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Frank Morris

Educator Frank Morris, Sr., was born in Cairo, Illinois on July 21, 1931. At age six, he moved to Boston, where his grandparents and his aunt and uncle raised him. An honor student in high school, Morris was awarded a scholarship to attend Colgate University. From there, he attended Syracuse University, earning his M.P.A. degree. Morris later went on to earn a Ph.D. in political science from MIT and he later completed the requirements for his master’s in international affairs from Georgetown University.

After graduating from Syracuse University in 1962, Morris joined the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, working out of the Seattle office. He joined the U.S. State Department in 1966, and by 1969, he was the deputy regional coordinator for the Latin America Office of Program and Policy Coordination. In 1972, Morris moved to Chicago, where he became an associate professor of political science at Northwestern University. After working with the National Education Institute and the Community Services Administration, Morris joined the U.S. Foreign Aid Program to Jamaica, where he retired as deputy director in 1983. Returning from Jamaica, Morris became the executive director of the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation. In 1986, Morris was named the associate dean of the Graduate School of Public Affairs at the University of Maryland, College Park. In 1988, he left for Morgan State University, where he retired as the dean of graduate studies and research in 1996. After moving to Texas in 1997 to be closer to his grandchildren, Morris became a visiting professor in government and politics at the University of Texas, where he remained until he retired in 1999.

Throughout his distinguished career, Morris was highly influential in all the positions he held. While working with the State Department in Jamaica, he oversaw the growth of U.S. federal aid to the country to become one of the three highest per capita U.S. AID programs in the world. While serving as dean at Morgan State, he formed a partnership with the Hokkaido Foundation of Japan and instituted a program to teach Japanese. He has also served as a consultant to organizations in the U.S. on issues relating to Africa and Europe.

Morris has received numerous awards over the years, including having been named “Father of the Year,” by the Chicago Defender and recipient of the Superior Honor Award by the Department of State. He and his wife have four children.

Accession Number

A2004.217

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/27/2004

Last Name

Morris

Maker Category
Schools

George A. Lewis Middle School

Roxbury Memorial High School

John B. Drake Elementary School

Williams Elementary School

William Lloyd Garrison Elementary School

Boston Latin School

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Colgate University

Syracuse University

Georgetown University

First Name

Frank

Birth City, State, Country

Cairo

HM ID

MOR07

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cruises

Favorite Quote

The Trouble With Common Sense Is That It's Not So Common.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

7/21/1931

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Broiled Lobster

Short Description

Academic administrator and political science professor Frank Morris (1931 - ) served as the executive director of the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation, and became the associate dean of the Graduate School of Public Affairs at the University of Maryland. In 1988, he was hired by Morgan State University, where he retired as the dean of graduate studies in 1996.

Employment

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development

United States State Department

Latin America Office of Program and Policy Coordination

Northwestern University

National Education Institute

Community Services Administration

United States Foreign Aid Program to Jamaica

University of Maryland, College Park

Morgan State University

University of Texas

Favorite Color

Earth Tones

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Frank Morris's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Frank Morris lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Frank Morris describes his mother's family background and how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Frank Morris describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Frank Morris describes his paternal aunts and uncles

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Frank Morris describes his father and paternal aunts

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Frank Morris describes his paternal uncles and their professions

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Frank Morris recalls his grandparents' hosting extended family at their home

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Frank Morris describes living in Cairo, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Frank Morris describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Frank Morris describes his father's family

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Frank Morris recalls his early childhood in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Frank Morris recalls his experience in Boston Public Schools

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Frank Morris describes the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Frank Morris recalls a field trip to Boston's Museum of Science

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Frank Morris remembers leaving Boston Latin School

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Frank Morris describes Roxbury Memorial High School in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Frank Morris describes his paternal grandfather

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Frank Morris talks about playing basketball in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Frank Morris describes his classmates at Colgate University in Hamilton, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Frank Morris recalls his internship at Senator Leverett Saltonstall's office

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Frank Morris explains why he chose Syracuse University for graduate school

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Frank Morris remembers playing football at Colgate University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Frank Morris describes his experiences at Syracuse University in New York

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Frank Morris recalls meeting his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Frank Morris recalls his time in Seattle, Washington

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Frank Morris recalls working for the U.S. Department of State

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Frank Morris talks about the importance of understanding history

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Frank Morris describes the value of critical thinking and his doctoral program at MIT

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Frank Morris remembers his trip to Ghana in 1970

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Frank Morris describes his time at Northwestern University and writing for the Evanston Review

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Frank Morris describes his civil rights work and NAACP involvement in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Frank Morris describes his government research positions in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Frank Morris critiques the Jensen Study and IQ tests

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Frank Morris describes problems with standardized testing

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Frank Morris recalls his work as education chairman of the Montgomery County, Maryland NAACP

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Frank Morris recalls serving as USAID's deputy director and chief of operations in Jamaica

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Frank Morris talks about his work with USAID in Jamaica

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Frank Morris describes changing racist hiring practices in Jamaica

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Frank Morris recalls how he handled unfair work practices in Jamaica, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Frank Morris recalls how he handled unfair work practices in Jamaica, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Frank Morris recalls nominating his secretary for an award and seeing Bob Marley in concert

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Frank Morris recalls joining the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Frank Morris describes his achievements with the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Frank Morris recalls his disappointments at the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Frank Morris recalls his disappointments at the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Frank Morris recalls being fired from the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Frank Morris recalls becoming a professor and attending FESTAC '87

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Frank Morris recalls becoming dean of graduate studies and research at Morgan State University

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Frank Morris reflects upon American graduate schools' lack of recruitment for minority students

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Frank Morris talks about his friendship with HistoryMaker Edward "Buzz" Palmer

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Frank Morris describes his work with the Center for Immigration Studies

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Frank Morris explains the impact of immigration on the American economy

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Frank Morris describes his trip to Europe with HistoryMaker Edward "Buzz" Palmer

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Frank Morris recalls uncovering misallocation of funds at the Daniel Hand Fund, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Frank Morris recalls uncovering misallocation of funds at the Daniel Hand Fund, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Frank Morris describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Frank Morris reflects upon his career

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Frank Morris talks about affirmative action and his principles

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Frank Morris reflects upon his legacy, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Frank Morris reflects upon his legacy, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Frank Morris shares his thoughts on reparations for African Americans

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Frank Morris describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Frank Morris narrates his photographs.

