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Cheryl Boone Isaacs

Public relations executive Cheryl Boone Isaacs was born on August 8, 1949 in Springfield, Massachusetts. After graduating from Classical High School in Springfield, Massachusetts in 1967, she earned her B.A. degree in political science from Whittier College in Whittier, California in 1971.

After graduation, Boone Isaacs worked as a flight attendant for Pan American Airways. In 1977, she moved to Los Angeles, California and began working in publicity at Columbia Pictures, where she served on the publicity team for Steven Spielberg’s Close Encounters of the Third Kind. The following year, Boone Isaacs was hired as coordinator of marketing and publicity at Milton Goldstein’s Melvin Simon Productions, where she served for five years and was eventually promoted to vice president. In 1983, Boone Isaacs was named director of advertising and publicity for The Ladd Company, where she worked on films such as Once Upon a Time in America, The Right Stuff, and the box office hit Police Academy. In 1984, she was named director of west coast publicity and promotion for Paramount Pictures. Later, she became executive vice president of worldwide publicity for Paramount Pictures, and orchestrated the marketing campaigns for Best Picture winners Forrest Gump and Braveheart. In 1997, Boone Isaacs was named president of theatrical marketing for New Line Cinema, and became the first African American woman to head a studio marketing department, where she promoted Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged Me, The Wedding Singer and Boogie Nights. In 2000, she founded CBI Enterprises, Inc., and worked on publicity for The King's Speech and The Artist. In 2013, Boone Isaacs produced the multi-award-winning documentary Tough Ain't Enough: Conversations With Albert S. Ruddy, which highlighted the life and career of the two-time Oscar-winning producer. That same year, she was elected the thirty-fifth president of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and served in that position until 2017. Boone Isaacs was re-elected in 2015, launching the initiative A2020 to increase the number of women and minority members to the Academy by 2020. In 2017, Boone Isaacs oversaw the development of the Academy Museum of Motion Pictures in partnership with the Los Angeles Museum of Contemporary Art.

Since 1987, she served as a member of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and was named representative of the public relations branch in 1992.

Boone Isaacs received Essence Magazine's Trailblazer Award in 2013. In 2014, she was inducted into the NAACP Image Award Hall of Fame, received the African American Film Critics Association Horizon Award, and was named the Chapman University Dodge College of Film and Media Arts O.L. Halsell Filmmaker-in-Residence.

She is also the sister of film marketing and distribution executive, Ashley Boone, who passed away in 1994.

Cheryl Boone Issacs was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 13, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.228

Sex

Female

Interview Date

12/13/2018

Last Name

Boone Isaacs

Maker Category
Organizations
First Name

Cheryl

Birth City, State, Country

Springfield

HM ID

ISA02

Favorite Season

Autumn

State

Massachusetts

Favorite Vacation Destination

Rome, Italy

Favorite Quote

N/A

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

8/8/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Favorite Food

Chips and Ice Cream

Short Description

Entertainment executive Cheryl Boone Issacs (1949 - ) was executive vice president of worldwide publicity at Paramount Pictures before becoming the first African American president of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in 2013.

Favorite Color

Blue

Reginald L. Jackson

Visual artist and professor Reginald L. Jackson was born on January 10, 1945 in Springfield, Massachusetts. He graduated from Springfield Technical High School in 1961 and received his A.A. degree in graphic arts, printing, and photography from the Rochester Institute of Technology in 1965. He studied art for two years at Paier College of Art in Hamden, Connecticut before enrolling at Yale University, where he received his B.F.A. and M.F.A. degrees in graphic design, film, and photography in 1970. He obtained his M.S.W. degree in policy and planning from SUNY Stony Brook University in Stony Brook, New York in 1976, and his Ph.D. degree in communications and visual anthropology from the Union Institute in 1979. He completed post-graduate studies at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the department of urban studies and planning in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Jackson was a founding member of the Black Workshop in 1968, a group of African American graduate students studying architecture, city planning, and graphic design at Yale University. He later joined the faculty at Simmons College in Boston, Massachusetts in 1974. Jackson’s photographic work was presented in the African Extensions: A Photographic Search for African Survivals in the Americas exhibition at the Bowdoin College Museum of Art in Brunswick, Maine in 1981. In 1986, Jackson established Olaleye Communications, Inc. to document, create, and distribute educational, visual, and cultural information pertaining to African retentions in the Americas. His work was featured in Black Boston: documentary photography and the African-American experience. Jackson also served as the chair of visual communications, dean of international relations, and academic vice president at the African University College of Communications in Accra, Ghana from 2008 to 2012. Jackson’s work and papers are held at The Yale University Art Gallery, The Boston Athenaeum, the Library of Congress, MIT Museum, Studio Museum in Harlem, the Bowdoin Museum of Art, the RISD Museum of Art, Simmons University, and Amherst Colleges.

Jackson’s board affiliations and memberships include: the Boston Pan-African Forum, the Massachusetts Association for Mental Health, artist emeritus at Northeastern University's African American Master Artists in Residence Program, emeritus professor of communications at Simmons University, Society of Senior Ford Fellows and fellowships from the Ford Foundation and the Smithsonian Institution.

He has received numerous academic awards including a Fulbright Fellowship, Ford Foundation grants, and fellowships from the Smithsonian Institute, University of Massachusetts, Boston and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Jackson was chosen as a Simmons College Man of the Year in 2007.

Reginald L. Jackson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 15, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.208

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/15/2018

Last Name

Jackson

Maker Category
Organizations
First Name

Reginald

Birth City, State, Country

Springfield

HM ID

JAC47

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Massachusetts

Favorite Vacation Destination

Any Place Warm

Favorite Quote

Lets keep it rolling

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

1/10/1945

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Favorite Food

Avocado

Short Description

Visual artist and professor Reginald L. Jackson (1945 - ) was the founder of Olaleye Communications, Inc. and served as dean of international relations and vice president at the African University College of Communications in Accra, Ghana from 2008 to 2012.

Favorite Color

Red and Green

The Honorable Roderick Ireland

Judge Roderick Ireland was born on December 3, 1944 in Springfield, Massachusetts to Helen Garner and George Lovelace Ireland. He received his B.A. degree in 1966 from Lincoln University, his J.D. degree from Columbia Law School in 1969, his L.L.M. degree from Harvard Law School in 1975, and his Ph.D. degree in Law, Policy, and Society from Northeastern University in 1998.

Ireland began his career as a staff attorney at Neighborhood Legal Services in New York City in 1969. In 1970, he worked as a staff attorney at the Harvard Center for Law and Education. Ireland co-founded the Roxbury Defenders Committee with Wallace Sherwood the following year. In 1973, he worked as a hearing officer at the Massachusetts Civil Service Commission. Ireland joined the offices of Burnham, Stern and Shapiro in Boston in 1975, before being named assistant secretary and chief legal counsel at the Massachusetts Executive Office of Administration and Finance. Additionally, he served as chair of the Massachusetts Board of Appeal on Motor Vehicle Liability, Policies, and Bonds. Nominated to the Boston Juvenile Court by Governor Michael Dukakis in 1977, Ireland began teaching criminology and criminal justice at Northeastern University in 1978. In 1990, he was nominated to the Massachusetts Court of Appeals. Ireland was the first African American appointed to serve on the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court in 1997. From 2001 to 2016, Ireland taught in the Appellate Judges Seminar at New York University Law School and worked as an advisor and teacher for the Supreme Judicial Court’s Judicial Youth Corps. Nominated by Governor Deval Patrick, Ireland became the chief justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court in 2010. He also authored, Massachusetts Juvenile Law, (1993, 2007) a two volume treatise published by West Publishing.

