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Alex Askew

Chef Alex Askew was born on August 16, 1967 in Brooklyn, New York to Caroline Butler Askew and Aulander Askew, Sr. At the age of fourteen, he received his first job offer as a personal chef through a high school vocational work program; and after six years of working in a variety of restaurants in and out of New York City, he decided to attend the Culinary Institute of America and graduated in 1989.

With a focus on eating lifestyles and trends in new menu alternatives, he began food research, development, and consulting for companies; General Mills, Hilton Hotels, Aramark Corporation, Specialty Restaurants and a host of private clients. Askew has also created one of the most unique consortiums of chefs under one group (ALS Culinary Concepts) for consulting in areas of menu development, R&D, start up operations, systems and controls, training, food manufacturing, business planning and concept development.
 
While working in restaurants that broadened his experience in different cooking styles as well as cuisines which included Cajun and Creole, Holistic, Latin and American fusion, Askew co-founded the BCAGlobal in 1993, which dedicates itself to Education, Awareness, and Exposure for young minority students seeking careers within the culinary and hospitality industry.
 
Askew has enjoyed guest appearances on Good Morning America, CBS Early Morning Show, and the Food Network. He was a 2001 Doctorate of Foodservice recipient from the North American Foodservice Equipment Manufacturers, a Distinguished Visited Chef (DVC) for Sullivan University, and 2011 Business Leader of Year from the Marcella Brown Foundation. In May 2012, he received the distinguished New York Institute of Technology Global Leadership Award and served on the American Culinary Federation as Board member Accreditation Commission. In 2014, Askew was selected as a 2014 National Kellogg Fellow in Leadership in the Racial, Equity and Healing (REH) cohort.
 
With over thirty-five years in the restaurant and hospitality field, Askew continues his use of knowledge and experience as a foundation for further growth and development in the best industry in the world and continues the important social change work for the advancement of people of color in the culinary arts.

Alex Askew was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 27, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.083

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/27/2018

Last Name

Askew

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
First Name

Alex

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

ASK01

Favorite Season

Summer

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Puerto Rico

Favorite Quote

You May Not Win, But You Can Still Fight.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

8/19/1967

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Favorite Food

Caviar, Foie Gras

Short Description

Chef Alex Askew (1967 - )

Favorite Color

Black

Sallie Ann Robinson

Chef and culinary historian Sallie Ann Robinson was born on August 4, 1958 on Daufuskie Island, South Carolina to Albertha Robinson Stafford and Alton Ward, Sr. She attended Mary Fields School on Daufuskie Island. Robinson was featured as the character Ethel in the 1972 memoir, The Water is Wide written by her teacher Pat Conroy. She then moved to Savannah, Georgia, to attend Bartlett Middle School, but returned to South Carolina, where she graduated from Bluffton’s H.E. McCracken High School in 1975.

After living and working at the William Hilton Inn on Hilton Head Island, Robinson moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. There, she became a licensed practical nurse for BAYADA Home Health Care before returning to Daufuskie Island. In 1991, Robinson began working as a home health care nurse and as the secretary and manager of a cleaning company. Encouraged by a client, she began collecting recipes and stories of the Gullah community for a cookbook of foods from her childhood. Robinson worked with other natives of Daufuskie Island during the late 1980s to launch Daufuskie Island Day, which was observed on the fourth Saturday in June. In 2008, Robinson created the Daufuskie Island Tours. She also served a council woman on the Daufuskie Island board. She went on to work as a personal chef, and private culinary instructor. She was also featured on numerous television shows for her culinary skills including The QVC Show, The 700 Club, CN8’s Your Morning Show and the Food Network. In 2010, Robinson was invited to give a presentation and dinner on the cuisine of the Gullah peoples at the Smithsonian Institution for attendees from West Africa and Ghana.

Robinson’s first book Gullah Home Cooking the Daufuskie Way was published by the University of North Carolina Press in 2003. Then, in 2006, she released Cooking the Gullah Way, Morning, Noon, and Night. Robinson was highlighted in many publications including Southern Living, National Geographic, Hilton Head Monthly, The South Magazine, Garden and Gun, and Bon Appetit.

Robinson has four children: Thomas Bush, Rakenya Robinson, Jermaine Robinson, and Charles Simmons IV.

Sallie Ann Robinson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 9, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.045

Sex

Female

Interview Date

02/09/2017

Last Name

Robinson

Middle Name

Ann

Organizations
Schools

Mary Field School

H.E. McCracken High School

Savannah Technical College

Bartlett Middle School

First Name

Sallie

Birth City, State, Country

Daufuskie Island

HM ID

ROB32

Favorite Season

Spring

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Daufuskie Island, South Carolina

Favorite Quote

Life Is Precious.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

8/4/1958

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Savannah

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Chef and culinary historian Sallie Ann Robinson (1958 - ) authored the cookbooks Gullah Home Cooking the Daufuskie Way and Cooking the Gullah Way, Morning, Noon, and Night. She also worked as a personal chef and culinary instructor.

Employment

Hilton Head Inn

Piggly Wiggly Corporation

BAYADA Home Health Care

Favorite Color

Red, Black

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Sallie Ann Robinson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Sallie Ann Robinson lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Sallie Ann Robinson describes her mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Sallie Ann Robinson describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Sallie Ann Robinson describes her father and stepfather

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Sallie Ann Robinson lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Sallie Ann Robinson describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Sallie Ann Robinson remembers the Mary Fields School on Daufuskie Island, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Sallie Ann Robinson recalls learning about the history of Daufuskie Island, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Sallie Ann Robinson describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Sallie Ann Robinson remembers her sixth grade teacher, Pat Conroy

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Sallie Ann Robinson remembers watching television as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Sallie Ann Robinson describes the house where she grew up

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Sallie Ann Robinson describes how food was preserved on Daufuskie Island, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Sallie Ann Robinson talks about transportation on Daufuskie Island, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Sallie Ann Robinson describes the medical care on Daufuskie Island, South Carolina, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Sallie Ann Robinson describes the medical care on Daufuskie Island, South Carolina, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Sallie Ann Robinson talks about emigration from Daufuskie Island, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Sallie Ann Robinson reflects upon what she learned from Pat Conroy, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Sallie Ann Robinson reflects upon what she learned from Pat Conroy, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Sallie Ann Robinson remembers Pat Conroy's conflict with the school superintendent

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Sallie Ann Robinson remembers leaving Daufuskie Island to pursue education

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Sallie Ann Robinson remembers her interests during high school

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Sallie Ann Robinson remembers learning to use a shotgun

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Sallie Ann Robinson remembers hunting and fishing on Daufuskie Island, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Sallie Ann Robinson recalls the attitudes toward swimming on Daufuskie Island, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Sallie Ann Robinson talks about the importance of learning to cook

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Sallie Ann Robinson remembers learning the terms Gullah and Geechee

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Sallie Ann Robinson talks about her relationship to the mainland as a child

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Sallie Ann Robinson remembers her first job after high school

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Sallie Ann Robinson talks about her children and her move to Savannah, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Sallie Ann Robinson remembers moving to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Sallie Ann Robinson recalls earning her nursing license

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Sallie Ann Robinson talks about her experiences as a home care nurse

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Sallie Ann Robinson describes the changes in the economy on Daufuskie Island, South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Sallie Ann Robinson talks about the history of tourism on Daufuskie Island, South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Sallie Ann Robinson describes the impact of commercial development on Daufuskie Island, South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Sallie Ann Robinson talks about the dispossession of native residents on Daufuskie Island, South Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Sallie Ann Robinson talks about her ancestors on Daufuskie Island, South Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Sallie Ann Robinson remembers the First Union African Baptist Church on Daufuskie Island, South Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Sallie Ann Robinson remembers her early love of cooking

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Sallie Ann Robinson remembers starting her first cookbook

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Sallie Ann Robinson talks about 'Gullah Home Cooking the Daufuskie Way'

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Sallie Ann Robinson talks about her second book, 'Cooking the Gullah Way, Morning, Noon, and Night'

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Sallie Ann Robinson remembers recipes from her childhood

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Sallie Ann Robinson talks about eating game meat

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Sallie Ann Robinson reflects upon the misrepresentations of Gullah culture

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Sallie Ann Robinson reflects upon her life

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Sallie Ann Robinson reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Sallie Ann Robinson describes her concerns for the future of Daufuskie Island, South Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Sallie Ann Robinson reflects upon Pat Conroy's portrayal of Daufuskie Island, South Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Sallie Ann Robinson talks about cooking in people's homes

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Sallie Ann Robinson remembers her talk at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Sallie Ann Robinson reflects upon her role in the future of Daufuskie Island, South Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Sallie Ann Robinson narrates her photographs

Marcus Samuelsson

Chef and restaurateur Marcus Samuelsson (born Kassahun Tsegie) was born in Ethiopia on January 25, 1971. Samuelsson was orphaned in 1972, when a tuberculosis epidemic took the life of his mother. In 1973, he and his sister were adopted by Ann Marie and Lennart Samuelsson and brought to Gothenburg, Sweden, where his grandmother, Helga, taught him how to cook. Samuelsson went on to study at the Culinary Institute in Gothenburg, apprenticed in Switzerland in 1989, and then in France from 1992 to 1994.