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

8$1

DATitle
Frank Morris recalls working for the U.S. Department of State
Frank Morris talks about his work with USAID in Jamaica
Transcript
Okay so now you were in Seattle [Washington] through (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Seattle, Tacoma [Washington] from '62 [1962] through '66 [1966], yes.$$Okay and '66 [1966] you took a job with [U.S.] Foreign Service with the state department [U.S. Department of State].$$That's exactly right a lateral into the Foreign Service into the Latin American bureau. When I was at Syracuse [University, Syracuse, New York] I had a tremendous interest in management information systems and so AID [United States Agency for International Development (USAID)] sort of recruited me along that line. Then I went into the Latin American bureau in development policy and moved right on up the ladder there.$$Now you went to Uruguay right?$$Oh that was in '67 [1967] when they had the presidents summary of the presidents of [Latin] American meeting with LBJ [President Lyndon Baines Johnson] and he was meeting with the different American presidents. That was a wonderful experience. That was a wonderful experience for me in a number of ways because as a relatively junior Foreign Service officer for the first time in my career ever I was working twelve hours on/twelve hours off in the office of the exec staff which was secretary of state staff with Dean Rusk. I was one of his staff down there. One of three people that was his staff that prepared documents for him and what I saw it's really not an overwhelming job, you can have a junior office do this if they've got the intelligence, was to see all the intelligence that was coming in to the secretary of state from all over the world including super-secret stuff from the military intelligence, CIA [Central Intelligence Agency] and all of that and prepare a briefing statement--document for the secretary of state. So when he gets up in the morning, he sees the things that he must know in case he has to talk to the president. So we saw embassy stuff from the state department, we'd see the CIA stuff; we'd see the military stuff. I found out some things then that will always be with me. One of the things was that how much of what goes for secret--top secret stuff in the U.S. government is over classified. I would see the same material classified as secret and top secret from military intelligence, state department intelligence and other intelligence, CIA intelligence and it's going to the secretary of state and then I would have because we also had the newspaper clippings from the papers around the world, I would find articles The Baltimore Sun, The Washington Post, The New York Times and gave greater in depth coverage than what our fantastically super-secret things were doing. I'm saying who are they keeping it a secret from? What really hit home and this is a true story Dean Rusk every morning when he got down the one thing he wanted to see before our briefing that we'd worked twelve hours to prepare of all the stuff around the world was a copy of The New York Times. This is the honest to goodness truth folks that showed me something. I hope that our press and especially the great papers and their foreign correspondents haven't cut down to the extent that I hope this is still the case as it was then for informing the American people. I still believe that it is that the great papers have people from the inside that would give them really good information and so there is tremendous over classification going. They want to classify things to the American people. The enemy knows it but the American people folks want to keep things classified for them. So that was a wonderful experience.$$Do you think that maybe it's because since people don't really read the paper like they ought to so a lot of people are going to know anyway if it's in The New York Times?$$That's sad, that's really sad and what's going to count as an educated person and an empowered person is the ability to differentiate for knowledge. I used to tell my students that the powerful in the United States don't try to exercise control by limiting media but it's by finding people with information and figuring out that our people are not going to be educated enough to be able to find the wheat from the chaff or know how to do it or want to take the effort to do it. So this is the essence or one of the essences of being empowered, to be able to filter through-being able to handle large volumes of information whether that's reading quickly, whether it's being able to absorb, being able to record things or take notes so that you will know and to recognize what's important. This is the essence I think of empowerment in education and also understand how and when bureaucracies are vulnerable.$Well you were asking about my time in the [U.S.] Foreign Service in Jamaica and I'm really proud of that. I made some major improvements down there. When we went down there Jamaica was not really very much on the radar list of American countries of interest because it had just come out of the [Michael] Manley regime and he is not very friendly with the United States.$$A friend of [Fidel] Castro (unclear) (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Well it wasn't that he was a Jamaican--an independent Jamaican and I think that we once again the early version was either you're with us or against us. To stay an independent country you can't be a friend of Castro and be a friend of ours it's an arrogance that is not worthy and so when we went down there that's the way it was in '79 [1979]. Then in '80 [1980] they had an election of where Seaga--Edward Seaga who is the other competitor to Manley won in an election that it was full of violence and so forth and Seaga (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Just to be, for point of clarification, Seaga is white, right?$$Yes Lebanese and so Seaga really convinced Reagan [President Ronald Wilson Reagan] that he was big private enterprise fellow brilliant. Seaga [sic. Michael Manley] London School of Economics [London School of Economics and Political Science, London, England] all very, very socialist (unclear), he convinced Reagan he was going to be the private enterprise man and we went from almost being the bottom of the per capita U.S. foreign assistance to almost to the top and Reagan--Jamaica was his first foreign trip and so we were part of a plan and I figured this was coming. So one of the things that helped win my award was that we had been planning early the AID [United States Agency for International Development (USAID)] director and I for just such an event that we would have contingency plans if all of a sudden it could be a big increase in aid to Jamaica. Sure enough there was so we were able to get it almost underway almost overnight. But more than that I'll show you the second highest award--agency award in the state department [U.S. Department of State] superior honor award for my work in Jamaica and going out and talking to Jamaicans and encouraging them to look at things differently. One of the sad things I found in Jamaica was that there wasn't a value of Jamaican products. Some of the things that Jamaican products not just their beer but some of the beautiful wood if you look around in my home I have some of the guango wood and other things and some of their paintings. Jamaicans had for years I guess one of the remnants of colonist, some Jamaicans had always believed that things which were foreign were better and one of the things I pointed out that some of their things are some of the greatest in the world and they need to realize that before they could really affectively market them.

