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The Honorable Andre M. Davis

Judge Andre M. Davis was born on February 11, 1949 in Baltimore, Maryland. He received his B.A. degree in American history from the University of Pennsylvania, and went on to receive his J.D. degree from the University of Maryland School of Law, where he graduated cum laude in 1978.

In 1978, Davis worked as a law clerk to Judge Frank A. Kaufman, who served in the U.S. District Court in the District of Maryland. In 1979, Davis clerked for Judge Francis D. Murnaghan, Jr., before working as an appellate attorney for the U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division in 1980. From 1981 to 1983, Davis served as an assistant U.S. attorney for the District of Maryland. He then entered private practice for one year, before joining the faculty of his alma mater, the University of Maryland School of Law. In 1987, Davis was appointed to his first judgeship, serving the District Court of Maryland for Baltimore City. He was then appointed as an associate judge for the Circuit Court for Baltimore City in 1990, before being elected to a full term on the state circuit court in 1992. In 1995, President Bill Clinton appointed Davis to the U.S. District Court for the District of Maryland; and in October of 2000, President Clinton nominated Davis to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. However, the U.S. Senate refused to schedule his confirmation hearings, leaving the seat empty until Davis was nominated again, by President Barack Obama, in April 2009. He was confirmed by the Senate with a 72-16 vote in November of that year, receiving his commission the following day. Davis sat on the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals bench for several landmark cases in U.S. law. In 2011, he served on the panel that heard Liberty University et al v. Geithner, which challenged the Affordable Care Act of 2010. In 2014, Davis assumed senior status as a judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit.

Davis was the recipient of the American Jurisprudence Award, the Myerowitz Moot Court Award and the Benjamin L. Cardin Public Service Award, among numerous other honors.

Judge Andre M. Davis was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 8, 2016.

Accession Number

A2016.101

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/8/2016

Last Name

Davis

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Maurice

Schools

University of Pennsylvania

University of Maryland School of Law

First Name

Andre

Birth City, State, Country

Baltimore

HM ID

DAV39

Favorite Season

Autumn

State

Maryland

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cape Cod

Favorite Quote

Don't Believe Everything You Think.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Virginia

Birth Date

2/11/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Richmond

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Short Description

Judge Andre M. Davis (1949 - ) was appointed to the U.S. District Court for the District of Maryland in 1995 by President Bill Clinton. In 2009, he was appointed to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit by President Barack Obama.

Employment

United States, Court of Appeals 4th Circuit

University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

United States Court of Appeals for The Fourth Circuit

United States District Court of Maryland

Maryland Circuit Court

State of Maryland District Court

Private Practice

United States Attorney's Office for The District of Maryland

United States District Court

Favorite Color

Blue

The Honorable Theodore A. McKee

Judge Theodore A. McKee was born June 5, 1947, in a farming community near Rochester, New York; his mother, Etta V. Payne, was from Culpepper, Virginia, and his father, Clarence V. McKee, was the first black high school basketball player in the state of Indiana. McKee attended Chili Central School in Wheatland, New York, and graduated from Chili Central High School in 1965. McKee attended State University of New York (SUNY) at Cortland, where he played football, graduating in 1969.

McKee worked as director of minority recruitment at SUNY Binghampton and recruited students for Jackson State University in Mississippi before enrolling in Syracuse University College of Law. McKee graduated from law school magna cum laude and Order of the Coif; he began his legal career at the firm of Wolf, Block, Schorr and Solis-Cohen in 1975. From 1977 to 1980, McKee served as assistant United States attorney for the eastern district of Pennsylvania. McKee was appointed deputy city solicitor for the city of Philadelphia and then was hired in 1983 as general counsel for the Philadelphia Parking Authority. In 1984, McKee was elected judge of the Court of Common Pleas, First Judicial District, Pennsylvania, where he presided over bench trials. McKee was nominated to the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit by President Clinton in 1994, occupying the seat vacated by Judge A. Leon Higginbotham.

McKee’s community activities include service on the board of the Crime Prevention Association; the Diagnostic and Rehabilitation Center of Philadelphia; and New Directions for Women, Inc. McKee is also is a member of the World Affairs Council and the Urban League of Philadelphia. McKee serves as a trustee of the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation and of Temple University. Father of two daughters, McKee is a volunteer at Germantown Friends School in Germantown, Pennsylvania.

Accession Number

A2005.045

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/10/2005

Last Name

McKee

Maker Category
Middle Name

A.

Organizations
Schools

Wheatland Chili MIddle School`

Wheatland Chili High School`

State University of New York College at Cortland

Syracuse University

First Name

Theodore

Birth City, State, Country

Rochester

HM ID

MCK08

Favorite Season

Spring

Sponsor

Lincoln Financial Group Foundation

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands

Favorite Quote

Putting A Rabbit In A Hat.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Pennsylvania

Birth Date

6/5/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Philadelphia

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Peking Duck

Short Description

Appellate court judge The Honorable Theodore A. McKee (1947 - ) served as judge of the Court of Common Pleas, First Judicial District, Pennsylvania, and was nominated to the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit by President Clinton in 1994.