Ireland was one of three black men selected for Ten Outstanding Young Men in 1979 by the U.S. Junior Chamber. In 1982, Ireland was awarded the Boston Covenant Peace Prize in recognition of his efforts to promote racial justice. He was also awarded the Haskell Cohn Distinguished Award for Judicial Service by the Boston Bar Association in 1990 and the St. Thomas More Award from Boston College Law School. In 2001, the Massachusetts Bar Association and Massachusetts Lawyers Weekly newspaper awarded Ireland the Judicial Excellence Award. In 2015, Ireland’s childhood street was renamed in his honor and he received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Massachusetts Black Lawyers Association. He has received honorary doctorate of law degrees from several universities and was the recipient of the President’s Award at the 2016 Massachusetts Judges Conference. In 2017, Hampden County Hall of Justice in Springfield, Massachusetts was renamed Roderick L. Ireland Courthouse in his honor.

Ireland and his wife, Alice, have three children: Elizabeth, Michael, and Melanee.

Roderick Ireland was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 12, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.204

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/12/2018

Last Name

Ireland

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Organizations
First Name

Roderick

Birth City, State, Country

Springfield

HM ID

IRE01

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Massachusetts

Favorite Vacation Destination

Barbados

Favorite Quote

First things first.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

12/3/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bpston

Favorite Food

Seafood and Southern

Short Description

Judge Roderick Ireland (1944 - ) was the first African American to serve on the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court in 1997 before being appointed chief justice in 2010.

Favorite Color

Red

Roslyn Artis

Academic administrator and lawyer Roslyn Artis was born on June 16, 1970 in Springfield, Massachusetts to Robert M. Clark and Christine E. Clark. Artis graduated from Woodrow Wilson High School in 1988 and attended West Virginia State College, where she earned her B.A. degree in political science in 1991. In 1995, Artis earned her J.D. degree from West Virginia University’s College of Law. She later received her Ed.D. degree in higher education leadership and policy from Vanderbilt University in 2010. She also earned a Certificate of Fundraising Management from Indiana University, as well as a Certificate of Mastery in Prior Learning Assessment from DePaul University’s School of Continuing & Professional Education.

Artis began working at Nationwide Insurance in Canton, Ohio after college. After graduating from law school, she joined the law firm of Brown and Levicoff, PLLC. In 1997, Artis then joined The Wooton Law Firm and pursued a plaintiff's practice. That same year, she worked as an adjunct professor at Mountain State University and later became director of its legal studies program in 2002. The following year, she left The Wooton Law Firm and was appointed to the position of senior academic officer for distance education at Mountain State University. In this position, Artis oversaw the university’s regional campuses, which included Martinsburg, West Virginia, Orlando, Florida and Center Township, Pennsylvania. By 2006, Artis was promoted to chief advancement officer and president of the Mountain State University Foundation. In 2012, she was named provost of the university and executive vice president of the Beckley campus. Artis was appointed as interim president of Florida Memorial University in 2013, as the first woman president in school history.

Artis has been honored for her commitment to education by President Bill Clinton, who named her one of the “1,000 Points of Light” in communities across the country for public service in 1999. She was also honored by the U.S. Congressional Black Caucus, who recognized her as “A Leader in the Making” in 2000, and by the West Virginia Executive magazine as a “Young Gun” in 2008. Artis was also the recipient of the Martin Luther King Jr. Living the Dream Award for Community Service.

Artis was an active member of several boards and organizations, including United Way of Southern West Virginia, the YMCA of Southern West Virginia, Raleigh General Hospital Board of Trustees, Mountain State Bar Association and the West Virginia Board of Law Examiners.

Artis and her husband, Selby Artis have three children: Christopher, Jayden, and Jocelyn. She is a stepmother to Will, Wesley, Rebecca, Tawana, Darien and Nicholas.

Roslyn Artis was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 9, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.061

Sex

Female

Interview Date

03/9/2017

Last Name

Artis

Maker Category
Middle Name

Clark

Organizations
Schools

Institute Elementary School

Beckley-Stratton Middle School

Woodrow Wilson High School

West Virginia State University

West Virginia University College of Law

Vanderbilt University

First Name

Roslyn

Birth City, State, Country

Springfield

HM ID

ART01

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Massachusetts

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

It is what it is.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

South Carolina

Birth Date

6/16/1970

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Charleston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Watermelon

Short Description

Academic administrator and lawyer Roslyn Artis (1970 - ) worked as an attorney and later became the first woman president of Florida Memorial University.

Employment

Florida Memorial University

Mountain State University

Wooton Law Firm

Brown and Levicoff, PLLC

Favorite Color

Black

Ted Childs, Jr.

Diversity strategist J.T. (Ted) Childs, Jr. was born on November 26, 1944 in Springfield, Massachusetts to John and Clara Childs. He graduated from Classical High School in 1962, and received his B.A. degree in psychology from West Virginia State University in 1967.

Upon graduation, Childs joined IBM as a personnel administration trainee. He went on to work in several staff and managerial positions at IBM, including program manager of personnel operations. He was subsequently appointed IBM's vice president of global workforce diversity, where he oversaw the company's diversity programs and policies. From March of 1983 to September of 1984, Childs served as executive assistant to Dr. Benjamin L. Hooks, executive director of the NAACP, on an IBM Social Service Leave. In 1989, he was appointed by Governor Mario Cuomo to the New York State Governor’s Advisory Council on Child Care; and, in 1995, Childs was appointed as an official delegate to the White House Conference on Aging. In 1997, U.S. Treasury Secretary, Robert E. Rubin, appointed Childs as an advisor to the Secretary’s Working Group on Child Care. In 2006, Childs retired from IBM and founded the consulting firm, Ted Childs, LLC, where he serves as a strategic diversity advisor.

Childs is a member of the board of trustees, and past chair of the West Virginia State University Foundation. He is a member of the Executive Leadership Council (ELC); The Families and Work Institute board of directors; was installed as a Fellow of The National Academy of Human Resources in 2001; and has served as co-chair of the National Council of Jewish Women’s Work Family Advisory Board. Childs holds life memberships in the National Association of African Americans in Human Resources, The National Council of Negro Women, Inc., The National Organization of Women (NOW), Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., the NAACP, the Sierra Club, and the Bass Anglers Sportsmen Society.

In 1997, Childs was named by Working Mother magazine as one of the 25 Men Friends of the Family who have made it easier for working parents to raise and nurture children. In 1998, the National Association of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies presented Joan Lombardi, U.S. Senators Ted Kennedy and Orrin Hatch, and Childs with its Lifetime Achievement Award. Childs also received the Corporate Leadership Award from the Human Rights Campaign in 2003, the Work/Life Legacy Award from the Families and Work Institute in 2004, and the Trailblazers in Diversity Award from the Chief Diversity Officer’s Forum in 2006. In addition, Working Mother Media announced The Ted Childs Life / Work Excellence Award to be given annually to the individual who by their distinctive performance has contributed to the field of Life / Work in the business community. Childs has received Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters degrees from Pace University, West Virginia State University and Our Lady of the Elms College.

