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The Honorable Charles Walker

Attorney Charles Edward Walker, Jr., was born on May 1, 1951, in Anchorage, Alaska, to Marguerite Pearl Lee and Colonel Charles E. Walker, Sr. Walker received his B.A. degree in political science from the University of California, Santa Barbara, in 1973 and his J.D. degree from Boston College Law School in 1978.

In 1974, Walker began working as an English teacher for the Oxnard Union High School District in Oxnard, California. After leaving the school district in 1975, Walker studied at the London School of Economics, where he earned his B.S. degree in 1977. After returning to the United States, Walker moved to Massachusetts and worked as an attorney for the Department of Agriculture Office of General Counsel. He then served as a law clerk under the Honorable James Lynch for the Boston Superior Court until 1980.

After leaving the Boston Superior Court, Walker worked as a law clerk at the Massachusetts Court of Appeals for the Honorable Frederick L. Brown, who was the first African American to serve on the U.S. Court of Appeals in Massachusetts. Walker resigned from this position in 1981 and began working as a teaching fellow for Suffolk University Law School’s Council on Legal Education Opportunity, while at the same time serving as an instructor at the University of Massachusetts. Shortly thereafter, Walker began working as the Assistant Attorney General for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts under then Attorney General Francis X. Bellotti. There, Walker defended state agencies and officials in all the state and federal trial and appellate courts of Massachusetts.

After leaving the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1987, Walker worked briefly as an assistant professor at the New England School of Law, before beginning a six year tenure as the Chairman of the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination (MCAD), which ended in 1998. In 2000, Walker served as an administrative judge with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts’ Department of Industrial Accidents, where he completed a four year term ending on September 20, 2004.

Walker has received several awards for his success in the legal arena, including the Massachusetts Lawyers Weekly’s “Top Ten Lawyers of the Year” in 1997 and the 75th Anniversary Distinguished Alumnus Award from Boston College Law School’s Alumni Association.

Accession Number

A2007.251

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/10/2007 |and| 9/12/2007

Last Name

Walker

Maker Category
Middle Name

E.

Schools

Adolfo Camarillo High School

Moorpark College

University of California-Santa Barbara

Boston College Law School

First Name

Charles

Birth City, State, Country

Anchorage

HM ID

WAL10

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Alaska

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, Caribbean

Favorite Quote

Any Landing That You Can Walk Away From Is A Good One.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

5/1/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken

Short Description

State administrative judge and state assistant attorney general The Honorable Charles Walker (1951 - ) received several awards over his career, including the Massachusetts Lawyers Weekly magazine’s “Top Ten Lawyers of the Year” in 1997, and the 75th Anniversary Distinguished Alumnus Award from Boston College Law School’s Alumni Association.

Employment

Massachusetts Attorney General Office

Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination

Administrative Judge

Lawyers'​ Committee for Civil Rights

Commonwealth of Massachusetts

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Charles Walker's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Walker lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Walker describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Walker describes his maternal grandparents' farm in Gahanna, Ohio

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Walker remembers his maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Walker describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Charles Walker describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Charles Walker describes his paternal family's migration to Michigan

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Charles Walker remembers his paternal aunt, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Walker remembers his paternal aunt, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Walker describes his father's interests

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Walker remembers his father's military career, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Walker remembers his father's military career, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Walker describes his parents' personalities

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Walker describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Charles Walker describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Charles Walker remember his sister, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Charles Walker remember his sister, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable Charles Walker describes his early education

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - The Honorable Charles Walker remembers his high school counselor

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Walker recalls his experiences of discrimination in California

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Walker remembers confronting a racist teacher

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Walker recalls Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr's assassination

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Walker recalls joining Adolfo Camarillo High School's track team

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Walker describes his early interest in drawing

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Walker remembers meeting Charles M. Schulz

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Charles Walker remembers a performance by James Brown

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Charles Walker recalls his aspirations at Moorpark College in Moorpark, California

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Charles Walker describes his extracurricular activities