In 1994, Samuelsson moved to the United States for an apprenticeship with Aquavit, a restaurant in New York City. He was quickly promoted to executive chef and then made partner of Aquavit in 1997. In 1995, Samuelsson became the youngest chef ever to receive a three-star restaurant review from The New York Times. In 2003, he opened the New York restaurant, Riingo, which served Japanese-influenced American food. He then launched a television show, Inner Chef, which aired in 2005, and another in 2008 called Urban Cuisine. In 2010, he opened a third restaurant called Red Rooster in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City. He founded FoodRepublic.com in 2011, and opened another restaurant, Ginny's Supper Club, in 2012. In the fall of 2012, Samuelsson, together with Clarion Hotels, launched a restaurant concept called Kitchen & Table. In addition, he has served as a visiting professor of international culinary science at the Umeå University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts in Sweden, and has been an advisor to The Institute of Culinary Education in New York City.

Samuelsson is the author of Aquavit and the New Scandinavian Cuisine (2003), The Soul of a New Cuisine: A Discovery of the Foods and Flavors of Africa (2006), New American Table (2009), and Yes, Chef: A Memoir (2012). He also authored the Swedish cookbook, En smakresa: middagstips från Marcus Samuelsson, which was named Sweden’s Cookbook of the Year in 2002.

Samuelsson has received numerous honors for his work. In 1999, he was awarded the coveted James Beard Rising Star Chef Award for his work at Aquavit. In 2003, he was named "Best Chef: New York City" by the James Beard Foundation. Samuelsson has also been named a Great Chef of America by the Culinary Institute of America and a Global Leader of Tomorrow by the World Economic Forum. In 2009, he served as the guest chef for the first State Dinner of the Obama administration. He appeared on and won the reality television competition Top Chef Masters in 2010, and was a contestant on the fourth season of The Next Iron Chef in 2011. In 2013, Samuelsson won the James Beard Foundation award for Writing and Literature related to food.

Marcus Samuelsson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 18, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.166

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/18/2014

Last Name

Samuelsson

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

Culinary Institute

First Name

Marcus

HM ID

SAM06

Favorite Season

Summer

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

Fine Folks

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

11/6/1970

Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

Ethiopia

Favorite Food

Home Cooked Meal

Short Description

Chef and restaurateur Marcus Samuelsson (1970 - ) was the executive chef and partner of the Scandinavian restaurant Aquavit, and the owner of the Red Rooster Harlem in New York City.

Employment

Aquavit

Riingo

Red Rooster

FoodRepublic.com

Ginny's Supper Club

Umea University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts

Kitchen & Table

Marcus Samuelsson Group

Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
0,0:7072,144:7488,149:13104,222:21552,307:22533,319:24782,368:25270,378:29362,424:42972,560:44830,566:45294,571:49407,611:50276,630:50592,635:77360,851:78439,868:79850,890:97394,1101:102730,1144:109293,1232:109779,1239:110265,1247:111399,1269:121174,1405:124198,1471:130696,1585:133520,1627:136435,1686:146074,1826:152460,1913:155190,1976:155470,1981:155890,1988:156240,1994:161050,2060:161378,2065:164740,2124:167210,2130:167868,2138:171670,2262$0,0:7300,104:8100,114:8600,120:21540,231:33334,408:34302,422:41462,479:59420,718:63460,783:64692,801:66617,841:67387,861:68927,900:69543,916:69851,921:74240,973:80314,1050:81298,1069:81708,1075:83758,1118:91670,1239:93050,1251:94850,1294:96506,1331:99674,1413:117585,1582:119455,1640:119965,1661:121750,1858:134466,2065:134964,2072:145430,2199:148220,2238:155900,2361:156480,2367
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Marcus Samuelsson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Marcus Samuelsson lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Marcus Samuelsson describes his maternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Marcus Samuelsson talks about his adoption, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Marcus Samuelsson talks about his birth father

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Marcus Samuelsson describes his relationship with his sister

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Marcus Samuelsson describes his adoptive parents

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Marcus Samuelsson describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Marcus Samuelsson remembers his childhood in Sweden

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Marcus Samuelsson recalls his early understanding of race, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Marcus Samuelsson talks about his adoption, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Marcus Samuelsson describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood in Sweden

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Marcus Samuelsson talks about his education in Sweden, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Marcus Samuelsson describes his adoptive mother's parenting

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Marcus Samuelsson remembers playing soccer in Sweden

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Marcus Samuelsson describes his early appreciation of food culture

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Marcus Samuelsson talks about his education in Sweden, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Marcus Samuelsson remembers changing his focus to the culinary arts

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Marcus Samuelsson recalls his early understanding of race, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Marcus Samuelsson talks about his work ethic

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Marcus Samuelsson describes his home life in Sweden

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Marcus Samuelsson talks about his adoptive upbringing

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Marcus Samuelsson remembers applying for his first restaurant job

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Marcus Samuelsson recalls working as a cook at the SAS Park Avenue Hotel in Gothenburg, Sweden

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Marcus Samuelsson remembers the mentorship of his first employer

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Marcus Samuelsson recalls his apprenticeship at the Victoria Jungfrau Grand Hotel and Spa in Interlaken, Switzerland, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Marcus Samuelsson recalls his apprenticeship at the Victoria Jungfrau Grand Hotel and Spa in Interlaken, Switzerland, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Marcus Samuelsson remembers the influence of Mayor David N. Dinkins' election

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Marcus Samuelsson describes his challenges as a black aspiring chef in Europe

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Marcus Samuelsson talks about his decision to focus on his career instead of his family

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Marcus Samuelsson recalls being hired at Aquavit in New York City

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Marcus Samuelsson remembers his arrival in New York City

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Marcus Samuelsson recalls becoming the executive chef of Aquavit

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Marcus Samuelsson remembers changing the menu at Aquavit

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Marcus Samuelsson talks about the clientele of Aquavit

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Marcus Samuelsson talks about the African American professional community in New York City

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Marcus Samuelsson talks about Aquavit's three star rating in The New York Times

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Marcus Samuelsson talks about his success in the culinary profession

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Marcus Samuelsson remembers his adoptive father's death

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Marcus Samuelsson talks about applying for U.S. citizenship

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Marcus Samuelsson remembers the attacks of September 11, 2001

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Marcus Samuelsson remembers moving to New York City's Harlem neighborhood

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Marcus Samuelsson remembers opening the Red Rooster Harlem in New York City, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Marcus Samuelsson remembers opening the Red Rooster Harlem in New York City, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Marcus Samuelsson talks about the clientele of the Red Rooster Harlem

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Marcus Samuelsson talks about the staff of the Red Rooster Harlem

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Marcus Samuelsson describes his culinary vision

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Marcus Samuelsson describes the marketing strategy of the Marcus Samuelsson Group

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Marcus Samuelsson talks about the history of African American restaurant ownership

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Marcus Samuelsson talks about his wife

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Marcus Samuelsson reflects upon his legacy