Jolyn H. Robichaux

Successful businesswoman Jolyn H. Robichaux was born in Cairo, Illinois, on May 21, 1928, to Margaret Love and Edward Howard. Robichaux graduated from Sumner High School in 1945 and went on to attend Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee, for two years. In 1960, Robichaux received her B.A. degree in education from Chicago Teachers College.

On June 6, 1952, she married Joseph J. Robichaux, with whom she had two children: Sheila and Joseph, Jr. While raising her children, Robichaux worked as a medical assistant; the first African American employee of Betty Crocker; and as a secretary and fundraiser at a public relations firm.

In 1967, as a business investment, Robichaux and her husband purchased Baldwin Ice Cream Company; created in 1922, it was the first African American-owned ice cream company in Chicago. Robichaux worked as a secretary for the company; following her husband's death in 1971, she assumed leadership of Baldwin, becoming president and CEO.

When Robichaux took over Baldwin, the company's gross sales were $300,000; she took her new role seriously, and in 1975 earned a certificate in ice cream technology from Pennsylvania State University. In 1984, Robichaux became the second African American to open a food concession at O'Hare International Airport; she eventually grew Baldwin into a major corporation, with annual sales topping $5 million by 1985. Robichaux was also named the National Minority Entrepreneur of the Year by the U.S. Commerce Department in 1985, for which she was presented with the award by Vice President George Bush; she was the first African American woman to receive this honor.

Robichaux retired from Baldwin Ice Cream in 1992; from 1999 until 2001, she worked for a heart disease project at the University of Texas in Dallas. In her retirement, Robichaux continued to serve on various boards and professional organizations.

Ms. Robicaux passed away on March 9, 2017

Accession Number

A2003.033

Sex

Female

Interview Date

2/24/2003

Last Name

Robichaux

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widow

Middle Name

H.

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Sumner High School

First Name

Jolyn

Birth City, State, Country

Cairo

HM ID

ROB05

Favorite Season

None

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Europe

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

5/21/1928

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Dallas

Country

United States

Favorite Food

All Food

Death Date

3/9/2017

Short Description

Retail entrepreneur Jolyn H. Robichaux (1928 - 2017 ) was the former CEO of Baldwin Ice Cream and the first African American to open a concession business at O'Hare.

Employment

Betty Crocker

Baldwin Ice Cream Company

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Jolyn Robichaux interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Jolyn Robichaux lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Jolyn Robichaux talks about her grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Jolyn Robichaux mentions her favorite sayings

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Jolyn Robichaux remembers the loving relationship with her father

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Jolyn Robichaux lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Jolyn Robichaux describes her family life as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Jolyn Robichaux describes her elementary school experience

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Jolyn Robichaux describes her high school years

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Jolyn Robichaux remembers her father's illness and passing

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Jolyn Robichaux shares some anecdotes about her mother's family

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Jolyn Robichaux details her segregated high school experience

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Jolyn Robichaux lists her elementary and high schools

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Jolyn Robichaux talks about her college experience

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Jolyn Robichaux discusses her early career

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Jolyn Robichaux talks about going back to college

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Jolyn Robichaux recalls her courtship and marriage

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Jolyn Robichaux describes the early days of marriage

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Jolyn Robichaux discusses purchasing Baldwin Ice Cream

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Jolyn Robichaux details the daily operations at Baldwin Ice Cream

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Jolyn Robichaux describes the hurdles in getting Baldwin Ice Cream into grocery stores

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Jolyn Robichaux details the daily operations at Baldwin Ice Cream (part 1)

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Jolyn Robichaux describes the daily challenges of running Baldwin Ice Cream

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Jolyn Robichaux realizes Baldwin Ice Cream could be profitable

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Jolyn Robichaux talks about her husband's death, and keeping Baldwin Ice Cream going

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Jolyn Robichaux manages Baldwin Ice Cream after her husband's death

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Jolyn Robichaux discusses the history of black people in the ice cream business

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Jolyn Robichaux details the challenges of running Baldwin Ice Cream

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Jolyn Robichaux discusses her children's ambitions and her decision to sell Baldwin Ice Cream

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Jolyn Robichaux describes how Baldwin Ice Cream was sold

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Jolyn Robichaux discusses expanding Baldwin Ice Cream, and the Minority Entrepreneur of the Year award

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Jolyn Robichaux talks about her distastrous contract with O'Hare airport

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Jolyn Robichaux discusses her disastrous contract with O'Hare airport (part 2)

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Jolyn Robichaux recalls her husband's political ambitions

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Jolyn Robichaux touts her successes at Baldwin Ice Cream Company

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Jolyn Robichaux shares her experiences working in Paris, France

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Photo - Jolyn Robichaux with her husband, Joseph J. Robichaux, and her daughter, Sheila, 1966.

