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Carol Cutting

Radio station owner Carol Moore Cutting was born on April 24, 1948 in Livingston, Alabama. She was raised in an educational family and a close-knit community. Cutting enrolled at Tuskegee University in 1965 and graduated from there in 1969 with her B.A. degree in secondary education. She went on to attend graduate school at Springfield Community College and graduated from there in 1971 with her M.A. degree in community leadership.

Upon graduation, Cutting moved to New England. In September of 1971, she received her official license from the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). In 1984, Cutting applied for a construction permit for 106.3 but was challenged by an existing broadcaster who applied to operate on the same frequency. She then became the owner and general manager of Cutting Edge Broadcasting, Inc., making her the first African American woman in Massachusetts to operate a radio station. After eight years of litigation and several technical delays, Cutting was granted the construction permit and her station, WEIB - 106.3 Smooth FM, tested for broadcast with the FCC in 1999. Cutting was also appointed as an independent director of United Financial BanCorp. in 2001. She is a member of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. (AKA) and she has served on many committees and boards including the Food Bank of Western Massachusetts, WGBY, the University of Massachusetts-Amherst Amherst Fine Arts Center, the American Heart Association, and National Association of Black Owned Broadcasters (NABOB) where served as the Northeastern Regional Representative.

Cutting has been recognized for her community service and her entrepreneurship with many honors, such as the “Woman of the Year,” “Businesswoman of the Year,” and other similar awards. She was inducted into the Springfield Technical Community College’s Entrepreneurship Hall of Fame; and, in 2000, she received the Business Woman of Distinction award.

Cutting has been married for forty-three years to Dr. Gerald B. Cutting. They have two children, Alysia Cutting and Darrel Cutting, and six grandchildren.

Carol Moore Cutting was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 28, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.161

Sex

Female

Interview Date

4/28/2013

Last Name

Cutting

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

Tuskegee University

Springfield Technical Community College

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Carol

Birth City, State, Country

Lexington

HM ID

CUT02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere

Favorite Quote

I can do all things through Christ that strengthens me.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

4/24/1948

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Northampton

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Radio station owner Carol Cutting (1948 - ) , President and CEO of Cutting Edge Broadcasting, Inc. and WEIB 106.3 Smooth F.M., is the first female in Massachusetts and the first African American in New England to have been granted a FCC-FM radio station construction permit.

Employment

WEIB Radio

United Financial BanCorp.

Favorite Color

Green, Pink

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Carol Cutting's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Carol Cutting lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Carol Cutting describes her mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Carol Cutting describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Carol Cutting describes her mother's family background, pt. 3

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Carol Cutting describes her father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Carol Cutting describes her father's background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Carol Cutting describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Carol Cutting talks about her sister

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Carol Cutting talks about her mother's desire to have a college education

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Carol Cutting talks about living with her grandparents on their farm

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Carol Cutting describes the sights, sounds, and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Carol Cutting describes the sights, sounds, and smells of her childhood, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Carol Cutting describes her childhood experience attending a country Baptist church

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Carol Cutting describes her experiences attending school, pt.1

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Carol Cutting describes her experiences attending school, pt 2

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Carol Cutting talks about her childhood desire to learn

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Carol Cutting talks about her childhood experience with the radio

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Carol Cutting describes her childhood aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Carol Cutting talks about her high school mentors

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Carol Cutting describes the Civil Rights Movement in Alabama, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Carol Cutting talks about the Civil Rights Movement in Alabama, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Carol Cutting talks about the Civil Rights Movement in Alabama, pt. 3

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Carol Cutting describes her experience at Tuskegee University, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Carol Cutting describes her experience at Tuskegee University, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Carol Cutting describes her experience at Tuskegee University, pt. 3

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Carol Cutting talks describes her experience at Tuskegee University and Tom Joyner who also attended there

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Carol Cutting talks about her initial reaction to Springfield, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Carol Cutting describes the black community in Springfield, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Carol Cutting talks about her initial experience with radio in Springfield, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Carol Cutting describes her search for her own FM frequency and broadcasting license, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Carol Cutting describes her search for her own FM frequency and broadcasting license, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Carol Cutting talks about the legal battle over her radio frequency, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Carol Cutting talks about the legal battle over her radio frequency, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Carol Cutting talks about the construction of her radio station, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Carol Cutting talks about the construction of her radio station, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Carol Cutting talks about the adult jazz format of her radio station

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Carol Cutting talks about the adult jazz format of her radio station, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Carol Cutting talks about the deregulation of radio, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Carol Cutting talks about the deregulation of radio, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Carol Cutting reflects upon the importance of perseverance, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Carol Cutting reflects upon the importance of perseverance, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Carol Cutting describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Carol Cutting reviews her life and whether she would have done anything differently

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Carol Cutting reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Carol Cutting describes her responsibilities at the radio station

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Carol Cutting talks about her radio station's listeners

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Carol Cutting talks about her employees at the radio station

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Carol Cutting talks about how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