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$6

DAStory

7$2

DATitle
Marcus Samuelsson describes his early appreciation of food culture
Marcus Samuelsson talks about the clientele of the Red Rooster Harlem
Transcript
Where did your love of, of food come from?$$From my grandmother, from my grandmother.$$What's her name?$$My grandmother Helga is really the one that showed me what love meant in terms of food and terroir--that you're of a place. You know, I got that essentially from my uncles in, on my father's side, but also mostly from my grand- from my grandmother. We are of a place and therefore we eat this way. It is a spiritual connection, so she taught me how to eat with a spiritual compass--not necessarily defined by a religion but more so, you know, when you don't have money you can still eat very well. You just don't eat the cuts that fine folks eat; so our protein was meatballs, or our dishes had more potatoes in them, or, you know, our bread crumbs were made with real bread and you have to scrape it and save it and dry it. All our--so the sense and way of eating with a luxury, that's how we eat but we are not spending a lot of money on it. All our jams were homemade. All our tarts, all our breads were homemade; so I grew up very rustic flavor tone--saltier, crustier bread, textures that were hard, but real food so at a very early age I can define--. She taught me, she gave me blueberries when they were not in season just to teach me, "Okay. See this? They are not in season. Don't eat them. You have to wait." She taught me when the lingonberries were ripe to pick. My uncles taught me how to fish and when to throw the fish back when it was just, maybe, two inches too short. There are different rules on the sea that you have to know, that you know any person on the sea who knows these things, what you don't do, what you do, how you treat it. But the fish we ate summertime was always fresh; again, very salty flavors and you preserved fish for the days when you don't know what is going to happen, when you don't have food, whereas my family back then, oh, we always talk--the Russian might come. We were constantly occupied with the fact that Russia would come and take over Sweden. You had to hide food in the basement, just like my parents--my father in Ethiopia [Tsegie] hides food today because another tribe might come and take it from (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Today?$$Of course, today--there is no difference.$When did you open Rooster [Red Rooster Harlem, New York, New York]?$$December 10, 2010.$$Now, this is a couple of years after the economy has fallen apart again--$$Um-hm.$$--and this is an expensive restaurant. What, what was the opening like in terms of being in this neighborhood? Harlem [New York, New York] has changed quite a bit, but it's still at a soft time.$$Yeah, I mean for me I have worked--95 percent of my education is being a chef--I've worked to cook for the 2 percent in li- in the city, right? And, it's so liberating when you can cook for the 98 percent, and that was--'cause I grew up that way. I grew up in an inclusive environment. I did not grow up exclusive, and I didn't want to run from myself. I wanted to do a restaurant that was there to celebrate right after--post church, that was there to celebrate the graduation, but was also there to celebrate every day; and with Rooster we have that possibility. I want to build a pr- restaurant that it was not fine dining, it's refined dining. It's not exclusive, it is inclusive. All of those things are of restaurant, but they are yet different. We're a brasserie, we're a neighborhood restaurant. What does that mean? That means that we can't take all reservation because if the neighborhood--we have three customer: we have the Harlemite, the visitor, and the New Yorker. The Harlemite, it's their restaurant, they're gonna walk in. They're not gonna make a reservation to Red Rooster. They live here. It's like you hang out in the bar and then you get, you know, twenty minutes later, you have a seat. The visitor books online. I'm going to New York [New York]. On that third night, I want to go to Harlem. I'll go to Brooklyn [New York]; second night, I want to go to Harlem. They book online most likely. The New Yorker is like, "Give me eight o'clock seat right now. Do you know who I am?" That's a New Yorker, right? So, we encompass--Rooster encompasses all of that because you can sit in our bar and eat meatballs and have a beer, and can be in and out for twenty bucks [dollars]; or you can come and celebrate and be part of it for $100 a person. I'm not an editor of your celebration and your happiness anymore. I'm not gonna tell you how to dress, and--come as you are. Spend as much or as little as you want, but you're always welcome. That's a shift.

Walter Royal

Chef Walter Royal was born on May 18, 1957 in Eclectic, Alabama to Ida Royal Reynolds and Columbus Ransaw. At the age of fourteen, Royal knew he wanted to cook professionally. However, his parents dissuaded him, unsure of how successful he would be as a black chef. In 1974, Royal attended LaGrange College in LaGrange, Georgia, where he graduated with his B.S. degree in psychology. In 1980, he graduated from Auburn University with his M.S. degree in psychology. After working with mentally disabled children for five years, Royal enrolled in a nine-month program at Nathalie Dupree’s Cooking School in Atlanta, Georgia in 1983. After graduating from the cooking program, he was hired as a sous-chef at the Fearrington House restaurant in Pittsboro, North Carolina. There he worked under acclaimed chef Edna Lewis. In 1986, Royal was hired as a chef at the Magnolia Grill in Durham, North Carolina before becoming the executive chef and co-owner of the Crescent Café. In 1995, Royal was hired as the executive chef of the award-winning steakhouse The Angus Barn in Raleigh, North Carolina.

Royal has won numerous culinary awards. In 1997, he was the first African American chef to be awarded the Restaurant Guild’s Five Star Chef of the Year. Royal was also deemed one of the James Beard Foundation’s Rising Stars along with being honored as one of the Top Five Chefs in the Southeast, the Top Black Chef in America and the Best Chef in the Triangle region of North Carolina. Royal was featured in Southern Living magazine. In addition to being featured in Ebony, Royal performed a cooking demonstration in Raleigh, North Carolina on the CBS Network program The Early Show. In 2006, Royal competed on the Food Network reality cooking show, Iron Chef America . Royal has cooked with popular American chefs and television personalities like Bobby Flay, Guy Fieri and Cat Cora. In 2010, he was awarded an honorary doctorate from Johnson & Wales University in Providence, Rhode Island. Royal has one son, Walter Royal, Jr.

Walter Royal was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 19, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.042

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/19/2012

Last Name

Royal

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Occupation
Schools

LaGrange College

Auburn University

J.D. Thompson High School

Elmore County High School

First Name

Walter

Birth City, State, Country

Eclectic

HM ID

ROY01

Favorite Season

Spring, Summer

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Near Water

Favorite Quote

You Can Be Anything You Want To Be.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

North Carolina

Birth Date

5/18/1957

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Raleigh

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Roasted Chicken, Potatoes, Vegetables

Short Description

Chef Walter Royal (1957 - ) was among the nation's top African American chefs. He won numerous culinary awards, including the Restaurant Guild International’s Five Star Chef of the Year and the James Beard Foundation Rising Star award.

Employment

Angus Barn

Phoenix Communications

The Inn

Washington Duke Hotel

Magnolia Grill

Fearrington House Restaurant

Crescent Cafe

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:10396,132:16240,189:17240,212:24334,460:25070,569:38292,676:52880,845:58641,943:64456,1028:69180,1074:70800,1097:71160,1102:74927,1138:94708,1400:95178,1406:96118,1417:101520,1471:103520,1558:113270,1641:119430,1679:134045,1890:138546,1959:140946,1986:141330,2009:141810,2021:142290,2028:146410,2077$0,0:327,4:810,31:1155,41:15577,220:16307,231:20860,291:21416,296:30928,432:31668,442:32408,456:35738,595:55594,725:56116,834:87482,1384:98142,1506:102192,1587:103082,1599:122672,1892:123274,1964:136096,2032:138652,2049:139000,2065:143402,2118:150770,2145:167596,2401:180434,2565:180962,2572:184892,2628:185258,2635:190272,2780:190881,2789:191229,2794:191751,2816:194520,2831:201187,2904:201623,2909:203149,2941:204239,2951:213221,3069:217670,3117:220932,3145:221328,3150:222219,3160:229920,3269:230431,3278:233570,3306:237750,3357
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Walter Royal's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Walter Royal lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Walter Royal describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Walter Royal remembers his maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Walter Royal describes his mother's education and profession

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Walter Royal recalls her maternal family gatherings

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Walter Royal describes his father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Walter Royal describes his father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Walter Royal talks about the racial demographics of Coosa County, Alabama

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Walter Royal describes the rivalry between his maternal and paternal families

