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Dr. Georges C. Benjamin

Healthcare executive Georges C. Benjamin was born on September 28, 1952 in Chicago, Illinois to Tessie and George Benjamin. After graduating from Lindblom Technical High School in 1970, Benjamin received his B.S. degree in biology from Illinois Institute of Technology in 1973. He went on to receive his M.D. degree from the University of Illinois College of Medicine in 1978, and complete his internal medicine residency at Brooke Army Medical Center in 1981.

In 1981, Benjamin joined Madigan Army Medical Center as chief of the Acute Illness Clinic in the department of emergency medicine; and, in 1983, he was reassigned to Walter Reed Army Medical Center as chief of emergency medicine. From 1987 to 1990, Benjamin served as chair of the department of community health and ambulatory care at the District of Columbia General Hospital. From 1990 to 1991, he served as acting commissioner of the District of Columbia Department of Health; and, in this role, he also served as interim director of the District of Columbia Fire Department’s Emergency Ambulance Bureau. From 1991 to 1994 he practiced emergency medicine and worked as a health policy consultant. He returned to the Emergency Ambulance Bureau from 1994 to 1995, serving again as interim director. In 1995, he was appointed deputy secretary of the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene; and, four years later, he was promoted to secretary of the department. In 2002, Benjamin stepped down as secretary to join the American Public Health Association (APHA) as executive director. In this position, he also served as publisher of the nonprofit's monthly publication, The Nation's Health, the association's official newspaper, and the American Journal of Public Health. Benjamin authored more than 100 scientific articles and book chapters, as well as the book The Quest for Health Reform: A Satirical History, a history of health care reform shown through political cartoons.

In 2001, Benjamin served as president of the Association of State and Territorial Health. In 2016, former President Obama appointed Benjamin to the National Infrastructure Advisory Council. He was a Master of the American College of Physicians, a fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration, a fellow emeritus of the American College of Emergency Physicians, an honorary fellow of the Royal Society of Public Health, and a member of the National Academy of Medicine.

In 1998, Benjamin received the Noble J. Swearingen Award for Excellence in Public Health Administrative Management from the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials. He was named one of the Top 25 Minority Executives in Health Care by Modern Healthcare Magazine in 2008, 2014, and 2016. In 2017, Benjamin received the Hidden Figures of Public Health Award from Black Caucus of Health Workers of the APHA and the Meritorious Achievement Award from the National Medical Association. He also received an honorary Doctor of Science from Meharry Medical School.

Benjamin and his wife, Yvette Benjamin, have two daughters: Stephanie and Kali.

Dr. Georges C. Benjamin was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 24, 2019.

Accession Number

A2019.104

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/24/2019

Last Name

Benjamin

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Curtis

Organizations
Schools

Illinois Institute of Technology

University of Illinois College of Medicine

Perkins Bass Elementary School

Juliette G. Lowe Upper Grade Center

Lindblom Math & Science Academy High School

Brooke Army Medical Center

First Name

Georges

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

GEO05

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Aruba

Favorite Quote

Never Start A War Until You Count Your Guns

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

9/28/1952

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Bacon and Eggs

Short Description

Healthcare executive Georges Benjamin (1952- ) served as executive director of the American Public Health Association. He previously served as secretary of the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.

Employment

American Public Health Association

Madigan Army Medical Center

Walter Reed Army Medical Center

District of Columbia General Hospital

District of Columbia Department of Health

District of Columbia Fire Department, Emergency Ambulance Bureau

Holy Cross Hospital

Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene

Health Policy Consultant

Self Employed

United States Army Medical Corps

United States Army Medical Service Corps

City University of New York, School of Public Health at Hunter College

The George Washington School of Public Health and Health Services

Georgetown University

Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

University of Maryland College of Medicine

Howard University

National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians

American Heart Association

American College of Surgeons

Favorite Color

Blue

Margaret Jordan

Healthcare executive Margaret H. Jordan was born on January 1, 1943 in Washington, D.C. to Ellen Hayes and Jerome Frederick Hayes. She attended Stevens Elementary School and Immaculate Conception Academy. In 1964, Jordan became Georgetown University’s first African American nursing school graduate upon receiving her B.S. degree in nursing. She went on to receive her M.P.H degree in public health from the University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health in 1972.

In 1964, Jordan served as a nurse at the Community Hospital of San Bernardino. In 1971, she joined the U.S. Public Health Service, in San Francisco serving as branch chief and later as deputy director of the division of resources development. From 1979 to 1981, Jordan served as an associate director at San Francisco General Hospital, before joining Kaiser Foundation Plan, Oakland, CA as licensing and accreditation coordinator. In 1986, she was promoted to vice president and regional manager of Kaiser Foundation Health Plan of Texas. She was recruited by Southern California Edison in 1992, to serve as vice president of health care and occupational services. In 1995, Jordan joined Dallas Medical Resource as president and chief executive officer serving intermittently until 2020. She served as president and chief executive officer of Margaret Jordan Group LLC from 1997 to 2003, and executive vice president of corporate affairs of Texas Health Resources from 2000 to 2006.

Jordan is a founding director of the National Black Nurses Association in 1971. She serves on the boards of the AT&T Performing Arts Center, and James Madison’s Montpelier Foundation. Jordan is a former director of the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, the American Public Health Association, the American Hospital Association, the Public Health Institute, the Dallas Museum of Art and several public companies.

In 1991, Jordan was named one of Black Enterprise’s 21 Women of Power and Influence in Corporate America. She received the Community Service Award from the Dallas Historical Society in 2012, and the Distinguished Health Service Award from Dallas-Fort Worth Hospital Council in 2016. Jordan also received the Dallas County Medical Society’s Robert Heath Award, the Alumni of the Year Award from the University of California, School of Public Berkeley and the Distinguished Alumnus Georgetown University, School of Nursing. In 2019, she was named one of University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health’s seventy-five most influential public health alumni in its seventy-five-year history.

Margaret Jordan was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 20, 2019.

Accession Number

A2019.083

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/20/2019

Last Name

Jordan

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Schools

Stevens Elementary School

Immaculate Conception Academy

Georgetown University

University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health

First Name

Margaret

Birth City, State, Country

Washington

HM ID

JOR08

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

District of Columbia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Oak Bluffs, Massachusetts

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

1/1/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Martha's Vineyard

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Okra

Short Description

Healthcare executive Margaret Jordan (1943- ) served as vice president and regional manager of the Dallas-Fort Worth region of the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan of Texas before joining Dallas Medical Resource as president and chief executive officer.

Employment

Community Hospital of San Bernardino

U.S. Public Health Service

Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital and Trauma Center

Kaiser Foundation Plan, Inc.

Kaiser Foundation Health Plan of Texas

Southern California Edison

Dallas Medical Resource

Margaret Jordan Group LLC

Texas Health Resources

Favorite Color

Red

Dr. Stephen Keith

Healthcare executive Dr. Stephen Keith was born on July 20, 1952 in Battle Creek, Michigan to Laurel Eugene and Elizabeth Brown Keith. After graduating from the University of Chicago Laboratory High School in 1969, he received his B.A. degree in Black Studies from Amherst College in 1973. Keith went on to earn his M.D. degree from the University of Illinois College of Medicine in 1977. He completed his residency in pediatrics with the University of California Los Angeles in 1980, where he also received his M.S. degree in public health in 1982.