Ted Childs was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 20, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.115

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/20/2014

Last Name

Childs

Maker Category
Middle Name

Theodore

Schools

Eastern Avenue Elementary Public School

Buckingham Junior High School

Springfield Central High School

Lincoln University

West Virginia State University

First Name

John

Birth City, State, Country

Springfield

HM ID

CHI03

State

Massachusetts

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

11/26/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

South Salem

Country

United States

Short Description

Diversity strategist Ted Childs, Jr. (1944 - ) was founder of Ted Childs, LLC. He retired as IBM’s vice president of global workforce diversity in 2006 after thirty-nine years of employment at the company.

Employment

IBM

NAACP

Wayne Embry

Basketball team manager and basketball player Wayne Richard Embry was born on March 26, 1937 in Springfield, Ohio. After graduating from Tecumseh High School, Embry attended Miami University and graduated in 1958 with his B.S. degree in education. While there, he was a star basketball player in the National Collegiate Athletic Association.

In 1958, Embry was drafted by the St. Louis Hawks in the third round of the National Basketball Association (NBA) player draft. Embry went on to play in the NBA from 1959 to 1969 for several successful franchises, including the Cincinnati Royals and the Milwaukee Bucks. He played with NBA Hall of Fame inductee Bill Russell and contributed significantly to the Boston Celtics team that won the 1968 NBA Championship. In 1972, Embry was named general manager of the Milwaukee Bucks and became the first African American general manager in NBA league history, as well as the first black general manager of a major U.S. team sport. From 1985 to 1992, Embry served as vice president and general manager of the Cleveland Cavaliers. He went on to become the first African American NBA team president with the Cavaliers in 1994. Under the guidance of Embry, the Cleveland Cavaliers averaged forty-five wins and had nine playoff appearances over twelve seasons. Embry was appointed senior basketball advisor to the general manager for the Toronto Raptors in 2004, and then became the senior advisor to the president one year later. On January 26, 2006, Embry was named interim general manager for the Raptors.

Embry was selected to play on the National Basketball Association’s All-Pro team in five consecutive seasons between 1961 and 1965. He was chosen as “NBA Executive of the Year” by Sporting News magazine in 1992 and 1998. Embry was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame as a contributor to the class of 1999. He was also inducted into the Ohio Basketball Hall of Fame as a member of the charter class. He is the 2013 recipient of the Ohio Heritage Award, which recognizes an Ohio Basketball Hall of Fame inductee for their contributions to the State of Ohio off the court.

Embry and his wife, Terri Embry, live in Scottsdale, Arizona. They have three children: Debbie, Jull, and Wayne, Jr.

Wayne Richard Embry was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 17, 2013 and August 18, 2017.

Accession Number

A2013.166

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/17/2013 |and| 08/18/2017

Last Name

Embry

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Miami University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Wayne

Birth City, State, Country

Springfield

HM ID

EMB01

Favorite Season

Holiday Season

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Arizona

Birth Date

3/26/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Phoenix

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Basketball team manager and basketball player Wayne Embry (1937 - ) was the general manager of the Milwaukee Bucks, becoming the first African American general manager in the history of the National Basketball Association and the first African American general manager of any major U.S. team sport. He played for the Boston Celtics team that won the 1968 NBA Championship.

Employment

Cincinnati Royals

Boston Celtics

Milwaukee Bucks

Cleveland Cavaliers

Toronto Raptors

Favorite Color

None

Wayne Budd

Attorney Wayne Anthony Budd was born on November 18, 1941 in Springfield, Massachusetts. Educated in Springfield public schools, Budd graduated from Cathedral High School in 1959. In 1963, he received an A.B. degree cum laude in economics from Boston College. Between 1963 and 1967, he worked in the Industrial Relations Department at Ford Motor Company while attending law school at night. He attended Wayne State University School of Law in Detroit and received a J.D. degree in 1967.

Following his law school graduation, Budd served as Assistant Corporation Counsel for the City of Boston from 1968 to 1969. During that same time period, he developed a private law practice.

Budd also served as president of the Massachusetts Black Lawyers Association. In 1979, he became the first African American to head the Massachusetts Bar as President and at that time he was the youngest (at age 38) president of any state bar association.

Appointed by President George H.W. Bush in 1992, Budd served as Associate Attorney General of the United States. He oversaw the Civil Rights, Environmental, Tax, Civil and Anti-Trust Divisions at the Department of Justice, as well as the Bureau of Prisons. From 1989 to 1992, he worked as the United States Attorney for the District of Massachusetts, serving as the state’s chief federal prosecutor and representing the federal government in all matters involving civil litigation. During this time, he was recognized for his efforts in combating drugs, street crime and gang violence. Budd also served as a member of the U.S. Sentencing Commission, appointed to that position in 1994 by President Bill Clinton.

Budd is currently senior counsel in the law firm Goodwin Proctor in Boston, Massachusetts, where he specializes in business and commercial litigation. Budd had previ¬ously been a senior partner at Goodwin Proctor from 1993 to 1996.

Prior to rejoining Goodwin Proctor in 2004, Budd served as Senior Executive Vice President and General Counsel at John Hancock Financial Services, where he was responsible for directing all of the company’s legal activities as well as over¬seeing the compliance, human resources, governmental affairs and community relations. Before joining Hancock, Budd was Group President-New England at Bell Atlantic Corporation (now Verizon Communications) where he was respon¬sible for policy, regulatory and legislative functions for the New England states served by Bell Atlantic.

Budd has served numerous government, public service, educa¬tional and business entities including serving as Commissioner and Chairman of the Massachusetts Civil Service Commission (1972 – 1989); as a Trustee of Boston College (1980 - 1997); as Director (former Vice—Chair) of the Greater Boston Chamber of Commerce; and as a member of the National Board of the American Automobile Association.

Budd is the father of three daughters--Kim, a lawyer, born in 1966; Kristi, a teacher, born in 1968; and Kern, a nurse, born in 1970.

Budd was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 5, 2006.

Accession Number

A2006.064

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/5/2006

Last Name

Budd

Maker Category
Schools

William N. Deberry

Cathedral High School

Myrtle Street Junior High School

Boston College

Wayne State University School of Law

First Name

Wayne

Birth City, State, Country

Springfield

HM ID

BUD01

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Massachusetts

Favorite Vacation Destination

Italy

Favorite Quote

Always Be On The Look Out For Opportunity. Don't Turn A Deft Ear Or A Blind Eye To It.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

11/18/1941

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Clam Strips Lobster, Pasta

Short Description

Commercial lawyer and presidential appointee Wayne Budd (1941 - ) was senior counsel at Goodwin Proctor, and the first African American to head the Massachusetts Bar Association as president, and at that time, the youngest president of any state bar association, at age thirty-eight. He was also appointed as Associate Attorney General of the United States.