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Walter Royal talks about his parents' relationship

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Walter Royal describes his stepfather

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Walter Royal talks about his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Walter Royal describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Walter Royal talks about the closeness of his family

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Walter Royal describes his community in Elmore County, Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Walter Royal talks about the southern meal structure

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Walter Royal recalls his early schooling in Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Walter Royal describes his experiences at Elmore County High School in Eclectic, Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Walter Royal talks about the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Walter Royal describes his tight-knit community in Elmore County, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Walter Royal talks about the Russell family of Elmore County, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Walter Royal talks about his early exposure to professional cooks

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Walter Royal talks about the history of southern cuisine

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Walter Royal remembers his early ambitions to become a chef

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Walter Royal talks about his stepfather's career advice

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Walter Royal recalls his football scholarship to attend Auburn University in Auburn, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Walter Royal remembers transferring to LaGrange College in LaGrange, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Walter Royal describes his experiences at LaGrange College

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Walter Royal recalls working at J.S. Tarwater Development Center in Wetumpka, Alabama

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Walter Royal remembers attending Nathalie Dupree's cooking seminar

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Walter Royal talks about the southern cuisine

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Walter Royal recalls his experiences at Rich's Cooking School in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Walter Royal remembers working with Edna Lewis

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Walter Royal talks about the restaurant business

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Walter Royal recalls becoming a sous chef

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Walter Royal describes the members of a kitchen staff

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Walter Royal talks about his process of preparing food

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Walter Royal describes the role of chef de cuisine

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Walter Royal recalls opening his first restaurant

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Walter Royal talks about using his psychology background in the food industry

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Walter Royal recalls closing the Crescent Cafe in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Walter Royal recalls working at Bonnie Brae and the 1996 Summer Olympics

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Walter Royal recalls joining the staff of the Angus Barn in Raleigh, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Walter Royal talks about the history of the Angus Barn

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Walter Royal describes the daily operations at the Angus Barn

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Walter Royal talks about managing the Angus Barn in Raleigh, North Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Walter Royal describes the menu at the Angus Barn

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Walter Royal talks about his role at the Angus Barn

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Walter Royal describes his culinary philosophy

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Walter Royal talks about his experiences on 'Iron Chef America,' pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Walter Royal talks about his experiences on 'Iron Chef America,' pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Walter Royal reflects upon his life and family

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Walter Royal reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Walter Royal describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Walter Royal talks about mentoring children about healthy eating practices

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Walter Royal describes the culinary programs in prison

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Walter Royal talks about healthy food programs in prison

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Walter Royal describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Walter Royal narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Walter Royal narrates his photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

4$5

DATitle
Walter Royal talks about the history of southern cuisine
Walter Royal remembers working with Edna Lewis
Transcript
In light of that can you imagine, I mean can you--do you think that southern cooking is basically an outgrowth of the creativity of black cooks over the years?$$Good question. Yes, let me tell you, and I say to people, especially my northern friends, "Oh, you have to come to New York [New York] and you have to eat here, you have to eat here and you have to do this." Or, "Come to Chicago [Illinois]. You have to eat at Trotters [Charlie Trotter's] and you have to do this." Let me tell you about Mr. Trotter [Charles Trotter], Mr. Trotter's cooking those pig feet that I grew up eating. Mr. Trotter's learning about collard greens and mustard greens and turnip greens. That has sustained African Americans for two hundred plus years. For a while there, everything and this is a speech I'm giving to people. For a while there everything that came through this country came through New Orleans [Louisiana], through Mississippi, through Alabama (laughter), through Georgia before it got to the North. So, don't you think that we, our southern aristocrats traveled to Europe and stuff a lot more than you northern aristocrats? Our southern aristocrats, in which they're white and it was black aristocrats, the cotton or the moonshine (laughter) that you're drinking. All of this stuff was manufactured in the South. We're getting it to you to the North. Do you understand 80 percent of the black population left the South and migrated north? So, don't give me this that New York's food is better than Mississippi or Louisiana food. Don't give me that your food is better than Alabama food. When we put the show on, our food was presented at great taste. We put our best apparel on and we pulled out our starched table cloths. Well, I have a lot of my [maternal] grandmother's [Willie Royal] china and crystal to this day. So please don't tell me, now yes it was lots of poor people in the South, but there was lots of educated people, and if a black family saw something that they wanted, they would maybe save a year, but they would get it, (laughter) you know?$And then she [Nathalie Dupree] took it a step farther for me. She said, "Well, group of the graduating people are going to Majorca [Spain]. I'm taking a group to Majorca. So we have been given a scholarship and Rich's Department Store is paying for it--." Said yeah, yeah, yeah. Went, we were there for three weeks. Came back, had a wait-over at RDU [Raleigh-Durham International Airport, Wake County, North Carolina] and I was reading a Julia Childs' cookbook sitting in the airport waiting for my flight to get back to Atlanta [Georgia].$$Now is this your first trip abroad?$$Yeah, to get back to Atlanta and this lady, Jenny Fitch walked up and she said, "Hi, I'm Jenny Fitch. Are you a chef?" I went, "Well, I just graduated from Nathalie Dupree's cooking school [Rich's Cooking School, Atlanta, Georgia]. We just got back from Spain." She said, "You know Nathalie Dupree?" "Yes ma'am." She said, "You know Nathalie Dupree?" I said, "Yes ma'am, I do." So, I said, "I'm headed back to Atlanta to pack up and go home." She said, "You're not leaving for Atlanta yet." She said, "I own the village of the Fearrington [Fearrington Village, Pittsboro, North Carolina]. I own the Fearrington House Restaurant [Pittsboro, North Carolina], my husband [R.B. Fitch] and we have Edna Lewis working for us out there," and I went holy god. I mean Edna was my icon (laughter) at that point, and she said, "We'll get you on a flight, another flight." I went out, met Edna--hung out with Edna for two days. Meanwhile Jenny had called Nathalie and Nathalie had just told her what a prodigy she felt I would be. Edna loved me, they offered me a job, and of course I took it. Flew back to Alabama, packed up everything, came back, went to work at Fearrington, picked Edna's brain. I mean Edna was an angel amongst us.$$Now tell us about Edna Lewis, now who is she and how did you first find out about her?$$Oh, Edna has six publications, six cookbooks. Her first cookbook, 'The Edna Lewis Cookbook' [Edna Lewis], I've cooked everything in it more (laughter) than once. And she's this striking black--oh, was a striking older black woman that just--elegant! And I would read her books and read her recipes and go--whoa! And there was nobody else like her. There was no black southern chefs that I knew of at that time except Edna and God, God smiled on me when he gave me the opportunity to work with her and there was no way in the world I was turning it down. I had met Edna, then I met Jenny. I had two great women and Jenny Fitch, she was a wealthy Chapel Hill [North Carolina] woman. You know they owned Fitch Lumber Company [Chapel Hill, North Carolina], Fitch stockyard in Siler City [Carolina Stockyards Company, Siler City, North Carolina], just say and her passion, once again with all of her fortune was to bring something to Chapel Hill and she wanted an English inn and it is a true five, Michelin [Michelin Guide] five star destination.$$Okay.$$But working with Edna--Edna and I would sit up sometimes--two o'clock in the morning, just going talking about things. Her crab cakes, the best recipe on this planet. Her wild asparagus salad, her Vidalia onion soup (laughter), you know just things once again. Nathalie had given me the canvas with the first coat of paint on it. Jenny put the next coat; Edna refined the painting.

Jeff Henderson

Chef Jeffery Henderson was born in 1964 in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles, California to June Marie Giles, a welder, and Charles Henderson, Jr. Raised by a singer mother, Henderson was born months before the Watts Riots of 1965. Henderson attended several elementary and junior high schools including Toluca Lake Elementary School in North Hollywood, California and Hamilton Junior High School in Long Beach, California. While attending John Muir Junior High in Burbank, California, he met a cousin who was a drug dealer and started selling drugs.