From 1982 to 1987, Keith served as an assistant professor in the Departments of Pediatrics at UCLA and the Charles Drew University of Medicine and Science, where he also served as Associate Dean for Student Affairs. He served as a senior health policy advisor for the U.S. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources under the late Senator Edward Kennedy of Massachusetts from 1987 to 1990. In 1990, Keith was hired by Merck & Co., Inc. where he served in various senior management roles, including in the corporate public affairs and health strategies divisions. Keith was appointed vice president of marketing and sales at the vaccine developer and manufacturer North American Vaccine, Inc. in 1995 until 2000. From 2000 to 2001, he worked as president and chief operating officer of the life science startup, Antex Biologics, Inc. Keith was then hired as general partner with Emerging Technology Partners, LLC in 2002, a position he held until 2003. Keith then joined Glocap Advisors as a managing director and retained this role until 2005. Biologics Consulting Group hired him as a senior consultant in 2005, and he served until 2006. Panacea Pharmaceuticals then hired Keith as president and chief operating officer in 2006. He remained at Panacea until 2009, when he was hired as chief executive officer of the American College of Clinical Pharmacology. Three years later, Keith joined WellStreet Urgent Care in Atlanta, Georgia as a site director and staff physician. While practicing here, he was also hired as the chief executive officer of Optima Health, Inc. Keith remained there, and with WellStreet, until being selected as the chief executive officer of the life sciences company, Vivacelle Bio, in 2015. That same year, he was hired by Evanston Technology Partners to serve as chief business development and medical officer. Keith left Vivacelle Bio in 2017, and became a medical director of medical management and scientific services in the clinical services department of Syneos Health in 2018.

Keith has served on the board of directors for Intradigm Therapeutics, Cytomedix, Inc. (now Nuo Therapeutics), Vivacelle Bio, Evanston Technology Partners, National Medical Fellowships, Inc., and Community Health Charities. He served as a fellow of the Academy of Pediatrics and a diplomate of the American Board of Pediatrics.

Keith and his wife, Dr. Helene Gayle, reside in Chicago, Illinois. He has three children from previous marriages.

Dr. Stephen Keith was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 16, 2019.

Accession Number

A2019.073

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/16/2019

Last Name

Keith

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

N.

Schools

University of Chicago Laboratory Schools

Amherst College

University of Illinois College of Medicine

University of California, Los Angeles

First Name

Stephen

Birth City, State, Country

Battle Creek

HM ID

KEI04

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Michigan

Favorite Vacation Destination

Paris

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

7/20/1952

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Maryland Blue Crab

Short Description

Healthcare executive Dr. Stephen Keith (1952- ) served in senior management and chief executive roles for pharmaceutical, technology, and life science companies since 1987.

Employment

Syneos Health

Evanston Technology Partners

Vivacelle Bio, Inc.

Optima Health, Inc.

Panacea Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Biologics Consulting Group

Glocap Advisors LLC

Emerging Technology Partners, LLC

Antex Biologics, Inc.

North American Vaccine, Inc.

Merck & Co., Inc.

US Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources

Charles R. Drew University

University of California, Los Angeles

Children's Memorial Hospital

Rush Presbyterian - St. Luke's Medical Center

Martin Luther King, Jr. Neighborhood Health Center

American College of Clinical Pharmacology

WellStreet Urgent Care

Favorite Color

Brown

Donna Thompson

Healthcare executive Donna Thompson was born on January 2, 1957 in Decatur, Illinois. She graduated from Stephen Decatur High School in 1975, and received her diploma in nursing from Decatur Memorial School of Nursing in 1977. She worked as a pediatric nurse at Decatur Memorial Hospital until 1980, when she became a neonatal transport nurse in the neonatal intensive care unit at St. John’s Regional Medical Center. Thompson went on to earn her B.S. degree in nursing in 1986 and her M.S. degree in nursing in 1988, both from DePaul University in Chicago. Thompson also completed the Kellogg School of Management's CEO Perspectives program in 2010.

Thompson served as the manager of the pediatric intensive care unit at Chicago’s Michael Reese Hospital from 1983 to 1991. She was then hired as the director of nursing as Advocate Christ Hospital in Oak Lawn, Illinois. In 1995, Thompson became the chief operating officer of Access Community Health Network (ACCESS) in Chicago, and was promoted to chief executive officer in 2004. Thompson organized the Stand Against Cancer program in 2002, and the Pin-A-Sister/Examínate Comadre program in 2007. Under her leadership, ACCESS became one of the largest federally qualified health centers in the country, as well as the largest provider of Medicaid and Medicare managed primary healthcare in Illinois. Thompson was also a co-founder of the Metropolitan Chicago Breast Cancer Task Force.

Thomas received numerous awards for her work in the healthcare field, including the Nursing Star Award from the Illinois Association of Visiting Nurses in 2003, the Chicago Athena Award from Athena International in 2007, the Outstanding Leadership in Continuous Quality Improvement Award from United Way of Metro Chicago in 2009, and the National Medical Fellowship Leadership in Healthcare Award in 2015. She was also named as “One of Chicago's Most Influential Women” by N’Digo Magazine in 2009. From 2003 to 2006, Thompson served as a Robert Wood Johnson executive nurse fellow. Thompson also served as a board member for Access DuPage, and chaired the board of directors for The Chicago Network. She was also a co-founder of the Metropolitan Chicago Breast Cancer Task Force.

Thompson and her husband, Robert, have two children.

Donna Thompson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 4, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.091

Sex

Female

Interview Date

5/4/2018

Last Name

Thompson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

Oakland Elementary School

Stephen Decatur High School

Woodrow Wilson Junior High School

Decatur Memorial Hospital School of Nursing

DePaul University

First Name

Donna

Birth City, State, Country

Decatur

HM ID

THO28

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Brazil

Favorite Quote

Stay In The Game.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

1/2/1957

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Sushi

Short Description

Healthcare executive Donna Thompson (1957 - ) served as the chief executive officer of Access Community Health Network, the largest primary care provider for minority patients in Illinois.

Employment

Decatur Memorial Hospital

St. John's Hospital

Michael Reese Hospital

Christ Hospital

Access Community Health Network

Favorite Color

Pink

Chet Hewitt

Nonprofit executive Chet Hewitt was born on November 30, 1958 in New York City to Millicent Braithwaite Hewitt and George Johnson. After passing his high school equivalency exam, Hewitt began working as a YMCA counselor in Staten Island, New York, later becoming a program director at the YMCA. Upon moving to San Francisco, California in the early 1980s, Hewitt worked as an after-school program director, and joined the therapeutic foster parents initiative program. He then enrolled at the New College of California School of Law, where he completed an internship with the San Francisco Public Defenders Office in 1991, before receiving his J.D. degree in 1992.

From 1993 to 1994, Hewitt served as the founding director of the Detention Diversion Advocacy Project for the Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice in San Francisco. In 1995, he completed a fellowship with the Annie E. Casey Foundation; and one year later, he became an associate director of working communities at the Rockefeller Foundation. In 2000, Hewitt was hired as an assistant agency director with the Alameda County Social Services Agency’s child and family services division, and was promoted to director the following year. Then, in 2007, Hewitt became the president and chief executive officer of the Sierra Health Foundation in Sacramento, where he was also involved with the blue ribbon commission and the steering committee. During this time, he founded the black child legacy campaign. In 2012, Hewitt became president and chief executive officer of the center at the Sierra Health Foundation. Hewitt helped The Center to launch the San Joaquin Valley Health Fund, the Fresno Legal Defense Fund, and the California Funders for Boys and Men of Color project.

