when my children were coming up. We left that out.$$Okay.$$They can remember that.