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - The Honorable Charles Walker remembers joining the Church of God in Christ

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Walker talks about his religious upbringing

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Walker recalls his decision to join the Church of God in Christ

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Walker describes his experience as a standup comedian

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Walker remembers working as a teacher

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Walker recalls his decision to attend the Boston College Law School

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Walker describes his studies at the Boston College Law School

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Walker recalls moving to Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Walker talks about affirmative action policies, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Walker talks about affirmative action policies, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Walker recalls his aspiration to practice entertainment law

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Walker recalls working as a law clerk

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Walker remembers Richard G. Huber

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable Charles Walker recalls his first civil rights case, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - The Honorable Charles Walker recalls his first civil rights case, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - The Honorable Charles Walker talks about the Roxbury Defenders Committee

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - The Honorable Charles Walker recalls his experiences as a law professor

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - The Honorable Charles Walker describes the history of liquor licensing in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Walker describes the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Walker talks about the African Meeting House in Boston, Massachusetts, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Walker talks about the African Meeting House in Boston, Massachusetts, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Walker recalls the lawsuit against Tom English's Cottage in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Walker recalls the case of Lule Said v. Northeast Security, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Walker recalls defending a black police officer in Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - The Honorable Charles Walker talks about his reputation as an attorney

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - The Honorable Charles Walker remembers receiving death threats

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Walker remembers becoming an administrative judge

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Walker recalls his experiences as an administrative judge

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Walker recalls joining Governor Deval L. Patrick's administration

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Walker remembers dismissing a discrimination case, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Walker remembers dismissing a discrimination case, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - The Honorable Charles Walker talks about Macon Bolling Allen

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - The Honorable Charles Walker describes the history of civil rights law, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - The Honorable Charles Walker describes the history of civil rights law, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - The Honorable Charles Walker talks about his plans for the future

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - The Honorable Charles Walker describes his hopes for the African American community

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - The Honorable Charles Walker reflects upon his career

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - The Honorable Charles Walker reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - The Honorable Charles Walker talks about his family

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - The Honorable Charles Walker describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$2