Employment

State University of New York at Binghamton

Wolf, Block, Schorr and Solis-Cohen

First Judicial District of Pennsylvania

Philadelphia Parking Authority

U.S. Attorney's Office, Philadelphia

City of Philadelphia

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Brown

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Theodore A. McKee's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee describes his mother's birthplace

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee describes his mother's childhood in Rochester, New York

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee describes his mother's young adult years

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee describes his father's childhood in Bloomington, Indiana

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee describes his father's experiences in high school

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee describes how his parents met and their occupations

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee describes his likeness to his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee describes the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee describes the industries in Scottsville, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee recalls his father confronting racial discrimination at a local barbershop

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee recalls his father's ice fishing trip

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee recalls attending Wheatland-Chili Central School in Scottsville, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee describes his favorite high school teachers and subjects

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee talks about attending church as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee describes his love for football and respect for sports players

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee recalls his high school counselor discouraging his college plans

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee recounts his decision to attend State University College at Cortland in New York

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee describes his experiences at the State University College of Cortland in Cortland, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee remembers founding Uhuru, the black student union at his college

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee recalls advocating for a student expelled from college

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee describes his favorite professor at the State University College at Cortland in New York

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee talks about learning karate

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee recalls working in admissions at the State University of New York at Binghamton

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee describes his prisoner rehabilitation program

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee recounts his experience at Syracuse University College of Law in New York, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee recounts his experiences at Syracuse University College of Law in New York, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee recalls meeting his wife and moving to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee describes working for Wolf, Block, Schorr, & Solis-Cohen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee talks about working in the U.S. attorney's office

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee describes working as general counsel for the Philadelphia Parking Authority

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee recalls a case he presided over on the Court of Common Pleas, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee recalls a case he presided over on the Court of Common Pleas, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee explains how he approaches sentencing as a judge

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee shares his thoughts on drug legalization

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee explains his legal philosophy

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee describes his judicial philosophy of neutrality

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee shares his stance on the death penalty

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee describes encountering defendants that he sentenced

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee explains the insanity defense

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee shares his thoughts on juvenile violence and incarceration

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee talks about the cases of Ruben "Hurricane" Carter and Mumia Abu-Jamal

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee shares his opinion of television judges

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee reflects upon his life

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee talks about his father and brother

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee describes training judges in Ghana

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee talks about his mother and daughters

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - The Honorable Theodore A. McKee describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$2

DAStory

6$3

DATitle
The Honorable Theodore A. McKee explains how he approaches sentencing as a judge
The Honorable Theodore A. McKee recalls his father confronting racial discrimination at a local barbershop
Transcript
The other guy also who was sentenced in the case was a guy, and I can't remember his name, but I'll call him Larry. I always had this thing of probation that if you're on probation you ought to be doing something to get your life together on probation, don't just go pee in a little bottle once a week, and then go on about sleeping all day long and watching TV. So, I'd construct these conditions of probation that would almost always have the guy working on a GED [General Educational Development] if he didn't have it already, looking for employment, most of the time employs a curfew and it would be those kinds of things. Sometimes I remember that there was one guy, his first name was Paul [ph.], I can't remember his last name. I gave him homework. He had, he was still in school and I'd give him homework assignments. I'd make him do a paper and bring it in to me every two weeks and I would look at the paper, and then I'd stop doing that 'cause I realized I can't be sure this cat wrote the paper, and then I thought well, if he doesn't bring me the paper, what am I gonna do, am I gonna put him in prison because he doesn't do a homework assignment basically? So, fortunately he always did the paper but I began thinking about it and I thought, well, it makes sense to do this, but it's just too risky because the penalties for his failure are just out of sight. If I'm not going to put him in prison then what's the sense of having him do this, and I'm not giving him a grade, so I just, I thought that, I hadn't thought it through well enough. I thought the probation officer maybe could do that kind of thing because the probation officer had more flexibility than I did. But I stopped doing that. There was this one guy, I knew I had given him a curfew. I had him work on his GED and look for a job, and he had to keep a diary so that when he came into court periodically and I had him report to me, I think once a month he came into court and in addition reported to a probation officer. I'd ask him how he was doing and I'd look at his diary and I looked at the diary and I tried to see what he was doing and he was trying to find a job and I'd ask him to put phone numbers of the people that he was contacting for a job, and once or twice I actually called these people to try to find to try to check to see if he was looking for a job, but with this one guy I imposed that sentence with a GED, find employment within a certain period of time, keep a diary while looking for a job, and there was no other condition in there. He looked at me and he said, "Judge, I know what you're trying to do. You're trying to get me to fix my life 'cause it's broken." He said, "If I could do all the stuff you're expecting me to do, if I was organized enough to do that, I wouldn't be here right now. I would never have gotten in trouble to begin with." I thought about that for a second and I said, "Damn. You're right. You are absolutely right." I said, "Look. Just work on the GED, all right? That, you gotta do that, and do that much. But forget about the looking for the part time job, forget about it--," and he totally changed my philosophy of sentencing. After that, I never, ever put those kinds of conditions on a probationer. I'd always impose GED if they had a GED, or high school thing. I'd impose some kind of employment search, but that was it because I realized the cat's right. You know, if he was structured enough to do all that, plus he was giving up urine because he had a history of an addiction, and if he could do all that, he wouldn't be in the criminal justice system. For him, it was a big enough challenge just not getting high. But I do want him to work on the GED and I couldn't tell him, look, if you just keep giving clean urine you'll be okay, 'cause I wanted him to go beyond that because he could lay in bed all day and give up clean urine. That wasn't going to help him get himself back together.$Race was, I think, a factor in the town [Scottsville, New York]. In fact, I had situations where I went to a barbershop when I was, I think I was a junior in high school [Wheatland-Chili High School, Scottsville, New York] and, no, I was a freshman because I remember I was on the JV [junior varsity] basketball team, and the barber wouldn't cut my hair. I did not want to go to him because I heard he wouldn't cut black folk's hair. I told my dad [Clarence V. McKee] that, and dad said, "Well, how do you know he's not going to cut your hair?" And I said, "Well, I don't think he'll cut my hair." We would always go to Buffalo [New York], which was about an hour-and-a-half bus ride for me to get haircuts. Later on, we'd go to Rochester [New York], which was a lot closer, but we had friends from the railroad in Buffalo and we'd go there, visit them, and I'd go get a haircut. So, dad said we'll go there and see if he'll cut your hair. I went in and when I walked in the barbershop, he looked at me and asked me if I had an appointment. I said, "No, I don't have an appointment." There were about four or five other people in the barbershop at the time, so I asked each one of them, "Do you have an appointment?" And they all said, "No." So, I said "Okay" and I went back home, told my dad. I don't know what happened. Dad didn't drive a car until I was older, but dad got on his bicycle, went up to the barbershop, (laughter) and he was really somebody you didn't mess with. He did not take a lot of stuff. But, dad called me from the barbershop and he said, "You come up here. He's gonna cut your hair." And I remember, it was getting close to the time I had to be at the school for a basketball game, and dad was very, very much into sports. In fact, what he said to me when I was leaving for college, his parting advice was, "Make the football team," because he knew I wanted to play football and I never played football in high school. So, I was concerned I was gonna be late to the game. If I was late getting to the game, I was going to get benched. So, I said, "Well Dad, I'm not sure I have time now to get the haircut, because I'm gonna not get to the basketball game on time." And Dad said, "Fuck the basketball game. You get up here. He's gonna cut your hair." I'll never forget that, 'cause Dad, he cursed a lot but he never used the F-word, and for him to use the F-word, number one, and tell me that getting this haircut was more important than playing in the game that night, it shocked me. So, I got up there as fast as I possibly could. I came in and there was incredible tension, but he did cut my hair and then he gave me this lecture about how he didn't think that a lot of people would like to go where they weren't welcome--where they weren't wanted--and I'm just gonna try to keep my mouth shut while I cut my hair.$$That's what the barber--$$The barber said that, yeah. Daddy wasn't there, though; he wouldn't have said anything. Daddy had gone back home. And he did an okay job. He didn't do a Mohican [Mohawk] or anything on me, which I was afraid of. I got home and Dad said, "Well, let me see what he did to your hair." And he was okay with that, and I did get to the game on time. I remember I got home and maybe ten minutes later, the folks that I was riding up to the high school with came by and I got a ride uptown. That's a very vivid memory. As I said, that's not that early. That's probably--$$Yeah. You could imagine. Did your father ever talk about what happened when--$$He never told me, no (laughter).$$He was apparently highly agitated.$$Oh, yeah. He was upset. Dad was very upset. He was somebody who had to go through so much stuff growing up, and he never wanted us to have to go through that, and he was very upset. For him to get on the bicycle and ride up to there, and he was not a young man when this happened, and then telling me basically, "If you get benched tonight, or you miss the game and get thrown off the team, that's all right and you're gonna get your hair cut." That was something I could not have imagined Dad ever saying to me, given how important he viewed sports.$$Yeah, he would have had to have been, if you were in high school, he would have been in his sixties; early sixties.$$Yeah, probably close to that.$$Yeah. Born in 1904.$$Yeah, late fifties.$$He would have been--$$Because I graduated in '65 [1965], so probably early sixties.$$Yeah, yeah.

