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Dr. Wayne Riley

Dr. Wayne Joseph Riley, President and CEO of Meharry Medical College was born on May 3, 1959 in New Orleans, Louisiana to Jacqueline Cerf Riley and Dr. Emile Edward Riley. His late father, who grew up with Andrew Young, Dr. Walter Young and Ellis Marsalis spoke of his days at Meharry Medical College. Raised in San Francisco, Buffalo and New Orleans, Riley attended San Gabriel School, Arch Angel Elementary School and St. Francis Cabrini Elementary School. In 1977, Riley graduated from Brother Martin High School in New Orleans as the top student and a member of the National Honor Society. He also was an active member of Youth for (Ernest “Dutch”) Morial for mayor. At Yale University, Riley, an officer in the Black Student Alliance, marched in Washington against South African apartheid in 1979. He graduated in 1981 with his B.S. degree in medical anthropology.

Riley was hired by Mayor Dutch Morial as part of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA). By 1986, Riley, at age 26, was elevated to deputy mayor of New Orleans, while taking pre-med courses at Xavier University. In 1991, Riley enrolled in Morehouse School of Medicine. There, under the leadership of Dr. Hugh Glouster and Dr. Louis Sullivan, he served twice as class president and earned his M.D. degree in 1993. Riley completed his residency training in internal medicine at Baylor College of Medicine in 1996. He also holds a M.P.H. degree in Health Systems Management from the Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, and was awarded an M.B.A. from Rice University’s Jesse H. Jones School of Management in 2002.

Riley was named vice president and vice dean for health affairs and governmental relations for Baylor College of Medicine. There, Riley was instrumental in the development of Baylor’s Community Economic Development program, the M.D./J.D. joint degree program with the University of Houston Law Center and serves on the faculty of the Rice’s Jones Graduate School of Management. He was the first African American corporate officer in Baylor’s one hundred plus year history. In 2004, Riley was named host of Baylor’s TV Healthline, which is distributed to more than 80 television markets. In 2005, Riley was elected to the American College of Physicians’ Board of Governors as Governor-elect for the Texas Southern region of the ACP (American College of Physicians). In 2006, Riley was named the tenth President and CEO of Meharry Medical College, his father’s alma mater and the nation’s largest private, historically black institution dedicated to educating healthcare professionals. As president, he manages an alliance with Vanderbilt University Medical Center and the funding of Nashville General Hospital. Riley, the recipient of many honors, received the 2006, National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education Distinguished Alumnus Award.

Riley is married to Dr. Charlene M. Dewey, and they have two children.

Riley was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 16, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.092

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/16/2007

Last Name

Riley

Organizations
Schools

Brother Martin High School

St. Gabriel the Archangel School

Yale University

St. Frances Cabrini Xavier School

Morehouse School of Medicine

Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine

First Name

Wayne

Birth City, State, Country

New Orleans

HM ID

RIL01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

U.S. Virgin Islands

Favorite Quote

One Should Always Try To Live Their Life And Try To Avoid Saying I Wish I Woulda, Shoulda.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Tennessee

Interview Description
Birth Date

5/3/1959

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Nashville

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Mexican Food

Short Description

College president Wayne Riley (1959 - ) was the president and CEO of Meharry Medical College.

Employment

New Orleans City Hall

Baylor College of Medicine

Meharry Medical College

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485719">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Wayne Riley's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485720">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Wayne Riley lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485721">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Wayne Riley describes his mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485722">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Wayne Riley describes his mother's upbringing</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485723">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Wayne Riley describes his paternal grandparents</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485724">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Wayne Riley describes his father's education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485725">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Wayne Riley talks about his father's athletic career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485726">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Wayne Riley describes his father's experience at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485727">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Wayne Riley describes his father's medical education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485728">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Wayne Riley talks about his parents' marriage</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485732">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Wayne Riley talks about color discrimination in New Orleans, Louisiana</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485733">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Wayne Riley lists his siblings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485734">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Wayne Riley describes the community of New Orleans, Louisiana</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485735">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Wayne Riley describes how he takes after his parents</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485736">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Wayne Riley describes his earliest childhood memories, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485737">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Wayne Riley remembers his family's return to New Orleans, Louisiana</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485738">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Wayne Riley remembers his childhood in New Orleans, Louisiana</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485739">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Wayne Riley remembers Mardi Gras festivals in New Orleans, Louisiana</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485740">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Wayne Riley remembers his early activities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485741">Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Wayne Riley describes his early musical interests</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485742">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Wayne Riley remembers the music community of New Orleans, Louisiana</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485743">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Wayne Riley recalls his early interest in science and medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485744">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Wayne Riley remembers Brother Martin High School in New Orleans, Louisiana</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485745">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Wayne Riley recalls his decision to attend Yale University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485746">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Wayne Riley remembers Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485747">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Wayne Riley recalls joining the staff of New Orleans Mayor Ernest Morial</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485748">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Wayne Riley recalls his work for Ernest Morial's reelection campaign</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485749">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Wayne Riley recalls becoming Ernest Morial's public liaison assistant</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485750">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Wayne Riley remembers meeting African American civil rights leaders</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485751">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Wayne Riley recalls serving as the deputy mayor of New Orleans, Louisiana</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485752">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Wayne Riley reflects upon his time in Ernest Morial's administration</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485753">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Wayne Riley remembers the death of Ernest Morial</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485754">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Wayne Riley remembers Morehouse School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485755">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Wayne Riley describes the founding of Morehouse School of Medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485756">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Wayne Riley recalls his career at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485757">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Wayne Riley reflects upon his appointment to the senior staff of Baylor College of Medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485758">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Wayne Riley recalls his work for Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485759">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Wayne Riley talks about his marriage</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485760">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Wayne Riley remembers the forewarning of Hurricane Katrina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485761">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Wayne Riley talks about the flood control system in New Orleans, Louisiana</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485762">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Wayne Riley recalls the impact of Hurricane Katrina on his family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485763">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Wayne Riley describes the impact of Hurricane Katrina on the City of New Orleans</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485764">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Wayne Riley recalls the presidential search at Meharry Medical College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485765">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Wayne Riley recalls his decision to interview for the Meharry Medical College presidency</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485766">Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Wayne Riley recalls his presidential appointment at Meharry Medical College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485767">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Wayne Riley describes the history of Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485768">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Wayne Riley talks about the mission of Meharry Medical College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485769">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Wayne Riley talks about his presidency of Meharry Medical College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485770">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Wayne Riley describes his hopes for Meharry Medical College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485771">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Wayne Riley describes the research conducted at Meharry Medical College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485772">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Wayne Riley describes the funding and accreditation of Meharry Medical College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485773">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Wayne Riley describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485774">Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Wayne Riley reflects upon his life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485775">Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Wayne Riley reflects upon his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485776">Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Wayne Riley talks about his family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/485788">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Wayne Riley narrates his photographs</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