Employment

State of Massachusetts

Goodwin Procter LLP

John Hancock Financial

Bell Atlantic Corporation

United States Department of Justice

Ford Motor Company

General Electric

Favorite Color

Green

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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Wayne Budd's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Wayne Budd lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Wayne Budd describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Wayne Budd describes his maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Wayne Budd describes his father's career

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Wayne Budd describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Wayne Budd describes his maternal family's involvement in the Underground Railroad

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Wayne Budd recalls his father's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Wayne Budd lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Wayne Budd describes his wife and children

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Wayne Budd describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Wayne Budd remembers his childhood neighborhood in Springfield, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Wayne Budd describes his early education in African American history

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Wayne Budd describes his family life during childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Wayne Budd recalls the smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Wayne Budd remembers DeBerry Elementary School in Springfield, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Wayne Budd recalls Springfield's Myrtle Street Junior High School

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Wayne Budd recalls his early aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Wayne Budd remembers Springfield's Cathedral High School

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Wayne Budd recalls his summer employment in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Wayne Budd remembers his decision to attend Boston College

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Wayne Budd recalls his experience at Boston College

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Wayne Budd recalls being recruited to work at Ford Motor Company

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Wayne Budd describes his experiences at Wayne State University Law School

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Wayne Budd recalls a professor at Wayne State University Law School, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Wayne Budd recalls a professor at Wayne State University Law School, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Wayne Budd remembers working at Ford Motor Company while studying law

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Wayne Budd describes his decision to return to Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Wayne Budd remembers his early law career in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Wayne Budd recalls joining the law firm of Hamilton and Lampson

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Wayne Budd remembers establishing a law firm with Tom Reilly

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Wayne Budd recalls his organizational involvements

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Wayne Budd recalls serving as the U.S. attorney for Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Wayne Budd recalls becoming an associate attorney general of the United States

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Wayne Budd remembers directing the Rodney King investigation

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Wayne Budd recalls serving as the United States associate attorney general

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Wayne Budd recalls serving on the United States Sentencing Commission

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Wayne Budd recalls working for Goodwin, Procter and Hoar LLP

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Wayne Budd recalls working for NYNEX Corporation

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Wayne Budd describes his community involvement

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Wayne Budd describes his hobbies

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Wayne Budd talks about his oldest daughter's law career

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Wayne Budd recalls working as general counsel to John Hancock Financial Services Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Wayne Budd describes his accomplishments at John Hancock Financial Services Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Wayne Budd describes his responsibilities at Goodwin Procter LLP

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Wayne Budd describes his hobbies

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Wayne Budd lists his board memberships

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Wayne Budd describes his hopes for Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Wayne Budd reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Wayne Budd describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Wayne Budd talks about the importance of history

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Wayne Budd shares his advice for African Americans interested in law careers

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Wayne Budd describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Wayne Budd narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

8$1

DATitle
Wayne Budd recalls his organizational involvements
Wayne Budd recalls serving as the United States associate attorney general
Transcript
While you had this law practice, Budd, Wiley and Richlin, what other community and citywide involvements did you have in business or legal work?$$Very, very active counsel for the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] at one time. I was a lawyer assigned to restart an Urban League chapter in Boston [Massachusetts], which I did and was active with for a number of years. We represented a number, and mainly pro bono, a number of entities in the community; Roxbury Comprehensive Community Health Center [Boston, Massachusetts], Harvard Street Health Center [Harvard Street Neighborhood Health Center, Boston, Massachusetts], Whittier Street Health Center [Boston, Massachusetts]. So we did a fair number of health centers, as I think about it. But other community groups, we got involved a little bit in politics. I became the president of the Massachusetts Bar Association, kind of working my way up through the chairs. And when I was elected, I was the first African American to be elected to any state bar association.$$In the country.$$In the country, yeah. And I was elected in 1979, and it's a one-year term, so that was a great--$$What were your responsibilities as president of--$$Oh, oversee the state bar. You know, you had a full-time staff, but you were the bar leader. You were the designated lawyers of the lawyers statewide. It was a career changer. It was one of those things that, at least, for my own career, kind of took me a little bit apart from other lawyers of whatever color or stripe. You know, because if you're the state bar president, you're seen to be different. Not that you are, but you're seen that way. And that opened me up to opportunities to serve on boards, to, to, to get in line for other things. To work on task forces, for this governor, or that mayor, and, you know, and on, and on, and on.$Tell me about the process of becoming the associate attorney general of the United States. What was that process for you?$$Actually, it was interesting because, but for Bill Barr [William P. Barr], the then attorney general, I never would have gotten through the process. Apparently, when I went to the White House [Washington, D.C.] for my interviews--I never met with President Bush [President George Herbert Walker Bush], but the personnel people and the staff people who vet these things--I was deemed not to be conservative enough. So I was rejected. And they said, "Look for somebody else," to Barr. And Barr came back with, "Look, you gave me--you told me this was going to be my department, and I could pick my own people, and I want this guy." So, they yielded to him, and as a result of that, I became the associate attorney general.$$What was the highlight of that experience? You served there three years; is that correct?$$No, no actually, I was only there a year. I was there for the last year of the first Bush administration, '92 [1992], '93 [1993]. And so as--the moment the new administration, the new president raises his hand to take the oath, you're gone. You're fired. Your resignation--well, you don't even resign. You're terminated. So I got out--if the inauguration was on Tuesday, I was out on Friday, and finished up and came back home.$$What was the highlight of your tenure in this position?$$Well, actually, there was a couple, one of which was to oversee the prosecution and the prosecution team for the Rodney King case, the prosecution of four police officers in the federal court system. Although technically, the case wasn't completed by the time I left office. And the other was to revive the office of the associate. It had been, kind of, put on hold for a few years. And this attorney general decided it was important to have the position activated again. It's established by law, but to have it activated again. And so to organize that, to put together the team, and to make it work was a great experience.

Donald Stull

Architect Donald L. Stull, was born on May 16, 1937, in Springfield, Ohio. His family moved to Columbus, Ohio in 1949, where he graduated from East High School in 1955. He attended Ohio State University, earning a B.S. degree in architecture in 1961. Two years later, he received a master’s degree in architecture from Harvard University’s Graduate School of Design. For the next four years he developed his skills and knowledge with the Architects Collaborative in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Samuel Glaser Associates in Boston, as a designer and project manager.

Stull, a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects (FAIA), is the founding partner, owner, and president of the architectural firm, Stull and Lee Associates, Inc. Founded in 1966 as Stull Associates, in Boston, Massachusetts, his architectural and urban design and planning firm has been recognized throughout New England and nationally and internationally. Stull’s broad experience and contributions include the design of educational, health care and correctional facilities, highway infrastructure, transit stations and multi-family housing. Stull has also been a leader by bringing attention to the unique contributions of African American architects and urban designers across America with New DesigNation. The first New DesigNation Conference was held in Philadelphia in November 1996. Over 500 designers of color examined issues faced by African Americans in the design profession

In the mid-1960s, Stull established himself as a solo architect and planner for both public and private agencies to meet the needs of a “new Boston,” as a case of urban renewal. In 1990, M. David Lee, a graduate of Harvard’s Graduate School of Design, joined Stull, and the firm became Stull and Lee Associates, Inc. With co-partner Lee and a staff of forty design professionals – Stull and Lee grew from residential design to major building projects in Boston including the Roxbury Community College, the Harriet Tubman House, and the Ruggles Street Station of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA).

Stull and Lee’s most recent awards include the Boston Society of Architects (BSA) Award for Excellence in Architecture for the Boston Police Headquarters; the American Institute of Architects Honor Award for Architecture for the Ted Williams Tunnel (to Boston’s Logan Airport); the BSA’s Honor Award for Design of the Williams Tunnel; and the American Planning Association/Massachusetts Chapter Social Advocacy Award.

Stull is the father of three: Cydney, vice-president and treasurer of a Florida trucking business; Robert, a noted comic book illustrator; and Gia, an art school student.

Donald Stull was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 3, 2004.