The Honorable Robert Mack Bell

Judge Robert Mack Bell was born on July 6, 1943 in Rocky Mount, North Carolina to Thomas and Rosa Lee Bell. His father was a construction worker while his mother worked as a domestic and care giver. His parents separated when he was a young, and Bell was raised by his mother who moved to Baltimore, Maryland, in search of better jobs. He attended Baltimore public schools and graduated from Dunbar High School in 1961. While finishing his senior year at Dunbar in 1960, he, along with eleven other students, were recruited by Morgan State College students to participate in a sit-in at Hooper’s Restaurant, a segregated business. The students were subsequently arrested and convicted for trespassing. Bell was the lead defendant for an appeal of the verdict in the landmark civil rights case, Bell v. Maryland, which was argued before the U.S. Supreme Court and eventually ended racial segregation in Maryland.

After high school, Bell enrolled at Morgan State College in 1961 but was forced to take a year off from school after being hospitalized with tuberculosis. In 1963, he returned to Morgan where he was active in student government, and a member of the honor society and of the Alpha Phi Omega Fraternity. After he graduated second in his class with his A.B. degree in history and political science in 1966, he enrolled at Harvard Law School. The first student from Morgan to attend Harvard’s prestigious law school, Bell received his J.D. degree from there in 1969.

After passing the Maryland State Bar Examination in 1969, Bell was hired by Piper & Marbury, where he became the Baltimore law firm’s first black associate. In 1975, he became a judge on the District Court of Maryland for Baltimore City in his first judgeship. In 1980, Bell served as a judge for the Circuit Court for Baltimore, remaining until 1984. He was then appointed to the bench of the Court of Special Appeals in Maryland, serving in that post until 1991 when he was elected Judge of the Court of Appeals of Maryland. In 1996, Bell was appointed by Maryland Governor Parris Glendening as Chief Judge of the Court of Appeals, the state’s highest court. With that appointment he became the only active judge in Maryland to have served at least four years on all four levels of Maryland’s judiciary and the first African American to be named the state’s chief jurist.

Bell is a member of several legal organizations including the National, American and Maryland State Bar Associations. He has received numerous awards and recognition for his work in the legal field and lectures often at schools and at community functions.

Appellate Court Judge Robert Mack Bell was interviewed by TheHistoryMakers on August 17, 2004.

Accession Number

A2004.129

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/17/2004

Last Name

Bell

Maker Category
Marital Status

Single

Middle Name

Mack

Schools

P.S. 101A Elementary School

P.S. 139 Elementary School

Dunbar High School

Morgan State University

Harvard Law School

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Depends on Schedule

First Name

Robert

Birth City, State, Country

Rocky Mount

HM ID

BEL02

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

No preference

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

No

Favorite Season

Summer

Speaker Bureau Notes

Preferred Audience: No preference

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Maryland

Birth Date

7/6/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Baltimore

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pork

Short Description

Judge The Honorable Robert Mack Bell (1943 - ) was the lead defendant in the 1964 civil rights case, Bell v. Maryland, which was argued before the U.S. Supreme Court and helped end racial segregation in Maryland. Since 1996, Bell has been Chief Judge of the Maryland Court of Appeals.