1$9

DATitle
Wayne Riley remembers meeting African American civil rights leaders
Wayne Riley recalls his presidential appointment at Meharry Medical College
Transcript
(Simultaneous) Yeah, I was just recounting some of the people I met as I traveled around the country with Mayor Morial [Ernest Morial], you know, just a number of, of the civil rights giants and, and, and major black lawyers in the country. Vernon Jordan [HistoryMaker Vernon E. Jordan, Jr.]--I met Vernon Jordan with Dutch, met, of course, all the other big city mayors: Maynard Jackson, [HistoryMaker] Andrew Young, of course who, who was a fellow New Orleanian, and it was just a--it was, it was, it was a fascinating time in my life where I, I got to rub shoulders with people that I had read about or who had worked with people I read about, you know. For example, you know, one of my heroes is Thurgood Marshall, and I even keep a picture of Thurgood Marshall in my office here at Meharry [Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee], but Thurgood was a fascinating character, and Dutch had worked for A.P. Tureaud who was a major civil rights lawyer in Louisiana and who, who Thurgood worked on many of the Louisiana desegregation cases, and Dutch was a young lawyer (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Is that the father of the Tureaud that you were in--$$Right, no, their cousin--$$--cousin--$$--they were related, right. But A.P. Tureaud was sort of the dean of civil rights lawyers in New Orleans [Louisiana] that Dutch worked for, that was Dutch's mentor. And, you know, Dutch used to tell us these stories about when Thurgood would come to town to argue cases and, and, you know, they--people who worked with Thurgood still think he was the hardest working, smartest lawyer that they had ever worked with, and Thurgood was a--those folks who know Marshall and (unclear) read two books--I read [HistoryMaker] Juan Williams' book on him ['Thurgood Marshall: American Revolutionary'] and then I read another biography. Marshall was a interesting, colorful guy, he was the type of guy who could stay up all night playing cards and drinking bourbon, and then he would go into court the next day and just argue flawlessly, and he--Thurgood loved a good time. Those people who know Thurgood knew that he loved a good time, liked his, his bourbon and liked to play poker and he gambled and, you know, he cussed and he--you know--but he was a very colorful character. But, but Dutch would always tell these stories about how, how just a supremely well-prepared lawyer Thurgood always was. And so that's why the law thing really kind of came back at me because I was around Dutch all the time, he'd been judge, and the first black graduate of the law center [Louisiana State University Law School; Paul M. Hebert Law Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana], and so again, I was struggling with the law and medicine thing, and then when I started traveling with him, meeting all these famous folks and intersecting, I then kind of wavered a little bit in, in medicine.$I had my interview on Au- August 18, 2006, the reason why I remember the date, it happened to be my parents' [Jacqueline Cerf Riley and Emile Riley, Jr.] anniversary, and it would have been my parents' forty-ninth anniversary had my dad still been living, so it was a special day for my mother--very emotional day for her, and so I was in Atlanta [Georgia] meeting with the search committee, and we had a good two and a half hour conversation and I gave them my candid assessment of, of what I thought I could bring to the job if, if they wanted, but also a candid assessment of, of, of Meharry's [Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee] situation from my due diligence--that I had done a lot of work to see where Meharry was from a financial point of view, from a programmatic point of view, education point of view, and so forth. So, I thought it was a good two-hour conversation and I, I made it very clear to 'em that if, if you're looking for a president who's just gonna come to Nashville [Tennessee] and, you know, look nice and go to cocktail parties, I'm not it, I'm not gonna leave a great job in a great city to go into a job where I can't make it. If I feel that I can't make a difference, and I won't be given the support to make a difference to build programs and to advance the institution, then I don't--you know, I wouldn't do myself a favor--I wouldn't be doing myself a favor, nor would I be doing good for the institution. So, we had a very good two-hour conversation, and this was August 18, and then on September 28, my wife [Charlene M. Dewey] and I were in Colorado--first vacation we had taken alone in two years, we were at The Broadmoor resort [Colorado Springs, Colorado], and I got the call at six a.m., I guess they forgot that Colorado was earlier time zone, but they, they awakened me with the news that I was a finalist, that we had gone from eight down to two, and that my wife and I would be invited to come to Nashville for an official visit, and we did on October--I think 26 and 27, we had a two-day visit, as a couple, to Nashville and to Meharry, and, and then my announcement was announced on November 3, my appointment as president designate was November 3, 2006.

Naomi Jean Gray

Naomi Jean Gray was born Naomi Jean Thomas on May 18, 1922, in Hattiesburg, Mississippi. Graduating from Crispus Attucks High School in Indianapolis, Indiana, Gray earned her B.S. degree in sociology from Hampton University in 1945, and three years later, earned her M.S. degree from Indiana University in Indianapolis.

A caseworker in the Foster Care Agency in Indianapolis from 1948 to 1949, Gray joined the Planned Parenthood Federation of America a year later. During her twenty years with Planned Parenthood, Gray established and directed seven regional offices throughout the United States and developed guidelines for community education and organizational programs. Gray became the first woman to serve as vice president of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America and as a social work instructor at San Francisco State University. Honored as an Indiana Distinguished Citizen, and cited for her work by the National Association for Sickle Cell Disease, Gray also founded and served as president of the Urban Institute for American Affairs. A cofounder and executive director of the Sojourner Truth Foster Family Service Agency, Gray also worked as a consultant for several health and family planning groups.

A member of many community organizations, including the National Urban League, the National Conference on Social Welfare, the California State Planning Commission on Minority Business Enterprises, and the San Francisco Health Commission, Grey also served as a member of the African American Child Task Force, the NAACP, and the San Francisco Black Chamber of Commerce. As cofounder of the African American Education Leadership Group, Gray worked to establish an academic elementary school in a predominately African American community in San Francisco. Gray also served on Mayor Willie Brown’s Task Force on Children, Youth, and Their Families from 1990 to 1993.

Gray passed away on December 29, 2007.

Accession Number

A2005.090

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/31/2005

Last Name

Gray

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

Jean

Schools

Crispus Attucks Medical Magnet High School

Hampton University

Indiana University School of Social Work

First Name

Naomi

Birth City, State, Country

Hattiesburg

HM ID

GRA05

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cruises

Favorite Quote

Don't Walk Behind Me. Walk Beside. As We Walk Together, We Can Accomplish A Lot.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Interview Description
Birth Date

5/18/1922

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/San Francisco

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Soul Food

Death Date

12/29/2007

Short Description

Healthcare executive and nonprofit chief executive Naomi Jean Gray (1922 - 2007 ) was a cofounder of the Sojourner Truth Foster Family Service Agency.