Accession Number

A2004.246

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/3/2004 |and| 1/25/2005

Last Name

Stull

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

East High School

The Ohio State University

Harvard University

Fulton Elementary School

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Any

First Name

Donald

Birth City, State, Country

Springfield

HM ID

STU01

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Architecture, Urban Design, Artistic Pursuit

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - $1,000 - $5,000

Favorite Season

Fall

Speaker Bureau Notes

Honorarium Specifics: $3000-5000
Preferred Audience: Architecture, Urban Design, Artistic Pursuit

Sponsor

Turner Construction Company

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

Frequently, People Do Bad Things For The Right Reasons.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

5/16/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken, Clam Chowder, Seafood

Short Description

Architect and architecture chief executive Donald Stull (1937 - ) established Stull and Lee Associates, Inc. in Boston. Stull’s architecture, urban design and planning have profoundly impacted the physical landscape of Boston and other urban areas.

Employment

Stull Associates, Inc.

Stull and Lee Associates, Inc.

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:22606,258:23212,265:39330,441:44370,512:45450,527:125140,1506:125815,1517:172315,2105:172882,2113:173206,2118:174097,2130:199407,2456:211510,2679$0,0:2720,34:4420,86:4930,93:6120,110:7990,145:8330,150:11657,183:16218,244:16694,252:17102,259:17578,268:18054,277:20568,290:20948,296:44900,477:45656,486:46196,492:51234,515:52026,525:53434,544:62606,643:78760,791:79950,796:85669,845:88428,884:89318,896:102690,1034:102998,1041:106232,1102:106848,1111:107464,1120:112660,1175:112940,1180:114130,1201:126716,1357:126972,1362:127548,1373:131867,1423:132403,1432:137830,1530:139237,1553:142654,1625:143257,1635:155906,1768:156720,1780:158348,1803:158644,1808:158940,1813:159606,1823:178804,2051:181444,2086:183556,2108:218390,2551:223740,2582:225500,2615:232323,2698:236630,2775:248922,2925:251730,2951
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Donald Stull's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Donald Stull lists his favorites, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Donald Stull lists his favorites, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Donald Stull describes his maternal family

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Donald Stull describes his mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Donald Stull describes his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Donald Stull describes his father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Donald Stull describes his father's employment

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Donald Stull describes his family's emphasis on education

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Donald Stull describes his younger sister's experience in the Peace Corps

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Donald Stull remembers his younger sister's death, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Donald Stull remembers his younger sister's death, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Donald Stull describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Donald Stull describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Donald Stull reflects upon his family life growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Donald Stull describes his earliest childhood memories, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Donald Stull describes his earliest childhood memories, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Donald Stull describes his early interest in architecture, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Donald Stull describes his early interest in architecture, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Donald Stull describes his success at The Ohio State University

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Donald Stull describes his education in Springfield, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Donald Stull recalls his interest in geometry

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Donald Stull describes his literary interests, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Donald Stull describes his literary interests, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Donald Stull recalls his gang involvement at East High School

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Donald Stull describes his experience at The Ohio State University

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Donald Stull describes cues division

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Donald Stull describes the impact of cues division

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Donald Stull recalls the lack of African Americans in the field when he entered the architecture profession

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Donald Stull recalls receiving The Ohio State University's Outstanding Alumnus Award

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Donald Stull describes The Ohio State University's Alumni Award ceremony

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Donald Stull describes his time at Harvard Graduate School of Design

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Donald Stull recalls graduating from Harvard Graduate School of Design

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Donald Stull recalls joining The Architects' Collaborative

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Donald Stull describes his introduction to the architectural profession

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Donald Stull describes Stull Associates in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Donald Stull describes Stull Associates' transition period

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Donald Stull describes his involvement with Yale University

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Donald Stull recalls how the Civil Rights Movement impacted his career

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Donald Stull recalls passing the architectural registration exam

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Donald Stull remembers Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Donald Stull describes his firm's community development contributions

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Donald Stull describes his firm's innovation in technology

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Donald Stull remembers designing schools in New England, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Donald Stull remembers designing schools in New England, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Donald Stull describes the I-95 extension project

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Donald Stull describes superhighway development

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Donald Stull describes the proposed Interstate 95 extension

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Donald Stull describes Massachusetts Governor Francis W. Sargent's highway development moratorium

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Donald Stull describes highway alternatives

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Donald Stull describes Boston's Orange Line

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Donald Stull describes his firm's Boston development projects, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Donald Stull describes his firm's Boston development projects, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Donald Stull talks about urban design

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Donald Stull describes the development of Boston's Roxbury Community College

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Donald Stull describes Roxbury Community College's design

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Donald Stull describes Ruggles Station and the Boston Police Headquarters

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Donald Stull describes the Boston Police Headquarters

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Donald Stull recalls his housing development projects

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Donald Stull describes his firm's innovation in housing design

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Donald Stull describes his paper, 'The Being in Blackness'

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Donald Stull describes his son, HistoryMaker Robert Stull's, international renown

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Donald Stull describes environmentalist Julia Allen Field, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Donald Stull describes environmentalist Julia Allen Field, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Donald Stull explains his stance against revitalizing Boston's Franklin Park Zoo

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Donald Stull describes the impetus for the Middle Passage Memorial

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Donald Stull describes the Middle Passage Memorial's development

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Donald Stull describes the Middle Passage Memorial's prospective location on Spectacle Island

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Donald Stull describes famous memorials that inspired his designs

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Donald Stull describes the Middle Passage Memorial

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Donald Stull describes the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Donald Stull describes Stull and Lee, Inc.'s gallery

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Donald Stull describes honors that he received

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Donald Stull reflects upon his life, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Donald Stull reflects upon his life, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Donald Stull describes his goals

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Donald Stull describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Donald Stull reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Donald Stull narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Donald Stull narrates his photographs, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Donald Stull narrates his photographs, pt. 3

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Donald Stull narrates his photographs, pt. 4

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Donald Stull narrates his photographs, pt. 5

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Donald Stull shares his scale model for the Middle Passage Memorial