1$7

DATitle
Carol Cutting talks about her initial reaction to Springfield, Massachusetts
Carol Cutting talks about the legal battle over her radio frequency, pt. 2
Transcript
So when you were on the verge of graduating from Tuskegee [University], what were your thoughts? You were gonna go and teach in high school, you were gonna apply for teaching positions, or had you thought about going to graduate school or--$$No. By that time, my husb--well, I married my husband [Dr. Gerald B. Cutting] during Christmas break December, 1968--$$Okay, so (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous)--and we graduated together in 1969--$$Okay.$$--and so it wasn't about me at that point; it's where he got his job which was Springfield--East Longmeadow, Massachusetts, and he in fact had the job, and so I--we came up here together.$$Okay, so that's how you get up here to the Springfield [Massachusetts] area.$$That's how I got up into the Springfield [Massachusetts] area. I had spent some summers in Boston [Massachusetts] working; I had relatives there in Boston and so I worked there several summers and so I--but that was Roxbury, this was Springfield, Massachusetts and when we moved here, we didn't know anyone here; we didn't (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous)--'Cause your husband is from Roxbury [Boston, Massachusetts], right?$$Yes, he, he was born in Boston [Massachusetts] and grew up in New Haven, Connecticut so he was familiar with New England; I was to a little extent from the summer time spending the summers here, but I--we didn't know Springfield [Massachusetts]. We, we had no idea where anything was, and so when we moved here in June of 1969, it was like, 'okay, so where are we? What's happening in the community? How do you connect to the churches?' You know, how does one who comes to this area find out about the, the social life or--here? You know. Where do you get your collard greens? Where do you get your hair done? Where do you go to church? We didn't know, and we didn't know anyone who knew because his primary frame of reference was not--was primarily in the white community, from the edge of Longmeadow to East Longmeadow [Massachusetts]; that's what it was about. And so we didn't have a radio station and we didn't have public television at that time; we didn't know (unclear) maybe had two radio stations--I mean two television stations at the time here.$$Emm hmm.$$And so I thought coming from Tuskegee [University], a place where you've got all kinds of commerce and things going on, and you could listen to radio station even if it wasn't owned by African Americans, I found it very--very depressing. I thought we were coming to liberal New England, and so I found it to be rather separate.$So it was basically because of the opposition of this one person?$$Yes. He, in fact, took me through the entire comparative hearing process; he appealed all the way to the [Washington] D.C. Court of Appeals--the final one, where I also prevailed. But by that time, it was years later and, you know, no resources. And I can say that there was a broadcaster--an existing broadcaster by the name of Ed Perry, who I would not have this station had it not been for him because he went, he assisted me through the process. When there was a need to argue, he came to [Washington] D.C. in our favor, so I can just say that he was responsible for helping, helping me through this process. Now there was time when--during this time, you know, we'd have to pack up the kids and put 'em in the car, and my husband would drive us to [Washington] D.C., he would, he would then take the kids off sightseeing; they're thinking they're on a field trip, and I'm going to the, you know, to the courts, and being called everything except a child of God because it was that strong--I mean they wanted that frequency so badly that whatever it took to try to litigate me financially out of the process was being done, and so I can say that Ed [Perry] was there and he was--and he owns a radio station in Marshfield, Massachusetts--WATD; and he's still a friend to this day. He went to college in, in Amherst, Massachusetts and knew the area.$$What's his last name again?$$Ed Perry.$$Perry, okay.$$Emm hmm.$$He's the owner of WATD?$$WATD, in--here in Massachusetts, Marshfield. Not only did he, did he do that, but he also--finally, when we were able to, to get things going he, he was there and helping to oversee things, 'cause he was all--not only was he an owner, but he was also an engineer--$$Emm hmm.$$--so he was able to help me with the technical part of things.$$Okay.$$And so it was during those years of trying to get this station, and having to go to [Washington] D.C., that--there was no one in this Springfield [Massachusetts] area that I could talk to that I could--who could relate to what I was going through because no one in the Springfield area knew what I was doing. It was very quiet, and so I knew that it was taking a toll on my family, terms of the resources, and so it became--well, is it, it is, is it worth it? And so that was one of those times when I called--out of the clear blue sky called Gayle King; she's probably not even aware of the fact of the impact that she made, but she was an anchor at Channel Three, and I called her and said, 'You don't know me at all,' I said, 'but I'd like to know if I can meet you.' And--'because I have--I'd like to discuss something with you.' And I shared wi--and she said, 'Oh yes, come on down to the studio.' And I did, and she--I was able to share with her some of the things that I was going--and my--what I was going through; my dilemma. Is it fair? My children are growing up, we're taking resources from the family, and you know, is that, is that fair? Should I just forget about this and move on to some other thing? And--but she was very encouraging, very supportive, knew that there was a need, and encouraged me to, to stick with it. And that was a word that I need because I couldn't--it's hard to go to your husband when you're--I needed someone who was neutral, someone outside, who could look at it and give me advice, and she, and she did; I've never been able to or never had the opportunity to really let her know what, what her words meant, and how much she encouraged me and--to move forward, and what has happened to even now.

Fillmore Freeman

Organic chemist and chemistry professor Fillmore Freeman was born in 1936 in Lexington, Mississippi. Freeman earned his high school diploma from John Marshall High School in Chicago, Illinois in 1953. In 1957, he graduated summa cum laude from Central State College in Wilberforce, Ohio, with his B.S. degree, and then went on to pursue his graduate studies at Michigan State University, where he received his Ph.D. degree in physical organic chemistry in 1962.

After a brief stint working with a private firm, Freeman served as a National Institutes of Health Fellow at Yale University in 1964. The following year, he became an assistant professor of at California State University at Long Beach. During this time, the school expanded its chemistry and biochemistry programs to accommodate the growing interest in these fields. In 1973, Freeman became a professor of chemistry at the University of California at Irvine, where he continued to work for the duration of his professional career. With his background in physical organic chemistry, Freeman has conducted research on a number of topics, including organic synthesis pathways and reactions, particularly those of cyclic compounds. His research has also relied heavily on the use of computational chemistry. In 1991, Freeman was the recipient of a grant from the National Institutes of Health to study the biochemical properties of allicin, a component of garlic chemistry. Freeman’s work has had a strong emphasis in isolating, researching and synthesizing compounds with anti-tumor and anti-viral properties.

Freeman has received much recognition for his work in the field of physical organic chemistry. He was named an Alexander von Humboldt Foundation Fellow and a Fulbright-Hayes Senior Research Fellow. He also had the opportunity to serve as a visiting professor at the Max Planck Institute of Biophysical Chemistry and the University of Paris. Author of numerous academic papers, Freeman was identified as the third most highly cited African American chemist in a 2002 report by Oklahoma State University.

Fillmore Freeman was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 29, 2011.