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Photo - Jolyn Robichaux's sister, Charlotte Logan, 1930

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Photo - Jolyn Robichaux, 1938

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Photo - Jolyn Robichaux's sister, Charlotte Logan, 1938

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Photo - Jolyn Robichaux at her family home, Cairo, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Jolyn Robichaux describes her move from Paris, France to Dallas, Texas

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Jolyn Robichaux discusses her book, 'After the Ice Cream War'

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Jolyn Robichaux lists her greatest influences

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Jolyn Robichaux contemplates her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Jolyn Robichaux compares Chicago, Illinois to Dallas, Texas

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Jolyn Robichaux congratulates the HistoryMakers

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Photo - Jolyn Robichaux's mother, Margaret Love Howard, ca. 1912

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Photo - Jolyn Robichaux's mother, Margaret Love Howard, ca. 1922

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Photo - Jolyn Robichaux with her mother, Margaret Love Howard, ca. June 1928

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Photo - Jolyn Robichaux with her sisters, ca. 1998

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Photo - Jolyn Robichaux with her son, Joseph Robichaux, ca. 1998

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Photo - Jolyn Robichaux as a baby, 1928

Tape: 5 Story: 13 - Photo - Jolyn Robichaux as a baby, ca. 1928

Tape: 5 Story: 14 - Photo - Jolyn Robichaux, 1929

Tape: 5 Story: 15 - Photo - Jolyn Robichaux and her sister, Charlotte Logan, 1998

Tape: 5 Story: 16 - Photo - Jolyn Robichaux's parents, Edward Howard and Margaret Love Howard, on their wedding day, Macon, Illinois, 1927

Tape: 5 Story: 17 - Photo - Jolyn Robichaux's grandparents [William and Charlotte Love] and other relatives, Macon, Illinois, 1927

Tape: 5 Story: 18 - Photo - Jolyn Robichaux's parents, Edward and Margaret Love Howard, Macon, Illinois, 1927

Tape: 5 Story: 19 - Photo - Jolyn Robichaux with her great-grandmother, 1930

Tape: 5 Story: 20 - Photo - Jolyn Robichaux's mother, Margaret Love Howard, 1927

Tape: 5 Story: 21 - Photo - Jolyn Robichaux, Cairo, Illinois, 1929

Tape: 5 Story: 22 - Photo - Jolyn Robichaux, 1989

Tape: 5 Story: 23 - Photo - Jolyn Robichaux, ca. 1946

Tape: 5 Story: 24 - Photo - Jolyn Robichaux, 1945

Tape: 5 Story: 25 - Photo - Jolyn Robichaux's brother, William Howard, ca. 1942

Tape: 5 Story: 26 - Photo - Jolyn Robichaux's mother, Margaret Love Howard, 1975

Tape: 5 Story: 27 - Photo - Jolyn Robichaux's parents, Edward and Margaret Love Howard, ca. 1930

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$2

DAStory

7$9

DATitle
Jolyn Robichaux discusses purchasing Baldwin Ice Cream
Jolyn Robichaux describes the hurdles in getting Baldwin Ice Cream into grocery stores
Transcript
So at the time that you were ready--well, this is a little fast forward, I guess, to purchase Baldwin Ice Cream, tell me about the period leading up to the time and then when you actually decided and purchased Baldwin Ice Cream?$$Well, now, my son [Joseph Robichaux] came eight years after my daughter [Sheila Glaze]. And he was about five, five years old. And we had a, as I said, we had a wonderful relationship, but my husband [Joseph J. Robichaux], by that time was, had--was doing, was doing things in politics. And he had a track team that had girls on the Olympics every year. And he also was vice president of a dairy here in Chicago [Illinois] called Wanzer. And, and Kit, Kit Baldwin had passed several years previous. And this, the, the major stockholder was not the Baldwin family, but the Baldwin family's lawyer, who was Archibald Cary, who was a very prominent lawyer, minister, UN [United Nations] delegate, very prominent, very fine person. And he--Archibald Cary had a stroke. And his doctor told him to divest himself of everything that he was involved in, you know, to play the, you know, to go in semi-retirement on the church and the legal and everything. And then he was also involved in the operation of Baldwin. And so he wanted to sell it, his shares. And because my husband was involved with the Wanzer Dairy, Archibald Cary thought in terms of the progression of the company in, in black ownership. And the reason I admire him that he thought that way, was that this company was started in 1921 by seven black postal employees who were underemployed in the post office because all of them had college degrees. And it started out as Seven Links, then went to Seven Links in which Kit Baldwin had gotten, and then they had changed the name Baldwin Ice Cream. So, Archibald Cary wanted the company to continue in, in black ownership, as well as he wanted an understanding that who, whomever he sold it to would take care of Kit Baldwin's widow. So that was the arrangement. We would buy the company, take care of, of Kit Baldwin's wife, and own the major shares of the Baldwin Ice Cream Company. And my husband asked me if, if I was in agreement with that. And I said yes. And he said, "You're not doing anything at home 'cause you just got two children, and you're just--you don't have that much to do. So I want you to come down to, to Baldwin every day and just see, you know, what the operation is like." And I had, you know, I had to look at him a little askance, "What do you mean I don't have anything to do? You know, I've got a teenaged daughter and a five-year old son, and a, a house to take care of." But he didn't, up to this point, he didn't want me to work. So I was, I was a, a housewife. And so that's what happened. We, I would--we, we bought the company for $25,000.$$Twenty-five?$$--And that included the building, the trucks and the ice cream parlors. We had three ice cream parlors then. And--$$Wasn't that a--that was a good deal even back then.$$Very, very good deal. Very good deal.$And in the early--let's see, in the late 1940's, right after the War [World War II, 1939-1945], I don't know, you were too young. You can't remember the gas ration stamps. So the people would have to use their gas ration stamps to come to Baldwin [Ice Cream] on the weekends to get their ice cream, you see. And they started telling Kit Baldwin, you know, why should we have to come all the way down here, and use all of our gas stamps to get ice cream, and there's a Jewel and there's a Kroger, and blah, blah, blah store near us. And we, we--but we don't want that ice cream. We want Baldwin. Why can't you get Baldwin Ice Cream in their stores? Well, it was unheard of to have a black product in a white chain store. So Kit Baldwin, being the good businessman that he was, says, "Well, you know, it wouldn't help if I walked in there and said, you know, 'I want to go in.' Why don't you, as a customer, go in?" And they talked to their ministers about this. And there was another store, company, a black-owned company called Parker House Sausage. So they were, they were complaining about Parker House Sausage, you know, too, you know,"Why should we have to come all the way down to get Parker House Sausage?" So--and this was not well organized. But it was just a casual concentration of focus for the churches. You know, if, if you want to save your, your gas station--gas, gas ration stamps, and you want Baldwin in your freezers at your local store, and you want Parker House Sausage in your local store, stop shopping at the store. And that's what the people did. They stopped, stopped going to these stores. And then the stores called Kit Baldwin and Judge Parker and said,"You know, you can come into our stores." And that's the way Baldwin and Parker House Sausage got into these stores. So--and, of course, the, the South Side [Chicago, Illinois] was a ghetto really because they had a, it was black belt around it. Blacks could live in this section, and if they passed over to the other section which might be across the street, literally, that house over there had a clause in its deed that said, "This house cannot be sold to a black person." So, so, so we were restricted to this one area and to these, these stores in this area. So that's what existed when, when, when my husband [Joseph J. Robichaux] and I bought Baldwin. We'd only serve--we served all of the major stores, grocery stores in the area, but only in that area, you see. And so, so Baldwin was, was distributed in that area.$$When your husband invited you to work with the company--$$--He told me (laughter), he told me.$$"I need help, honey." (Laughter).