Employment

Planned Parenthood

San Francisco State University

Favorite Color

Black, Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303951">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Naomi Jean Gray's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303952">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Naomi Jean Gray lists her favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303953">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Naomi Jean Gray describes her mother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303954">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Naomi Jean Gray describes her father</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303955">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Naomi Jean Gray describes her family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303956">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Naomi Jean Gray describes her earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303957">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Naomi Jean Gray describes her oldest sister, Willa Thomas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303958">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Naomi Jean Gray describes her brother, Edward Thomas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303959">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Naomi Jean Gray describes her middle sister, Doris Thomas, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303960">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Naomi Jean Gray describes her youngest sister, Ruth Thomas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303961">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Naomi Jean Gray describes her middle sister, Doris Thomas, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303962">Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Naomi Jean Gray remembers segregation in Indianapolis, Indiana</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303963">Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Naomi Jean Gray remembers her grandmother's cooking</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303964">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Naomi Jean Gray describes her father's perception of racism</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303965">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Naomi Jean Gray remembers segregation in Indianapolis, Indiana</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303966">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Naomi Jean Gray describes attending Crispus Attucks High School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303967">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Naomi Jean Gray remembers attending Hampton Institute in Hampton, Virginia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303968">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Naomi Jean Gray describes her social life at Hampton Institute</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303969">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Naomi Jean Gray remembers her field work in Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303970">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Naomi Jean Gray remembers traveling with Planned Parenthood, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303971">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Naomi Jean Gray remembers her outreach to migrant workers for Planned Parenthood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303972">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Naomi Jean Gray remembers traveling with Planned Parenthood, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303973">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Naomi Jean Gray remembers an eventful NAACP meeting in San Francisco, California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303974">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Naomi Jean Gray remembers working with Stewart Mott and Patricia Neal</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303975">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Naomi Jean Gray recounts her difficulties at Planned Parenthood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303976">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Naomi Jean Gray remembers working with Native Americans at Planned Parenthood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303977">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Naomi Jean Gray describes being San Francisco's health commissioner during the AIDS epidemic, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303978">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Naomi Jean Gray describes being San Francisco's health commissioner during the AIDS epidemic, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303979">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Naomi Jean Gray describes her work to treat sickle cell anemia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303980">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Naomi Jean Gray describes her work in San Francisco schools</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303981">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Naomi Jean Gray describes her volunteer work</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303982">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Naomi Jean Gray describes being a mentor</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303983">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Naomi Jean Gray shares her concerns about the regulation of cannabis in San Francisco</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303984">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Naomi Jean Gray describes her concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303985">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Naomi Jean Gray reflects upon her life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303986">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Naomi Jean Gray describes her core values</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303987">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Naomi Jean Gray describes how she would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/303988">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Naomi Jean Gray narrates her photographs</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

8$6

DATitle
Naomi Jean Gray remembers her outreach to migrant workers for Planned Parenthood
Naomi Jean Gray describes being San Francisco's health commissioner during the AIDS epidemic, pt. 2
Transcript
There were a lot of very interesting things that happened to me while I was at, at--working for National Planned Parenthood [Planned Parenthood Federation of America]. I would spend a week or ten days for five years living in a migrant camp in Florida for the purpose of talking about health and health issues at family planning and we would have the best time, the women, the migrant women who worked so hard following the crops and whether they were pregnant or not, they still had to get out there and hard labor, back breaking labor. But we would talk--there was--one of the women said well she guessed she would have seven children because her mother did it. I said, "Well this is not an inherited thing. You don't inherit this from your mother. You can only inherit this from a man." And she would laugh and think I was so funny and but they would bring fish from Okeechobee Lake [Lake Okeechobee] and vegetables because I lived with the public health nurse there and I remember during that segregated time there was a white guy at the State--Florida State Department of Health [Florida Department of Health] and I had worked with him on some projects and he wanted me to go out to this place where these migrant workers were, all black and of course, they would import for the other labor like cutting cane because those black folks weren't getting in there with those snakes and stuff and cutting cane in the field but they would bring them in from Haiti and in from Jamaica and one of the things that happened that, eventually AIDS [acquired immunodeficiency syndrome] in that little place, had the highest incidence of AIDS of any place in the country and that was because when the gay men would go to Haiti and have relationships with those men and that was the onset of you know before we knew a lot about AIDS as a, as a--such a difficult problem. But we developed a, a card for those migrant workers and their children because they would immunize these children over and over again as they traveled up the road. So they then had a little wallet card, they didn't have a wallet, but a card and say just put it where you have your little papers so that if you have to go into a clinic or a hospital, they will have your health history and know what has happened to you so that you are not you know being treated again or children immunized again. And that was really--and that subsequently I presented a paper at the International Planned Parenthood Federation in Singapore talking about my work living with migrants and developing health and family planning programs.$And then I'd said I wanted to be chair of the budget committee [of the San Francisco Health Commission] because we had half billion dollar budget, and whoever distributed that money was very key. And I turned down being president of the committee because I said, "No, I wanna be budget chair of this committee to see where the money goes and who gets the money and how I can change their contracting practices," where blacks weren't getting contracts for some of the things that were being done. Of course, the health department [San Francisco Department of Public Health] staff and people fought it, having a commission, but I was overseeing the money so Phil Lee [Philip Randolph Lee], who used to be the chancellor at UCSF [University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California], was president of the commission because Dianne [Senator Dianne Feinstein] had appointed all of us and he said, "You're smart. You knew--you got where the money was." And I said, "Well I learned that many years ago many years ago at Planned Parenthood [Planned Parenthood Federation of America]. You find out where the power is and then that's where you go." And so I did a lot to change a lot of the contracting practices, more money for health programs for, for minority communities that weren't getting them and started early on with the AIDS [acquired immunodeficiency syndrome] thing. I started working on, on that in 1991 with the Ph.D. Benajet [ph.]--what was her name? Benajet. We did a study and wrote a report on AIDS in San Francisco [California] and just the realities and new solutions of what we were going to do. In 1988, I went to Cecil Williams and I said, "Cecil, what can we do to get the black churches tuned in to this whole thing because we know that they have gay people in their congregation. They play the piano or they direct the choirs. I know they're there." And he said, "Well, why don't we have a conference?" I said, "Okay, I'll go to a foundation and get enough money so that we can have this conference on the role of the black church in the fight against AIDS." Well, we couldn't find a church over here that would allow us to have that conference and Cecil, you know his relationship to the church, 'cause he's done so much more than they do, so he found the--a church [Allen Temple Baptist Church] in Oakland [California], Reverend Green [ph.], as I remember was his name and we--and I organized that conference, J. Alfred Smith [Reverend Dr. J. Alfred Smith, Sr.] and a whole--some of those people came and that was the beginning of trying to open up the doors to the clergy to try to get them to see that they had a role to play in getting this information to, to black people. We can't sit around and wait. Well, we sat around and waited, but I did. I kept pushing and shoving and calling together black people of all persuasions that led to the formation of the Black Coalition on AIDS [Rafiki Coalition] here. And they still aren't doing as much as I think they ought to do. There is still denial, and but we just have to keep moving and getting information out because, you know, our young people and women and men are dying from this disease. And so that was something I started and was able to push on the health commission to keep that in the forefront of how we have to be taken care of too with prevention and education.