Accession Number

A2012.203

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/27/2012

Last Name

Freeman

Marital Status

Divorced

Schools

John Marshall Metropolitan High School

Central State University

Michigan State University

Yale University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Fillmore

Birth City, State, Country

Lexington

HM ID

FRE06

Favorite Season

None

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris, France, Berlin, Germany, Spain

Favorite Quote

The time before memories.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

4/10/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

All Food

Short Description

Organic chemist and chemistry professor Fillmore Freeman (1936 - ) joined the faculty of California State University in 1973. He has conducted significant research in the field of physical organic chemistry, particularly in the synthesis and structural understanding of potential anti-tumor and anti-viral compounds.

Employment

University of California, Irvine

California State University, Long Beach

California Research Corporation

National Science Foundation (NSF)

Université de Paris VII

Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles

Max-Planck-Institut

Favorite Color

Blue, Earth Tones

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Fillmore Freeman's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Fillmore Freeman lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Fillmore Freeman describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Fillmore Freeman describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Fillmore Freeman talks about segregation and slavery in Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his paternal family owning land in Mississippi, and his father's role as a Baptist minister

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his father's training to become a Baptist minister

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his parents moving to Chicago, his mother's death, his father remarrying, and his four siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Fillmore Freeman talks about the socio-economic dynamics of skin color in the African American community

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Fillmore Freeman lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Fillmore Freeman describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Fillmore Freeman talks about moving to Chicago when he was five years old, and his early experience there

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Fillmore Freeman describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Chicago

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Fillmore Freeman talks about the Chicago public school system, and the condition of the city's housing projects in the 1940s

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Fillmore Freeman describes his experience in Catholic school

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Fillmore Freeman talks about gang activity in Chicago in the 1940s

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Fillmore Freeman talks about leaving Chicago in 1953

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Fillmore Freeman talks about graduating from elementary school and attending high school

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Fillmore Freeman talks about attending his father's church as a child, and his perspective on religion

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his parents' employment in Chicago

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his jobs as a youngster in Chicago

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Fillmore Freeman describes his experience in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Fillmore Freeman talks about Maxwell Street in Chicago

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Fillmore Freeman talks about playing basketball in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his academic performance in high school and the pressures of life for African Americans who lived in the housing projects

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Fillmore Freeman describes his studies and his extracurricular activities in high school

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Fillmore Freeman describes his decision to attend Central State University, and his involvement in the ROTC Program

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his professors at Central State University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Fillmore Freeman talks about Charles Wesley, HistoryMaker, Alice Windom, and segregation in Wilberforce and Xenia, Ohio in the 1950s

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Fillmore Freeman describes his decision to pursue a doctoral degree at Michigan State University

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Fillmore Freeman describes his Ph.D. dissertation on tetracyanocyclopropanes chemistry

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Fillmore Freeman talks about the interest in cyclopropane chemistry in the 1950s

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Fillmore Freeman describes being involved in a serious laboratory accident at Michigan State University

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his recovery from a serious laboratory accident in 1959 - part one

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Fillmore Freeman talks about meeting his wife in Chicago, and getting married in 1959

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his recovery from a serious laboratory accident in 1959 - part two

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Fillmore Freeman describes his decision to work at Standard Oil of California, and his experience there

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Fillmore Freeman describes his experience as a postdoctoral researcher at Yale University and his decision to work at California State University

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Fillmore Freeman talks about the lack of African American faculty and students at the University of California, Irvine

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his sabbatical at the University of Paris, and accepting a tenured position at the University of California, Irvine

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Fillmore Freeman describes his research on using chemical compounds to combat Chagas disease

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his involvement with NOBCChE

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Fillmore Freeman describes his experience in Paris in 1972

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Fillmore Freeman describes the university system in California

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his early research in synthetic organic chemistry, screening chemical compounds against HIV, and his work on carbenes

Tape: 5 Story: 13 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his sabbatical at the University of Illinois, Chicago in 1976

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his experience on sabbatical at the University of Illinois at Chicago

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Fillmore Freeman describes his experience at the Max Planck Institute in Germany and at Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles in France

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Fillmore Freeman talks about the African American demographics at the University of California, Irvine

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Fillmore Freeman talks about serving as a visiting scientist and program director of organic and macromolecular chemistry at the NSF in 1989

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Fillmore Freeman describes his research in the area of organosulfur chemistry, and his collaboration with Professor Eloy Rodriguez

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Fillmore Freeman talks about the health benefits of garlic and its component compounds - part one

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Fillmore Freeman talks about the health benefits of garlic and its component compounds - part two

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his report on the properties of di-tert-butyl chromate in the Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Fillmore Freeman talks about the dwindling number of African American faculty in chemistry departments across the United States

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Fillmore Freeman describes the field of computational chemistry, and its applications in medicine and in the pharmaceutical industry

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Fillmore Freeman shares his perspectives on the impact of computers on society and the future of physical organic chemistry

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his work to promote undergraduate chemistry research and his goals for the future

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Fillmore Freeman reflects upon his career and his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his family

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Fillmore Freeman talks about his hobbies

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Fillmore Freeman shares how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