Employment

Piper & Marbury

District Court of Maryland

Circuit Court for Baltimore City

Maryland Court of Special Appeals

Court of Appeals of Maryland

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Robert Mack Bell's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell describes his father's childhood and explains how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell describes his mother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell talks about his parents moving to Baltimore, Maryland and their eventual separation

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell reflects upon his knowledge of his family's history

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell talks about his parents' jobs

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell remembers his maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell remembers his paternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell remembers childhood holiday traditions

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell remembers childhood activities and early lessons from his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell describes his childhood neighborhood in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 1 Story: 16 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 1 Story: 17 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls his elementary school experiences at P.S. 101-A in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell explains why he completed elementary school at P.S. 139 in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls his favorite subject from elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell talks about his aspiration to become a lawyer

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell describes his childhood personality and interests

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls attending Faith Baptist Church in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell describes his experiences at Paul Laurence Dunbar Junior High School in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls his teachers and principal at Paul Laurence Dunbar Junior High School in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell describes his interests while attending Paul Laurence Dunbar Junior High School in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls meeting Reginald F. Lewis at Paul Laurence Dunbar High School in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls his first sit-in experience at Hooper's Restaurant in Baltimore, Maryland in 1960

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell speculates about the reasons high school students were recruited for civil rights sit-ins

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell talks about his trespassing conviction during a sit-in at Hooper's Restaurant which led to Bell v. Maryland (1964)

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell talks about the outcome of the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in Bell v. Maryland (1964)

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell talks about the careers of the lawyers and judges involved in the circuit court trial of Bell v. Maryland (1964)

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls the impact of the Bell v. Maryland (1964) trial on his senior year of high school

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell explains his decision to attend Morgan State College in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls keeping up with his studies at Morgan State College after he was hospitalized for a year

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell describes his experience at Morgan State College in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell explains his decision to attend Harvard Law School in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell describes his experience at Harvard Law School in Cambridge, Massachusetts in the late 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls the founding of BLSA, the Black American Law Students Association

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell explains how his academic success at Harvard Law School opened doors for other African American students

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls his classes and professors at Harvard Law School in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls his first job after law school with Piper & Marbury in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell talks about being one of five African Americans to pass the Maryland State bar exam in 1969

Tape: 3 Story: 13 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls his experience at the law firm Piper & Marbury in 1969

Tape: 3 Story: 14 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell talks about Piper & Marbury's plan to provide community legal services

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell talks about his appointment to the District Court of Maryland for Baltimore City in 1975

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell explains his decision to become a judge

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell explains the difference between the duties of a district court judge versus a circuit court judge

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell explains why he chose to move from the District Court of Maryland to the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell reflects upon the value of his judgeship

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls memorable cases from his years as a judge for the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell talks about the challenges of serving as a judge

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell describes changes he has observed in criminal cases throughout his career as a judge

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell talks about his experience on the Maryland Court of Special Appeals

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell talks about his interest in the legal process as a judge on the Maryland Court of Special Appeals

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell explains the difference between the Maryland Court of Special Appeals and the Court of Appeals of Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell describes the pace of work on the Court of Appeals of Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell describes his responsibilities as chief judge on the Court of Appeals of Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 14 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell reflects upon his achievements in light of his family background

Tape: 4 Story: 15 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell defines his judicial philosophy and approach

Tape: 4 Story: 16 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 17 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Robert Mack Bell narrates his photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

10$17

DATitle
The Honorable Robert Mack Bell recalls his first sit-in experience at Hooper's Restaurant in Baltimore, Maryland in 1960
The Honorable Robert Mack Bell reflects upon his life
Transcript
Were you starting to become a little bit more socially aware?$$Oh yeah. Oh yeah. I--you know, as you grow older--I mean, as I say, we were beginning to notice the, the women, we were beginning to notice a lot of things. But you gotta remember, we were still rather segregated in those days. I mean, I remember going to some conferences outside of the ghetto area [in Baltimore, Maryland], but that was an eye-opening experience. But I did have--in 1960, I did have a, a very interesting and I think important occurrence. That was when I got involved with sit-ins myself.$$And let's talk a little bit about your sit-in (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Yeah, see--$$--experience.$$Yeah, see we, we were--we [Bell and Reginald F. Lewis] ran for student government president in my junior--at the end of our junior year, so it would've been for the next year. So at the time that--at the spring of that year, I was student government president elect and this Morgan [State College; Morgan State University, Baltimore, Maryland] student came to [Paul Laurence] Dunbar [High School; Paul Laurence Dunbar High School for Health Professionals, Baltimore, Maryland] seeking some assistance.$$Morgan college students.$$Morgan State College. In, in those days it was a college, yeah, seeking some assistance in a planned demonstration that was gonna take place on the last day of school in June, and they needed someone to be point person in recruiting students. As student government president, you know, we--I was the one that they checked with and we got some--took some responsibility for trying to get the people together. And in fact when the day came, we did have some people. We got on the bus and we went downtown and participated in some picketing and ultimately, the group I was with ended up going in and sitting in at Hooper's Restaurant [Baltimore, Maryland].$$Hooper's?$$Hooper's, H-O-O-P-E-R-S, with the result that we were arrested. That didn't mean that we were physically arrested on the spot. What it does mean is that we were permitted to go home, that was a Friday, permitted to go home and come back that next Monday and then be fingerprinted and processed.$$So you weren't taken to jail.$$Not right then. No, we weren't taken to jail at all, did not spend a day in jail, but we were prosecuted. I was sixteen (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Were you scared?$$--at that time. Well, you're always scared when you don't know what's happening or you don't know what's going to happen. Yeah, I was scared in two ways, scared of what, what, what might happen, but also scared not to do it in a sense because it was something that I, I decided was important to do. And, and there was a third way, I guess, I was also a little bit concerned about what my mother [Rosa Lee Jordan Bell] would say and do because--$$What did your--what was your mother's reaction?$$She--once it was done, she was very supportive. If I had told her in advance, I'm not so sure she would have permitted me to do it. For that reason, I didn't tell her (laughter).$$And this was in 1960, right?$$Nineteen sixty [1960], yeah. This was--this would've been June 16th or 17th of 1960. Now, this is after the southern thing [Atlanta Student Movement]--$$Right.$$--because they--that all started in--that all started before.$$Right, I think it was in March--$$That's right, see, and--$$(Unclear) in March at southern--$$--and then before March, you had A & T [Agricultural and Technical College of North Carolina; North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, North Carolina]--$$Um-hm. Right, exactly.$$--and so it moved up the coast, so--$Any regrets?$$Oh, no. Absolutely not. Why would I have any?$$None?$$That's right, I don't. I really don't.$$What haven't you done yet that you'd still like to do?$$Retire.$$(Laughter) And--$$I'm tired, that's all (laughter).$$When do you anticipate that happening?$$I have no idea. I--you know, I could retire tomorrow. I've been--I've been able to retire from the standpoint of the vesting of a pension since I was sixteen--see, sixteen years--almost fourteen years ago, but I don't know. I, I'm--I have no idea yet. I'll have to see. But I'm just tired right now, that's why I said that (laughter).$$And quickly, what, what are you gonna do when you retire?$$Again, I'll refer to Thurgood [Marshall]. Thurgood said, "I'm gonna sit on my butt, and that's right," (laughter).$$Thank you very much, [HistoryMaker] Judge [Robert Mack] Bell.$$Thank you.