DASession

1$2

DATape

3$6

DAStory

4$3

DATitle
Donald Stull describes cues division
Donald Stull describes Roxbury Community College's design
Transcript
Sometime in that process, a person named Rich Miller [Richard A. Miller], who was associate editor at Architectural Forum in New York, came to [The] Ohio State University [Columbus, Ohio] as a visiting professor, and he put together a special project in our senior year to--urban design was just becoming a discipline. Dean [Josep] Lluis Sert, the Spanish architect who came to Harvard [Graduate School of Design, Cambridge, Massachusetts] from Spain, he was a disciple of Le Corbusier, was the--introduced the first academic program in urban design in this country, though he often said, it, it doesn't matter what you call it, everything is architecture. The--but, but, Rich Miller brought the concept of urban design to Ohio State University in this special program, and it was to take a look at an old section of center city called Germantown [German Village, Columbus, Ohio], which had these quaint little buildings and they--and little houses and so on. And it subsequently became famous. It became a major school project. I was one of the members in the--in the team that went into Germantown and analyzed it using cues division, drawn directly from gestalt psychology, which I mentioned before is one of the bases for the way I think and work. So, when you--what, what you do is you, you look to understand the generic characteristics of the thing visually and--before the gingerbread and the--or--and--that--that's what any given period of architecture has a underlying generic skeleton, or structure, that defines it in that period in time, whether it's Victorian or art deco or whatever. And we developed what we called a series of cues division. For example, you can look at the John, John Hancock [Tower, Boston, Massachusetts] building under certain light situations, you, you don't see it, something happens called--there's a cue division, something happens called environmental fusion. And so the glass planes of the wall--of the wall, they blend with the sky units. So, so we developed--so then Perry [Borcher] in the architectural history department had me analyze some of the world's most outstanding architecture using the cues division that we had developed. So, the Parthenon [Athens, Greece], analyzed the Parthenon, relative to things like continuation of edge and environmental fusion, and so on. So, we took a section of his slide collection that he used for teaching and set up a subdivision within it that had to do with that. And that was my beginning. We won a fellowship from the Bruner Foundation in New York City [New York, New York] to do additional research in perceptual psychology, and that's what developed these cues division.$As you designed Roxbury Community College [Roxbury Crossing, Massachusetts], you were always sensitive to the users and, of course, the users in this case are the students, the adult students, and there are adults, many of them. What were the special things that you tried to build in for these users?$$Yeah. The, the--I, I have to go--I think a bit into philosophically the way I think about design. The--if, if one is going to design an educational facility, it's my view that you first need to ask and answer questions regarding, what is education, what is learning? And then begin to evolve a design that's responding to and answering those questions. When I did Roxbury Community College, the question for me at the time was that learning--the conclusion I arrived at was that--is that learning is an interactive process, that it's an interaction between student and books, student and teacher, teacher and teacher, student and student, student and environment. For example, in a learning objective in design, we know that from a physical point of view, from a scientific point of view, the shortest distance between two points is a straight line. Therefore, the most efficient way to get from one place to another place is that way. However, if that is in a learning environment, the critical question is not how quickly you can get there but what happens to your mind on the way? And so that may not be the shortest distance or the fastest way to get there. You may decide to take the line through a labyrinth of learning experiences. That's one of the reasons Roxbury Community College is not one big mega structure building, but a--but a campus. And so I looked for ways to create the, the places within that environment where one could enjoy the interactive process of learning at very many different levels. We've got some sculptures sitting in different places, places where you can sit outside quietly and contemplate the places and all the buildings where in--that kind of interactive process can happen. The, the dialogue with the community also influenced that because the site happens to be along the foothill of Highland Park [Boston, Massachusetts] where the, the top of the hill is the old standpipe, which--the fort [Roxbury High Fort, Boston, Massachusetts]. And historically, the people who basically were the movers and shakers of Boston [Massachusetts] built their suburb places on the hillsides and the hillside places overlooked the mills down in the valley in Lower Roxbury [Boston, Massachusetts] that were fueled by Stony Brook. So, in that valley, historically, there were New England mill buildings. And so we used that reference for the individual structures of the--of the college. They take on the characteristics and the proportions of, of the mill buildings, and they provide visual vistas from the hill out to the various other parts of the city without looking at one enormous massive building.

Pearl Cleage

Writer, playwright, poet, essayist, and journalist Pearl Michelle Cleage was born on December 7, 1948 in Springfield, Massachusetts. Cleage is the youngest daughter of Doris Graham and Albert B. Cleage Jr., the founder of the Shrine of the Black Madonna. After graduating from the Detroit public schools in 1966, Cleage enrolled at Howard University, where she studied playwriting. In 1969, she moved to Atlanta and enrolled at Spelman College, married Michael Lomax and became a mother. She graduated from Spelman College in 1971 with a bachelor’s degree in drama.

Cleage has become accomplished in all aspects of her career. As a writer, she has written three novels: What Looks Like Crazy on an Ordinary Day (Avon Books, 1997), which was an Oprah’s Book club selection, a New York Times bestseller, and a BCALA Literary Award Winner, I Wish I Had a Red Dress (Morrow/Avon, 2001), and Some Things I Never Thought I’d Do, which was published in 2003. As an essayist, many of her essays and articles have appeared in magazines such as Essence, Ms., Vibe, Rap Pages, and many other publications. Examples of these essays include Mad at Miles and Good Brother Blues. Cleage has written over a dozen plays, some of which include Flyin’ West, Bourbon at the Border, and Blues for an Alabama Sky, which returned to Atlanta as part of the 1996 Cultural Olympiad in conjunction with the 1996 Olympic Games. In addition to her writing she has been an activist all her life. Starting at her father’s church, The Shrine of the Black Madonna – Cleage has been involved in the Pan-Africanist Movement, Civil Rights Movement and Feminist Movement. She has also been a pioneer in grassroots and community theater.

Cleage is the mother of one daughter, Deignan, the grandmother of one grandson, Michael, and one granddaughter, Chloe Pearl. She is married to Zaron W. Burnett, a writer with whom she frequently collaborates.

Accession Number

A2004.177

Sex

Female

Interview Date

9/23/2004

Last Name

Cleage

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

McMichael Intermediate School

Northwestern High School

Durfee Elementary School

Spelman College

Howard University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Pearl

Birth City, State, Country

Springfield

HM ID

CLE02

Favorite Season

Winter

State

Massachusetts

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Favorite Quote

Thank You.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

12/7/1948

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pasta

Short Description

Essayist, fiction writer, and playwright Pearl Cleage (1948 - ) has written three novels, including, 'What Looks Like Crazy on an Ordinary Day,' which was an Oprah's Book Club selection and a New York Times bestseller. Cleage has been involved in the Pan-Africanist Movement, the Civil Rights Movement and Feminist Movement. She has also been a pioneer in grassroots and community theater. Her father, Albert B. Cleage Jr., was the founder of the Shrine of the Black Madonna.

Employment

City of Atlanta

The King Center

Southern Education Program

WXIA-TV

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Pearl Cleage's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Pearl Cleage lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Pearl Cleage describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Pearl Cleage describes the life of her mother and maternal grandparents in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Pearl Cleage describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Pearl Cleage describes her father's radical politics and how that influenced his preaching

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Pearl Cleage describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Pearl Cleage describes her childhood community in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Pearl Cleage describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Pearl Cleage talks about the geographical boundaries of Detroit, Michigan during her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Pearl Cleage talks about her experiences at Roosevelt Elementary School and McMichael Junior High School in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Pearl Cleage describes her childhood aspirations to become a writer

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Pearl Cleage describes her experiences at Northwestern High School in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Pearl Cleage remembers deciding between whether to be a writer or a dancer during her time at Northwestern High School in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Pearl Cleage talks about how her father, Albert B. Cleage, Jr., influenced her relationship to religion and her writing

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Pearl Cleage describes her involvement in political activism as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Pearl Cleage describes her experiences at Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Pearl Cleage recalls her experiences at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Pearl Cleage recalls her first jobs in Atlanta, Georgia after graduating from college

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Pearl Cleage explains her and her family's anxiety at the prospect of her moving to the South

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Pearl Cleage relates how she grew as a writer through her involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Pearl Cleage shares her perspective on how women were treated within the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Pearl Cleage describes the resistance to feminism among politically radical men during the 1960s and 1970s

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Pearl Cleage remembers how she came to join the feminist movement in the 1970s

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Pearl Cleage talks about her tenure working as press secretary in Maynard Jackson's first mayoral administration in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Pearl Cleage describes her career in freelance writing after leaving her position as press secretary for Atlanta City Hall in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Pearl Cleage describes developing new plays during her years with Just Us Theater Company in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Pearl Cleage talks about the spoken word poetry movement

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Pearl Cleage talks about writing her first book, 'Mad at Miles: A Black Woman's Guide to Truth'

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Pearl Cleage talks about writing plays for the Alliance Theatre in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Pearl Cleage recalls writing her first novel, 'What Looks Like Crazy on an Ordinary Day' in the mid-1990s

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Pearl Cleage talks about her career as a novelist after having her first novel selected by Oprah Winfrey for Oprah's book club

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Pearl Cleage reflects on her new role as a grandmother

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Pearl Cleage talks about her hopes and concerns for the women's rights movement and for international relations

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Pearl Cleage talks about the importance of life stories and storytelling for understanding history