The Honorable Wilson Frost

Longtime Chicago politician Wilson Frost was born in Cairo, Illinois, on December 27, 1925, and earned his bachelor's degree from Fisk University in 1950. He attended Chicago-Kent College of Law, earning his J.D. in 1958. He later studied at DePaul University's Lawyer's Institute.

After graduating from Fisk, Frost was hired by the Postal Transportation Service as a clerk, where he remained until 1952. That year, he left to work at Provident Hospital as a statistician. After earning his law degree, Frost joined the firm of Frost, Sherard, Howse & Coleman, where he continued on as a partner until 1973. That year, he left to form Meyer & Frost, which later became Frost & Greenblatt. He remained there until his retirement in 1998.

Frost became active in the Chicago political machine in 1967, winning election as alderman of the 21st Ward. In 1971, he was elected alderman of the 34th Ward, and in 1976 he was serving as the president pro tem of the City Council. With the death of longtime mayor Richard J. Daley in 1976, Frost pointed out that under existing law he was to become the new mayor. The other aldermen disagreed, and after the course of several meetings, Frost was kept out of the mayor's seat and instead was named the chairman of the Finance Committee of the City Council. Following the incident, Frost continued to serve the city, retiring in 1998 with the title of commissioner of the Cook County Board of Tax Appeals.

During his many years of public service, Frost was honored by many organizations, including the Original Forty Club, which awarded him the Man of the Year Award in 1974, and the Illinois House of Representatives, which issued a resolution praising his work upon his retirement. Frost also actively served various organizations, including the John Marshall School of Law and Mercy Hospital Medical Center. He also served as vice president of the City Club of Chicago. Frost and his wife, Gloria, had four children.

Frost passed away on May 5, 2018 at the age of 92.

Accession Number

A2003.227

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/28/2003 |and| 10/9/2003

Last Name

Frost

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Doolittle Elementary School

Fisk University

Illinois Institute of Technology

Wendell Phillips Academy High School

Kennedy–King College

First Name

Wilson

Birth City, State, Country

Cairo

HM ID

FRO01

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Maui, Hawaii

Favorite Quote

It Is What It Is.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

12/27/1925

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Spaghetti

Death Date

5/5/2018

Short Description

City council member The Honorable Wilson Frost (1925 - 2018 ) was named the chairman of the Finance Committee of the City Council after fellow aldermen prevented his succession to the Chicago mayor's office upon the death of Richard J. Daley in 1976. A longtime Chicago politician, Frost also served as partner in the firm of Frost & Greenblatt.