The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr.

Distinguished lawyer and judge Theodore R. Newman, Jr. was born on July 5, 1934, in Birmingham, Alabama. His family later moved to Mount Hermon, Massachusetts, where Newman graduated from high school.

After earning a philosophy degree from Brown University in 1955, Newman studied constitutional law and jurisprudence at Harvard Law School. He earned his law degree in 1958 and then began a three-year tour of duty with the U.S. Air Force as a judge advocate stationed in France. Upon his return to civilian life, Newman took a job with the Civil Rights Division of the Department of Justice. He entered private practice in 1962 in Washington, D.C.

In November 1970, Newman became an associate judge of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia, the court of general trial jurisdiction for the district. He served in that capacity until his appointment in October 1976 as chief judge of the Court of Appeals. Newman joined the Board of Trustees at Brown University in 1979, and the following year, Brown University conferred an honorary doctorate of laws upon him. In 1984, he became an associate judge of the Court of Appeals, and held that position until 1991, when he retired and received status as a senior judge.

Newman has been very active over the years in several legal organizations. He is a fellow of the American Bar Foundation of the American Bar Association, a past president of the National Center for State Courts, and former chairman of the Judicial Council of the National Bar Association. The National Bar Association bestowed Newman with its highest honor, the C. Francis Stradford Award, for his outstanding service in the struggle for equal justice. In 1988, the board's Judicial Council gave him its highest honor, the William H. Hastie Award.

Newman has also lectured at Harvard Law School and held adjunct professorships at Howard University Law School and the Georgetown Law Center. He has traveled extensively in Africa.

Accession Number

A2003.239

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/24/2003

Last Name

Newman

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Schools

Northfield Mount Hermon School

Brown University

Harvard Law School

First Name

Theodore

Birth City, State, Country

Birmingham

HM ID

NEW01

Favorite Season

Winter

Speaker Bureau Notes

Has a second home in the U.S. Virgin Islands:

6345 Smith Bay
St. Thomas
USVI 00802
340-779-1909
340-776-3995 (fax)

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Africa

Favorite Quote

Lord Be Willing And The Creek Don't Rise.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

7/5/1934

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Steak

Short Description

Appellate court judge The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. (1934 - ) The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. has worked with the U.S. Department of Justice and in private practice. He later became an associate judge of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia, and was appointed Chief Justice of the District's Court of Appeals.

Employment

United States Air Force

Department of Justice

Houston, Bryant and Gardner

Pratt, Bowers and Newman

District of Columbia

D.C. Court of Appeals

Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
0,0:268,3:544,8:958,15:2131,36:7890,60:14092,135:16808,214:17238,220:17926,231:19556,243:32140,307:33031,319:36595,381:37162,389:50870,568:51360,577:54830,612:63968,688:74576,783:75129,791:77499,816:80896,904:99826,1259:103292,1284:103588,1289:105438,1330:106104,1340:108426,1348:109252,1356:113415,1395:114980,1404:119206,1480:120220,1494:120766,1505:125664,1539:126937,1566:127205,1571:127607,1578:131962,1669:132230,1674:133034,1706:133637,1719:134173,1728:136920,1780:137188,1785:143118,1805:143488,1811:149932,1881:152126,1911:153218,1935:156260,1991:157040,2006:157430,2015:158678,2036:159146,2044:166730,2215:167080,2221:167360,2226:167640,2231:168270,2243:168690,2251:173526,2313:174550,2346:174806,2351:189020,2444:191380,2469:199414,2558:205928,2639:219526,2756:220345,2767:223537,2779:224158,2789:226228,2835:226780,2846:228229,2879:228505,2884:234758,2938:235374,2949:237460,2955:238426,2970:238840,2982:239116,2987:239530,2994:240565,3029:240841,3034:241117,3041:241393,3046:249407,3165:249833,3173:280570,3533$0,0:6150,221:6870,235:15808,331:18400,383:18880,389:19264,394:22648,420:31079,528:45320,870:62070,1030
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. talks about his parents' names and birthplaces