Henderson grew up on the tough streets of South Central, Los Angeles and San Diego in areas where local gangs battled daily. In the early 1980s, Henderson moved to San Diego, along with his mother and sister, and his drug dealing habits increased. He earned as much as $35,000 a week dealing cocaine in San Diego. Then, in 1988, when Henderson was twenty four years old, the police arrested one of his couriers with $40,000 in cash and a large amount of cocaine. The paperwork led them directly to Henderson, who received a sentence of ten years and seven months in prison. In 1989, Henderson entered prison. While incarcerated, Henderson developed a passion for cooking and was committed to turning his life around. He watched news programs on television, read the "L.A. Times," "USA Today," self-help books and took business courses. He also worked in prison kitchens, starting as a dishwasher and eventually preparing meals as a chef. In 1992, Henderson was transferred to Nellis Air Force Base and worked in the dining hall. Henderson was accepted into the Culinary Training School for inmates at Maxwell Air Force Base in Alabama.

In 1997, Henderson left prison and his attempt to find employment proved fruitless. Henderson was hired as a dishwasher, and then was promoted to line cook. He moved on to other Los Angeles area restaurants, studying menus and books, and ultimately he was hired at the Ritz-Carlton in Marina Del Rey, Hotel Bel-Air in Los Angeles and the L'Ermitage Hotel in Beverly Hills. Soon, he moved to Las Vegas, and after numerous rejections won a job with Caesars Palace. Within the year, Henderson was promoted to head chef. He became Executive Chef at Café Bellagio in Las Vegas. By 2001, Henderson was honored as Chef of the Year by the American Food and Wine Tasting Federation, and soon established The Westside Group, a non-profit organization to help troubled kids. In 2007, he published his memoir, "Cooked: From the Streets to the Stove, from Cocaine to Foie Gras." Henderson focuses on giving back to his community with "The Chef Jeff Project," in which he takes six at-risk young adults and commits to turning their lives around by putting them to work in his catering company, Posh Urban Cuisine.

Jeff Henderson resides in Las Vegas with his wife and three children.

Jeff Henderson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers April 7, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.128

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/7/2007

Last Name

Henderson

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Toluca Lake Elementary School

Kit Carson Elementary School

Montgomery Middle School

Lincoln High School

Alexander Hamilton Middle School

David Starr Jordan High School

Linda Vista Elementary School

Palms Middle School

Madison High School

First Name

Jeff

Birth City, State, Country

Los Angeles

HM ID

HEN05

Favorite Season

Summer

State

California

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

If Chef Jeff Can Do It, You Can Do It.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Nevada

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Las Vegas

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Chef and nonprofit chief executive Jeff Henderson ( - ) was a convicted drug dealer that became a head chef at Caesars Palace in Las Vegas, Nevada. He also founded a non-profit organization called The Westside Group.

Employment

Caesars Palace

Cafe Bellagio

Henderson Group, Inc.

Posh Urban Cuisine

Pyramid

Marriott Altitude Sky Lounge

The Ritz-Carlton

Hotel Bel-Air

L'Ermitage

Hard Rock Hotel

Favorite Color

Blue, Brown, Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Jeff Henderson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Jeff Henderson lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Jeff Henderson describes his maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Jeff Henderson describes his parents' marriage

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Jeff Henderson describes his maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Jeff Henderson describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Jeff Henderson describes his family's move to Los Angeles, California

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Jeff Henderson talks about his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Jeff Henderson describes his parents' personalities and his likeness to them

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Jeff Henderson describes his mother's occupation

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Jeff Henderson remembers Toluca Lake Elementary School in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Jeff Henderson remembers moving to San Diego, California

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Jeff Henderson recalls Kit Carson Elementary School in San Diego, California

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Jeff Henderson remembers growing up in the projects of San Diego, California

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Jeff Henderson recalls struggling as a student at Montgomery Junior High School in San Diego, California

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Jeff Henderson remembers moving to his father's home in San Diego, California

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Jeff Henderson remembers his expulsion from the Los Angeles Unified School District

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Jeff Henderson remembers Alexander Hamilton Junior High School in Long Beach, California

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Jeff Henderson recalls his suspension from Alexander Hamilton Junior High School

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Jeff Henderson remembers his first job

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Jeff Henderson recalls his decision to return to San Diego, California

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Jeff Henderson remembers his relationship with Thess Good

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Jeff Henderson remembers selling marijuana at Abraham Lincoln High School in San Diego, California

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Jeff Henderson remembers selling crack cocaine

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Jeff Henderson talks about developing his business skills as a drug dealer

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Jeff Henderson reflects upon his career as a drug dealer

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Jeff Henderson recalls his techniques for selling crack cocaine

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Jeff Henderson remembers learning to cook crack cocaine

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Jeff Henderson remembers his family's response to his drug dealing

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Jeff Henderson explains how he was caught and arrested for drug dealing

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Jeff Henderson remembers his arrival at the Terminal Island Federal Correctional Institution

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Jeff Henderson describes the culture of the Terminal Island Federal Correctional Institution

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Jeff Henderson describes what he learned from the Nation of Islam

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Jeff Henderson describes what he learned from the white inmates

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Jeff Henderson reflects upon his experiences in prison, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Jeff Henderson reflects upon his experiences in prison, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Jeff Henderson describes the kitchens at the Terminal Island Federal Correctional Institution

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Jeff Henderson remembers his mentor at the Terminal Island Federal Correctional Institution

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Jeff Henderson remembers the mentorship of Friendly Womack, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Jeff Henderson recalls his attempt to attend a culinary program in prison

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Jeff Henderson describes the drug treatment program in Sheridan, Oregon

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Jeff Henderson remembers the mentorship of Robert Gadsby

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Jeff Henderson remembers working at the Los Angeles Airport Marriott

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Jeff Henderson talks about his wife and children

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Jeff Henderson recalls becoming a chef at the Altitude Sky Lounge in San Diego, California

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Jeff Henderson remembers working at The Ritz-Carlton in Marina Del Ray, California

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Jeff Henderson recalls working at Hotel Bel-Air in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Jeff Henderson remembers his move to Los Vegas, Nevada

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Jeff Henderson recalls securing a position at Caesars Palace in Las Vegas, Nevada

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Jeff Henderson describes his methods for motivating his kitchen staff

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Jeff Henderson remembers becoming the executive chef of the Cafe Bellagio

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Jeff Henderson talks about the West Side Foundation and the Urban Education Consulting firm

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Jeff Henderson describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Jeff Henderson describes his autobiography, 'Cooked'

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Jeff Henderson describes his plans for the future

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Jeff Henderson narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