6$5

DAStory

5$4

DATitle
Fillmore Freeman describes his research in the area of organosulfur chemistry, and his collaboration with Professor Eloy Rodriguez
Fillmore Freeman describes his decision to work at Standard Oil of California, and his experience there
Transcript
So it seems in 1991, it seems you received a grant of $507,750 from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to study tropical plants in Latin America and Africa that fight various fungal diseases, viruses and--$$Yeah, but that was in conjunction with Professor Eloy Rodriguez who was in the School of Bio [Biological] Science, so it was a joint grant.$$Okay, all right, and this is something. Did you have much experience with folk remedies growing up?$$No.$$Okay.$$Well, not experience, but I knew about them. I mean if you got sick in the old neighborhood, there's no such thing as going to a doctor. Everybody had some kind of folk remedy, many of which did not work, but that's all you could have.$$I just wondered if your family had any folk remedies, you know, that you remembered growing up?$$No, the medicine I remember most of all is Vicks VapoRub because of the way it smelled, and they'd rub it on your chest, and that's supposed to cure you when you got sick or have a cold. But that was an interesting collaboration. He's at Cornell [University, New York] now, but we inadvertently become, became sort of world experts in organosulfur chemistry. And when I was in Germany, they had some money left over. And they asked me did I want to go to a conference. And so I looked around, and in Yugoslavia, there was an organosulfur conference. And so I decided, hey, they want me to go so I will go. So I went to this conference which was on the Adriatic Sea. It's a place called Portoroz, and it's just like California. This was when Tito [President Marshal Tito] was still in power in Yugoslavia. But it was just capitalism. It was a tourist place. But it was, after being in Germany for that winter, it was so nice to get to this warm coast. And these sulfur chemists were arguing about a particular reaction intermediate called an alphadisulfoxide. So, you know, I just said, well, we'll just, we can just oxidize this and oxidize that because we know how to oxidize things. So everybody just laughed. So I came back to the [United] States after Germany. And there was a graduate student, Christos Angeletakis, a Greek fellow. And he wanted to do research with me. And we were looking for this elusive intermediate, the alphadisulfoxide. And one way to do that is to work at very low temperatures so you could (unclear) the rate of reactivity. And we were looking and we were looking. We couldn't get any spectroscopic evidence for it. But finally we did. So we became the first ones to identify or to build an alphadisulfoxide. And so we got into sulfur chemistry. Now, to get back to Professor Rodriguez, he's the big world's expert on plant chemists, chemistry. Now, there is this lady, Goodall, who studied the chimpanzee,--$$Yeah, Jane Goodall.$$You're right. Well, when she was studying some of these chimpanzees, she noted that they would eat leaves from a certain plant. They would just keep the leaves in their mouths. They wouldn't chew it. They'd spit it out. Some of them swallowed it. And so it turned out that some Canadian chemist was interested in this, Professor Rodriguez. And so they started isolating the chemical components of this particular plant. And it turns out that the significant component was some brilliant red compound. It had a six-membered ring and all kinds of things on the side. But in the six-membered ring, they had two sulfur atoms. So since we were thought to be world experts on organosulfur chemistry, and that's when I started collaborating with Professor Rodriguez. Again, all unplanned, but, you know, we've done a lot of sulfur chemistry.$Now, what did you do between '62 [1962] and '64 [1964]?$$I worked for Standard Oil of California. This is in the Bay Area [San Francisco, California], and it's a little--there's Berkeley and next to Berkeley is a little town called Richmond. And next to that, there's a bridge that goes from Richmond over to Marin County. And that's where the Standard Oil refinery was. At that time, Standard Oil had a lot of administrative offices over on Bush Street in San Francisco. And so I worked there for two years, and one of the reasons I went to work there was because they promised that we were gonna do basic research as opposed to industrial research. Well, there were about eleven of us in basic research. And that lasts for six months. After that, as with any big company, profits drive everything. And so we used to have these, what we called "dog and pony" shows where the people from Bush Street would come over, and we'd tell 'em what we're doing. And all they wanna know is how much money is that gonna make us. And so basically, during that two-year period, almost all of us had moved over, moved from basic research over to some industrial routine kind of work. And out of the eleven of us, nine of us left, and became professors somewhere in the United States because, again, we had wanted to do basic research. In industry, at that time, Standard Oil was one of the big people in the detergent industry because when they would crack petroleum to get these low molecular weight compounds, we all alkanes, and they could just put--and alkenes, and they could just put a sulfonate group on it. So you needed alkane, alkene that's nonpolar and a sulfonate group that's polar. So this is how you make suds and things. The non-polar part gets out the dirt and the oil and the polar part (unclear) solubility. But these things would not break down easily in the environment. Streams were getting blocked and plugged up, and so we were just looking for ways to improve making those, but also to make alternatives. So what you would do is to run a reaction and then you have to try all different concentrations. So it's routine, the same thing. Then you'd try different temperatures. Then you'd add, change one reagent, and so industrial chemistry is necessary from the profit motive. But intellectually, it's not very challenging. It's very routine. And so that's when I left to go back to Yale [University, New Haven, Connecticut] when I got a National Institutes of Health [NIH] post-doctoral fellowship.$$Okay, this is in 1964?$$Right.$$Okay, so this is a post-doc at Yale University in New Haven [Connecticut]. And--$$Now, the California Research Corporation eventually became the Chevron Research Corporation. And so--$$Oh, the California, I mean the Standard Oil?$$Right, the California Research Corporation was the research arm of Standard Oil.$$Okay.$$And so now it is the Chevron Research Corporation. And, of course, getting a job there was a big deal because growing up in Chicago [Illinois], I had always wanted to live in California. But that was also part of the big migration in the United States to the West. And there were not many jobs for chemists at that time. Shell had a facility at Emeryville which is north of San Francisco. And in Albany, California, there was a government lab. So basically, those three labs, California Research Corporation, Shell and the government lab were the only ones that were hiring people. So everybody was trying to get to the West Coast. And that's when I was in Detroit [Michigan]. I went from Lansing [Michigan] to Detroit. It was 13 [degree Fahrenheit] below [zero]. Got to San Francisco. This is in January on my interview trip. And they were having a heat wave. It was 88 degrees. Now, even since being a little kid, growing up in Chicago, I know I'm going to California. And that trip just solidified everything. There's no way I wanted to live back in the Midwest or where there was cold weather.

Hattie Winston Wheeler

Actress Hattie Mae Winston was born in Lexington, Mississippi, on March 3, 1945, to Selena Thurmond Winston and Roosevelt Love Winston. Winston was raised by her grandmother, Cora Thurmond, in nearby Greenville, Mississippi. Attending Washington Irving High School in New York City, Winston graduated in 1963; throughout her academic career she was an accomplished student and an exceptionally talented vocalist. Winston attended Howard University in Washington, D.C. after receiving a full voice scholarship.