Employment

Postal Transportation Service

Provident Hospital

Frost, Sherard, Howse & Coleman

Meyer & Frost

City of Chicago

Cook County Board of Tax Appeals

State of Illinois

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:4450,61:5233,72:6016,83:16717,249:19153,308:20284,323:20632,328:24460,380:24895,386:31879,398:32958,416:33290,421:37855,462:43084,536:43499,542:44412,554:46653,682:61346,787:62138,798:62754,806:66450,840:67330,852:75895,951:81165,1030:81505,1035:83205,1056:84310,1077:85585,1094:87030,1118:90260,1171:90685,1177:91025,1182:92385,1217:92725,1222:94085,1242:94510,1248:107004,1343:107376,1355:107841,1361:110384,1380:110774,1386:111398,1396:113036,1415:113660,1425:114050,1431:114674,1440:117638,1494:118184,1503:142635,1786:144640,1806$0,0:231,4:539,9:1001,16:3080,58:13167,242:33431,385:34380,402:37665,468:50706,590:51371,596:72075,741:73245,764:73505,769:73765,774:75195,808:77665,870:79420,904:79680,909:79940,914:80785,932:83960,944:84770,956:89960,991:94840,1105:95400,1113:96520,1129:99640,1186:100120,1194:100760,1209:101080,1214:102840,1236:112170,1328:112506,1333:114102,1357:114690,1365:116958,1401:134336,1556:138180,1583:143105,1616:144055,1628:145480,1646:146430,1663:149682,1697:150174,1704:158542,1806:160592,1848:171616,1915:172113,1924:172397,1929:174314,1985:174598,1990:181034,2093:181290,2098:181802,2107:187056,2129:187364,2134:191291,2199:201430,2257:202607,2274:203035,2279:204212,2295:215476,2398:215968,2409:216378,2415:221603,2476:222171,2486:223520,2533:227920,2555:228310,2562:228570,2567:228830,2572:234782,2651:235178,2656:236069,2666:236465,2671:237455,2687:243791,2775:254416,2958:259160,3033:259790,3043:265411,3116:272766,3150:276100,3184:276916,3199:283960,3269:284944,3283:285928,3296:295432,3382:296142,3394:302480,3420:304835,3445:305456,3457:306974,3491:308009,3516:308354,3522:325962,3658:327810,3682:328162,3687:328602,3693:350440,3892:350920,3899:351640,3909:352280,3916:352680,3922:357340,3972:363140,4047
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Wilson Frost narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Wilson Frost narrates his photographs, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Wilson Frost narrates his photographs, pt. 3

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Wilson Frost narrates his photographs, pt. 4

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Slating of Wilson Frost's interview

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Wilson Frost lists his favorites

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Wilson Frost describes his father's family background

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Wilson Frost describes his mother's family background

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Wilson Frost describes his father's personality

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Wilson Frost describes his mother's personality

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Wilson Frost describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Wilson Frost describes his childhood neighborhood on the South Side of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Wilson Frost describes family life during his childhood in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Wilson Frost describes his experiences at Doolittle Elementary School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Wilson Frost describes his experiences at Wendell Phillips High School in Chicago, Illinois, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Wilson Frost remembers playing several sports during high school in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Wilson Frost describes his experiences at Wendell Phillips High School in Chicago, Illinois, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Wilson Frost talks about suffering a knee injury in the United States Army during World War II

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Wilson Frost describes studying at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Wilson Frost remembers his time at Chicago-Kent College of Law in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Wilson Frost describes entering the legal profession in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Wilson Frost talks about his beliefs on legal confidentiality

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Wilson Frost reflects upon the criminal justice system in the State of Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Wilson Frost relates the origins of his political career in Chicago's 21st Ward

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Wilson Frost talks about his role in Democratic politics in Chicago, Illinois during the 1960s and 1970s

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Wilson Frost talks about being president pro tempore of the Chicago City Council

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Wilson Frost describes the state of politics in Chicago, Illinois in 1976

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Wilson Frost describes the death of Mayor Richard J. Daley of Chicago, Illinois in 1976

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Wilson Frost describes the succession crisis after the death of Chicago, Illinois' Mayor Richard J. Daley

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Wilson Frost explains his decision to not pursue the position of interim mayor after the death of Chicago, Illinois' Mayor Richard J. Daley

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Wilson Frost describes his time as chairman of the Chicago City Council Finance Committee

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Wilson Frost talks about African American power in Chicago politics

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Wilson Frost explains his philosophy on political outsiders and insiders' role in impacting societal change

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Wilson Frost talks about Harold Washington's early years in Chicago, Illinois' politics and his first run for mayor in 1977

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Wilson Frost describes his career during the administrations of Chicago, Illinois Mayors Michael Bilandic and Jane Byrne

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Wilson Frost describes the 1983 mayoral campaign of Harold Washington in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Wilson Frost talks about Harold Washington's tenure as mayor of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Wilson Frost describes the death of Mayor Harold Washington of Chicago, Illinois in 1987

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Wilson Frost describes his time on the Cook County Board of Tax Appeals

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Wilson Frost talks about federal investigations of the Cook County Board of Tax Appeals in 1994

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Wilson Frost describes his concerns for the African American community

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Wilson Frost reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Wilson Frost describes how he would like to be remembered and explains the boundaries of the 34th Ward