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Pearl Cleage reflects upon her life, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Pearl Cleage offers advice for aspiring writers

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Pearl Cleage details her plans for her future

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Pearl Cleage reflects upon her life, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Pearl Cleage talks about the importance of the African American community of Atlanta, Georgia in her life

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Pearl Cleage talks about her values and beliefs

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Pearl Cleage describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Pearl Cleage reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Pearl Cleage narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Pearl Cleage narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$2

DAStory

2$8

DATitle
Pearl Cleage talks about how her father, Albert B. Cleage, Jr., influenced her relationship to religion and her writing
Pearl Cleage relates how she grew as a writer through her involvement in the Civil Rights Movement
Transcript
Coming back to these experiences in the church, your father [Albert B. Cleage, Jr.] clearly was impacting how your spirituality was developing. What were your experiences like in the church?$$I really--I grew up in my father's church [Central Congregational Church; Shrine of the Black Madonna, Detroit, Michigan], and not just on Sunday morning, I used to follow my father around all the time, and I think I kind of inherited that from my mother [Doris Graham Cleage] trying to be her father's [Mershell C. Graham] son. My father had two daughters, no sons. I think I was trying to be my father's son too, so that I was always--if he had to go to the church, and oftentimes in these big old churches the pastor would go to the church the night before the service, and start the furnace because the church was so big and old that they didn't want to heat it all the time, but in order for the church to be warm enough to have church on Sunday morning, you would start the furnace up and get things going the night before. So I had done that with my grandfather because he was a trustee, and one of his jobs at Plymouth [Congregational] Church [Plymouth United Church of Christ, Detroit, Michigan] was to go start the furnace up on Saturday night, and then I had those same experiences with my dad. But those I think were just really important to me because I was around my father so often growing up that he would talk to me about what he was thinking about the church. He would talk to be me about what he was gonna preach about. He would talk to me about what he was reading, even when I was way too young to understand it. I remember my father talking to me about Frantz Fanon when I was so little, and thinking to myself, "Wow this is great, he thinks I understand this, and I don't know what he's talking about." But when I got older I went immediately and got 'The Wretched of the Earth' [Frantz Fanon] so I could read it and see what he was talking about. So then I adored my father, I really admired him, and he was a very charismatic speaker, a great speaker. He was a wonderful preacher who would take all of these complicated ideas that he was thinking about and put them in a form where the regular folks who came to our church could understand all of these very complicated ideas. But in order to do that he preached for a long time. The first time I went to a church and the pastor preached for twenty minutes I was amazed because my father thought nothing of talking for an hour and a half, I mean, on Sunday morning. And people would sit there and listen to him because he was able to excite them and to communicate with them in a way that made them sit there for that long to listen to what he had to say. So for me as a budding writer who really was interested in theater, wanting to write plays, it was a great gift to be around someone who was so skilled at talking, at using the language to move people to do things, and I know that watching my father preach had a great influence on me as a playwright because I know what words can do. I know that if you can figure out how to say something complicated in an accessible way, you can move people. Not only to change what they think about things but to do stuff, to march down to city hall, to change the way the world works, to picket the police station, all of those things. So that I was very motivated I think by the fact that in my father I saw someone who was so wonderful with the spoken word and was also so spiritually and politically active in things that he, you know, gave me something to work toward.$So you were coming at this point in terms of your professional experience from The [Martin Luther] King [Jr.] Center [for Nonviolent Social Change, Atlanta, Georgia] into media television [WXIA-TV, Channel 11, Atlanta, Georgia]. Were you writing at this time, were you (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) All the time.$$--speaking?$$Constantly. I was writing, I was writing a lot of poetry. I was writing plays at that time. So I was writing a lot, and I was saying my poems in public, you know, performing on all of those kinds of things, where before we had the political moment we're gonna let some of the poets read some of their revolutionary poetry, and I would be one of the poets with my African dress on and my earrings down to my shoulders reading my revolutionary poetry. So that I was a part of a group of black artists who were very much tied to the political changes that were going on. [HistoryMaker] A.B. Spellman, who was a wonderful poet, was here then. His wife Karen Spellman was the director of the Southern Education Program, so that through them I met lots of activist artists. She had been a member of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee [SNCC] so I met lots of SNCC people. That's really how I got the entree into inviting all these radicals to be on my television show, because they were friends of Karen's and she was a friend of mine. So we all knew each other, so that when I needed guests who could talk about reparations, who could talk about what was going on in South Africa, then I knew the people because we had all been sitting around drinking wine talking about these things the night before. So that it was a rich environment. Lots of very dedicated movement people. And the movement was at a very transition--a transitioning moment because of all of the assassinations that were going on, all of the violence that was going on. [Reverend] Dr. [Martin Luther] King [Jr.] had been killed. The SCLC [Southern Christian Leadership Conference] was still trying to regroup from all of that, so that there was a lot of activity that was going on in Atlanta [Georgia] because so many of the movement people were here, which really was wonderful for me because many of them knew my father [Albert B. Cleage, Jr.]. So it took me from one environment which was very rich in terms of movement activity, and put me right down in another one, which was here, which was still full of movement activity, so that my writing continued to be very grounded in movement toward social change, and you know gave me a chance to say my poems and meet other poets, and all of that. So I was still writing all the time.

A. Paul Moss

YMCA administrator, educator and civic leader Alonzo Paul Moss was born May 16, 1911 as the sixth of seven sons and one daughter born to strict iron worker, Robert Moss and his wife Ida Byrd Moss in Springfield, Ohio. Moss attended Fulton Elementary School, Central Junior High School and Springfield High School where he was a star athlete and honor student. Moss graduated from West Virginia’s Bluefield Teachers College in 1935.

Moss returned to Springfield in 1936, was married and started working for the Center Street YMCA, a place he attended as a youth. In seventeen years with the Springfield YMCA, Moss rose to branch executive, raising $300,000.00 for a new facility, which opened in 1950. A Springfield community leader, Moss sang bass in the Second Baptist Chorus with Coretta Scott (King) then a student at nearby Antioch College, (Rear Admiral) Benjamin Thurman Hacker, then a student at Wittenberg University, Gertrude Carter, and Prof. Charles Wallace. He knew boxing champion Davey Moore, musician Johnny Lytle and mentored young Crud Ayers, the father of future NBA coach, Randy Ayers.

In 1960, in order to revive East Baltimore’s YMCA’s, the national office of the YMCA recruited Moss. He expanded programs at Cherry Hill and Turner Station and as camp director, founded Camp King’s Landing and helped form the King’s Landing Mother’s Club. That club founded the city’s Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Breakfast in 1968.

Integrating and supervising five county branches, Moss also served for 16 years on the Baltimore Department of City Services Advisory Board, the Maryland Food Bank, and for more than a decade on the University of Maryland Board of Regents. After retirement, Moss coordinated community programs for the Community College of Baltimore and volunteered in local prisons.

Moss’ first wife, Evelyn, died in an accident on the Pennsylvania Turnpike shortly after moving to Baltimore. Their son, Michael Moss, is a college athletic administrator. Moss married Elizabeth (Bettye) Murphy Phillips of the Afro-American in 1963 and helped raise three more children. Honored by Alpha Phi Alpha and community leaders in Springfield and Baltimore, Moss, now lives in Ellicott City, Maryland. Moss passed away on September 9, 2010.

Moss was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 10, 2004.