Delores Brisbon

Hospital CEO Delores Flynn Brisbon was born February 12, 1933, in Jacksonville, Florida, to Felton A. and Inez Ellis Flynn. Brisbon attended Douglas Anderson Elementary School and graduated salutatorian from Stanton High School in 1950. Brisbon earned her B.S. degree in nursing from Tuskegee University in 1954; later, in 1974, she was awarded a sociology degree from the University of Pennsylvania.

From 1954 to 1956, Brisbon worked as assistant to the director of nursing services and as a clinical instructor for Tuskegee University’s John Andrew Hospital. In 1957, Brisbon became director of Nursing Services at Dillard University’s Flint Goodridge Hospital. Moving back to Tuskegee, Brisbon married James Brisbon; the couple then moved to Philadelphia where she became head nurse at the University of Pennsylvania Hospital in 1959. Brisbon was promoted to supervisor of medical nursing in 1962, and in 1974, became staff person to the executive director. In 1975, Brisbon was hired as director of planning and systems where she led the construction of the $46 million Silverstein Pavilion and the $116 million Founders Pavilion. In 1980, Brisbon was appointed chief operating officer, managing a budget of over $300 million; she guided a multi-million dollar construction project before retiring after her husband’s illness in 1986. In 1987, Brisbon formed Brisbon and Associates, a healthcare consulting firm which she operated until 2003.

Active in the Philadelphia community, Brisbon was responsible for negotiations with the University of Pennsylvania that resulted in the relocation and construction of the Walnut Child Care Center. Brisbon also served on the boards of Eastern University; Mercy Health System; Eastern Baptist Seminary; and Community College of Philadelphia. Brisbon founded and served as chairperson of the board of the Mother Bethel Foundation for which she has raised a million dollars. In addition to her professional activities, Brisbon has raised two children.

Accession Number

A2005.042

Sex

Female

Interview Date

2/8/2005

Last Name

Brisbon

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widow

Schools

Douglas Anderson School of the Arts

New Stanton High School

Tuskegee University

First Name

Delores

Birth City, State, Country

Jacksonville

HM ID

BRI04

Favorite Season

Spring

Sponsor

Lincoln Financial Group Foundation

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Bermuda

Favorite Quote

He That Dwell In The High Places Of God Will Be At Peace.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Pennsylvania

Interview Description
Birth Date

2/12/1933

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Philadelphia

Country

USA

Short Description

Healthcare executive Delores Brisbon (1933 - ) served as the Director of Planning and Systems, and COO of the University of Pennsylvania Hospital. Brisbon later formed Brisbon and Associates.

Employment

John Andrew Hospital

Flint-Goodridge Hospital

Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania

Brisbon & Associates

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260777">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Delores Brisbon's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260778">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Delores Brisbon lists her favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260779">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Delores Brisbon describes her maternal family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260780">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Delores Brisbon describes her paternal family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260781">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Delores Brisbon describes her siblings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260782">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Delores Brisbon describes her childhood experiences in Jacksonville, Florida</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260783">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Delores Brisbon describes two mentors that impacted her growing up</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260784">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Delores Brisbon describes her childhood personality and schools she attended in Jacksonville, Florida</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260785">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Delores Brisbon remembers Jerusalem Missionary Baptist Church in Jacksonville, Florida and its pastor Reverend Saul Cooper</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260786">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Delores Brisbon describes her favorite childhood activities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260787">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Delores Brisbon recalls memorable teachers from her elementary and high school years</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260788">Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Delores Brisbon explains how her family's support helped her attend Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260789">Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Delores Brisbon describes the racism she witnessed growing up in Jacksonville, Florida</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260790">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Delores Brisbon describes her experience at Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260791">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Delores Brisbon talks about the Tuskegee Institute Chapel in Tuskegee, Alabama burned by the Ku Klux Klan</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260792">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Delores Brisbon reflects upon the impact of attending Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260793">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Delores Brisbon talks about her training at the School of Nursing at Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260794">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Delores Brisbon recalls her training at the Tuskegee Veteran Administration Medical Center in Tuskegee, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260795">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Delores Brisbon talks about the Tuskegee syphilis experiment</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260796">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Delores Brisbon talks about her social experiences at Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260797">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Delores Brisbon recalls her time in New York, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260798">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Delores Brisbon recalls the racial demographics at Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260799">Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Delores Brisbon talks about working at John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital in Tuskegee, Alabama and Flint-Goodridge Hospital in New Orleans, Louisiana</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260800">Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Delores Brisbon talks about how she met her husband</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260376">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Delores Brisbon describes the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260377">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Delores Brisbon remembers encountering racial discrimination at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260378">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Delores Brisbon talks about her rise from head nurse to chief operating officer of the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260379">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Delores Brisbon talks about being the first black woman to serve as chief operating officer of an elite hospital</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260380">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Delores Brisbon remembers challenges to her leadership at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260381">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Delores Brisbon talks about her proudest accomplishments as chief operating officer of the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260382">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Delores Brisbon talks about founding and running Brisbon & Associates</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260383">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Delores Brisbon talks about her husband's illness and why she agreed to be interviewed by The HistoryMakers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260384">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Delores Brisbon shares her philosophy for a successful marriage</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260385">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Delores Brisbon talks about founding and running the Mother Bethel Foundation</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260386">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Delores Brisbon talks about her work for the Mother Bethel Foundation</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260387">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Delores Brisbon talks about her volunteer work</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260388">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Delores Brisbon describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260389">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Delores Brisbon reflects upon her life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260390">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Delores Brisbon reflects upon her legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260391">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Delores Brisbon talks about her father and her husband witnessing her professional success</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260392">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Delores Brisbon describes how she would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/260393">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Delores Brisbon narrates her photographs</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