7$5

DATitle
Jeff Henderson describes what he learned from the Nation of Islam
Jeff Henderson describes his methods for motivating his kitchen staff
Transcript
So one of the things that really started me thinking was the Nation of Islam and how--I always knew--heard about these guys. I used to see them on the street corners selling bean pies and papers. And we used to make fun of them, you know. And the girls I used to run with was like, "Man, these some fine brothers, but I don't know what they doing standing on the corner selling bean pies and papers." 'Cause, you know, they're very disciplined and well groomed (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Right.$$--suited up and everything. So there used to be a brother by the name of Eddie X and Kevin X in the Nation.$$Um-hm.$$And they used to always be recruiting and trying to get the young brothers to come up to the mosque on Sundays to watch Farrakhan [HistoryMaker Minister Louis Farrakhan] tapes and Dr. Khalil Muhammad [sic. Khalid Abdul Muhammad] tapes and tapes on the most Honorable Elijah Muhammad. And I didn't (shrugs shoulders)--I said, "Man, I'm not with that. You know, miss with that," 'cause they was on the prison yard with their shirts buttoned up. They didn't have the bow ties, but they were able to button their shirts up, very disciplined, shoe shine. One of the things that really impressed me about them, they would always address me as brother. And I never used the word brother before until I went to prison.$$Um-hm.$$And one day after I got off a visit, I decided--I said, "Let me go up here and see what these guys are talking about." And I went up there and sat in a class, and the brothers were posted up at the door, very disciplined military style. And they came in, and they had prayer. And I always prayed, you know, on my hands and knees, and my head down. And they pray with their hands open, and they would always say, "In the name of Allah, the most merciful. I bear witness that there was no god but Allah." And I didn't say it, because I'm like, "I never--I don't know who Allah is, and I'm not praying to something I don't know what that is," you know.$$Right.$$Then they popped in the tape of Minister Farrakhan. He started talking about the black man is God, and we had civilizations before we came to the wilderness in North America. And you should love your brother and love your woman and respect her. But then he started talking about how the white man was the devil, and how he systematically mixed his blood with the black man, and that's why we have light-skinned, dark skin, and how, you know, it's his fault that the black man's imprisoned. They bring the drugs and the guns, and all that stuff became interesting. And then when he said that "When I say the white man was a devil, it wasn't that I don't mean with horns and he's down in hell, but I mean--." Then he brought the dictionary out, and he says, "Black man, look up devil." And it says a devil in the dictionary was wicked and a murder and a killer. And then draw a comparison to the slave trade and all the atrocities that were committed against black people in this country, and how we got here. All of that was foreign to me, Paul [HistoryMaker Paul Brock]. I never knew anything about history and slavery and all--I was inferior my whole life. And I always felt lower than white people, or lower than everyone else. So it really caught my attention, and I started listening more, listening more. And I didn't have an opinion at that time. And then one of the brothers, Kevin X, he was a lieutenant, and he used to come by my bunk and read to me all the time. And he gave me a book called, 'Message to the Blackman' ['Message to the Blackman in America'] by the most Honorable Elijah Muhammad, and I didn't really want to read it, 'cause I wasn't convinced right them. But I used to just start thinking about, you know, who did bring the drugs, and, you know, why am I high yellow, you know? Why don't I have my original name? You know. Why did we have to--why did we work for four hundred years in bondage without pay? You know, the whole nine yards, and then I just, you know, I wanted more. And in this book, I just started reading more and more. And then there was other books who were brought to me by other inmates in prison. Another brother who was a Black Liberation [Black Liberation Army] member, Imze, he wore dreadlocks. He gave me a book called 'Black Men: Obsolete, Single and Dangerous?' ['Black Men: Obsolete, Single, Dangerous? The Afrikan American Family in Transition'] by [HistoryMaker] Haki Madhubuti; and another book by Chancellor Williams, 'The Destruction of Black Civilization' [The Destruction of Black Civilization: Great Issues of a Race from 4500 B.C. to 2000 A.D.']. And then there was another book that really, really opened eyes by Dr. Ivan Van Sertima of Rutgers college in New Jersey [Rutgers University, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey], called, 'They Came Before Columbus' ['They Came Before Columbus: The African Presence in Ancient America,' Ivan Van Sertima].$$Um-hm.$$And it showed the big Olmec heads down in South America, to where the Indians [Native American] had big lips. They did these sculptures of big lips and noses of their African trading partners, where he talked about how Africans were trading with the native people in the Americas way before Columbus [Christopher Columbus] and Veppici [sic. Amerigo Vespucci]--what do you--the other guy who helped discover America. And I was, like, "Wow. That makes sense."$$Right.$$Yeah. Like, wow. And, you know, the pyramids, and we had civilizations and stuff. So that was building my self-esteem up. So now I'm like I'm proud to be black. I'm proud to be a brother. And, you know, and I started reading the dictionary, went to school and got my GED [General Educational Development], and my vocabulary started changing. I started hanging less with the brotherhood--the homeboys on the yard. And I started taking flak from the guys that I was on the streets with. Like, "Man, why you hanging around them brothers for, man? Why you--you know, they talking that madness and foolishness." But I was learning. But I never ever was able to embrace the religious aspect of the Nation of Islam. I knew in my heart that I was still a Christian. But the social component of the Nation, I really, really grasped, and I really believed that that was one of the key areas that really got me to love myself and to love my people. Then I realized at that point I could never sell crack [crack cocaine] or could be an advocate for gangs and stuff ever again.$And people couldn't figure it out. They said, "How did this guy come in here and take over these union kitchens when these employees been there for twenty years?" Well, I went back to my old street mentality of managing, motivating, encouraging, and including people of adversity into the process.$$Um-hm.$$Into my--my success is your success.$$Um-hm.$$If I eat a steak, you're going to eat a steak. If I grow, you're going to grow. And everyone who worked in the kitchen looked like me, walked like me, criminal records, low self-esteems. And when I go into those kitchens and I see a guy, whether he's white, black, Asian or whatever, I will say, "You know what, man? You got some skills. You've been here for a long time, and you know what? I see you running this place." I say, "But you know what? There's a couple of things that I recommend that you change. Can I make a suggestion?" "Yes."$$Okay.$$So I showed them different ways I had learned from all the world renowned chefs.$$Um-hm.$$No one's ever told them that. No one ever told them they were smart. No one ever told them they could become a chef. No one ever told them they could make more money than they make now. So they believed in me. So I took my street--some of my little savviness (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Right.$$--into the kitchen and it worked. And I came in, I called all the guys chefs. I came in, I called meetings. I empowered them. I would write menus, but what I would do is, I would empire- empower my top cooks. Bring them in my office. I would say, "Listen, Timmy. Easter's coming up. Thanksgiving's coming up. What suggestions do you guys have?"$$Um-hm.$$So now I gave them ownership. And then when we--I would talk to the waiters about the menu. I would say, "Timmy, tell the wait staff what our main entrees are." Never ever articulated food in his life. So now he's saying, "You know, we have turkey with sage rub and rosemary under the skin, stuffed with cornbread dressing. We got giblet gravy going--." So now he's feeling proud. Now he's feeling ownership. So I give that to them because it was given to me.$$Right.$$An old man in prison told me once, Imze, who gave me the book, 'Black Men: Obsolete, Single and Dangerous?' ['Black Men: Obsolete, Single, Dangerous? The Afrikan American Family in Transition,' Haki Madhubuti], I tried to pay him for the book. He says, "No, I don't want no money for this knowledge. All I want you to do, what you owe me is to share what I shared with you with the next man." And that's what I did. All this information I have doesn't belong to me. I give it back through whether it's cooking, whether it's through working with young people on the streets.$$And that's what you are doing with your book ['Cooked: From the Streets to the Stove, from Cocaine to Foie Gras,' Jeff Henderson].$$Yes.

Daryl Shular

Daryl Ladalle Shular, certified chef d’cuisine (CCC), was born on September 10, 1973, in Winter Haven, Florida, to Nevada Tungstall Robinson and Thomas Lee Shular. He attended Central Elementary School, Stambough Middle School where he played sports, and Auburndale High School where he graduated in 1992. His classmates included pro basketball player Tracy McGrady. Shular earned his A.A. degree in culinary arts from The Art Institute of Atlanta (AIA), where he learned the difference between being a chef and a cook.

Shular worked as a sous chef at Atlanta’s Anthony’s Restaurant from 1993 to 1994; executive sous chef at the Buckhead Club from 1994 to 1995; executive chef at the Doubletree Hotel from 1998 to 2000; and as chef d’cuisine at Spice Restaurant in 2001. He also served as banquet chef at Villa Christina. Since 2001, Shular has been a mainstay of the AIA faculty, where he teaches culinary arts. A member of the American Culinary Federation (ACF) and the National Association of Catering Executives, Shular is an ACF certified chef de cuisine. He is also a member of the World Culinary Association’s Atlanta chapter. The young chef has won more than a dozen culinary competitions including the gold medal at the 2004 Southeast Restaurant Hotel, Motel Show; the gold medal first place award Signature Meal at the Sysco Culinary Salon in 2004; the ACF Nutritional Hot Food Challenge at the Orlando World Marriot in 2004; and the NAEM Invitational Culinary Salon gold medal in 2003. Shular is a three time champion of the Sysco Culinary Competition.

One of the most respected young chefs in the country, Shular is on the board of directors of Pecan Restaurant and Onyx Restaurant, both in Atlanta. Shular was selected to join the United States 2008 Culinary Olympic Team. His goal is to become the first African American to attain the status of Master Chef from the ACI in 2009.

Shular lives with his wife and two children in Atlanta.