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. describes his paternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. describes the origin of his mother's family name: McAlpine

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. describes his father's occupation as an A.M.E. preacher in Alabama

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. talks about the history of Washington Chapel A.M.E. Church

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. describes his mother's education and career, and her affiliation to Selma University in Selma, Alabama

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. describes his parents' relationship and how they first met

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood in Tuskegee, Alabama

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. talks about growing up in Tuskegee, Alabama and the value of education within the community

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. describes his parents' influence and growing up as a preacher's son

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. details his experiences with mischief as a child and young adult

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. describes civil rights activity in Tuskegee, Alabama including his father's activism

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. describes playing football as a youth

Tape: 1 Story: 16 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. talks about his childhood personality and grade school years in Tuskegee, Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. lists memorable personalities of the Tuskegee, Alabama community

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. talks about his childhood neighbor, photographer P.H. Pope

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. describes his father's work for the Tuskegee Airmen

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. describes Charles G. Gomillion, a professor at Tuskegee Institute and an active civil rights participant in Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. talks about extra-curricular activities at Tuskegee Institute High School in Tuskegee, Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. talks about his attempt to create a student government at Tuskegee Institute High School in Tuskegee, Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. describes his experience of applying to Mount Hermon School for Boys in Gill, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. describes his time at Mount Hermon School for Boys in Gill, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. describes notable teachers at Mount Hermon School for Boys in Gill, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. talks his decision to become a lawyer

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. describes his university application process

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. describes his experience at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island and how it compares to other Ivy League schools

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. speaks about his teachers and mentors at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. speaks about choosing to major in philosophy at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. talks about his social life during his time at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. describes his application process for law school

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. describes his time at Harvard Law School in Cambridge, Massachusetts including influential professors and classmates

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. recalls his experience in the U.S. Air Force at the Laon-Couvron Air Base in France

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. recalls his experience as judge advocate for the U.S. Air Force at the Laon-Couvron Air Base in France

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. recalls his experiences in Paris, France during World War II

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. describes traveling in Europe during World War II as a judge advocate for the U.S. Air Force

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. describes working for the U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. speaks about his opinions of key figureheads in the U.S. Department of Justice during the early 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. describes joining the law firm of Houston, Bryant, and Gardner after he left the U.S. Department of Justice

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. talks about his Republican affiliation and involvement in Republican politics

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. describes his activities on the Superior Court of the District of Columbia in the early 1970s

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. recalls his trying of the United States v. James Arnold

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. describes his appointment by President Gerald R. Ford to the D.C. Court of Appeals in 1976

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. describes his meeting with David Brody of the Anti-Defamation League

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. describes his hopes and concerns for the black community, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. describes his hopes and concerns for the black community, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. describes what he would do differently, looking back on his life

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. talks about how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$2

DAStory

7$10

DATitle
The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. describes his experience of applying to Mount Hermon School for Boys in Gill, Massachusetts
The Honorable Theodore Newman, Jr. talks his decision to become a lawyer
Transcript
My high school experience was not a good one. For example, when I took the entrance exam for admission to prep school to Mount Hermon School [for Boys, later Northfield Mount Hermon, Gill, Massachusetts]. For the first time in my life, I had difficulty finishing an exam in the allotted time. Part of the application process to Mount Hermon, and Mount Hermon had been recruiting African Americans in Tuskegee [Alabama] for ten or fifteen years before me. You had to send a recommendation from your principal. They wanted him to send a recommendation and you could select a teacher to do a recommendation. I selected T. C. Williams, of course. When I got to prep school, the dean of admission, Dean Burdick, all six foot four or five, called me down to the office to talk to me without telling me why. He sent somebody to tell me to come down he wanted to talk to me. I said oh my God what have I done now, I'm getting put out, can't go home, ain't no way in the world I can go back to Alabama and tell my parents I've been put out of Mount Hermon and I said, "I haven't done anything." Dean Burdick said, "No"--as soon as I got there I said, "what, have I done something wrong?" He said, "No, no nothing wrong." He said, "But we do want to ask you about Tuskegee Institute High School [Tuskegee, Alabama] because there something that is unusual about your application." He said, "We have two recommendations, your principal and T. C. Williams," and he said, "They are diametrically opposed to each other." He said, "Your test score was very good. Your high school record was good compared to other people from that same high school who'd been here, so we were confident that you could do the work, but we couldn't understand why you got this negative recommendation from your principal," at which time I told him of the family background and the bad blood between my family and the principal. He said, "Well how did you find the exam?" I said, "I didn't find it particularly difficult." I said, "I thought it was a bit long to finish in two and a half hours." He said, "Two and a half hours?" I said, "Yeah, two and half hours." I said, "I had to rush a bit to get through with it, and it's the first time I've ever had to rush to finish a test in the allotted time." He said, "Theodore," he said, "Ted, you were supposed to have four hours." They had deliberately cut my time by an hour and a half. They tried to ensure that I wouldn't get in. That was done at the high school. At my 50th reunion in 19, I mean 2001, as part of the tradition at Mount Hermon you are allowed to see your student file, and I had an opportunity to read the letter that K. B. Young had written and the letter that T. C. Williams had written. You can imagine my reaction at Christmas break, my year, my senior year at prep school when I got back to Tuskegee and went by the high school and K. B. Young, Mount Hermon sent your grades back, your first quarter grades back to the high school from which you had come if you had come from a high school, and they sent them to the principal. I was at the high school and saw K. B. Young, and he told me that he had seen my grades at Mount Hermon and how proud he was of how well I was doing. The bad Ted responded to him appropriately and vulgarly, in the process telling him I knew what he had done, but I was gonna make it in spite of him.$$That's something. That certainly says something about the anger of most people-yeah (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) True story, true story.$So, well, when you were at, on the verge of graduating, now you graduated from Mount Hermon [School for Boys, later Northfield Mount Hermon, Gill, Massachusetts] in what year?$$Nineteen fifty-one [1951].$$Okay, 1951. So when you were coming out did you have an idea of what career you were gonna pursue now?$$Oh no question. I'm told that I said I was gonna be a lawyer when I was about five years old. I know by the time I was in the seventh or eighth grade, really about the time I was in fifth or sixth grade I was saying when I refused to salute the flag I knew I was gonna be a lawyer, and I knew I was going to Harvard Law School [Cambridge, Massachusetts]. I was just arrogant enough and cocky enough, a poor little country boy from Southeast Alabama who didn't wear shoes until I was twelve and didn't know meat wasn't a side dish until I was twenty, a poor little country boy, but I knew. I was, I knew I was going to Harvard Law School. I knew I was gonna be a lawyer, never had a second thought about that, never.