2$5

DATitle
Delores Brisbon talks about the Tuskegee Institute Chapel in Tuskegee, Alabama burned by the Ku Klux Klan
Delores Brisbon remembers challenges to her leadership at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Transcript
The chapel at Tuskegee [Institute; Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, Alabama] was torched by the [Ku Klux] Klan [KKK] at the time that I was there and we watched from our dormitory windows as the chapel was destroyed by fire. And it was done because of Dean [Charles G.] Gomillion's active participation in civil rights. And I think what that lesson taught me was that what you believe in you have to stand for. In ways that, only in my sixties did I realize what an impact that had made on me, that he didn't back down. He was not killed; he lived to a nice old age.$$So what year was this when the--when the chapel was torched?$$See I graduated from Tuskegee in '54 [1954], so it must have been '52 [1952] or so [sic. 1957]. And a new one was built in its place, but those windows in that chapel had been made by the students and so they were priceless collections. It was a significant pain for all of us. But I think that as a community, as a culture within Tuskegee, while losing the chapel the lasting lesson is the one that I tell you about right now. And for us--for those of us in nursing it was more vivid, because the chapel happened to sit diagonally from our dormitory window. So we could stand in the window and see those flames. And next to it were people's graves like George Washington Carver and Booker T. Washington, and the Moats [ph.] and the Mortons [sic. Motons], all of which who were the founders and stabilizers of Tuskegee. So as that chapel burned, we could also see the stuff falling on their graves. It was a powerful experience, but when the pain subsided it left most of us with the courage to do what we must and to do it without rancor because that's what Dean Gomillion did.$$Now the chapel was burnt. This is like prior to the activities of [Reverend] Dr. [Martin Luther] King [Jr.] actually, '52 [1952] (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Oh yeah, absolutely.$$So Dean Gomillion, was he involved in civil rights activities on his own in Tuskegee [Alabama] in the Alabama area?$$Yeah, he was. Yeah, he was kind of like a rebel.$$I just wanna make sure he gets the credit that he (laughter).$$Yeah. He deserves it. It's a very--and he was dean of students and I don't quite know the history of what he did to bring on this, excuse me, anger but it did. But the community of Tuskegee, as well as the board was in great support of what he did--$$Okay.$$--and was way ahead of, of, of King's activity. But he then participated in King's activity when it did start. So it was mid-'50s [1950s].$$Was there any discussion about, now you may or may not know this. but was there any discussion about actually what happened that night, did somebody see anyone come on campus (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) No. I don't know that. All I know and as I--it's as vivid to me now as it was then, I can see the flames. But we really, I was not privy to any information of how it happened. I don't even recall that I heard rumor. I just know that it happened.$What was the biggest, I guess, obstacle to becoming CEO [sic. COO]?$$I was never sure. At my twenty-fifth year wedding anniversary when people from Penn [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] came to celebrate with us, Claire [M.] Fagin, who was then the dean of school of nursing, said that I had a triple whammy that I overcame to run HUP, and that was I was black, female and a nurse. And all of those would say that I shouldn't be where I was. But--and I've always remembered that. So I was never sure. I can tell you that in many instances in which I had responsibility for making decisions, I could never tell whether the decision was challenged because I was a woman or because I was black. I don't think it was ever challenged because I was a nurse, because there was a considerable amount of respect that I knew the business. But there was significant challenge to something that as we talk, I still can't tell you what it was. Whether it was because I was black or a woman, couldn't tell. But because I was certain of what I was doing for the outcome of patients and because the board of trustees at the University of Pennsylvania supported and gave me their full authority, I was never necessarily inclined to try to figure out what it was. I was focused on carrying out the responsibility that I accepted. And that might have caused me a great deal of difficulty personally. I mean in, inside of my person. But I never failed the institution.$$Okay. Is there any one incident that pops out of--?$$Yeah one that pops out is that I had a habit of making rounds to patient floors because I wanted to see for myself what was going on. And on one such occasion, I happened to walk in a unit and I heard a loud voice and one other voice, not so loud, saying, "I'm sorry I didn't do that." And I walked in and it was the chair, a male white guy from Kentucky, yelling at a black woman, who was a nursing assistant. And he was reasonably loud. And I walked over to him and I said, "I would like you to lower your voice." And he said, "You can't tell me what to do." I said, "But I can fire you. Would you like to step into the utility room," and he did. And I said, "I'm [HistoryMaker] Delores Brisbon." And he said, "I didn't know who you were." I said, "But you do now and that kind of behavior, regardless of what the woman did if she did anything, is unacceptable. So you have to stop it." And because I was not as mature then as I am now, I said to him, "You've probably haven't ever dealt with a black woman anyplace in your life other than in your kitchen. I don't do my own kitchen and I don't permit that kind of behavior in my hospital." He is one of the closest people, he sends me Christmas cards and pictures and oranges every year. He is no longer working. But that probably, the tone that I was able to maintain on my--in my voice and my ability to control my anger, I think was probably one of the most outstanding experiences in my mind. There were many such occasions, but nothing as striking as that. And I had to call one other physician, I probably had more problems with physicians then I did anybody else, who really was not doing his administrative responsibility at Penn [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania]. And I called him on it. And he said I didn't have the authority to do anything about that and he went to see the dean. And he said, "Yes she does, as long as you're in administration she can do whatever she wants." He later retired from Penn, went to another university and most recently came back to interview me. And his question was, "Are you still as tough as you were, wear silk dresses and smile, because you are understated but you're like steel." I took from that comment that he still hadn't understood the issue. So those are two kind of lasting impressions. I still don't know whether that was because I was a woman, on either occasion, or I was black. It--they are so cloudy I can't--I couldn't articulate it, but I do know that I was challenged.$$Do you ever think it's probably both or (laughter) at the same time?$$Yeah, yeah. I think so. But I really have to tell you, it didn't bother me a whole lot about what it was, I just felt that I had accepted a responsibility to do a job, I was well paid to do it, and I had to do what I needed to do to carry out that responsibility so I could live at peace with myself. Other people's issues don't bother me a whole lot. My issues are what I examine and try to resolve.

Dr. James Gavin, III

Researcher and medical school president Dr. James R. Gavin III was born on November 23, 1945, in Mobile, Alabama. Gavin attended Livingstone College, graduating magna cum laude in 1966. From there he attended Emory University in Atlanta, earning a Ph.D. in biochemistry in 1970 and earned his M.D. from Duke University in 1975.

Gavin's impressive career in the healthcare industry began in 1971, when he went to work as a lieutenant commander in the U.S. Public Health Service, a position he held until 1973. Today, he still serves as a reserve officer. After earning his M.D., Gavin worked as a pathologist at Duke University Hospital. The Washington University School of Medicine hired Gavin in 1979, where he served as an associate professor of medicine until 1986. After Washington University, Gavin went to the University of Oklahoma, where he worked on diabetes research. In 1991, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) hired Gavin as its senior scientific officer, and in 2000, he was promoted to the director of HHMI-National Institutes of Health Research Scholars Program. Morehouse College School of Medicine named Gavin its president in 2002.

Gavin is an active member of numerous organizations, having served as president of the American Diabetes Association and on the editorial board of The American Journal of Physiology. He is a recipient of the Emory University Medal for Distinguished Achievement, the Banting Medal for Distinguished Service from the American Diabetes Association and the Internist of the Year from the National Medical Association. He currently serves on the board of directors of Baxter International and is outspoken in his support of affirmative action. Gavin and his wife of thirty-two years, Annie, have two sons.