Hewitt has received numerous awards for his nonprofit work, including the Black Child Administrator of the Year Award in 2009 and the Robert T. Matsui Community Service Award from the Martin Luther King Jr. Celebration Committee in 2016. Hewitt was also a recipient of the Grantland Johnson Intergovernmental Cooperation Award, and the Urban League President’s Award. Hewitt served on the board of the Public Policy Institute of California, Advance Peace, Grantmakers in Health, Valley Vision, and the Sacramento Foundation.

Hewitt has two sons, Chet II and Stephen.

Chet Hewitt was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 5, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.067

Sex

Male

Interview Date

04/05/2018

Last Name

Hewitt

Maker Category
Middle Name

P.

Organizations
First Name

Chet

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

HEW03

Favorite Season

Spring

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Carribean

Favorite Quote

No One Is Anything Great By Themselves.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

11/30/1958

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Sacramento

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Gumbo

Short Description

Nonprofit executive Chet Hewitt (1958 - ) was the first African American director of the Alameda County social services agency’s child and family services division. He later served as the president and chief executive officer of the Sierra Health Foundation.

Favorite Color

Red

Dr. Reed V. Tuckson

Healthcare executive Reed V. Tuckson was born on February 18, 1951 in Washington, D.C. to Coleman and Evelyn Tuckson. He received his B.S. degree from Howard University in 1973, and his M.D. degree from Georgetown University School of Medicine in 1978. From 1978 to 1981, he trained at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania as a specialist in internal medicine, served as an admitting doctor at Philadelphia’s Veterans Affairs hospital, launched a radio program aimed at African American listeners, and organized a support group for sickle-cell anemia patients. His interest in public health led him to a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholars fellowship, where he studied health care administration and policy at the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School of Business, from 1981 to 1983.

Tuckson worked for Elmira Jeffries Nursing Home in Philadelphia as a founding medical director from 1981 to 1985. Returning to Washington, Tuckson worked for the D.C. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Administration from 1983 to 1985. He then held the position of District of Columbia deputy commissioner of public health from 1985 to 1986; and a year later, was promoted to commissioner of public health for D.C., a position he held from 1986 to 1989. He joined the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation as senior vice president for programs before being appointed as the new president of the Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science in Los Angeles, serving from 1991 to 1997. Tuckson left Drew University to work for the Chicago-based American Medical Association as the group vice president for professional standards from 1997 to 2000. He accepted an offer from the United Health Group in Minneapolis, Minnesota to serve as senior vice president of consumer health and medical-care advancement from 2000 to 2006 when he was then promoted to executive vice president and chief of medical affairs at United Health where he served until 2013. He then established Tuckson Health Connections, a private health and medical care consulting company.

Tuckson has held numerous appointments in the areas of health care, the federal government and academia including active memberships in the American Medical Association and the Institute of Medicine-National Academy of Sciences. He was appointed to the Advisory Committee to the Director of the National Institutes of Health, and has served on numerous boards, including those of Neptune Technologies & Bioressources, Inc.; the National Hispanic Medical Association; the Alliance for Health Reform; the National Patient Advocate Foundation; ViTel Net, Inc.; Cell Therapeutics, Inc.; Inform Genomics, Inc.; AcademyHealth; Big Brothers Big Sisters of the Greater Twin Cities; and Minnesota Public Radio. He also served on the board of trustees of the Arnold P. Gold Foundation, on the advisory board of the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics, and as president of the Society of Medical Administrators.

Tuckson and his wife Margie Malone Tuckson have four adult children including Kobi, Nia, Dominic and Lance.

Reed V. Tuckson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 5, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.030

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/5/2018

Last Name

Tuckson

Maker Category
Middle Name

V.

Schools

Georgetown University School of Medicine

Howard University

First Name

Reed

Birth City, State, Country

Washington

HM ID

TUC32

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

District of Columbia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Inside of My Mind

Favorite Quote

I'm in Love With the Unity of the Divine Intelligence.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

2/18/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Eggs, Bacon, Toast and Coffee

Short Description

Healthcare executive Dr. Reed Tuckson (1951- ) founded Tuckson Health Connections in 2013 and previously served as president of the Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, group vice president for professional standards of the American Medical Association, and executive vice president and medical affairs chief of UnitedHealth Group.

Employment

Tuckson Health Connections, LLC

UnitedHealth Group

American Medical Association

Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science

District of Columbia

Mental Retardation and Developmental Disability Administration

Favorite Color

Blue

Robert Currie

Healthcare executive Robert Currie was born on June 12, 1951 in Orange, New Jersey to James Currie and Hazel Shelton. Currie graduated from Orange High School in 1970, and earned his B.A. degree in sociology and urban studies from Lawrence University in Appleton, Wisconsin in 1974. Currie went on to receive his M.A. degree in urban planning and policy from the University of Illinois at Chicago in 1978.

After working as director of health systems planning at Chicago Health Systems Agency for several years, Currie became the vice president of strategic planning for Chicago Hospital Council/Compass Health Care Plans. In 1984, Currie joined the Michael Reese - Humana Health Plan, where he was the director of strategic planning from 1984 to 1987, vice president of strategic planning and market research from 1987 to 1993, and associate executive director of administration from 1993 to 1995. Currie went on to become the president and CEO of Unity HMO in Chicago, vice president and COO of Plan Americaid Texas, and COO of Harmony Health of Indiana. From 2001 to 2005, Currie served as the president of Harmony Health Management, Inc. and vice president of external affairs for Harmony/WellCare Health Plans until 2009 when he founded the Managed Care Consulting Group. In 2011, he was named COO of Aetna Better Health Illinois; and in 2014, Currie became the president and CEO of Community Care Alliance of Illinois.

In 2009, Currie was named as one of the Chicago Defender’s “50 Men of Excellence.” Currie received an Excellence in Health Care Award from the Illinois Black Caucus and the National Association of Health Services Executives (NAHSE) President’s Award, both in 2010. Currie also received a Chapter Leadership Award from the NAHSE Chicago Chapter in 2011. Currie served on the board of numerous organizations including the Black United Fund of Illinois, the Institute for Diversity in Healthcare Management, and Youth, Vision, & Integrity, Inc. He also served as the president of NAHSE’s Chicago chapter from 1989 to 1991, and the national president of NAHSE from 1999 to 2001.

Robert Currie was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 23, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.023

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/23/2018

Last Name

Currie

Maker Category
Schools

University of Illinois at Chicago

Lawrence University

Orange High School

Lincoln Avenue School

Oakwood Avenue Community School

First Name

Robert

Birth City, State, Country

Orange

HM ID

ROB35

Favorite Season

Winter

State

New Jersey

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

Don’t Give A Handout, But Give A Hand Up.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

6/12/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Liver

Short Description

Healthcare executive Robert Currie (1951 - ) served as the COO of Aetna Better Health Illinois before becoming the president and CEO of Community Core Alliance of Illinois in 2014.