DATape

2$6

DAStory

11$1

DATitle
The Honorable Charles Walker remembers his high school counselor
The Honorable Charles Walker describes the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination
Transcript
What was your favorite subject in school? Did you have a favorite?$$In high school [Adolfo Camarillo High School, Camarillo, California]?$$Yeah.$$I liked--one of the most impressionable classes was Mrs. Tiner's [ph.] English class. And up to that point, I really wasn't much of a reader, much, much of a writer. But there was something about Mrs. Tiner that really got me to read and write and understand 'cause I really thought I was, I thought I was stupid really. I thought I was, I thought, I didn't think I was, I had the intellectual power to read and write with any force. In fact, I was in--I wasn't even put in college prep classes. And my high school counselor was Mr. Wozniak, Ed Wozniak [ph.], W-O-Z-N-I-A-K (laughter). I'll never get him, I'll never get over him. And I was just as happy--if I'm going too far off field, let me know. But I was just as happy to come home at 3:30, get some Oreo cookies, drink some milk, watch 'Felix the Cat' and 'Sky King,' and all these guys, and then go to bed--no homework. And then, my mother [Marguerite Lee Walker] complained. And my father [Charles E. Walker] went to Mr. Wozniak, and he brought me in there with him. And Mr. Wozniak had his chart 'cause he knew, and he showed where I scored on the standardized test--how poorly I'd done. And he had this, even my names of my friends. I'll never get over this. My white friends, he says, you know, 'cause he knew who I hung out with, like Timmy [ph.] and Mickey [ph.] and, and John [ph.], Spon [ph.]. "They--this is where they are (laughter). This is where you are, Chuckie [HistoryMaker Charles Walker]." And, you know, like the nerve of you to come in here and act like, you know, you come. You know, and he just humiliated me in front of my father. And my father said, "Chuckie, can you excuse us for a minute (laughter)?" And I used to tell this story, I used to well up when I thought about it. But I would go out, and I went out in the little hall, and sat at the bench. And this is coming in from eighth grade into high school. And he was in there five minutes. I remember we walked out and it was a little unusual. Mr. Wozniak didn't, didn't come out with him. And so, I was walking. He said, "C'mon, champ." That's what my dad used to call me--champ. And we walked down the hall and I was wondering if he killed Mr. Wozniak (laughter). That's all I was thinking about (laughter). And I remember that Monday. He says, "You're going to get in a few different classes." And I remember, I remember (laughter), Mr. Wozniak meeting me at the, at the bus stop, and he took me to all these different classes. You asked me about my teacher--this is how I got to meet Mrs. Tiner. And Mr. Wozniak, you know, I think he did it out of just defiance and just sarcasm. He put me in all these honors classes, expecting me to flunk out and really humiliate me. And I shined. I did really well in English. And that was the class where I found myself. That's a, that's a long way of getting to it. And then I ran for student body president and I, and I was on the Key Club through the Kiwanis Club [Kiwanis International]. And I, you know, I became, you know, I really got to feel my oats. I became an artist actually and I became a cartoonist. And I had a couple of strips in the, in the local newspapers and stuff, and it was '65 [1965] through '69 [1969]. Well, you know, it was--those are incredible years because you had Kennedy [President John Fitzgerald Kennedy] assassinated when we have seventh grade, '63 [1963]. You get King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] assassinated when I was a junior in high school. You have Bobby Kennedy [Robert F. Kennedy], gets assassinated after King. And I was in high school during all those times. And the Watts riots in '65 [1965] out of, out of Los Angeles [California]. You know, it was just an incredibly turbulent race time.$Tell me about the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination. Now, you were, you served with that organization for six years--first, as commissioner, and later as chairman, right?$$Yeah, I think that's where I really carved a lot of my teeth. People kind of freeze frame me based upon what I did at the, at the MCAD. I have a lot of history before that, but something about I was in the news a lot, depressed a lot, and not looking for it, but it just happened. It's the, it's the premier, and the second oldest--I want to--in some circles, people would say the oldest anti-discrimination state agency in the country. It's charged in overseeing anti-discrimination laws in the areas of employment, housing, and public accommodations. And established in 1945, I believe or '44 [1944], which when you think of it, was pretty significant. That's like twenty years before--I mean, ten years before Brown v. Board of Education [Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 1954]. And you had a real--it's almost an acerbic tradition of segregation in this country. And you had, even in Massachusetts, you had a lot of discrimination. And so for the mayor, Maurice Tobin [Maurice J. Tobin]--I mean, mayor--the governor, Maurice Tobin, committed some state funds to this federal fair employment practices act [Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VII] which had been defunded by [U.S.] Congress. And it was originally established to stop discrimination in the employment arena, at least to address it a little bit, through the Fourteenth Amendment and equal protection clauses. And they codified it for states by making a fair employment practices act--Congress did. They had some money behind it and to give states the incentive to bring this fair employment practices law into fruition. And, like I said around 1944, they defunded it. And Maurice Tobin stepped up the plate and says, oh, no, no, no, this is very important. And he donated--I mean, he allocated money or appropriated money to keep, to maintain its continued existence. And over the years, all the way up through the, up to the '70s [1970s], its, its jurisdictional base was expanded to include public accommodations laws, you know, can't--where you can't be denied a right to sit in a restaurant or something like that, and housing discrimination. It's called a Fair Employment Practices Agency or FEPA, F-E-P-A. And then, they had fair housing, a FHAP agency, F-H-A-P, Fair Housing Act [sic. Fair Housing Assistance Program]--I forget what everything stood for. But, anyway, prohibiting discrimination in housing as well. Anyway, despite that history, I was, I was commissioner and in 1994, and one of the reasons I wanted my interview here was that I selected this venue to be sworn in by the governor, and right upstairs, in 1994. It was such a stressful time.