Accession Number

A2004.069

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/10/2004

Last Name

Moss

Maker Category
Middle Name

Paul

Occupation
Schools

Fulton Elementary School

Springfield High School

Bluefield State College

First Name

Alonzo

Birth City, State, Country

Springfield

HM ID

MOS03

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cape Cod, Massachusetts, Jamaica

Favorite Quote

If You Haven't Done Something To Help Somebody And Help Them Live A Better Life, Then Your Life Has Not Been Worthwhile.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

5/16/1911

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chili

Death Date

9/9/2010

Short Description

Nonprofit executive A. Paul Moss (1911 - 2010 ) served as an executive with the Springfield and national branches of the YMCA, and worked with the Baltimore Department of City Services Advisory Board, the Maryland Food Bank, and on the University of Maryland Board of Regents.

Employment

Springfield YMCA

Baltimore YMCA

Community College of Baltimore

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - A. Paul Moss describes fears about lynchings during his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Slating of A. Paul Moss's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - A. Paul Moss lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - A. Paul Moss describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - A. Paul Moss describes his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - A. Paul Moss describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - A. Paul Moss describes his experiences at Fulton School in Springfield, Ohio

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - A. Paul Moss describes playing basketball as a teenager in Springfield, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - A. Paul Moss relates the story of a lynching in Springfield, Ohio in 1917

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - A. Paul Moss describes his experiences at Springfield High School in Springfield, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - A. Paul Moss talks about his choice to attend Bluefield State College in Bluefield, West Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - A. Paul Moss describes his experiences at Bluefield State College in Bluefield, West Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - A. Paul Moss describes his first jobs after graduating college

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - A. Paul Moss talks about working for the YMCA in Springfield, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - A. Paul Moss describes his wife's work at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base during World War II

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - A. Paul Moss talks about running a capital campaign for a new YMCA building in Springfield, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - A. Paul Moss talks about the Rosenwald Foundation's construction projects in African American communities

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - A. Paul Moss describes teaching the father of Randy Ayers, an NBA basketball coach

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - A. Paul Moss describes memorable students from his time working at the YMCA in Springfield, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - A. Paul Moss talks about his experiences with the family of HistoryMaker Richard L. Tolliver

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - A. Paul Moss talks about the death of his first wife and meeting his second wife

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - A. Paul Moss describes his experiences on the Board of Regents for the University of Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - A. Paul Moss talks about integrating YMCA camps in Calvert County, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - A. Paul Moss relates his memories of Coretta Scott King

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - A. Paul Moss describes running adult education programs for the Community College of Baltimore

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - A. Paul Moss talks about recent events in his family life

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - A. Paul Moss describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - A. Paul Moss describes a television program concerning class divisions

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - A. Paul Moss talks about how his parents viewed his success

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - A. Paul Moss reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - A. Paul Moss reflects upon what he would do differently

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - A. Paul Moss describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - A. Paul Moss narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

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DAStory

7$1

DATitle
A. Paul Moss describes his experiences at Fulton School in Springfield, Ohio
A. Paul Moss talks about the Rosenwald Foundation's construction projects in African American communities
Transcript
Now what was your first memory of growing up? Do you have a earliest memory?$$My first memories of growing up. I remember going to Fulton [Elementary] School [Springfield, Ohio]. Now Fulton School was about three squares from where I lived on Grand Avenue. It was the corner of Dibert [Avenue] and Jackson Street. And it was an integrated school, and during the early migration of people from the South into the North, it suddenly became predominantly a--in those days we called 'em, colored school. And we had no colored teachers, but the people who were on the opposite side wanted colored teachers. So they finally--the school board finally hired colored teachers, but they put all the colored teachers in Fulton School, and which made it--automatically they made it a segregated school. And my mother [Ida Byrd Moss] sent me to school for the first couple of weeks, but a group came to our house, people of the protesters about putting those teachers in that colored school, came to our house to tell my mother that your old colored children will never amount to anything, sending them down there to that nigger school. And I can remember because I was a youngster on the--playing on the floor in the dining room and heard them tell my mother that. So my mother took me out of school and the teachers were hired for a year. And they continued to go to school, but no--with no students. And at the end of that when the school opened the next year, they put me from the third--I missed the third grade. They put me in the fourth grade, so I had no third grade education. But I finished Fulton and--$$Now let me just go back to that for a second. I wanna understand what happened. In Fulton School there were all white teachers at first, right?$$Originally were white teachers.$$And then they--then they brought in black teachers.$$Black teachers.$$And then somebody told--what was it--$$There was a protesting group.$$Was that protesting group black or white?$$It was black.$$A black group protested having--$$The black group. There were two leaders in that, in that black group. One of 'em was named James Lay [ph.] who owned the coal and ice business. See in those early days, you had ice. You delivered a big chunk of ice and put it in a refrigerator. In the top of the refrigerator, and put your food in the bottom and the circulation kept your food cool. And then the other one was name--guy by the name of Charlie Johnson [ph.]. Johnson was an early chemist. He looked to be white, but he was colored. And he, he and James Lay were the leaders of this protest movement. And they are the two people who came to my house and told my mother about sending me to school because I was one of the few--my mother said she didn't care who taught her children. She just wanted them to have an education.$$So they were protesting the black teachers in the school.$$Black teachers in the school because that made it--$$They thought they, they weren't gonna be as good as--$$Because that made that school a segregated school.$$Okay.$$And we had no segregated schools in Ohio at that time.$$Okay, all right, okay. So were the black teachers then fired or something the next year or what?$$They were only hired for a year. And when that year was up, then they, they re- put white teachers in again. And I can remember the first teacher I had was a German teacher. Her name was Schaft [ph.], Schaft, Mrs. Schaft was my fourth grade teacher. And eventually they closed Fulton School and because they renovated the school after those years and we had to go to school in the--during the summer we went to school in the fairground. Now fairground was only about, about a square from that school. And so we went, went to school in the fairground in the fourth grade, fourth and fifth. And of course when you got, finished that, then you went to junior high school. And Central Junior High School [Springfield, Ohio] was in the downtown area right across from the Collier Publishing Company [later the Crowell-Collier Company, Springfield, Ohio]. And we'll talk about the Collier Publishing Company a little later I guess.$$Okay.$$Yeah.$Now the colored YMCAs [Young Men's Christian Association], there were thirty-seven of them that were built during that segregation days mostly. And they were required by the--required to have a certain number of rooms where men could sleep, because they couldn't stay at hotels, they were segregated. You couldn't stay at hotels. So the Rosenwald Foundation would match the money that was given by the colored community to help build facilities. And that's how these thirty-seven colored YMCAs got built. But by the time we got ready to build the Center Street YMCA, integration had come about, and the Rosenwald Foundation had stopped giving money to YMCAs. And they gave money to build libraries in colored colleges. And I--Wilberforce [University, Wilberforce, Ohio] had one of the Rosenwald libraries on the campus there. That's how the library got started there. But anyway--$$Yeah, it's the only--sir did you know it's the only building, basically that's still operational of the old campus buildings.$$That's right.$$It's still the only one that's--$$And then when Central State [University, Wilberforce, Ohio] came in, they--Wilberforce was on one side, Central State was on--when the state took over Wilberforce and began pouring state money in, then they changed the name to Central State. And but the library still belonged to Wilberforce, and Wilberforce was on one side. I understand since then, that now Wilberforce is clear across the road with a separate operation, a separate college altogether.$$Yes sir, yes sir.$$Central State is on one side, and Wilberforce University is on the other side. I have some pictures of that, that were taken year before last when we visited there, yeah.