Employment

Community Care Alliance of Illinois

Aetna Better Health

Managed Care Consulting Group

Americaid Texas

Unity HMO

Favorite Color

Black

Dr. Arese Carrington

Public health consultant Dr. Arese Ukpoma Carrington was born on July 16, 1958 in Lagos, Nigeria to Dora and Elisha Ukponmwan. Her great-great-grandfather, Oba Ovonramwen Nogbaisi, was the ruler of Benin from 1888 to 1897. Carrington and her mother were separated from her father during the Biafran Civil War, but the family later reunited. Carrington earned her M.D. degree from the University of Ibadan, Nigeria in 1980.

Carrington briefly served as a medical officer for the Nigerian Airports Authority before establishing a private practice. In 1986, she founded Goldline Limited, a commercial company providing consulting and promotional services to multinational companies and foreign non-profits. She also founded Health and Medical Services that same year to consult on issues of preventive healthcare in the workplace. Carrington enrolled in a master’s program at the Harvard School of Public Health, where she studied in the Department of Population and International Health. Graduating in 2000, she was chosen as the graduate orator at the commencement ceremony. Carrington then became the associate director of government relations and community programs for Harvard’s AIDS Prevention Initiative Nigeria (APIN), helping to secure a health grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the largest at that time. She also authored Malaria in Nigeria, published in the Fall 2001 issue of the Harvard Health Policy Review. In 2004, Carrington worked for the Pan African Health Foundation, which partnered with the Nigerian government to establish an auto-disable syringe factory in Port Harcourt. In 2006, she and her husband, U.S. Ambassador to Nigeria Walter C. Carrington, founded Africana Consultants USA to advise on issues of public health and investment promotion.

Carrington served as vice president of the board of directors of the United Nations Association of Greater Boston. As a visiting committee member for the Arts of Asia, Oceania and Africa at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, she facilitated the development of the Benin Kingdom Gallery. She also served on the trustees’ advisory board of the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston. In 2014, Carrington was the recipient of the Newton Human Rights Lifetime Achievement award, Massachusetts State Senate Official Citation, and the Massachusetts House of Representatives Official Citation in recognition of being a life-long advocate of Human Rights.

Carrington and her husband, U.S. Ambassador to Nigeria Walter C. Carrington, have two children: Temisan Oyowe-Carrington and Thomas Carrington.

Dr. Arese Carrington was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 20, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.075

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/20/2016

Last Name

Carrington

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

University of Ibadan

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

Queen's College, Lagos

International School, Ibadan

University College Hospital, Ibadan

Corona School Ikoyi

First Name

Arese

Birth City, State, Country

Lagos

HM ID

CAR35

Favorite Season

Fall

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Warm

Favorite Quote

Defend The Defenseless.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Interview Description
Birth Date

7/16/1958

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

Nigeria

Favorite Food

Plantain

Short Description

Public health consultant Dr. Arese Carrington (1958- ) served as associate director for Harvard University’s AIDS Prevention Initiative Nigeria (APIN).

Employment

Nigerian Airports Authority

Fan Milk Ltd

Health and Medical Services

Harvard School of Public Health

Favorite Color

Red

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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669700">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Arese Carrington's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669701">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Arese Carrington lists her favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669702">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes her mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669703">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about her mother's upbringing and education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669704">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the history of British colonial rule in Benin</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669705">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes her father's upbringing and education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669706">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about her parents' courtship</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669707">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes her parents' personalities and values</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669708">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes her parents' careers</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669709">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about her siblings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669710">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes the qualities of a successful marriage</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669711">Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the history and culture of Benin</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669712">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about Nigerian independence</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669713">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes the ethnic differences in Nigeria</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669714">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the leaders of Nigerian independence</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669715">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Arese Carrington remembers her early interest in social justice</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669716">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Arese Carrington recalls her family's preparation for the Nigeria-Biafra War</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669717">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Arese Carrington remembers the start of the Nigeria-Biafra War</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669718">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about her husband's role in the Nigeria-Biafra War</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669719">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes her early interest in medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669720">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about gender inequality in Nigeria</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669721">Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Arese Carrington remembers the Corona School Ikoyi in Lagos, Nigeria</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669722">Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes the secondary school system in Nigeria</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669723">Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dr. Arese Carrington remembers Queen's College, Lagos in Lagos, Nigeria</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669724">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes her education in Nigeria</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669725">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Arese Carrington remembers her early exposure to popular culture</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669726">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the misconceptions of the African continent</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669727">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the differences between urban and rural communities in Nigeria</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669728">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Arese Carrington remember developing an interest in public health</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669729">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes her early medical career in Nigeria</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669730">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about healthcare in Nigeria, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669731">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about healthcare in Nigeria, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669732">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the impact of political instability in Nigeria</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669733">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the wealth inequality in Nigeria</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669734">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the activism of Ken Saro-Wiwa</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669735">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Arese Carrington remembers the execution of Ken Saro-Wiwa</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669736">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the history of political leadership in Nigeria</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669737">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Arese Carrington recalls the assassination of Kudirat Abiola</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669738">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the history of activism in Nigeria</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669739">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes how she met her husband, Walter C. Carrington</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669740">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the U.S. immigration process</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669741">Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. Arese Carrington remembers meeting President Jimmy Carter in Nigeria</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669742">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about her wedding</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669743">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Arese Carrington recalls the start of her husband's farewell party in Lagos, Nigeria</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669744">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Arese Carrington remembers the dissolution of her husband's farewell party, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669745">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Arese Carrington remembers the dissolution of her husband's farewell party, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669746">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the death of Moshood Abiola</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669747">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Arese Carrington remembers the start of the AIDS Prevention Initiative Nigeria</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669748">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the HIV/AIDS crisis in Africa</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669749">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about her work with the Nigerian government</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669750">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the impact of the AIDS Prevention Initiative Nigeria</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669751">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes the work of the Pan African Health Foundation</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669752">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the empowerment of women in Nigeria</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669753">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about modernization in Africa</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669754">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes the United Nations Association of Greater Boston</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669755">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the Safe Schools initiative in Nigeria</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669756">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the treatment of girls in Nigeria</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669757">Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes her hopes and concerns for the country of Nigeria</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669758">Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes her involvement at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669759">Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the Benin Kingdom Gallery at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669760">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about her daughter</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669761">Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Dr. Arese Carrington reflects upon her life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669762">Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Dr. Arese Carrington reflects upon her legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669763">Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the Carrington Youth Fellowship Initiative</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669764">Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Dr. Arese Carrington talks about building relationships</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669765">Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Dr. Arese Carrington describes how she would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669766">Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Dr. Arese Carrington narrates her photographs, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/669767">Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Dr. Arese Carrington narrates her photographs, pt. 2</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$6