Accession Number

A2003.102

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/8/2003

8/15/2003

8/11/2003

Last Name

Gavin

Marital Status

Married

Organizations
Schools

W H Council Traditional School

Central High School

Dunbar Creative Performing Arts

Livingstone College

Emory University

Duke University School of Medicine

First Name

James

Birth City, State, Country

Mobile

HM ID

GAV01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris, France

Favorite Quote

We Are A Small Medical School With Outrageous Ambition.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Interview Description
Birth Date

11/23/1945

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Short Description

Medical school president, chief executive officer, and healthcare executive Dr. James Gavin, III (1945 - ) leads the Morehouse University Medical School. Gavin served as president of the American Diabetes Association and on the editorial board of The American Journal of Physiology.

Employment

United States Public Health Service

Duke University Hospital

Washington University in St. Louis

University of Oklahoma

Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI)

Morehouse College School of Medicine

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88707">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. James Gavin's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88708">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. James Gavin lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88709">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. James Gavin describes his great grandfather, Seborn Gavin</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88710">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. James Gavin describes his paternal grandmother, Maggie Gavin</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88711">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. James Gavin talks about his father, James Gavin, Jr.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88712">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. James Gavin talks about racial discrimination and desegregation in Mobile, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88713">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. James Gavin continues to talk about his father, James Gavin, Jr.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88714">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. James Gavin describes his maternal grandmother, Nona Smoke</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88715">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. James Gavin describes his mother, Bessie Smoke Gavin</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88716">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. James Gavin talks about how his parents met and his siblings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88717">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. James Gavin describes the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood in Mobile, Alabama, pt.1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88718">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. James Gavin describes the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood in Mobile, Alabama, pt.2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88719">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. James Gavin describes his childhood personality</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88720">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. James Gavin describes his childhood personality and his father's high expectations</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88721">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. James Gavin describes his teachers at W. H. Council Traditional School in Mobile, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88722">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. James Gavin remembers his childhood misadventures</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88723">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. James Gavin describes his activities at Central High School in Mobile, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88724">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. James Gavin describes Mr. White and Mr. Thomas, two influential teachers at Central High School in Mobile, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88725">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. James Gavin describes his social life in high school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88726">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. James Gavin talks about his experience at Big Zion A.M.E. Church in Mobile, Alabama and his decision to become a minister</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88727">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. James Gavin describes his decision to attend Livingstone College in Salisbury, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88728">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. James Gavin describes his experience at Livingstone College in Salisbury, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88729">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. James Gavin shares about his graduate school experience at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88730">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. James Gavin describes co-founding a chapter of the Black Student Alliance (BSA) at Emory University in 1968</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88731">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. James Gavin remembers the impact of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88732">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. James Gavin talks about his fellowship at the National Institutes of Health (NIH)</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88733">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. James Gavin talks about H. Rap Brown</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88734">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. James Gavin describes his decision to attend Duke University School of Medicine in Durham, North Carolina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88735">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. James Gavin describes how he became a leading expert in the field of diabetes</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88736">Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. James Gavin talks about the early years of his medical career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88737">Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dr. James Gavin talks about his work with the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88738">Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Dr. James Gavin talks about his work at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88071">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. James Gavin describes his tenure at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute in Chevy Chase, Maryland</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88072">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. James Gavin talks about his philosophy of management</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88818">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Second slating of Dr. James Gavin's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88819">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. James Gavin recalls the scientific discoveries he oversaw as a senior administrator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute in Chevy Chase, Maryland</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88820">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. James Gavin describes the HHMI-NIH Research Scholars Program</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88821">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. James Gavin describes increasing opportunities for black medical students</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88822">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. James Gavin talks about the distortion of affirmative action the United States</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88823">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. James Gavin talks about the future of affirmative action</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88824">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. James Gavin talks about his appointment as the president of Morehouse School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88825">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. James Gavin explains why Morehouse School of Medicine does not benefit from contributions to Morehouse College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88826">Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. James Gavin talks about the challenges of being a president and his management style</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88827">Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Dr. James Gavin talks about the need for fiscal stability in predominantly black medical schools</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88828">Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Dr. James Gavin talks about socialized medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88084">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. James Gavin describes health concerns in the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88085">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dr. James Gavin describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88086">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dr. James Gavin talks about how he would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88087">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dr. James Gavin's personal photographs</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$3

DAStory

3$3

DATitle
Dr. James Gavin describes his great grandfather, Seborn Gavin
Dr. James Gavin shares about his graduate school experience at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia
Transcript
Okay. Let me ask you about your family history. How far can you trace your family back?$$Well actually I can trace my family back to the former slave who was considered to be the patriarch of the East Coast Gavin clan and that was a fellow by the name of Seborn. That's S-E-B-O-R-N, Seborn Gavin, who was actually a slave in a plantation in Macon County, in a little town called Noxubee, Mississippi. My cousin, who is a--$$Can you spell that town for us?$$N-O-X-U-B-I-E [sic, N-O-X-U-B-E-E], I believe is the way it's spelled. I have a cousin who is a retired psychiatrist who lives in Williamsburg, Virginia, his name is Dr. James Baker. And Jim decided when he retired that he was going to do a little work on genealogy and so he looked into the Gavin family tree and he has been diligent in his pursuits and we actually now have an annual reunion. Every other year, the reunion goes back to Mississippi but in the off years, it's held in different cities around the country. And so for that reason we can actually go back for some several generations to Seborn's time. Seborn was called the "Black Mayor of Noxubee" because when he was finally freed, he was one of the people who used to negotiate with the local white people to get things done for the local black community and he would do this in exchange for being able to convince the black people to do things that the white people wanted done. And so he would always win a trade-off and he was, in fact, credited with negotiating the first brick schoolhouse for black children in that part of the country. So there's a lot of lore associated with that part of the Gavin genealogy.$$Is Noxubee, Mississippi in Macon County?$$In Macon County.$$In Mississippi.$$Yeah.$$Now is that a--near the Gulf or is it--$$No, it's up in the Delta.$$Okay, all right. Now are there any stories from the 19th Century that are passed down through your family? Now, when did your--did Seborn Gavin live?$$Seborn lived in the late 1800s. He was in the 1860s and in that part of time.$$So during the reconstruction?$$Yes, he was a Reconstruction Era, freed slave.$$Okay, well that was a good story about the schoolhouse but are there any other stories about the slavery period itself or any stories that are passed down, you know throughout--$$There weren't many stories of that time that were passed down with the exception of sort of general descriptions of how--how cagey and how wily Seborn was in terms of his ability to negotiate and come away from the negotiating table with something that could benefit the black community. He was a strong believer in education so most of the things that he fought for had to do with winning educational opportunities for the local black populace although clearly they were still very much in farming types of activities.$$And he was a great grandfather on your--on which side?$$On my father's side.$$On your father's side.$Okay, all right. So, well, you went on to graduate school, right?$$Yes, I left Livingstone and came here to Atlanta [Georgia], to Emory [University]. A very different kind of experience. In 1966, the height of the civil rights struggle, Emory was not a place ready for black students, in general. It was trying to make a move in that direction but it was--it was an uneasy fit, at best. As one of the first black students admitted to the Division of Basic Health Sciences, especially for a Ph.D. program, I had some--some pretty testy experiences at Emory, including a professor who did not believe that I wrote a paper that I submitted for a course once because the quality of the writing was too good. He said this is high quality stuff. Who wrote this? And, of course, at that time I was not the man you see before you now. I was a dashiki wearing, Afro wearing, militant, well not militant, but activist. I founded the Black Student Alliance at Emory. I was a co-founder with another person and I was--I was a pretty outspoken guy. So that was not a good encounter for me. In fact, I didn't think I was going to make it through Emory. The good side of it was that there some supportive people there and with that kind of support, it was possible to get through and having the West Side of Atlanta, the AU [Atlanta University] Center, and the church, I was going to an A.M.E. Zion church here in Atlanta, all of those were places that served as a kind of a safe haven--safe haven, sort of a harbor of respite and that allowed me to get through. Then later, my girlfriend [Ann Gavin], who by then was out of college and came here to work, she moved to Atlanta and it worked out just fine. I'm happy to say that over the years Emory has changed a lot. I've really developed a far different relationship with Emory and I actually can look back on those bitter days with a little bit more sanguinity. Very interesting times though. Exciting.