Winston moved back to New York City after one year at Howard and enrolled in an actor’s group study workshop; success came quickly. In 1968, Winston became a replacement performer in Hair, in 1969 obtained a part in Does a Tiger Wear a Necktie?, and in 1970 was cast in The Me Nobody Knows, all of which were significant Broadway roles. In 1971, Winston was cast in a replacement role in Two Gentlemen of Verona. In 1983, Winston scored a starring role in the critically acclaimed Broadway play The Tap Dance Kid. Winston’s roles in To Take Up Arms and Up the Mountain earned her two Los Angeles Critics Drama-Logue awards; throughout her career, she received a variety of other theatrical honors, including two Obie Awards (for Mother Courage and The Michigan), CEBA Awards, and an Audelco Award for her contributions to the world of theater. Winston also worked as an independent producer and director, and was responsible for reviving Langston Hughes’s Black Nativity off-Broadway.

Winston worked extensively in the worlds of television and film; she had a regular role on the Emmy-award winning PBS-TV series The Electric Company, where she played Sylvia, in addition to playing Gloria Davis in the critically acclaimed series Homefront. Winston’s other television credits include Nurse, E.R., Port Charles, The Parent Hood, Malcolm & Eddie, The Smart Guy, Scrubs, and Becker. Winston’s film credits include Jackie Brown, Meet the Deedles, Beverly Hills Cop III, and Clint Eastwood’s True Crime.

Winston served as the national co-chair for the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (AFTRA)’s Equal Employment Opportunities Committee. In 1993 and 1997, the National Black Theater Festival in Winston-Salem, North Carolina honored Winston with the designation of a “Hattie Winston Day.” Over the course of her career, Winston collected scripts and screenplays by African American writers, many of which remain unpublished; in 1998, she donated a collection of writing entitled the Hattie Winston African American Scripts and Screenplays Collection to the University of Louisville in Kentucky. In 2006, Winston participated in the reading “Slave Narratives: A Mighty, Mighty People” for Stories On Stage, a non-profit performing arts organization presenting popular local and national actors in dramatic readings of short fiction.

Accession Number

A2005.237

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/7/2005

Last Name

Wheeler

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Winston

Occupation
Schools

Washington Irving High School

Sacred Heart School

Howard University

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Any

First Name

Hattie

Birth City, State, Country

Lexington

HM ID

WIN03

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - $5,000 - $10,000

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cabo San Lucas; Nassau, Bahamas

Favorite Quote

It Is Not The Critic Who Counts; Not The Man Who Points Out How The Strong Man Stumbles, Or Where The Doer Of Deeds Could Have Done Them Better. The Credit Belongs To The Man Who Is Actually In The Arena, Whose Face Is Marred By Dust And Sweat And Blood; Who Strives Valiantly; Who Errs, Who Comes Short Again And Again, Because There Is No Effort Without Error And Shortcoming; But Who Does Actually Strive To Do The Deeds; Who Knows Great Enthusiasms, The Great Devotions; Who Spends Himself In A Worthy Cause; Who At The Best Knows In The End The Triumph Of High Achievement, And Who At The Worst, If He Fails, At Least Fails While Daring Greatly, So That His Place Shall Never Be With Those Cold And Timid Souls Who Neither Know Victory Nor Defeat. - Theodore Roosevelt

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

3/3/1945

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Cobbler (Apple)

Short Description

Actress Hattie Winston (1945 - ) has been recognized with an Obie Award, among other honors. Winston's theatre credits include, "Hair," "The Tap Dance Kid," and, "To Take Up Arms." Her television and film credits include, "Jackie Brown," "Becker," and, "True Crime."

Employment

Negro Ensemble Company

'The Electric Company'

'Becker'

'Homefront'

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:635,7:1877,33:2429,43:2705,48:5910,68:6540,74:9770,106:10250,112:15242,177:16202,193:16970,205:23172,241:23484,246:23796,251:34461,357:38980,414:39332,419:40388,435:42852,468:44612,494:45052,500:45580,507:46988,526:51540,545:53094,573:53834,585:54648,604:59014,664:62270,700:62566,705:63898,725:64268,731:66636,765:75968,834:80375,880:80940,886:82522,911:85890,917:94710,1037:98630,1102:99030,1109:103268,1191:103891,1199:104514,1207:114358,1360:114693,1368:115095,1375:115564,1383:116100,1394:116368,1399:119580,1430:120280,1438:121280,1455:129910,1566:132318,1621:132834,1628:133522,1638:134726,1653:135758,1667:143334,1751:144126,1766:144522,1773:144984,1781:145446,1790:145974,1800:146766,1814:147228,1821:151225,1856:153175,1930:153825,1947:154345,1957:154605,1962:155775,1997:156230,2004:164056,2123:164340,2128:165263,2143:165831,2149:166328,2157:167038,2203:170020,2213:180205,2345:201902,2660:202198,2665:207122,2701:207810,2710:211680,2766:212110,2772:217058,2821:223050,2873:224150,2888:227550,2960:232243,2978:232849,2986:234600,3011$0,0:11084,152:11772,161:13406,197:14352,211:14696,227:16244,253:21404,309:26522,325:27632,345:28668,361:29408,372:30074,383:31406,419:31702,424:33034,445:33404,451:36142,514:40120,523:40564,531:41304,542:42266,557:43006,568:43376,574:44042,587:45004,604:45744,619:50924,717:57551,766:58217,773:71680,916:73792,949:74144,954:76080,985:76608,992:80440,1010:80790,1017:81140,1023:87035,1142:87692,1153:87984,1158:88641,1170:89517,1181:90758,1204:91926,1232:92364,1240:93386,1257:93678,1262:94481,1277:94919,1284:95722,1297:96671,1313:97255,1323:97547,1328:97985,1337:99372,1366:105410,1387:105710,1392:106310,1401:109235,1457:111068,1470:111482,1477:111827,1483:114587,1529:116450,1538:116978,1545:119618,1590:122962,1640:124194,1659:134160,1754:134710,1761:135150,1766:135700,1772:138010,1789:145484,1836:148184,1860:150776,1887:151208,1892:161243,1952:167930,2006:172566,2122:172870,2142:173326,2149:174542,2174:179178,2255:182070,2260
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Hattie Winston's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Hattie Winston lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Hattie Winston describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Hattie Winston describes her father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Hattie Winston describes her father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Hattie Winston describes the professions of her paternal family