DAStory

4$3

DATitle
Dr. Arese Carrington remembers her early interest in social justice
Dr. Arese Carrington talks about the empowerment of women in Nigeria
Transcript
Now, tell me about growing up. Now, did you--I mean you grew up, you grew up in Lagos [Nigeria], right?$$I grew up in Lagos--Ikoyi, Lagos. I went--my elementary school was Corona School Ikoyi [Lagos, Nigeria]; it was a school that had a lot of the expatriate children in it, so I used to spend a lot of time playing with a lot of my friends after school; and one of the things of--'cause it was--when I was about nine [years old], during the time--the civil war started while I was in elementary school, and when I was at Corona School, there was a school next door--Corona School was a private school, and a lot of kids who were there, their parents were either a civil servants, or they were expatriate kids. We had a lot of good teachers, we got the best books--everything was there at our disposal. And right next door to us was this public school, and this public school it was only separated from us by this fence which you could see through, and you could see the stark difference with the kids there: they didn't have the amenities, they--their uniforms, they didn't have to wear socks and shoes, some would come to school without shoes. And so from the early age--from an early age, I used to wonder, but we're all kids, why were they having it so different? Their teachers would carry canes and they would spank them, and that was not allowed in my school. And we used to go--some of us would go across the fence and talk to them and see what was happening. And you could see that--as kid- we were all the same; we had the same, you know, yearnings; we thought like kids. And I began to think of issues of social justice--things of--issues dealing with education, dealing with equity. So, from an early age, these questions were in my mind; and I would ask, why do some of us have it this way, and why do others don't? 'Cause I didn't believe that people who were less fortunate and weren't given opportunities, I didn't think that they would be able to get--reach their maximum potential.$$Not--without the same kind of start, yeah.$$Yes, without--yes, without that same kind of start.$Now, in 2006 you became the vice president of Africana Consultants [Newton Centre, Massachusetts]. Now this is--is this you and your husband [HistoryMaker Walter C. Carrington], right (unclear)?$$Yes. So, we decided to set up a consultancy focused on two things--or maybe more than two things, but healthcare and investment promotions were the main things; and so I was involved in healthcare consulting and also women's empowerment. Because that was an issue--women's health was not being addressed; and I felt unless you empower the woman, she would not have the ability to address her own healthcare needs. Women needed a voice, and I was vocal in making sure that women understood that their health and their lives were in their hands, and they could not allow the men to dictate to them how they would take care of themselves because the men would focus more on what affected them and not what affected the women. You had maternal mortality still very high, you had childhood diseases still very high, and malnutrition still very high. So these were areas where the women needed to be empowered to be able to advocates for themselves, so.$$Yeah, yeah, so--that sounds like important work. Yeah--I'm tempted to ask--well, I'll ask anyway. In what ways did men try to control women's health access? I mean how, and for what reasons?$$Well, there were--like going to basic local levels now. I will go to like when I worked in the teaching hospital in Nigeria--University College Hospital [University College Hospital, Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria]. A lot of times, a woman would have had several children--she would be tired. She would say she's had seven, eight children, but her husband wants her to continue because either he wants her to have a son, or he feels he needs many children; and they would not be allowed to have contraceptives. So they would come to the hospital and they would say--and their husbands would come with them, and you would see them whisper that, as a doctor should ask their husband to wait outside. So it would look like the doctor wanted their husband to wait outside; and when the husband would go out, the woman would say that she is tired of having children. She almost passed on, the last one; and she wants contraceptive, but she wants something that her husband will not, you know, know what she's doing, and if he asks her why isn't she pregnant, she'll just say, "Oh, it's--," God hasn't given her a baby. So, you know, she did not have the nerve to tell her husband that, "No, I'm done," that she feels she's done with having children. And also, attention wasn't being paid to maternal healthcare. You had so many women dying during childbirth, and I think a lot of the healthcare policies weren't being addressed. Because you look at parliament, in politics, those providing the laws were mainly men, so they had no interest in issues concerning women most of the time; and so you needed to advocate that women should go into politics, women should begin to fight for their own rights, and women should realize that they have a voice.

Grace Y. Ingleton

Social activist and health care professional Grace Y. Ingleton was born on September 14, 1936, in Panama, Republic of Panama, In 1955, Ingleton migrated to Brooklyn, NY, and graduated from Prospect Heights high School. Later, she would attend Lincoln School for Nursing and receive a Nursing Diploma. Ingleton also earned B.S. and M.A. degrees in nursing from Long Island University. After graduating as a registered nurse, she joined the staff of Brooklyn Jewish Hospital.

Ingleton’s career in long term care began at Midway Nursing Home in 1973, where she has been the director of nursing services and administration for more than thirty years. Serving in this position, Ingleton has obtained several grants to prepare and present seminars and workshops on a variety of issues specific to the long term care industry and has consulted with many major health care organizations. She is also an adjunct nursing professor at the college and university level, lecturing at Medgar Evers College up to 2005. Ingleton is presently a nursing consultant to the Nursing Department at Parker Jewish Institute, part of Long Island Hospital.

Ingleton has been honored by several organizations including The Dedicators, Inc., the Caribbean Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Inc.; Imani Literary Reading Group, Inc.; Savacou Fine Art Gallery; Celebration of Black Artist; The Black Nurses Day Community Services Award for her community service and professional activities.

Grace Ingleton is married to Edward I. Ingleton, who live in Brooklyn, New York.

Grace Ingleton was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 1, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.163

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/1/2012

Last Name

Ingleton

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Y.

Schools

Justo Arosemena Elementary

Liceo de Senoritas

La Boca Occupational High School

Prospect Heights High School

Lincoln School for Nursing

Long Island University

First Name

Grace

Birth City, State, Country

Panama City

HM ID

ING04

Favorite Season

Fall

Favorite Vacation Destination

New Zealand

Favorite Quote

Remember To Do Something Nice To Someone Else, It Will Make You Feel Better.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Interview Description
Birth Date

9/14/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

Panama

Favorite Food

Cottage Cheese, Fruit

Short Description

Community activist and healthcare executive Grace Y. Ingleton (1936 - ) served as the director of nursing at numerous long term care facilities in the New York City area, including the Midway Nursing Home and the Center for Nursing and Rehabilitation. She was also a professor of nursing.

Employment

Brooklyn Jewish Hospital

Midway Nursing Home

Parker Jewish Institute*

Medgar Evers College

Provident Clinial Society Neighborhood Health Center

The Dedicators

Haym Salomon Home for Nursing and Rehabilitation

Center for Nursing and Rehabilitation

Long Island University

Queensborough Community College

Heart to Art, Inc.

Imani Literary Group, Inc.

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634235">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Grace Y. Ingleton's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634236">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Grace Y. Ingleton lists her favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634237">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes her mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634238">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Grace Y. Ingleton talks about her maternal grandparents' migration to Panama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634239">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Grace Y. Ingleton talks about the West Indian community in Panama and the United States</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634240">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes her mother's life in Panama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634241">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes the discrimination against West Indians in the Panama Canal Zone, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634242">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes the discrimination against West Indians in the Panama Canal Zone, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634243">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes her father's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634244">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Grace Y. Ingleton talks about her paternal grandparents' migration to the Panama Canal Zone</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634245">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes her father's education and career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634246">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634247">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Grace Y. Ingleton talks about her upbringing</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634248">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634249">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Grace Y. Ingleton remembers the Escuela Justo Arosemana in Panama City, Panama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634250">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Grace Y. Ingleton remembers learning to speak Spanish in Panama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634251">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Grace Y. Ingleton remembers an influential teacher</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634252">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes her experiences of World War II in the Panama Canal Zone</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634253">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Grace Y. Ingleton remembers the Liceo de Senoritas in Panama City, Panama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634254">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes her decision to attend high school in New York City</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634255">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes her exposure to American culture in Panama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634256">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Grace Y. Ingleton remembers her transition to Prospect Heights High School in Brooklyn, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634257">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Grace Y. Ingleton recalls adapting to the winters in New York City</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634258">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes her experiences at Prospect Heights High School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634259">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Grace Y. Ingleton remembers applying to nursing schools in New York City</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634260">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Grace Y. Ingleton remembers the Lincoln School for Nurses in the Bronx, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634261">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Grace Y. Ingleton recalls meeting her husband</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634262">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes the founding of The Dedicators, Inc., pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634263">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes the founding of The Dedicators, Inc., pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634264">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Grace Y. Ingleton talks about the Panamanian chapter of The Dedicators, Inc.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634265">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Grace Y. Ingleton recalls studying at Long Island University while working at the Brooklyn Jewish Hospital</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634266">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Grace Y. Ingleton remembers joining the staff of the Midway Nursing Home in Queens, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634267">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Grace Y. Ingleton remembers her leadership of the Midway Nursing Home in Queens, New York</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634268">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Grace Y. Ingleton recalls the racial tensions during her tenure at the Midway Nursing Home</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634269">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes her career after leaving the Midway Nursing Home</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634270">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes her work as a healthcare educator and consultant</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634271">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Grace Y. Ingleton talks about the rewards of nursing administration</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634272">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes Heart to Art, Inc.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634273">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Grace Y. Ingleton remembers the influence of Lawrence Dorsey</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634274">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Grace Y. Ingleton recalls her introduction to in the black arts community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634275">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Grace Y. Ingleton talks about her art donation to the Links Foundation, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634276">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Grace Y. Ingleton talks about her art donation to the Links Foundation, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634277">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Grace Y. Ingleton reflects upon her interest in art</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634278">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Grace Y. Ingleton talks about the Imani Literary Group, Inc.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634279">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes the philanthropy of the Imani Literary Group, Inc.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634280">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Grace Y. Ingleton reflects upon the importance of community engagement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634281">Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes her hopes and concerns for the African American Community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634282">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Grace Y. Ingleton reflects upon her life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634283">Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes her international travels</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634284">Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Grace Y. Ingleton reflects upon her legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/634285">Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Grace Y. Ingleton describes how she would like to be remembered</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$5