Juanita Baranco

Corporate executive Juanita Powell Baranco was born in Washington, D.C., on March 19, 1949. Raised in Shreveport, Louisiana, Baranco earned her high school diploma and continued her studies earning her B.S. degree and her J.D. degree from Louisiana State University. Before turning to business, Baranco had a successful law career, serving as assistant attorney general for the state of Georgia. She is the executive vice president and chief operating officer of Baranco Automotive Group, which she co-founded with her husband, Gregory Baranco, in 1978. It was one of the first African American owned car dealerships in the metropolitan Atlanta area. That effort led the Barancos to also owning several other car dealerships including Mercedes-Benz and Acura dealerships with annual sales reaching $100 million dollars.

Baranco’s extensive involvement in education has led her to serve as the chairman of the DeKalb County Education Task Force and as a member of the Georgia State Board of Education from 1985 to 1991. She was appointed by Governor Zell Miller to the Board of Regents and in 1995 became the first African American woman to chair the board. She sits on the Board of Trustees of Clark Atlanta University and also serves on the Board of Directors of Georgia Power Company.

Her business and community activities have won her numerous awards, among which are recognition by the Dow Jones Company for entrepreneurial excellence; the first Trumpet Award from Turner Broadcasting System for entrepreneurial excellence; Entrepreneur of the Year by the Atlanta Business League; the DECCA Award from the Atlantic Business Chronicle, the YWCA’s Women of Achievement Award; and the Atlanta History Center’s Defining Women in Atlanta Award. Baranco has been featured in Essence magazine as one of best businesswomen in Atlanta and was also a finalist for the 2003 Time magazine Quality Dealer Award. She is a member of the American Bar Association and the State Bar Associations of Georgia and Louisiana.

Baranco lives in Atlanta with her husband and children.

Accession Number

A2006.072

Sex

Female

Interview Date

4/11/2006

Last Name

Baranco

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

Central Elementary School

Notre Dame High School

Louisiana State University

First Name

Juanita

Birth City, State, Country

Washington

HM ID

BAR08

Favorite Season

Fall

State

District of Columbia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

3/19/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chocolate

Short Description

Corporate executive and state assistant attorney general Juanita Baranco (1949 - ) was COO of Baranco Automotive Group, one of the first African American owned car dealerships in the Atlanta area. A former assistant attorney general for the state of Georgia, she was the first African American woman to chair the Georgia Board of Regents, and sat on the board of trustees for Clark Atlanta University.

Employment

Baranco Automotive Group

State of Georgia

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Juanita Baranco's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Juanita Baranco lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Juanita Baranco describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Juanita Baranco describes her maternal ancestry

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Juanita Baranco describes her mother's upbringing in Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Juanita Baranco describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Juanita Baranco describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Juanita Baranco describes her father's upbringing and aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Juanita Baranco recalls her paternal uncle, Solomon Powell, Jr.

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Juanita Baranco recalls her parents' devotion to their children

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Juanita Baranco recalls her family's return to Shreveport, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Juanita Baranco describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Juanita Baranco describes the role of religion in her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Juanita Baranco describes her memories of holidays from her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Juanita Baranco describes her childhood neighborhood in Shreveport, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Juanita Baranco recalls attending all-black schools in Shreveport, Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Juanita Baranco recalls her influential grade school teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Juanita Baranco explains how her father's legal career influenced her

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Juanita Baranco describes Shreveport's Notre Dame High School, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Juanita Baranco describes Shreveport's Notre Dame High School, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Juanita Baranco describes her civil rights activities at Louisiana State University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Juanita Baranco remembers meeting her husband, Gregory Baranco

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Juanita Baranco recalls moving with her husband to Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Juanita Baranco recalls her parents' response to her marriage

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Juanita Baranco describes her mother's foundation for children with mental disabilities

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Juanita Baranco recalls her decision to attend law school

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Juanita Baranco recalls opening her first car dealership in East Point, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Juanita Baranco describes her early career in law and business

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Juanita Baranco describes her involvement in education policy

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Juanita Baranco remembers her tenure on the Georgia Board of Regents