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Hattie Winston recalls her paternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Hattie Winston recalls her father and her father's siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Hattie Winston recalls her father's childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Hattie Winston describes being adopted by her paternal aunt

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Hattie Winston describes her childhood personality in Greenville, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Hattie Winston describes her adoptive father, Louis Pampley

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Hattie Winston describes her mother's ill-fated bootlegging business

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Hattie Winston describes occupations in her childhood community of Greenville, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Hattie Winston describes racial prejudice growing up in Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Hattie Winston recalls role models from her community in Greenville, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Hattie Winston recalls her impressions of race relations in Mississippi in the 1950s

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Hattie Winston recalls her teenage ambitions to be in show business

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Hattie Winston describes going to live in the North as a teenager

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Hattie Winston describes living with her biological father in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Hattie Winston describes living with her best friend, Adrianne Thomas, in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Hattie Winston recalls choosing to attend Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Hattie Winston describes her experiences at Howard University in the mid-1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Hattie Winston recalls joining The Group Theater Workshop in New York City

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Hattie Winston recalls the start of her professional acting career

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Hattie Winston recalls the founding of the Negro Ensemble Company

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Hattie Winston describes her experiences in the Negro Ensemble Company

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Hattie Winston describes her stage acting career after leaving the Negro Ensemble Company

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Hattie Winston describes the start of her TV and voice acting career

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Hattie Winston recalls how she made a career in the voiceover industry

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Hattie Winston recalls roles from her work as a TV and film actress

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Hattie Winston describes her community involvement

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Hattie Winston describes her play 'The Slave Narratives'

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Hattie Winston describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Hattie Winston narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

5$2

DATitle
Hattie Winston describes her experiences in the Negro Ensemble Company
Hattie Winston recalls roles from her work as a TV and film actress
Transcript
It was incredible, and then as a result of that experience, to meet other people. To meet [HistoryMaker] Harry Belafonte, whom as a little girl in Mississippi, you know, I had seen in 'Carmen Jones,' you know, or to meet Sidney Poitier and have them come to the theater, or to meet Miles Davis and, and have them come to the theater, and then to have them know my name. You know, or to have them come up and say that they admired my work, and then to--it was a very generous time as well. I think that's missing today. By that I mean it was nothing for me to be in the presence of greatness. It was nothing for me to be in the presence of Mr. Paul Robeson or James Baldwin or Diana Sands or Mr. Duke Ellington or any of these people. To be in the presence of absolute greatness, and Brock Peters--$$Right.$$--Sidney Poitier, Al Freeman, Jr. All of the--Roxie Roker--all of these people, and to have them share with me any knowledge that they had. Lou Gossett [HistoryMaker Louis Cameron Gossett, Jr.].$$Right.$$I used to sit and just listen to them talk, and it was like being--it was far more than I ever could've learned at Howard [Howard University, Washington, D.C.], and that's nothing against Howard. I don't want you to misunderstand me, but to be--$$You were right in the thick of the dialogue.$$I was in it.$$Right.$$I was in it. And at the time, I didn't realize that I was also creating it.$$Right.$$I didn't realize that. It was an incredible movement--theater movement that was happening in New York [New York] at the time. And then to be a part of NEC [Negro Ensemble Company], to represent the United States of America at the World Theatre Festival [World Theatre Season] in London [England]. Oh, my God! The only theater company in the entire country that was chosen to represent the United States.$$Right. Right.$$Not black company (simultaneous)!$$(Simultaneous) You were there?$$The only theater company that was chosen at that time--$$Right.$$--to represent the United States and then to go to London, and the so-called great democracy, and be on stage, and we were doing a play that was very controversial, which Michael Schultz [HistoryMaker Michael A. Schultz] had directed, called 'Song of the Lusitanian Bogey,' written by a German writer believe it or not called Peter Weiss, W-E-I-S-S, and it was about colonialism in Angola, in Mozambique, and we were actually--our lives were threatened on the stage. They were (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) On the stage?$$On the stage. They were throwing things at us on stage, telling us to get out of the stage, calling us nigger, calling us all kinds of name--these are the very educated Brits. Oh, it was such an exciting time, to be there, and then to go--excuse me--and do my first concert in Rome [Italy] in front of thousands of people. I thought I had gone to heaven. It was so exciting.$$Now we're up to where?$$Oh, God (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Is it 19--$$This is about--oh this is like '69 [1969] I think--$But you've had a few television hits in there.$$Oh, yes. Oh, yes.$$You want to talk about it?$$Oh, yes! (Laughter) Well, I did, as I said, I did 'The Electric Company.'$$Right.$$And then I did a series in New York [New York] called 'Nurse,' and I did that with Michael Learned and Robert Reed. And we were only on for two seasons, but it was interesting and innovative because we shot it in New York, and that was a time when series were not being shot in New York.$$Right.$$So I did that and that was--Michael Learned, just an incredible actress and an incredible human being, and I still see her to this day. And this was back in the '80s [1980s] when we did that. Then I did--the reason I ended up in, in Los Angeles [California] was I came out here to do a series called 'Homefront,' and I did that with Dick Anthony Williams and Mimi Kennedy. Oh, my Lord, Jesus! I'm having a mental moment. But anyway, incredible actors on that show. Kyle Chandler, Wendy Phillips--it's coming back. (Laughter) Great, great actors and the producers of that show, Lynn Latham [Lynn Marie Latham] and Bernie Lechowick [Bernard Lechowick], I can really say that they are my friends to this day. They are my friends. But I ended up--I came to California to do that series, and my family relocated to California as a result of that series. Also, you know, I've had the opportunity to do--I just finished doing 'Becker' with Ted Danson, and we did that for six seasons. So that's quite phenomenal, and right now it's in syndication which is really very lovely. And then in between that, I've done other plays, I've done films. I did 'Jackie Brown' with Samuel Jackson [Samuel L. Jackson] and Robert De Niro, Quentin Tarantino. I did a movie called 'True Crime' with Clint Eastwood, Isaiah Washington, and--I'm having a moment here, but that was incredible, to work with Clint Eastwood. It's just been--I did a thing called 'Project Greenlight' on HBO which Ben Affleck and Matt Damon produced. The movie that came out of that was called 'Shaker Heights' ['The Battle of Shaker Heights']. That was great. I did a movie with [HistoryMaker] Whoopi Goldberg called 'Clara's Heart.'$$Right.$$So, Whoopi was in that and Beverly Todd was starring in that as well.