DAStory

7$1

DATitle
Grace Y. Ingleton describes the discrimination against West Indians in the Panama Canal Zone, pt. 1
Grace Y. Ingleton remembers her leadership of the Midway Nursing Home in Queens, New York
Transcript
I think you were telling me before we started that the Panama, the school system in Panama put a ceiling on where, how far you could go?$$Yes.$$So--$$On the canal zone's area, and the canal zone [Panama Canal Zone] was administered by the America- U.S. government, okay, and they had schools for West Indians, in particular, that went no further than the eighth grade. It wasn't until many years later that they started a high school and that had to be probably in the, the late '40s [1940s], that they started high school.$$So, let me get this straight. If you were a, some other nationality, you weren't a West Indian, you could get a higher education at the expense of the state?$$No you could not.$$You could not?$$No, because basically the workers were Hispanic or Caribbean, and Caribbean primarily, and you had Hispanics but they rarely worked for the canal zone and that's why there's always that, that, that discussion that the canal [Panama Canal] was built by West Indians. They don't get credit for it but there are a number of research, research has been done and shown that this is where the building of the canal came from, truly, West Indians, and those are the ones that came primarily from the West Indies that lived there and raised their families and their only job was to build a canal. So the education, as I said, they brought people with them, women in particular, that educated, trained, initially. I, I know that I learned my ABCs and my multiplication tables. I could, if you woke me up in the middle of the night, I said twelve times twelve is how much and I'd say 144 but I knew that when I was about three or four years old because I used to sit on the stairs, looking into an apartment, a little room, to a room that Mrs. Carrington [ph.] held classes for the children of the people in the community and she would have the front row is for those children that are from maybe kindergarten to third grade and then from fourth grade to eighth grade, you had another, another group that she trained or they went off then to the elementary school and later, much later, just before I came to this country in 1953, they, I guess at '53 [1953], yeah, '53 [1953], they, I went to the junior high school [La Boca Junior High School, La Boca, Panama] to complete my eighth grade and at that time they had then put, initiated, the high school that went from nine to twelve.$$Okay, but when your mother [Edith Pond Brown] was growing up--$$My mother--$$--she could only, she was allowed going to eighth grade--$$--she only could go to eighth grade, eighth grade--$$--but what you're saying is--$$--and my aunts.$$--is that her education was supplemented by the teachers that they brought over from--$$Exactly, yes.$$--home, from Montserrat?$$From Montserrat and from Trinidad and from Jamaica and Jamaica in particular, and Barbados. Barbados had people I recognized that were really quite bright, educated themselves but, or learned from the English, but they were really very well informed. If you had a Barbadian teacher, you were very proud.$Nineteen seventy-three [1973], at Midway Nursing Home [Maspeth, New York] now. You're the director--$$Yes.$$--of nursing services and administration and you were there for more than twenty-five years?$$No, no, no no--$$No? Okay.$$--I was there for ten years.$$Ten, okay, (laughter) we've got that wrong.$$Yeah, ten years, um-hm.$$Ten years, all right, that's a big difference. So, well tell us about that experience.$$It was an interesting experience because as I said, when Earline [Earline Ross] recommended me it was a new facility, it was a facility that was put into a community called Maspeth [Queens, New York] which was made up of people, Lithuanians and, and so on, Slavic areas and they, this community existed in a place called Maspeth, M-A-S-P-E-T-H, and the arrangement that the owners of the facility, Midway Nursing Home, had to make with them is that they will be willing to hire people from the community to work there, for them to get permission to put this site on, in the neighborhood, well, they shortly did, they got their approval. So when I was hired, I did not know that I had, I had to hire people from the community, solely, and I started doing that and when you came into the facility, and again I always seem to end up indirectly with some sort of racial situations, I, on the first floor was the administration staff. I was the only black person in, in the building, in the position of authority and because of my background, I was able to, the owners of the facility left me in charge of purchasing supplies, of hiring, developing their policy and procedure manuals and it was just a really tough job getting started but it was good, I looked at it as good experience for my future. And so when I started hiring, I was able to get people from the community to work the day shift which was seven to three [o'clock], up, a few to work three to eleven, very few to work eleven to seven was a difficult, a night tour, and, in the process of doing that, and this is way back then, in the '70s [1970s], right, in the process of doing that, I had to hire, no, I could not find people from the community to work nights and I'm having difficulty staffing. So I went to the owners and I said, "Look, I'm going to have to put an ad in the paper, not the local papers only, seeking help and hoping that people will come in, if they meet the criteria, then I'll hire them and I cannot just strictly depend on, because I cannot depend on the neighborhood people," so I did. And then when I started hiring, I had difficulty later on and in no time, the community had a community board meeting and they were raging against the owners and they're hiring people from out of the neighborhood and so, of course, all of this came to me, they said, "What are you doing?" I said, "I'm hiring people. I have to staff the place. I have a health code that I have to follow. I have to provide--." Well, "Why are you hiring those people?" Who are those people? I mean, I'm not conscious of those people. I'm hiring people to work that are willing to work and, and, and the community got together and said that they were not happy because I was hiring people, and I said, well you all define who I'm hiring that's a problem and then I had, they said I had, I was hiring people from Haitia- you know, Haitian people, I was hiring African American people, I was hiring Spanish people, I was hiring some Chinese, I had a few Chinese people, Vietnam, whatever it was, and I said, "Well those are the people that applied and they're qualified. I don't have people from the community coming in to work nights. If you can get me some people from the community that are willing to work the night tour, then I will not have these people and I will follow the guidelines which you all originally agreed to that, people from the community will be given the first choice," and I couldn't get them. And that created some stress between the day shift, the evening shift, and the night tour. So I was constantly, you know, refereeing things through the supervisors, well, to the point that one lady came in one day and she said to me that, it was a horrible story, one of the aides, they had, you know, negative terminologies to call them as they took care of tha- them, as elderly, and this aide was from Brazil, came and said to me, "Mrs. Ingleton [HistoryMaker Grace Y. Ingleton], I don't like to be called names," and so on and so on and this lady, I said, "You're dealing with the elderly, you're dealing with people are confused and maybe they don't know what they're saying but your job is basically to provide care and not to be interacting in a negative way," and so on. She said, "That's fine if you're not delivering the care and having people call you all that they call you." I said, "That goes with the territory of having a job, human behavior, and your point is that you do not react to people the way they are treating you in that manner." Well, a couple of times I had residents that were so hostile from that environment that they spat in the face of one of the, the aides and she unfortunately returned the same negative response. And so, the reason I raised that is because it became quite a, quite a issue in the community and, you know, what the aide had done, not saying what the patient had done, and was back and forth. So I went through that period. I had to terminate the aide and then I thought about it and I said, well, you know, I'm going to give her a long suspension and I'm sure she will resign after that. She never resigned, she came back after nine months that I suspended her for but, but the problem with the situation that became a very hostile one, for me, for a period of time, but I was just determined that if I cannot find people from the community to work, I have to provide jobs to be fair to people that were willing to take the job and do it and I said it's going to be a battle of the wills because I, my goal was always, you bring me staff that were willing to work and I will be willing to hire them. If you cannot do that, then I think we meet halfway and you accept the people that are working, willing to do the work, and it took a while. I mean, I gained an enormous amount of respect from the staff and many of the community people and there are those that never ever accepted the fact that we were not able to staff with the people from the community, not looking at the fact that they were unable to provide the staff. It was a good learning experience for me because it, I mean, it made me a good administrator, I think, better than, than just the paperwork and the ordering and the budget and the policy and procedure, it taught me a lot about human behavior and, and learning when to be flexible and when not to be flexible and learning where to believe, to work by your, by your value system and it brought a lot of issues and value. What does it mean? Do I sacrifice providing quality care for the residents, for those people that are willing to come and do it and learn and provide good care or do I succumb to threats, really, subtle threats and, and verbal threats and so on. They used to look out for my car to come in, there were times that I would have a flat that, no one would know how I got the flat, you know.