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Juanita Baranco recalls founding First Southern Bank with her husband

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Juanita Baranco recalls challenges she faced as a female business executive

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Juanita Baranco reflects upon her success in the automotive industry

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Juanita Baranco describes her family's involvement in banking and real estate

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Juanita Baranco describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Juanita Baranco remembers closing her car dealership in Decatur, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Juanita Baranco reflects on the importance of knowing one's history

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Juanita Baranco describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Juanita Baranco talks about The HistoryMakers project

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

7$1

DATitle
Juanita Baranco remembers her tenure on the Georgia Board of Regents
Juanita Baranco recalls challenges she faced as a female business executive
Transcript
And then the Georgia, the board of regents [Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia]?$$For ten years.$$For ten years.$$And (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) And--$$--I chaired that board.$$And you were--$$Not for ten years--$$Okay, but you were the first African American--$$Yes.$$--woman--$$Yes.$$So tell me about that experience.$$Well, it was--I had had a sort of a bad experience on the state board of education [Georgia Board of Education], because I thought I had earned the right--I knew I had earned the right to be chair, but it wasn't happening and they put a lot--my fellow colleagues on the board of education, put a lot of blockages in the way of my becoming chairman. Doing things like voting for this guy for four years and so forth and so on and things like that. So, when I got on the board of regents, I said to myself, I'm gonna play it a little smarter because I really do want to be the first African American female chair of the board of regents. And of course times had changed, you know it's amazing the difference in attitudes over three or four years or certainly over five to ten years. So I played my strategy a little differently and was an excellent board member frankly, as I had been on the state board of education, came with a lot of creative ideas, alternative routes to certification for teachers on the state board of education. And I did the same thing on the board of regents, just came with a lot of creative kinds of concepts. And my mission on the board of regents, particularly when I was chair, was to put the Georgia system on the map because we knew we had a great system but nobody knew about it. So I sat out on a mission to talk with the national education publications and to put us on the map. We hired a brand new chancellor who was phenomenal and we went on the road, a duo, Steven Portch and [HistoryMaker] Juanita Baranco, we did conferences, we spoke everywhere that anybody would listen, and all of a sudden we were able to hire phenomenal professors and people who were the top notch in their fields, and we just were able to attract the best and the brightest among our teaching faculties of our campuses around the system. So it was just a great experience, I became chair, and worked really, really hard and got a lot done for the entire system, not just for African Americans, which we did not leave behind, but we raised our standards for admissions but we still had a lot of accessibility for our students, and just, just had a ball on the state board--on the board of regents, and the state board of education.$I was saying that I had recently received, I was first runner-up as a finalist for the Time Magazine Quality Dealer Award which is really the highest award that a dealer can get. So I received that award in 2002 and my mother [Evelyn Evans Powell] had just passed and it was a pretty emotional time for me, but they--it was a very intense kind of a questionnaire. You had to talk about everything you'd ever done in life. And when I sort of sat back and read it almost saddened me to look at everything I had actually done because you know, you add into that the soccer games and the baseball, basketball, football, all the things, ballet, jazz, tap dance, gymnastics, swimming, four kids and four on swimming teams and you just wonder, well how in the world, who is that woman, you know, I surely--not I (laughter). And then you realize it really was you that had--that you've done all of that and it'll sort of make you sit up and take notice and, you know, I have no regrets, let me hasten to add that, I have no regrets. But I see why there's sort of a backlash from young women now who may not want to take on all of that. I mean, we really sort of bought into, if you will, the superwoman myth. And I can bring home the bacon and fry it up in the pan and we can, but I think that what we've learned from all that, certainly what I've learned and what I try and teach is that you have to make choices. You have to have priorities and what--and have to understand what those priorities are and what's important to you. And it's important not to try and be superwoman. Because we, I, and, a lot of women like me were out there and we were in male dominated fields. There is no more male dominated field than the car business and that's my chosen field. And so you really fight some battles along the way, you know. The employees who disrespect you, who don't respect you and those are two different things, the employees that just feel that you're too dumb and too stupid and you're not gonna get it, you know. And they come in and they try to, you know, bamboozle you and think that they compliment you on what you're wearing that you're gonna just roll over and not notice that they're stealing you blind (laughter), you know. And so you've been--when all is said and done you go through a lot to get to this point in development and I think it's important, at least I feel that one of the most important things I do is try to mentor young women. Because it is a tough business, it's a tough world out there for women. And when I see this sort of retreatment on the part of women saying, "We really don't wanna do all that." And even from my own daughters in some instances, you wanna say, "Well look, there are some rewards and it is worth it." And I think it's incumbent upon every generation to take the mantle and do what they're supposed to do in their, you know, in the--during the Civil Rights Movement we did what we had to do, we marched and we picketed, you know. We had to open some doors in Corporate America and in these male dominated fields. We had to do that and now the next generation, their task is to move us to the next level. To be the ones who are opening the doors, if you will, you know. They've got to become the decision makers, the CEOs, they've gotta take, grab that mantle and be brave enough and bold enough and to get it done 'cause we're smart enough already, okay (laughter).