DASession

2$2

DATape

3$6

DAStory

7$2

DATitle
Wilson Frost describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood
Wilson Frost explains his decision to not pursue the position of interim mayor after the death of Chicago, Illinois' Mayor Richard J. Daley
Transcript
Okay, okay. Tell me about growing up. What are some of the sights and sounds and smells of growing up?$$Well, growing up, I grew up in Chicago [Illinois]. I grew up on the South Side of Chicago. I grew up in the ghetto, and it was a dog-eat-dog situation. And during the time, it was during the [Great] Depression and many instances, our survival had to be dependent upon us being able to get relief, or to get some type of assistance in terms of clothing, other to assist in food stamps, and all of those things. This was in the early part of the alphabetical ["alphabet soup," federal agencies created as part of the New Deal] during [President Franklin Delano] Roosevelt's administration. And the--fortunate for me, sports was one of my outlets and I used sports as a means of traveling, meeting people, as well as continuing and pursuing an education.$$Okay. Did, did you play, like organized basketball when you were real young? Did you start at a real young age or--$$Well, growing up in my neighborhood, we had in that neighborhood, as the seasons changed, our participation in sports changed. In the summertime, we would play softball. In the fall, we would play football. In the winter, we would play basketball. And we would have neighborhood teams. And some of these teams would be sort of coordinated or sponsored by some of the local churches. And the local churches, they had these WPA programs, Works Progress Administration, and what-have-you. And at the police station, they had police athletic leagues, and all of those things. And we would play and participate in those leagues and plus, even in our neighborhood, we even had our own team where we, as junior members, would organize. And one of those teams, I would most often be the captain or the manager of the team.$But most people thought in the black community, I, I know that you should have been--$$Yep.$$--the interim mayor by, by current law and they were pulling a parliamentary end-around--$$Yeah. Now, but, but we had the vote and everything. And most people--and told, for the seven days, whether they like it or not, I was, because that's what the law provided. And as a matter of fact, someone had even made mention of the fact that I should have brought a declaratory judgment against them or something to have that spread of record, but we worked out an accord. And the accord was that I would become pres-, I mean, the floor leader, and the chairman of finance. And so, since I couldn't get twenty-eight--I mean, twenty-five votes, and, otherwise, we'd walked away with nothing because under the way the scenario was, [Edward] Burke or [Ed] Vrdolyak was going to be chairman of finance, so we'd walk away with nothing. At that time, I was chairman of utilities so that, that accord was worked out, and that's the accord that you heard on the floor of the city council on the 28th. Now, then you had several groups who came down and wanted to talk to me and wanted--they wanted to have me sworn in, in a mock ceremony at Operation PUSH [People United to Save Humanity] on a Saturday morning, and all of those things. Now, that would have accomplished nothing because that had no role in the big picture. And for me to be held out as a toy and, you know, to satisfy other people's egos and what-have-you, I wasn't going to permit. I insisted that a rule be put in that no one could nominate or appoint anyone without the permission of the person they were nominating or appointing, so that nobody could put me--throw my name in off the floor and knowing that I didn't have enough votes in. So as a result of it, [Michael] Bilandic ended up being the one that was appointed by the council.$$Okay. Now, now, when you look back on that now, is there anything that you would have done differently in that scenario or you think that was--$$Hindsight is always twenty-twenty. Would I have done anything different? I thought that question many times, but I don't know of anything legally that I could have done that I didn't do that. Now, politically, maybe if I'd had some contacts that I later found out about, I could have maximized the use of it. But, you know, there are many times that people who might have the power and the strength to be of assistance, but you might not have any way of knowing who they are and where they are.$$Okay.$$And unless they come forward, you don't know about them, but later in, you know, and then again, in many instances when people tell you things later, you don't know whether that's for real, or whether that's a just a way of appeasing you and--$$Okay. But some activists thought at the time, some, some of them were disappointed. And when you say--they said they were and they thought that you had kind of given up too easily or something.$$No, no. The interesting part about the political climate in Chicago [Illinois]--many of the people who--the activists who wanted me to follow their thought process, do what they felt that I should do were people who were my opponents in most elections, so that they were not interested in perpetuating Wilson Frost, so that I'm not going to let a [HistoryMaker] Gus Savage, who I had run against two times myself, come in and tell me what he think is best for me when he's used all the energy and resources that he had at every opportunity to either run against me or cause his son to run against me. And many of the people who--Operation PUSH and all--they were people who oppose. And they would come out to my ward organization, and many times and tried to disrupt in all of those things and never prevailed. So now, for me to permit them to give me some guidance (laughter), I think not. So that's something that I never regretted. And in retrospect, I played the cards that were dealt me and I think I got the best hand at that particular time.

The Honorable Charles Hayes

Labor leader and U.S. congressman Charles A. Hayes was born on February 17, 1918 in Cairo, Illinois, and graduated from Cairo's Sumner High School in 1935.

While working as a machine operator in his hometown Hayes helped to organize the United Packinghouse Workers of America, which later became prominent in union reform movements for women and minorities. Hayes remained involved with the labor union movement for fifty years and eventually became vice president of the United Food and Commercial Workers Union.

In 1983, Hayes was elected as a member of the United States House of Representatives, a seat previously occupied by Chicago, Illinois Mayor Harold Washington. Hayes played a large role in Washington's mayoral campaign by lobbying, organizing people and raising money through his union. During his career in Congress, Hayes made a number of changes. He authored and introduced the School Improvement Act of 1987, which was later passed by the House. This act allocated millions of dollars to public schools across the country, allowing them to purchase textbooks, computers and supplies. He also introduced the Economic Bill of Rights, which outlined a plan for the equal distribution of national wealth. In addition, Hayes was an active member of Congress’s Education and Labor Committee, as well as the Small Business Committee. He served as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives until January 3, 1993.

Hayes also was an ardent supporter of the civil rights movement. He was one of the founding members of Operation PUSH with Reverend Jesse Jackson, Sr. Also, Hayes worked with Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

A resident of Chicago, Illinois for most of his life, Hayes died from complications of lung cancer on April 8, 1997 at the age of 79.

Charles Hayes was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 25, 1993.

Accession Number

A1993.002

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/25/1993

Last Name

Hayes

Maker Category
Middle Name

A.

Schools

Cairo Sumner High School

First Name

Charles

Birth City, State, Country

Cairo

HM ID

HAY02

Favorite Season

None

Sponsor

Tanqueray

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

2/17/1918

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Death Date

4/8/1997

Short Description

Labor leader and U.S. congressman The Honorable Charles Hayes (1918 - 1997 ) was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1983. Hayes was also a life-long union worker, founding the United Packinghouse Workers of America and becoming vice president of the United Food and Commercial Workers Union.