Dr. Christopher Leggett

Clinical interventional cardiologist Dr. Christopher J.W.B. Leggett was born on November 8, 1960, in Cleveland, Ohio, the tenth of eleven children to Willie and Ethel Leggett. At thirteen years of age, Leggett was awarded a three year academic scholarship by the A Better Chance organization to attend Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts. After his high school graduation, Leggett received a four year scholarship to attend Princeton University. While attending Princeton, Leggett was a campus leader and member of the Princeton University basketball team. In 1982, Leggett graduated from Princeton University with his B.A. degree in sociology.

In 1982, after attending the University of Cincinnati’s School of Medicine in Cincinnati, Ohio, Leggett attended Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in Cleveland, Ohio, where he received his M.D. degree. At Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Leggett was also chairman of the Student National Medical Association. In 1986, Leggett interned in internal medicine at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland; after completing his residency at Johns Hopkins in 1989, Leggett completed his cardiology fellowship at the Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia.

In 1992, Leggett became a physician at the Cardiovascular Laboratory in the Veterans Administration Hospital at the Emory University School of Medicine in Decatur, Georgia. In 1993, Leggett became an interventional cardiology fellow in the Department of Cardiology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine. During his fellowship, Leggett was under the tutelage of world leader and pioneer, Dr. Gary S. Roubin.

In 2002, Leggett was appointed by the United States Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services to serve on the National Practicing Physician Advisory Council in Washington, D.C. for a four year term. In 2002, a Georgia State Senate Resolution honored Leggett for his contributions to society; in May of that same year, Leggett was the recipient of the President’s Award at Oakwood College for being an exemplary role model for Alumni. Leggett is the Director of Cardiology at Medical Associates of North Georgia and practices medicine at Northside Hospital – Cherokee in Canton, Georgia; St. Joseph's Hospital of Atlanta, Georgia; and Gwinnett Health System in Lawrenceville, Georgia.

Christopher Leggett was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 11, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.253

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/11/2007

2/26/2008

Last Name

Leggett

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

Phillips Academy

Princeton University

University of Cincinnati

Mary M Bethune Elementary School

Harry E. Davis Junior High School

First Name

Christopher

Birth City, State, Country

Cleveland

HM ID

LEG02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

Itay

Favorite Quote

I Belong Everywhere I Go Because My Best Friend, Jesus Christ Owns The World.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Interview Description
Birth Date

11/8/1960

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Salmon

Short Description

Cardiologist and healthcare executive Dr. Christopher Leggett (1960 - ) was the Director of Cardiology at Medical Associates of North Georgia and practiced at multiple medical institutions in the Southeastern region, particularly in Atlanta, Georgia.