The Honorable Glenn T. Johnson

Illinois Appellate Court Judge Glenn T. Johnson was born on July 19, 1917, in Washington, Arkansas, to Reola Thompson and Floyd Johnson. He earned his B.S. in education from Wilberforce University in Xenia, Ohio, and his J.D. and S.J.D. from John Marshall Law School in Chicago. During World War II, Johnson served in the U.S. Army. He later served as a member of the Illinois National Guard and the U.S. Army Reserve.

Johnson worked as assistant attorney general of Illinois for seven years and as a senior attorney for the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago for three years. In 1966, he was elected associate judge of the Circuit Court of Cook County and in 1968 was elected full Circuit Court judge, a position he held until 1973. That year, Johnson was sworn in as justice of the Appellate Court of Illinois. He served in this capacity until his retirement in 1994.

Johnson is a member of the National, American, Illinois, Cook County, Chicago and Women's Bar associations. He is past president of the Cook County Bar Association and past chairman of the Judicial Council of the National Bar Association and the Bench and Bar Section of the Illinois Bar Association. He holds memberships in various organizations and boards and is an active member of Woodlawn A.M.E. Church, where he serves as trustee emeritus and was a member of the Judicial Council for twenty-four years. Johnson is also an emeritus member of the Board of Trustees of the John Marshall Law School, where he served as a trustee for twenty-five years. He has received various awards and honors for his dedication and hard work.

Johnson was married to the late Judge Evelyn F. Johnson, with whom he had two children, Evelyn and Glenn Jr. He later married Elaine Bailey Johnson and has three grandchildren and one great-grandson. He died on November 30, 2010.

Accession Number

A2003.002

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/13/2003

Last Name

Johnson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

T.

Organizations
Schools

John Marshall Law School

Wilberforce University

First Name

Glenn

Birth City, State, Country

Washington

HM ID

JOH07

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Arkansas

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

There's Room At The Top.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

7/19/1917

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Death Date

11/30/2010

Short Description

Appellate court judge and state assistant attorney general The Honorable Glenn T. Johnson (1917 - 2010 ) was only the second African American to serve on the Illinois Appellate Court. He was a past president of the Cook County Bar Association and was inducted into their Hall of Fame in 1997.

Employment

State of Illinois

Mentropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago

Circuit Court of Cook County

Illinois Appellate Court

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:5560,13:77180,314:89630,399:146262,788:182075,1065:204160,1226:204840,1232:224520,1334$0,0:5495,46:8478,136:61365,515:76382,570:114040,780
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Glenn Johnson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Glenn Johnson lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Glenn Johnson describes his family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Glenn Johnson describes his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Glenn Johnson talks about his aunt, Gertrude Johnson France, who raised him

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Glenn Johnson describes his childhood home in Washington, Arkansas which was restored by James Pilkinton as part of Historic Washington State Park