Employment

United States House of Representatives

United Food and Commercial Workers International Union

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Charles Hayes names inspirational figures

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Charles Hayes details his investment in unions

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Charles Hayes expresses his concerns for the African American community

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Charles Hayes wants to be remembered for staying the course

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Charles Hayes shares advice for future generations

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Charles Hayes lists several prominent Chicagoans who've influenced his career

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Charles Hayes shares political views

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$1

DAStory

2$6

DATitle
Charles Hayes details his investment in unions
Charles Hayes lists several prominent Chicagoans who've influenced his career
Transcript
What events influenced you? What important events in our history have influenced you the most? Or would you like pinpoint as very important to black people.$$Well, I think that has the most influence on my life was being a part of a very poor family. I had always--it just became a part of me to always have a desire to help people who needed help. Employment--find a decent job, make a decent living. And certainly, in order to do that--I became really interested in unions. And I guess the thing that turned me in the direction of unions most was a job I had--because I had no desire to continue to be a laborer in a hardware flooring plant. I just wanted to make a little money and get enough stashed away to maybe go to an institution of higher learning after just graduating from high school. But the thing that I found out, you can't do it alone if you work in a factory. You have to be together. And that's where unionism became a part of me, down in Cairo, Illinois when I left there and came to Chicago and at the help of my uncle got a job in the stockyards. And the same thing existed dealing with an employer on a one on basis is not the kind of thing where you'd get very far. So, collectivism meant a lot so I started toward unions. And organized in order to improve ourselves financially and yes, be treated like human beings. Some places they didn't treat you like human beings. If you were African American, you were certainly on the low end of the totem pole, you had the worst jobs. The most laborious and dirtiest jobs in the stockyards. It changed when we got organized. So that influenced my life. And I decided that I should stay and stick with unions, work with unions. And I became to be an elected official of a union on both local and international level and then I got into politics as a correlation between politics and a way of life for people. And when I came to Chicago, I worked for [US Congressman William] Dawson and a lot of others--most of the Democratic party, but there was just one of these "me too" Democrats, I never was so hung up with the party label as I was with what they stood for and the kind of program that they were pushing and that's what I supported. So I was characterized more as an independent kind of Democrat. Rather than a, I guess, based on law, they based on label. So that influenced my life when I got tied up in unions, tied up in politics. Yes, when I went into the Congress in 1983 as the successor to one of the greatest people I ever knew--mayor of the city of Chicago, first black person elected the mayor of this great city--Harold Washington. I supported him, fought within the ranks of labor, they didn't want to support, a lot of--didn't want to support a black leader to head--be the chief executive of this city. But we fought. At least neutralized some them to the point where they didn't--wouldn't make an endorsement in the primary rather than endorse Harold they left it up to each individual union to go on their way and endorse whoever they wanted. And then for me to succeed him as a Congressperson is something I never dreamed of, it certainly wasn't my aspiration. I went to my own union in Washington and asked--they asked me after he was elected, who are we going to get to succeed him? I said, "I don't know, we gotta think about it and talk about it." Already a member of the Coalition of Black Trade Unionists, one of its leaders. And so I said--they said, "Well, why don't you run?" I said, "Who me?" "Yeah. We' ll help you raise the necessary funds." And it took almost $400,000 for me to be elected, all of it didn't come from labor. But they certainly had the PAC [political action committee] funds. They supported me without it, with thirteen different opponents, it was difficult to win. There's no question about it. So this had great--and when I went into Congress, my interest and concern was to be a voice for the voiceless and it's still that way. Poor people on our society, their needs are neglected. Their desires--the homeless we have, people who have no insurance and all these kinds of things I think it's something government needs to do something about. We still have hungry people. I'm very much opposed to the continuation of spending our money in the interest of people overseas--and the neglected people right here at home. This is my background--this is the way I've been all along.$Thurgood Marshall is a person I knew--first met when he was an attorney for the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People]. I was active in the NAACP--used to be the one of the leaders of the Chicago chapter of the NAACP. Travelled all over the country to conventions and everywhere supporting and fighting for the rights of people. I remember, he used to have great influence on me. Of course, Ralph Bunche, I didn't know quite as well. I was very happy when he was given the role to try to get justice for Palestinians, 'cause as a leader of labor at that time, there was only a few of us who took the position, even in the old CIO [Congress of Industrial Organizations] and AFL-CIO [American Federation of Labor - Congress of Industrial Organizations] at conventions that we think that the Palestinians entitled to a homeland, I still feel that way. They shouldn't be treated as they're outcasts. And so far as Jesse Jackson is concerned--I had gotten to know Jesse when he was on the staff of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference [SCLC] working with Dr. Martin Luther King [Jr.]. And I can remember having marched in the South, marched in Chicago for equality is housing and jobs and education with Jesse. And I think that he certainly has been one who--while younger than me, I have a lot of admirations or admiration for him. Now what the fourth one that you mentioned was--I'm trying to think. Well there are several others than I know I have--Harold Washington, God knows, he had a great part in my life, not just politically, but who knows how to work as a coalition kind of person. We only represent roughly 41 percent--which is a big number--of the population in the city of Chicago, but we don't control how the dollars are spent. And this is--this is what the fight is all about. You can't wrap yourself up just in blackness, the favored color of the people in power is green. And you have to get in the position where you can have something to say how this is distributed and this is where out shortcomings are here and [Chicago mayor] Harold Washington did a lot. And yes, people like Margaret Burroughs who have fought and struggled and built the DuSable Museum, certainly has done a lot to improve and record the history that a lot of our people have played. Ralph Metcalf when he stood up in defiance of the police brutality in this city, will long be remembered in our work--and stood with him. And we've--Addie Wyatt, a person I've known and certainly a religious leader now, but was a labor leader, she certainly has played a great part--a role in my life, and I'll always remember. Along with her husband, Reverend Claude Wyatt, we grew up together, our in Altgeld Gardens. I lived out there in public housing. First decent apartment I ever had in this city, was public housing. And I'll always want to see that these people who live there are not pushed out just because big developers want to make big dollars.