The Honorable Glenn T. Johnson

Illinois Appellate Court Judge Glenn T. Johnson was born on July 19, 1917, in Washington, Arkansas, to Reola Thompson and Floyd Johnson. He earned his B.S. in education from Wilberforce University in Xenia, Ohio, and his J.D. and S.J.D. from John Marshall Law School in Chicago. During World War II, Johnson served in the U.S. Army. He later served as a member of the Illinois National Guard and the U.S. Army Reserve.

Johnson worked as assistant attorney general of Illinois for seven years and as a senior attorney for the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago for three years. In 1966, he was elected associate judge of the Circuit Court of Cook County and in 1968 was elected full Circuit Court judge, a position he held until 1973. That year, Johnson was sworn in as justice of the Appellate Court of Illinois. He served in this capacity until his retirement in 1994.

Johnson is a member of the National, American, Illinois, Cook County, Chicago and Women's Bar associations. He is past president of the Cook County Bar Association and past chairman of the Judicial Council of the National Bar Association and the Bench and Bar Section of the Illinois Bar Association. He holds memberships in various organizations and boards and is an active member of Woodlawn A.M.E. Church, where he serves as trustee emeritus and was a member of the Judicial Council for twenty-four years. Johnson is also an emeritus member of the Board of Trustees of the John Marshall Law School, where he served as a trustee for twenty-five years. He has received various awards and honors for his dedication and hard work.

Johnson was married to the late Judge Evelyn F. Johnson, with whom he had two children, Evelyn and Glenn Jr. He later married Elaine Bailey Johnson and has three grandchildren and one great-grandson. He died on November 30, 2010.

Accession Number

A2003.002

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/13/2003

Last Name

Johnson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

T.

Organizations
Schools

John Marshall Law School

Wilberforce University

First Name

Glenn

Birth City, State, Country

Washington

HM ID

JOH07

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Arkansas

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

There's Room At The Top.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

7/19/1917

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Death Date

11/30/2010

Short Description

Appellate court judge and state assistant attorney general The Honorable Glenn T. Johnson (1917 - 2010 ) was only the second African American to serve on the Illinois Appellate Court. He was a past president of the Cook County Bar Association and was inducted into their Hall of Fame in 1997.

Employment

State of Illinois

Mentropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago

Circuit Court of Cook County

Illinois Appellate Court

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:5560,13:77180,314:89630,399:146262,788:182075,1065:204160,1226:204840,1232:224520,1334$0,0:5495,46:8478,136:61365,515:76382,570:114040,780
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Glenn Johnson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Glenn Johnson lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Glenn Johnson describes his family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Glenn Johnson describes his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Glenn Johnson talks about his aunt, Gertrude Johnson France, who raised him

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Glenn Johnson describes his childhood home in Washington, Arkansas which was restored by James Pilkinton as part of Historic Washington State Park

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Glenn Johnson describes his grade school years

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Glenn Johnson describes learning to type as a high school student in Hot Springs, Arkansas

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Glenn Johnson talks about playing football at Langston High School in Hot Springs, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Glenn Johnson describes his principal French Hicks and pastor Thomas Primm as those who influenced him

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Glenn Johnson explains the origin of his nickname "Hot Water" Johnson at Wilberforce University

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Glenn Johnson describes his experience at Wilberforce University in Wilberforce, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Glenn Johnson talks about working as a dishwasher after graduating from Wilberforce University

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Glenn Johnson describes his distaste for farm work

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Glenn Johnson talks about his time in the ROTC at Wilberforce University where he was instructed by Benjamin O. Davis

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Glenn Johnson describes his attempts to avoid military service

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Glenn Johnson talks about serving in the U.S. Army during World War II as a warrant officer

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Glenn Johnson talks about his military service in the U.S. Army during World War II, pt.1

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Glenn Johnson talks about his military service in the U.S. Army during World War II, pt.2

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Glenn Johnson talks about attending John Marshall Law School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Glenn Johnson describes his work at the Illinois Attorney General's Office and his mentor, Claude Holman

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Glenn Johnson talks about Claude Holman and the "Silent Six"

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Glenn Johnson describes his political alignment with mentor Claude Holman and Mayor Richard J. Daley

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Glenn Johnson talks about his experience with Mayor Harold Washington's Administration

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Glenn Johnson describes his career highlights as an appellate judge

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Glenn Johnson talks about the "Silent Six" on Chicago City Council and Mayor Harold Washington's Administration

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Glenn Johnson describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Glenn Johnson talks about the World Conference on World Peace through Law and World Assembly of Judges

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Glenn Johnson reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Glenn Johnson talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Glenn Johnson reflects upon his aunt's pride in his accomplishments

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Glenn Johnson talks about his advice for young people and his mentee, Timothy Evans

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Glenn Johnson narrates his photos, pt.1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Glenn Johnson narrates his photographs, pt.2