Audrey Grevious

Social activist Audrey Grevious was born in Lexington, Kentucky, in 1930 and has remained there most of her life. After graduating from Dunbar High School, she attended Kentucky State University in Frankfort, earning a B.A. in elementary education, and later earned a master's in administration from Eastern Kentucky University in Richmond.

After graduating, Grevious first taught at, and later became principal of Kentucky Village, a state reformatory for delinquent boys. Following the closing of the school, she taught in Fayette County Public Schools, where she remained until she retired. More than a teacher, Grevious also became active with the NAACP in the late 1940s. She also became active with the Congress on Racial Equality (CORE). As the civil rights movement heated up, Grevious rose to become the president of the Lexington chapter of the NAACP while her friend and vice president Julia Lewis became the president of CORE. The two brought the two organizations together, organizing protests, pickets and sit-ins, and successfully and peacefully achieved their objectives. This marked the first time that the NAACP and CORE had worked together, as ideological differences at the national level had previously kept the groups apart.

Over the years, Grevious has remained involved with the NAACP. Since her retirement, she has become involved in a number of organizations. She currently serves on the board of directors of The Humanitarium, an organization devoted to celebrating diversity. She is also a member of the board of the Community Reinvestment Housing Project, which provides counseling to first-time homebuyers, a member of the board and the former president of Kentucky Tech, and the secretary of her church, Pilgrim Baptist. She is also the president of the Elder Crafters, an organization of senior citizens who make crafts. As a group, they enjoy bowling, and Grevious' home is filled with trophies from the sport.

Grevious passed away on January 6, 2017 at age 86.

Accession Number

A2002.226

Sex

Female

Interview Date

12/11/2002

Last Name

Grevious

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Dunbar High School

Constitution Street School

Kentucky State University

First Name

Audrey

Birth City, State, Country

Lexington

HM ID

GRE05

Favorite Season

None

State

Kentucky

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere

Favorite Quote

Anything I Want To Do I Can Do It. It May Take A Little Longer But I'll Do It.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Kentucky

Birth Date

9/3/1930

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Lexington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken

Death Date

1/6/2017

Short Description

Civil rights activist and high school teacher Audrey Grevious (1930 - 2017 ) was a NAACP desegregation leader in Lexington, Kentucky, who worked closely with CORE.

Employment

Kentucky Village

Fayette County School System

Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Audrey Grevious' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Audrey Grevious lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Audrey Grevious talks about her family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Audrey Grevious talks about her biological father, James Washington

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Audrey Grevious describes her mother, Martha Ross

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Audrey Grevious talks about the Aspendale Housing Projects in Lexington, Kentucky

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Audrey Grevious describes her childhood neighborhood in Lexington, Kentucky

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Audrey Grevious describes the sights, sounds, and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Audrey Grevious talks about nurturing teaches who rose above racial discrimination in the segregated school system

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Audrey Grevious describes her teenaged years in Lexington, Kentucky

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Audrey Grevious talks about being taken care of by neighbors and her childhood personality

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Audrey Grevious talks about her elementary school and her high school

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Audrey Grevious describes her teachers at Dunbar High School in Lexington, Kentucky

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Audrey Grevious talks about teachers at Dunbar High School who raised money to help send students to college

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Audrey Grevious talks about teaching children in her neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Audrey Grevious describes her education at Kentucky State University in Frankfort, Kentucky

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Audrey Grevious describes her experience at Kentucky State University

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Audrey Grevious talks about finishing her education at Kentucky State University

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Audrey Grevious describes the NAACP's restaurant service

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Audrey Grevious describes her start with the NAACP

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Audrey Grevious talks about working with Julia Lewis of the Lexington, Kentucky chapter of CORE

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Audrey Grevious talks about how she became president of the NAACP chapter in Lexington, Kentucky

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Audrey Grevious talks about organizing her first sit-in with Julia Lewis, the president of the Lexington chapter of CORE

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Audrey Grevious describes being attacked at a sit-in

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Audrey Grevious talks about the lack of participation African American religious leaders in the Civil Rights Movement in Lexington, Kentucky

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Audrey Grevious talks about being arrested for a protest

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Audrey Grevious talks about working to integrate movie theaters in Lexington, Kentucky

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Audrey Grevious explains the demise of the Lyric Theatre after the integration of theaters in Lexingotn, Kentucky

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Audrey Grevious describes the pressure to continue segregation

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Audrey Grevious talks about a store owner's attempt to get her fired

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Audrey Grevious describes fighting for integration at the Kentucky Village Reform School

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Audrey Grevious talks about her desegregation efforts in schools, lunch counters, theaters, and places of employment

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Audrey Grevious talks about leading a violence-free movement and being the target of hate crimes

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Audrey Grevious talks about the unique partnership between CORE and NAACP in Lexington, Kentucky