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Glenn Johnson describes his grade school years

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Glenn Johnson describes learning to type as a high school student in Hot Springs, Arkansas

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Glenn Johnson talks about playing football at Langston High School in Hot Springs, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Glenn Johnson describes his principal French Hicks and pastor Thomas Primm as those who influenced him

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Glenn Johnson explains the origin of his nickname "Hot Water" Johnson at Wilberforce University

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Glenn Johnson describes his experience at Wilberforce University in Wilberforce, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Glenn Johnson talks about working as a dishwasher after graduating from Wilberforce University

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Glenn Johnson describes his distaste for farm work

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Glenn Johnson talks about his time in the ROTC at Wilberforce University where he was instructed by Benjamin O. Davis

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Glenn Johnson describes his attempts to avoid military service

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Glenn Johnson talks about serving in the U.S. Army during World War II as a warrant officer

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Glenn Johnson talks about his military service in the U.S. Army during World War II, pt.1

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Glenn Johnson talks about his military service in the U.S. Army during World War II, pt.2

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Glenn Johnson talks about attending John Marshall Law School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Glenn Johnson describes his work at the Illinois Attorney General's Office and his mentor, Claude Holman

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Glenn Johnson talks about Claude Holman and the "Silent Six"

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Glenn Johnson describes his political alignment with mentor Claude Holman and Mayor Richard J. Daley

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Glenn Johnson talks about his experience with Mayor Harold Washington's Administration

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Glenn Johnson describes his career highlights as an appellate judge

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Glenn Johnson talks about the "Silent Six" on Chicago City Council and Mayor Harold Washington's Administration

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Glenn Johnson describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Glenn Johnson talks about the World Conference on World Peace through Law and World Assembly of Judges

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Glenn Johnson reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Glenn Johnson talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Glenn Johnson reflects upon his aunt's pride in his accomplishments

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Glenn Johnson talks about his advice for young people and his mentee, Timothy Evans

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Glenn Johnson narrates his photos, pt.1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Glenn Johnson narrates his photographs, pt.2

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

7$3

DATitle
Glenn Johnson talks about his experience with Mayor Harold Washington's Administration
Glenn Johnson talks about the World Conference on World Peace through Law and World Assembly of Judges
Transcript
Now, did you know [Mayor] Harold Washington in those days?$$Yep.$$What was your impression of him?$$I succeeded Harold Washington at the Sanitary District and Harold Washington was a congressman before he was elected mayor. I don't think I ever had my picture made with Harold Washington. I believe it was once, once an African judge was here visiting and I was with him, but that's the only time that Harold and I had our picture made together. See because the white boys on the bench was suggesting that I recuse myself of hearing any cases with Harold Washington. So I would always say, well, Harold Washington had never been to my house, I never been to his house 'cause I'm no friend of Harold Washington, he's no friend of mine, so. That's the way the other boys played it, so that's the way I played it.$$Okay. So eventually though a lot of the court cases that were filed on behalf of the Washington administration would win, you know, further up the ladder, right? Is this true?$$Yeah.$$Sometimes they'd be knocked down at the lower level then they would end up winning at the higher level.$$Most all of those cases were two to three, or two to one. One and two Italian boys went the other way.$$We only have three members of the appellate court, I mean three votes?$$Yeah.$$Okay.$$Appellate Court sits in threes, so.$Now you participated once in an international conference [World Conference on World Peace through Law and World Assembly of Judges] for judges in Ivory Coast. When was that, can you tell us about that?$$Yeah. That was 1973. Earl Warren was there, Thurgood Marshall was there, and I thought that was a wonderful organization [World Association of Judges], but they had a self-perpetuating hierarchy and so the chief, I don't know whether he's dead now, but he got too old to function and so he never let anybody else succeed him, so the organization died. I thought that was a wonderful organization. I went with 'em to Abidjan [Ivory Coast], Manila in the Philippines, Seoul, Korea, San Paulo, Brazil. They met every two years and on the opposite--in a different continent.