Accession Number

A2006.109

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/9/2006

Last Name

Shular

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Auburndale High School

Central Elementary School

First Name

Daryl

Birth City, State, Country

Winterhaven

HM ID

SHU02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere

Favorite Quote

Stay Focused And Push Hard.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

9/10/1973

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Chef and culinary instructor Daryl Shular (1973 - ) teaches culinary arts at The Art Institute of Atlanta, and was selected to join the United States 2008 Culinary Olympic Team. An American Culinary Foundation-certified chef de cuisine, Shular is also three time champion of the Sysco Culinary Competition.

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Daryl Shular's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Daryl Shular lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Daryl Shular describes his maternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Daryl Shular describes his paternal family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Daryl Shular talks about his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Daryl Shular shares his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Daryl Shular describes the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up in Central Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Daryl Shular talks about watching television as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Daryl Shular describes his childhood personality

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Daryl Shular shares his school memories

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Daryl Shular talks about his favorite music while growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Daryl Shular talks about taking his first cooking class in Auburndale High School

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Daryl Shular talks about playing basketball in Auburndale High School

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Daryl Shular talks about turning down an offer to play college basketball

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Daryl Shular talks about attending the Art Institute of Atlanta in Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Daryl Shular talks about his exposure to different cuisines during culinary school

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Daryl Shular talks about the famous French chef, Auguste Escoffier

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Daryl Shular talks about cooking as an art form

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Daryl Shular describes the difference between a cook and a chef

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Daryl Shular talks about health practices and kitchen safety

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Daryl Shular talks about what it takes to become a chef

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Daryl Shular talks about working his way up to being an executive chef at the Doubletree Hotel in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Daryl Shular talks about his motivation for success

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Daryl Shular talks about improving his people skills

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Daryl Shular talks about his intense schedule as an executive chef

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Daryl Shular talks about being a chef at various new restaurants

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Daryl Shular talks about his work as a restaurant consultant

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Daryl Shular describes his participation in cooking competitions

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Daryl Shular talks about participating in international food competitions

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Daryl Shular describes how food competitions operate

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Daryl Shular describes his goal to become the first African American Certified Master Chef

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Daryl Shular talks about teaching at the Art Institute of Atlanta

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Daryl Shular talks about handling allergies in the restaurant industry

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Daryl Shular talks about the importance of chefs not over-specializing

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Daryl Shular talks about people's tastes in food

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Daryl Shular talks about dealing with criticism as a chef

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Daryl Shular talks about how social class impacts people's tastes

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Daryl Shular talks about his favorite cuisines

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Daryl Shular talks about encountering stereotypes as an African American chef and the regional cuisine of Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Daryl Shular shares his career advice

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Daryl Shular talks about his favorite celebrity chefs

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Daryl Shular describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Daryl Shular reflects upon his regrets in life

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Daryl Shular reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Daryl Shular talks about his family

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Daryl Shular describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Daryl Shular narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$3

DAStory

12$6

DATitle
Daryl Shular talks about taking his first cooking class in Auburndale High School
Daryl Shular describes his participation in cooking competitions
Transcript
Did, did you have a favorite teacher in school? Any favorite teachers or mentors when you were growing up?$$I had a lot of different teachers. All of them played their role but it was one teacher that really--that I remember the most today was when I was in high school and I've always been fascinated with cooking. I was fascinated watching my mom cook, I was fascinated a few times I was able to go and visit my father watching my stepbrother cook and I wanted to get into this restaurant class that we had in high school. It was kind of a step up from a typical Home Ec [Economics] class and I went to the instructor--the teacher Ms. Hinegarner [ph.] and asked her if I can be in her class. She looked at me and she probably didn't think I was serious but I was like really can I be in your class. And she was like you better work hard and I said I will. So she let me in and from that point on it just took off. My passion grew from that moment on and I remember developing the menu for--we had a restaurant that we used to serve food to the teachers and I remember my week came up where I had to prepare the meal and it was such a nice meal that she voted my meal the best the whole entire year. And that was one of my most inspiring moments with her and she always encouraged me that I really need to push hard and really, really the work. So I must say she was the one teacher that really stuck out the most for me.$Now what is a--are we ready to talk about the--?$$The competitions, yeah. Throughout the whole entire period there I've always competed. Competitions where I can take cooking and sports, put them together and I have heaven and its fun. It's an opportunity--you've probably seen 'Iron Chef' on TV, something very popular. We love to see the shows, going in and just cooking things on the spot. It's kind of how a lot of our competitions are. There is an organization that regulates a lot of the competitions for the chefs; it's called The American Culinary Federation. It's the largest chefs' organization in the world and we represent the United States in the world culinary association. And so what they do in these local chapters say for instance in the state of Georgia they may have seven chapters. We may have a chapter here in Atlanta [Georgia], we may have a chapter in Columbus [Georgia], we may have a chapter in Macon [Georgia]. So I was always a part of the greater Atlanta chapter and they would hold cooking competitions maybe once or twice a year. My very first cooking competition straight out of culinary school, I placed third. I took a bronze medal there and from that point on it just became what I do. It became a passion for me. It's like playing ball, once you start playing, you want to do it forever and so that every year whenever a competition would come around, I would get into it. Competitions and what we teach students and what was taught to me that competition was a way to excel your career. It gives you an opportunity to walk into somewhere and to a kitchen that you've never seen before, get product handed to you that you don't know what it is and you're forced to develop something in an hour for some master chefs to critique and you put your skills on the line. They're critiquing from how you work in the kitchen to how your food looks, how it tastes the whole nine. And then all the knowledge that you get from those expert chefs, you can take it back to your establishment or where you work and apply it to your everyday working skills and become a better chef at it. And so over the years, I competed, competed and competed. Some of my accomplishments, I was three time state champion here. I was the regional champion in 2004. I competed in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina at the National Restaurant Association Show and I beat out 75 chefs. I was the regional champion there in 2004. Also I won several gold medals. I was national champion for the American Culinary Federation Nutritional Challenge in Orlando, Florida in 2004, I was national champion. I was on the Art Institute's--the Art Institute system has about forty different schools all over the country and it took twelve of the top chefs in the system. We put together a national culinary team and we went to Asia to compete. We competed in Hong Kong, we competed in Guangzhou, China and we competed in Tokyo and we took gold medals over there.

Leah "Dooky" Chase

Leah Chase, "the Queen of Creole Cuisine," was born January 6, 1923, in New Orleans, Louisiana, of Catholic Creole parents. She was sent to New Orleans in 1937 to live with her aunt and to attend St. Mary's Academy for high school. Her first job out of school was at the Oriental Laundry in the French Quarter. A week later, Chase was hired by the Colonial Restaurant on Chartres Street. She has been in the restaurant industry ever since.

In 1945, she met and married musician Edgar "Dooky" Chase II, whose parents owned the Dooky Chase Restaurant. At first, Chase spent her time raising her children and sewing, but once the children were old enough to attend school she began to work at the restaurant three days a week. She changed the menu to serve hot meals at lunchtime to black men who were beginning to work in offices. She started out as a hostess, but she was soon redecorating the restaurant and working as chef. Because of Chase, the Dooky Chase Restaurant is known for its good food, antiques and original African American art.

Chase has received many awards both for her culinary genius and her community service including: the coveted New Orleans Times Picayune 1997 Loving Cup Award, the Weiss Award from the National Conference of Christians and Jews, the Torch of Liberty Award, the University of New Orleans Entrepreneurship Award, the Outstanding Woman Award from the National Council of Negro Women, and numerous honors from the NAACP. She serves on many organizational boards including the Arts Council of New Orleans, the New Orleans Museum of Art and the Urban League. Chase is a frequent guest on many of the televised cooking shows and was visiting culinary professor at Nichols State University in 1996. She has four children, sixteen grandchildren and four great-grandchildren.

Chase passed away on June 1, 2019.