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Audrey Grevious describes her own realization of racial injustice

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Audrey Grevious talks about the integration of Kentucky Village Reform School

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Audrey Grevious talks about her teaching career at Kentucky Village Reform School

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Audrey Grevious talks about her career in Fayette County Public Schools

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Audrey Grevious reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Audrey Grevious talks about the lack of recognition for her work with Julia Lewis in Lexington, Kentucky during the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Audrey Grevious talks about her mother and brother's support

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Audrey Grevious talks about teaching neighborhood children about the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Audrey Grevious describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

7$10

DATitle
Audrey Grevious describes being attacked at a sit-in
Audrey Grevious talks about the integration of Kentucky Village Reform School
Transcript
And then after, after that we had another (unclear) that was right next, next door to them and we decided we were going to, to, to do that. Well the first time we got in, we got the seats because it was just kind of open and you just going down the aisle. And we took up all the seats. Well then see the customers couldn't, couldn't--and she couldn't wait on anybody, but she wasn't gonna wait on us. And she became so angry and aggravated that she took a great big bowl--jar of iced tea and turned it over on my new suit that I had just bought cause I was going someplace afterwards. I still have the--it's up in the attic now. It's a souvenir of the [Civil Rights] Movement. And, and I just--and, and I just sat there just like nothing--red--every time I think about it, I, I can still, still picture that. And so the next week when we came, they had this rope all around the lunch counter. And the, the manager was sitting at the rope and he would let his white customers come in and then close it, close it right back. And so I was kind of at the front of the line and he had this little string on it, and he was hitting it and it was hitting right across my, my leg. It was really hurting something, something bad. And, and the men--there were a few men on our line and of course they wanted to take the, the chain and wrap it around his neck. And so we had to send them outside 'cause they were really getting angry because it was hurting, you know. I'm, I'm doing this the whole time. Each time he did that, I'm, I'm feeling it.$$Like [unclear].$$Yeah. And, and so they went on--reluctantly they went on out and we, we, you know we stood there. But for--I would say for about twelve to fifteen years, I suffered with my leg right down at that, that--like right in that area. Anyway, and they couldn't find out what was wrong. I think it was all up here in my head. But we stayed, stayed there then. And then we--finally we--wasn't too long after that, that we were able to get them to, to make the change 'cause they could see that we weren't giving up. And we're being so quiet and so refined and so top notch. And that they had no complaint, you know, about it. That they--we felt like that one of the stores had hired some--we, we called them hoodlums and that--which isn't really quite fair to them, but they act like hoodlums anyway. Who were coming by and they would have a lighter, and they would cut it on and get it as close to our hair as, as they possibly could. I guess just to try to get us, but we just sat there, you know, anyway. And it wasn't too long after that that they realized we're being stupid. We might as well go ahead and when we had a meeting, they, they agreed to go ahead and, you know and do this.$$You had a meeting with the store owner?$$Uh-huh.$How did this era affect your, your later career? Did, did it affect your later career at all?$$In teaching?$$Yeah.$$No, because you know like I said, after I was arrested that time and, and the superintendent of the [Kentucky] Village [Reform School] called me at work. I told you we'd had a meeting, you know, anyway. And, and we talked about it. And, and he says, "Well I've been thinking about it, you know, for a long time but I didn't know how it was gonna go over." And there was some very prejudiced ones there on both sides, you know. And, and, and the separation was complete. I mean when I say complete, I mean complete. Even dining room, every- they didn't even eat, you know. And, and that's what I was telling him, you know, that--well I had made up my mind that I was going to eat in the dining room. We ate--they had a small--another one and it was--well it was so clean it wasn't even funny. You know you could almost eat off the floor. And, and I had made up my mind. I don't know what made me think of it over the weekend. And I had said Monday morning when I go to school, I'm not going to go in the--where the children eat. I'm going to sit down and eat in the dining room that's for the whites. And the young man from Paris [Kentucky] would catch the bus up here and I'd pick him up on the corner and carry him on to work, you know with me. And I told him, you know, that this was what I was going to do. And so he didn't say anything. He just looked and he says, "Oh, Audrey." And so when the time came, we went in and he had made up his mind that he wasn't gonna let me go by myself. And so he came and sat with me at the table by the door. I got by the door in case I had to run out. But he sat, sat there with me. And it upset some people so badly, now these are people who have been saying hello to you, how are you, you know, and just being rather friendly with you, that they actually threw their food in the trashcan and stamped out of the dining room. And some of them who did it would, would have--if anybody had told me they would have been the ones who'd have done it, I would have said no way 'cause they had been so friendly, you know. But they were the ones who got up and threw, threw it out. And so after that--that was the beginning of the, the integration of the, the whole, whole, whole place. And then after that--and then that's when I went to talk to the, to the, to the superintendent and I said, "Well that was my first step. And the next one is to integrate the, the schools." And he says, "Huh?" And I said, "Yeah." I said, "It doesn't make sense to, to waste talent like you have here and not be sharing it." I said, "They need to know what I'm teaching and my students need to know what they're teaching. And so that's gonna be the next, next step," and he says, "Well will you tell me when?" I said, "No, 'cause I don't know when." I said, "Just one day, it might be when I walk up and, and say this is the day and take my students and we'll walk over, over to the, the school and that's where we're gonna--they'll have to find a room or we'll just sit in the library, you know, during the time." And then after we talked about it and he said, "Oh don't do that, that to me." He says, "You got me in the--." I said, "Well okay. Do you have a room?" And he says, "Yes, but it's in the basement." I said, "It doesn't make any difference. Just let me have the key and I will bring my students over and we will--," and that was the way we did. And you could have heard a pin fall in that building; there was so much tension that day that it was not even funny. And these are people who normally, "Hello, how are you," you know and all that, but it was the separation that was, you know there and they wanted to, to, to keep it. And, and at the time I only taught the black students and, and the other male. He only taught. But it--then, then, then we integrated the whole, whole school.