Renee J. Amoore

Health care advocate Renee J. Amoore was born on January 24, 1953 in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania to Juanita Ramsey, a domestic worker and nurse, and John Ramsey, a school bus driver. Amoore has earned a reputation for her innovative approaches to treating mental illness and other disorders.

Amoore (then Ramsey) was trained at the Harlem School of Nursing and served as head emergency room nurse at New York's Harlem Hospital. While working as evening and night program coordinator at the Philadelphia Child Guidance Clinic, Amoore earned a bachelor's degree at Antioch College in 1979. Antioch University granted her a master's degree in administration in 1982. By that time, Amoore was already working as a supervisor of Wordsworth Academy's hospital program in Pennsylvania. In 1986, the Philadelphia Center for Developmental Services, Inc. hired her as a program director. Growth Horizons, Inc., an organization running group homes for people with mental illness and substance abuse problems, employed Amoore in 1988 where she worked until 1996, becoming its vice president and chief operating officer.

In 1995, Renee Amoore founded a health care management and consulting firm called the Amoore Group in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania. The company includes Amoore Health Systems, Inc., a local service provider and health care consultant; 521 Management Group, Inc., a public relations and governmental liaison business; and Ramsey Educational and Development Institute, Inc., which provides programs focusing on job creation and workplace diversity. Amoore's political connections serve her well. In 1992, she was elected to Pennsylvania's Republican State Committee and became the deputy chair in 1996.

Amoore has taught as an adjunct professor at Drexel University, Antioch University and Lincoln University. Her civic commitments include membership in the NAACP, the American Legion Auxiliary and the African American Museum of Philadelphia's Advisory Board. She serves as a deacon at Saints Memorial Baptist Church and a guest host on a WHAT-AM community talk show. Honors Amoore has received include the Artemis Award from the Euro-American Women's Council in Greece, the Evelyn McPhail Award for Republican Activist of the Year, the NAACP Award for Community Services in Education and the Madam C.J. Walker Award from the Coalition of 100 Black Women. She and her husband, Joseph Amoore, have one daughter, Cherie.

Renee J. Amoore was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 10, 2002.

Accession Number

A2002.179

Sex

Female

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

9/10/2002

Last Name

Amoore

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

J.

Organizations
Schools

Haverford High School

Coopertown El Sch

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Archival Photo 2
Speakers Bureau Availability

Depends on Schedule

First Name

Renee`

Birth City, State, Country

Bryn Mawr

HM ID

AMO01

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Whatever she qualifies for.

Favorite Season

Winter

Speaker Bureau Notes

Preferred Audience: Whatever she qualifies for.

Sponsor

Knight Foundation

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

Cut Through The Chase. What's The Bottom Line?

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Pennsylvania

Interview Description
Birth Date

1/24/1953

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Philadelphia

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Potato Chips

Short Description

Chief executive officer, healthcare executive, and nurse Renee J. Amoore (1953 - ) is a home health care entrepreneur and has served as the vice chair of the Republican Party of Pennsylvania.

Employment

Wordsworth Academy

Philadelphia Center for Developmental Services

Growth Horizons

Amoore Group

Republican Party of Pennsylvania

Drexel University

Antioch College

Lincoln University

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/69632">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Renee Amoore's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/69633">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Renee Amoore lists her favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/69634">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Renee Amoore talks about her family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/69635">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Renee Amoore talks about her mother, Juanita Ramsey</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/69636">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Renee Amoore describes her father, John Ramsey</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/69637">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Renee Amoore describes the sights, sounds, and smells of her childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/69638">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Renee Amoore describes her childhood home</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/69639">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Renee Amoore talks about an experience with racial discrimination in middle school that led to changes in the school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/69640">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Renee Amoore talks about her grades</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/69641">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Renee Amoore talks about her childhood activities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/69642">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Renee Amoore talks about the demographics of Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/69643">Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Renee Amoore describes her experience at Haverford High School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/69644">Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Renee Amoore talks about her mentors and activities at Saints Memorial Baptist Church in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/69645">Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Renee Amoore talks about high school gang activity</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/69646">Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Renee Amoore talks about her high school band and its covers of songs by Aretha Franklin and Dionne Warwick</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/61326">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Renee Amoore talks about applying to nursing school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/61327">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Renee Amoore describes her first day in Harlem, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/61328">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Renee Amoore describes learning about the black experience as a student in Harlem, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/61329">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Renee Amoore talks about becoming accepted by other students at Harlem Hospital</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/61330">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Renee Amoore describes her hands-on experience at Harlem Hospital</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/61331">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Renee Amoore describes learning about discipline as a student nurse at Harlem Hospital</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/61332">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Renee Amoore talks about an influential teacher at Harlem Hospital, Ms. Renee Johnson</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/61333">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Renee Amoore describes the positive aspects of Harlem</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/61334">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Renee Amoore talks about working as a nurse in the South Bronx</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/61335">Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Renee Amoore describes her career as a nurse</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/61336">Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Renee Amoore talks about the founding of Amoore Health Systems, Inc., 521 Management Group, and the Ramsey Educational Development Institute (REDI)</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/70026">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Renee Amoore describes the different arms of the Amoore Group, Inc.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/70027">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Renee Amoore talks about the Amoore Group's work in South Africa</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/70028">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Renee Amoore describes her decision to run for the school board director in Upper Merion Township in Pennsylvania</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/70029">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Renee Amoore talks about running for the school board in Upper Merion Township in Pennsylvania</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/70030">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Renee Amoore talks about her transition from local to state to national political levels</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/70031">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Renee Amoore talks about her role in the 2000 Republican National Convention</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/70032">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Renee Amoore describes important Republican issues</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/70033">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Renee Amoore talks about other black Republicans including HistoryMaker General Colin L. Powell, Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas, and Condoleeza Rice</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/70034">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Renee Amoore talks about Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/69806">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Renee Amoore discusses reparations</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/69807">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Renee Amoore talks about President Bill Clinton</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/69808">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Renee Amoore talks about Mayor John Street's administration in Philadelphia Pennsylvania</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/69809">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Renee Amoore describes working on Tom Ridge's gubernatorial campaign</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/69810">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Renee Amoore talks about Tom Ridge and the Department of Homeland Security</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/69811">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Renee Amoore describes her hopes and concerns for the African American Community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/69812">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Renee Amoore contemplates running for public office</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/69813">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Renee Amoore reflects on her mother's pride in her</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/69814">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Renee Amoore reflects upon her legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/69815">Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Renee Amoore talks about how she would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/69816">Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Renee Amoore narrates her photographs, pt.1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/69667">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Renee Amoore narrates her photographs, pt.2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/69668">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Renee Amoore narrates her photographs, pt.3</a>