Accession Number

A2002.199

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/15/2002

Last Name

Chase

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

A Whizz Kids Preschool Inc Ii

St. Mary Academy

St. Francis Xavier

First Name

Leah

Birth City, State, Country

New Orleans

HM ID

CHA03

Favorite Season

None

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

Fort Wayne, Indiana

Favorite Quote

Whatever You're Going to Do, You Better Do it and Enjoy Life.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Louisiana

Birth Date

1/6/1923

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New Orleans

Country

United States

Favorite Food

All Food

Death Date

6/1/2019

Short Description

Chef and restaurateur Leah "Dooky" Chase (1923 - ) is famous for her Creole-style cooking, and was proprietor of the Dooky Chase Restaurant in New Orleans.

Employment

Colonial Restaurant

Dooky Chase Restaurant

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Leah Chase's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Leah Chase lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Leah Chase talks about her family's history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Leah Chase talks about her ancestry

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Leah Chase describes her Creole ancestry and the contributions of Creoles

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Leah Chase talks about Patois

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Leah Chase describes her father, Charles Lange

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Leah Chase talks about her family

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Leah Chase describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Leah Chase describes her mother, Hortensia Lange

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Leah Chase describes the sights, smells, and sounds of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Leah Chase talks about her parents' value for education

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Leah Chase talks about her Catholic education

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Leah Chase describes her role models

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Leah Chase describes her childhood personality

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Leah Chase talks about her first jobs after high school

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Leah Chase talks about her husband Dooky Chase and the Sandwich Shop

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Leah Chase describes implementing changes at Dooky Chase's Restaurant, pt.1

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Leah Chase describes implementing changes at Dooky Chase's Restaurant, pt.2

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Leah Chase describes her relationship with her mother-in-law, Emily Chase

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Leah Chase talks about her battle to add art to Dooky Chase's Restaurant

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Leah Chase talks about featuring the art of Jacob Lawrence, Jonathan T. Biggers, Clifton Webb, Lois Mailou Jones, and HistoryMakers Elizabeth Catlett, Jonathan Green, David Driskell, William Pajaud

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Leah Chase describes her food and the chef community in New Orleans

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Leah Chase talks about New Orleans chef Austin Leslie and managing restaurants

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Leah Chase talks about popular menu items and the hours of operation at Dooky Chase's Restaurant

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Leah Chase talks about Dooky Chase's Restaurant as a meeting place for civil rights organizations SNCC and COFO and activists like Oretha Castle Haley, James Baldwin, and Thurgood Marshall

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Leah Chase talks about Dutch Morial, the first black mayor of New Orleans

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Leah Chase describes her hopes and concerns for the black community

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Leah Chase talks about her honors including the NAACP A.P. Tureaud Medal, the Loving Cup, and the Ella Brennan Savoir Faire Award

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Leah Chase reflects upon her family's support and how they view her success

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Leah Chase reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Leah Chase talks about how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

4$7

DATitle
Leah Chase describes her food and the chef community in New Orleans
Leah Chase talks about Dooky Chase's Restaurant as a meeting place for civil rights organizations SNCC and CORE and activists like Oretha Castle Haley, James Baldwin, and Thurgood Marshall
Transcript
Can you tell me about the food, and what makes the food here so special?$$Well because, because I do most of the food myself. I love it, and I love to--I live and breathe food. I, I like to work with food, and I learned one thing--that you cook what you're all about; I could make any kind of cream sauce you want, any kinda--but is that me? People don't come here for that; they come here for me, for what my culture's all about, like stewed okra, string beans, gumbos, beans and rice if you will, or shrimp creole--that kind of thing; they don't look for all the other trendy things, they come here to get a good meal and a good--and when they tell you, "That's just like my grandma," I love it because I know I've done well; if I can cook as good as your grandmother, I have done well. So I try to do that all the time, and you stretch out and do different things at different times, and try different things, but basically, you stay with what you are, and that's, and that's what it's all about. The people in New Orleans [Louisiana], other restaurant owners in New Orleans have been good to me, and that's one thing you will find in New Orleans that you may not find anywhere else--that chefs kinda work together; they work with you, they--if you ask them--I mean if you go to Emeril [Lagasse]'s and you say, "Well, where can I get this?" He'll say, "Well, you go to Leah for that," or I'll tell you, "You go to Paul Prudhomme for that." Like people come here, "Can you blacken me some fish?" "No. I'm not blackenin' anything; I'm the only black thing in my kitchen, I'm not doin' any blackened fish; that's not what I'm all about; Paul does that, that's his thing, you go to Paul to get that." And that--and that's what you do. And people have been real--the chefs have been extraordinary to me; really, really good to me because I'm not certified, I'm not formally trained like they are, but they include me in everything, and we work together, and I learn from them, and it's fun.$Yeah, okay. And this place has another significance in addition to the food and the ambience; it's been a place where black people have met to plan and develop (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous)--Well, because you see--as I said, we've been here 60--what--62, almost 63 years, and it was one place where people met even in segregation days when it was really illegal for blacks and white to congregate in public together anywhere; that was truly illegal. Well, here, if the politicians had to meet black people, this is where they had to meet 'em unless they would go in somebody's church, but this is where they had to meet them here. A lotta things--people come here and get things started and have meetings and go on because it was--and it still is, they still do that; they still come here. If they wanna meet with people, they come and meet over lunch or dinner or somethin' like that.$$Yeah, we heard a couple of days ago that SNCC used to meet here, and CORE was formed here, I think. CORE was formed right here at Dooky Chase.$$Mm-hmm, mm-hmm, because we had a woman workin' for us--Virgie [Castle], and Virgie was from Tennessee, but her daughter was big in the Civil Rights Movement; they have a street named after her--Oretha Castle Haley, and Oretha was big in the civil rights movement, and Virgie was an exceptional woman; why I say that, because Virgie--Virgie wasn't like me--she wasn't like a Leah, you know, she was supportive of what they were doin'; she didn't understand it, like none of us understood what the heck they're doin'; they in the streets, they paradin' in the streets, they, they sitting down, they're bein' dragged off to jail--you kinda didn't understand why, or you didn't understand was it worth this. But Virgie was always supportive of that, and she lived around the corner; I think they tryin' to make her house a historic space, and they should because everybody was there--James Baldwin--they would go there and then come here to eat. Everybody either slept at Virgie's house--I know took a bath there 'cause when they'd come outta jail I'd say, "Ayyy, go to Virgie's; go take a bath and come back here" (laughter). "You mean you gonna put me out?" I say, "Go take a bath at Virgie's and come back here, and I'll feed you" (laughter). So that was then. But she was very supportive of what her children were doing. As I said, she maybe didn't--she didn't understand, but she wasn't anti-anything, and it was hard for her because police were all around her house all the time; it was just hard, it was really hard for her.$$This is Virgie--what's her last name?$$Castle.$$Castle--Virgie Castle.$$Mm-hmm (ph.). And her daughter was Oretha Castle$$Could you spell that?$$Oretha, O-R-E-T-H-A.$$And Virgie?$$V-I-R-G-I-E.$$And Castle?$$C-A-S-T-L-E. And Oretha married a man name--[Richard] Haley was his last name. What was his first name? I, I just don't remember, but he was another bright man, really brilliant man, and did a lot of work, and was very supportive of his wife in her civil rights actions and what she did. And you know, we used to be--like Thurgood Marshall would come through here and he was workin' with the NAACP; in my age, that's what people were doing; we gonna work in the system, we gonna work this way with the NA--but you realize that that was so slow; we would still be today tryin' to get it done. Sometimes you have to take drastic moves, just go at it, and that's what those young people did--they just took those drastic moves and run it. Sometimes it was wrong moves, but that's okay; you, you had to get it done in some ways, and they were able to get it done--that we would've not been able to get it done workin' the slow system we were workin' at, you know? It was not--you know, they were not gonna--we were not gonna make anybody understand where we were coming from. Now, I think we could go a different route; I think the job of the NAACP now--I think it's a pity we still need it; it's just a pity that we still need the NAACP, Urban League and all those kinds of organizations. But now, it should be an educational thing--teach people how to vote, how to vote for the right people, how to vote not necessarily for your friend, but for the man who's gonna move everything a step higher, for the man who's gonna move the country, for the man who's gonna move your city and involve you and involve everybody, and that, that's their job today. I think it should be a lot on education and how we ought to go about thing.