Employment

Medical Associates of North Georgia

University of Alabama, Bimingham

Emory University School of Medicine

Johns Hopkins Hospital

Atlanta VA Medical Center

Piedmont Hospital

St. Joseph's Hospital, Atlanta

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564461">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Christopher Leggett's interview, session 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564462">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Christopher Leggett lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564463">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his mother's upbringing</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564464">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564465">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Christopher Leggett talks about his maternal grandparents</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564466">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his early experiences of religion</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564467">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Christopher Leggett lists his mother's siblings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564468">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his father</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564469">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his father's discipline</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564470">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his father's occupations</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564471">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his father's death</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564472">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his parents' relationship</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564473">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his likeness to his father</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564474">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls the aftermath of his father's death</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564475">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his mother's strength</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564476">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Christopher Leggett lists his siblings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564477">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his brother, Robert Leggett</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564478">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers a lesson from his brother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564479">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564480">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his neighborhood in Cleveland, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564481">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his early work experiences</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564482">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers Mary McLeod Bethune Elementary School in Cleveland, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564483">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Christopher Leggett talks about his early academic success</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564484">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his peers at Mary McLeod Bethune Elementary School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564485">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remember a classmate at Harry E. Davis Junior High School in Cleveland, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564486">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his community in Cleveland, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564487">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his childhood activities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564488">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his early aspirations</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564489">Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his admittance to the Phillips Academy Andover in Andover, Massachusetts</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564490">Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his parents' attitudes about race</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564491">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his arrival at Phillips Academy Andover in Andover, Massachusetts</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564492">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers John F. Kennedy, Jr., pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564493">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls the rigorous coursework at the Phillips Academy Andover</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564494">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his friends at the Phillips Academy Andover, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564495">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Christopher Leggett talks about his strength as a math student</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564496">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his exposure to white culture at the Phillips Academy Andover</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564497">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his teachers at the Phillips Academy Andover</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564498">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his friends at the Phillips Academy Andover, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564499">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his college aspirations</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564500">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Christopher Leggett's interview, session 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564501">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Christopher Leggett talks about the Phillips Academy Andover in Andover, Massachusetts</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564502">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his project on the Civil Rights Movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564503">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes the A Better Chance program</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564504">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls befriending his peers at the Phillips Academy Andover in Andover, Massachusetts</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564505">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his activities at the Phillips Academy Andover</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564506">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes the campus of the Phillips Academy Andover</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564507">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers John F. Kennedy, Jr., pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564508">Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls playing basketball at the Phillips Academy Andover</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564509">Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his decision to attend Princeton University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564510">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his transition to Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564511">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his summer work experiences</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564512">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his religious life at the Phillips Academy Andover in Andover, Massachusetts</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564513">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his coursework at Princeton University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564514">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his decision to pursue medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564515">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls playing basketball for Princeton University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564516">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his decision to attend the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in Cleveland, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564517">Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers attending Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564518">Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his mentors at the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564519">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers attending the University of Cincinnati</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564520">Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers meeting his wife</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564521">Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his residency at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564522">Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes the challenges of his residency at Johns Hopkins Hospital</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564523">Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his influences at The Johns Hopkins Hospital</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564524">Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his experiences as a medical resident</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564525">Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his wife's career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564526">Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers the mentorship of Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564527">Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes a lesson from Dr. Levi Watkins</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564528">Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his experiences of discrimination at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564529">Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his philosophy of mentorship</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564530">Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers a lesson from his wife</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564531">Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his decision to specialize in cardiology</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564532">Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his decision to accept a fellowship at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564533">Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes the field of interventional cardiology</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564534">Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes the cause and treatment of a heart attack</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564535">Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Dr. Christopher Leggett talks about the advancements in interventional cardiology, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564536">Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his training under Gary Roubin</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564537">Tape: 8 Story: 10 - Dr. Christopher Leggett talks about the advancements in interventional cardiology, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564538">Tape: 8 Story: 11 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers Gary Roubin</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564539">Tape: 8 Story: 12 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his decision to join the Medical Associates of North Georgia in Canton, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564540">Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his decision to join the Medical Associates of North Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564541">Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls treating a heart attack in a pregnant patient</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564542">Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Dr. Christopher Leggett lists the hospitals where he worked</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564543">Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his appointment to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564544">Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his organizational involvement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564545">Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Dr. Christopher Leggett talks about his hobbies</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564546">Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes his children</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564547">Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Dr. Christopher Leggett reflects upon his life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564548">Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Dr. Christopher Leggett remembers his mother's lessons</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564549">Tape: 9 Story: 10 - Dr. Christopher Leggett describes how he would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564550">Tape: 9 Story: 11 - Dr. Christopher Leggett reflects upon his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564551">Tape: 9 Story: 12 - Dr. Christopher Leggett reflects upon his wife's influence</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/564552">Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Dr. Christopher Leggett narrates his photographs</a>

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DATitle
Dr. Christopher Leggett talks about his strength as a math student
Dr. Christopher Leggett recalls his experiences of discrimination at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland
Transcript
What were some of the courses that you took there that you know that you probably would not have been exposed to in Ohio (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) You know, a lot of English, math. I, I think for me, the thing that--and it wasn't all positive; don't get me wrong. I mean I had this one teacher who was a jerk; she told me I had to stop writing black English--whatever that was, and I said, "Okay, I'm not sure what that is, but if you can help me understand what it is, I'll be happy to try and modify it." But the one--the mainstay for me that let me know I belonged was, was math is objective. Whether you liked me or not, there was one answer. You couldn't read my essay and give me a C because you just felt like, I'm not giving this African American student an A because this just, you know, because I don't like the way it sounds. But if you got the answer right in math--so, when I initially went there, my grades initially fell in like subjects like English and biology because it's more subjective, (unclear) written it. But math let me know that I belong, because it was objective and I always got great grades in math, and I just--and it always let me know that I was smart, so that I, I said to myself, I, I'll get this other stuff together, and I'll figure out what I gotta do to raise that up. But it was kind of the mainstay for me educationally because it was, it was non-subjective, it was objective, and it was scientific and, and so it helped me through that first semester not get depressed about going from always being a straight A student to having, you know, some different grades. And then, you know, by eleventh grade and twelfth grade years [at Phillips Academy Andover, Andover, Massachusetts], they were back up to what I was used to. But, you know, you, you have these challenges and you gotta meet them and you gotta have something inside you to meet them with. And those are the lessons, like I told you, about my brother [Robert Leggett], and watching my mother [Ethel Leggett] and father [Willie Leggett, Sr.]; that's--those are the lessons they give you, the sort of undergirding, that when you're swimming upstream, that you just don't quit.$You were gonna tell me a story about one of the patients during your residency [at Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland] (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Yeah, well--you know, there, there are--I, I, I can think of two quick ones. I was on rounds one night with the other medical students--or one morning, and we had one African American dean, and he had admitted a patient and, on the rounds the next morning, just to give you a sense of kind of, you know, what students were used to, the students--well, the student who had worked this patient up--a medical student sent on rounds, he had given his presentation, then he said, you know, "Yeah, there was this, you know, there's this black guy sitting there by the patient's bed," and I said, "Well," I said, "did you ask him about his name yet?" He said, "Yeah, he said his name was Dr. Smoot [Roland T. Smoot]." I said, "Well, Dr. Smoot actually is the dean of this medical school." And the student then said, he said, "Well, he doesn't look like a dean." And I said to him, I said, "Well, what does a dean look like?" And, and, and, and, and basically, what he was saying is he had never seen a black dean, so all deans were white; it wasn't--he had a suit on, he looked intelligent, you know; it was his patient, but he just didn't look like a dean. And, and I, I just felt like I needed to take that opportunity to let him know that, "Frankly, you know, you know, you need to broaden your definition of what deans look like because this is a dean. He's the dean of this medical school and, and you, you should know that, being a medical student. But going forward, you know, you really need to guard yourself from comments that are fairly uninformed like this, so that you don't look so--just absolutely unintelligent when you say it." So, anyway, I mean I, I just felt like you gotta take opportunities. This is all about education because that same attitude can pervade another interaction with a patient and, and you just have to take opportunities to help people, you know, sort of be educated. But then there was another personal one that I had that I was taking care of this guy who was on a trach collar, which means he was on a respirator, an African American patient who had throat cancer, couldn't even talk, and I was going in to evaluate him 'cause I was--had to work him up, and he was gonna be on my service, and I kept, kept hearing him trying to mouth something through the respirator and, and I just leaned down and I got real close to him and he was mouthing out, in his words, "You--you ain't qualified," that's what he was saying. And, and I think, you know, what he was struggling with, which is an internal cultural pathology at times, is that, you know: I'm used to a white doctor taking care of me and, you know, I can't conceptually get my mind around having a black doctor take care of me, so--in other words, I want the qualified white guy. And, and it is funny, because I had just taken care of a Jewish individual earlier that day in the intensive care unit who had said the exact opposite; he said, "Dr. Leggett [HistoryMaker Dr. Christopher Leggett], I want you to take care of me," and I said, "Why?" He said, "Because if you're here, that means you're probably three times as qualified as some of the other doctors walking around, since the numbers are so low--it's only two of you." He said, "No, that--I want you to take care of me." So, you would have these social dynamic paradigms in, in care that would exist quite often and, and you'd have to have a very strong sense of self, and the resolve within yourself of, of who you are and what you represented intellectually so that you would not allow yourself to become angry or intimidated one way or the other. But there were sort of variety of experiences that, that you'd experience and, and quite frankly, people--you know, you would walk in rooms in, in that institution; they just did not--it is not commonplace, at that time, for them to interact with the--a physician of color; they, they would think that you're just a, a, you know, a transporter with a, you know, a doctor's coat on; I mean something--they just couldn't, couldn't grasp it, so--anyway, you just, you know, sort of work through that, kind of.