DASession

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DATape

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DAStory

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DATitle
Renee Amoore talks about the founding of Amoore Health Systems, Inc., 521 Management Group, and the Ramsey Educational Development Institute (REDI)
Renee Amoore talks about her transition from local to state to national political levels
Transcript
So, you start out--you started a company [Amoore Health Systems, Inc.] just to, with yourself as your only employee?$$Um-hum, absolutely. I just was gonna do managed health care, go and consult, teach people how to set up managed health care 'cause that was like the big buzz word, you know, six or seven years ago, how to do it, we can help you with your billing or I can come in and train your group on diversity, you know, or I could, you know, train your group on universal precautions, you know, all these little things that different group homes in particular wanted or different agencies. So, that's where we were and then we were called, like I said, by the state [Pennsylvania] about the ex-offenders program because they knew of my background. We were called from labor and industry about working with people with disabilities and then just things started moving, so we went with one staff and now we're up to 100 staff and we have about eight or nine different offices and we're also in South Africa. We'll be duping this in South Africa.$$I'm sorry now when did you come back to Pennsylvania--(unclear)--$$In--when I was in Cha,--(unclear)-- Guidance. That was probably '74 [1974], '75 [1975], probably like in the mid, late '70s [1970s].$$Okay, okay, but you didn't start the business until about--(simultaneous)--$$Nineteen-ninety--you know we start, yeah, the six or seven years. We started about--Amoore Health Systems was a shell for about a year. Late Decem--November 1996 we actually had our first, you know, client. You know, it was just still me, myself, and I, and so in '96 [1996] we had Amoore Health Systems. In '97 [1997], we started 521 Management Group, which is our PR government relations firm which in Pennsylvania we're the only certified African American lobbyist in the state, which we're really proud about. That means we're registered, you know, we have other lobbyists those type of things. We have offices in Washington, D.C. and in Harrisburg [Pennsylvania]. We lobby internationally and nationally and also local and state. And then in 1998, we started REDI, Ramsey Educational Developmental Institute, which is our not-for-profit for children services and adult services where we train welfare-to-work recipients, dislocated workers, but we also have a children's program where we go in the home and actually do home-based programming and it's something I came up with because a lot of folks that have children that are sick can't get out the house also. So, we actually bring in PTs [physical therapists] and OTs [occupational therapists], speech therapists and we actually do the work in the home for them, which was a pilot program that the county asked us to come up with something for kids with early intervention from birth to three. And so we came up with this innovative really good program and they said you can only have about 50 kids and we have about 175 children in that program now from birth to three and a waiting list. It's an amazing program. A lot of kids that have autism, behavioral health problems and you kind of sit there and say how can kids from birth to three have all these issues, but they do.$While I was on the school board, the Republican Party came to me and said we have no blacks in this area state committee, will you run for state committee? I ran for state committee and won. State committee as you know probably is that you're, you're on the state level now, so I'm going all of a sudden from local to state politics, which was a whole different thing and real challenging because when you're always the first black you have this stuff on your shoulder that you gotta carry everything and everybody's issues. And you have to be so careful with that. You know you have to learn how to balance and juggle those things. I mean, when I was on the school board we actually had to get two lines because we would get so many complaints especially from people of color, you know, about how their kids were being treated and blah, blah, blah, and it kind of went all over the southeastern region that I was the first black on the school board, so other school boards were calling too. So, I was going out and speaking to other school boards, and then I was also chairing the Vutek (ph.) board and also the IU, which is working with kids with disabilities in the school district. So, it was really a lot, an awesome position and a lot of work, you know, and I think I was out probably six days a week between meetings and things like that, and our meetings would go to 1 and 2 in the morning you know, fighting about different issues. But, I learned a lot and it really helped me to be strong so that when I was on the state level I became a committee person. You were called a committee person and you represent your area. Again, I represented this area Montgomery County. When I went there, I was very upset 'cause when I looked up on the dais there was no African Americans or no one of color. I said this is ridiculous. This is why they call the Republican Party mean-spirited. This is why they call the Republican Party white men, bald-headed white men, you know, rich people, that kind of stuff. We have to have some more diversity. For a year and a half I just fought about that, talked about that, and then they were like well if you're that interested, you know, oh what do you want to run for? I said I'll be the deputy chair of the party, second-in-ommand. I didn't want to go for the chair that looked a little, you know, and I still had to learn a lot. I was appointed to deputy chair within two years of being in the Republican Party. So, people know me now on the state level. So, at this point I'm on the state level, which spun into the national level because again you don't have blacks in leadership in our party. So, as your building that you can see how your business can build too 'cause your developing relationships, you're meeting people, you're meeting business people. That's why it's important to use those relationships in a positive way and, and that's why I think we've built, we've grown. And I know I've taken you a long way to explain, but I think it's important for people to know we have to use those things in a positive way and you also cross the line, we cross the line. It doesn't matter if you're R or D [Republican or Democrat]; it's about business. You know, it's about a seat at the table, so we make a lot of policy decisions in this state and that's how people know me. We make a lot of decisions now nationally because since the Republican [National] Convention. You know, again I never thought that I would have an audience with the Bushes or Barbara Bush would introduce me, you know, at an event, those type of things, or make comments or meet Laura Bush or do those things and be able to go to a State Dinner. I'm like oh my God, and you know I can't believe this is me. Today, I spoke with a group of 150 women in Chester County. There was a line for a half an hour for autographs or whatever. I'm saying it's just Renee Amoore, what's the big deal. But when you think about it, it's somebody that has crossed some racial barriers, somebody that has crossed party barriers, and then I started seeing what people are hearing and seeing from me. So, whatever I can do to put that information and insight out and mentor to people. That's what I'm going to continue to do.