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

7$3

DATitle
Glenn Johnson talks about his experience with Mayor Harold Washington's Administration
Glenn Johnson talks about the World Conference on World Peace through Law and World Assembly of Judges
Transcript
Now, did you know [Mayor] Harold Washington in those days?$$Yep.$$What was your impression of him?$$I succeeded Harold Washington at the Sanitary District and Harold Washington was a congressman before he was elected mayor. I don't think I ever had my picture made with Harold Washington. I believe it was once, once an African judge was here visiting and I was with him, but that's the only time that Harold and I had our picture made together. See because the white boys on the bench was suggesting that I recuse myself of hearing any cases with Harold Washington. So I would always say, well, Harold Washington had never been to my house, I never been to his house 'cause I'm no friend of Harold Washington, he's no friend of mine, so. That's the way the other boys played it, so that's the way I played it.$$Okay. So eventually though a lot of the court cases that were filed on behalf of the Washington administration would win, you know, further up the ladder, right? Is this true?$$Yeah.$$Sometimes they'd be knocked down at the lower level then they would end up winning at the higher level.$$Most all of those cases were two to three, or two to one. One and two Italian boys went the other way.$$We only have three members of the appellate court, I mean three votes?$$Yeah.$$Okay.$$Appellate Court sits in threes, so.$Now you participated once in an international conference [World Conference on World Peace through Law and World Assembly of Judges] for judges in Ivory Coast. When was that, can you tell us about that?$$Yeah. That was 1973. Earl Warren was there, Thurgood Marshall was there, and I thought that was a wonderful organization [World Association of Judges], but they had a self-perpetuating hierarchy and so the chief, I don't know whether he's dead now, but he got too old to function and so he never let anybody else succeed him, so the organization died. I thought that was a wonderful organization. I went with 'em to Abidjan [Ivory Coast], Manila in the Philippines, Seoul, Korea, San Paulo, Brazil. They met every two years and on the opposite--in a different continent.

The Honorable Shelvin Louise Hall

Judge Shelvin Hall was born in Cuero, Texas, in 1948. Hall attended Proviso East High School and graduated from Hampton University and Boston University School of Law. After law school, Hall received training in civil rights law through the NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund. She then went into private practice with four other women in Houston, Texas, establishing the first law firm in the nation that was run entirely by African American women. Over a six-year period, Hall gained extensive civil rights litigation experience. In 1982, she returned to Chicago and was admitted to practice law in Illinois. For the next eight years, she acted as general counsel to the Illinois Department of Human Rights, supervising civil rights, administrative, labor and legislative issues.

Hall was appointed to the Circuit Court in 1991, overseeing its Domestic Relations Division for four years. From 1995-1999, Hall presided over the Circuit Court's Law Division, hearing Cook County's largest civil cases. In 1999, Hall was appointed Justice of the Illinois Appellate Court's First District.

Judge Hall is chairperson of the Judicial Council of the National Bar Association. She is former chair of the Illinois Judicial Council, an organization of predominately African American judges in Illinois. She has served on the boards of numerous organizations, including the Cook County Bar Association, the National Bar Association, the National Bar Association's Judicial Council, the Lutheran Family Mission and the Legal Assistance Foundation of Chicago. She was the first woman judge on the executive committee of the Illinois Judicial Conference, and serves on its education committee. She has held memberships in the Illinois Judges Association, the National Association of Women Judges, the Illinois State Bar Association and other bar groups. She is a member of the Friendship Baptist Church where her father, the Rev. Dr. Shelvin Jerome Hall is pastor. Her sister, Justice Priscilla L. Hall, sits on the New York State Supreme Court.

Accession Number

A2002.191

Sex

Female

Interview Date

9/26/2002

Last Name

Hall

Maker Category
Middle Name

Louise

Organizations
Schools

Proviso East High School

Hampton University

Boston University

First Name

Shelvin

Birth City, State, Country

Cuero

HM ID

HAL04

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

Find The Good And Praise It.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

6/15/1948

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Corn (Fried)

Short Description

Appellate court judge The Honorable Shelvin Louise Hall (1948 - ) was the Justice of the Illinois Appellate Court's First District as well as a chairperson of the Judicial Council of the National Bar Association.

Employment

Illinois Department of Human Rights

Circuit Court of Cook County

Illinois First District Appellate Court

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Shelvin Louise Hall's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Shelvin Louise Hall lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Shelvin Louise Hall describes her parents' background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Shelvin Louise Hall talks about her family's educational background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Shelvin Louise Hall contrasts growing up in Cuero, Texas to Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Shelvin Louise Hall talks about her schools and churches in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Shelvin Louise Hall talks about growing up with Black Panther Fred Hampton

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Shelvin Louise Hall talks about attending Proviso East High School in Maywood, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Shelvin Louise Hall talks about her interests at Proviso East High School in Maywood, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Shelvin Louise Hall talks about her father's work with Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Shelvin Louise Hall talks about her father's work with Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Shelvin Louise Hall describes attending Hampton University in Hampton, Virginia in the 1960s

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Shelvin Louise Hall recalls protesting at Hampton University

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Shelvin Louise Hall talks about the challenges of law school at Boston University

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Shelvin Louise Hall describes helping to create the Black American Law Students Association at Boston University

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Shelvin Louise Hall describes her law school professors

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Shelvin Louise Hall talks about her training with the NAACP Legal Defense Fund

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Shelvin Louise Hall describes practicing civil rights law in Houston, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Shelvin Louise Hall talks about working with Congressman Mickey Leland

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Shelvin Louise Hall talks about the personalities of Mickey Leland and Ron Dellums

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Shelvin Louise Hall recalls her decision to leave her position as legislative director for Mickey Leland

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Shelvin Louise Hall talks about meeting Fidel Castro in Cuba with Mickey Leland

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Shelvin Louise Hall talks working for the Illinois Department of Human Rights in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Shelvin Louise Hall describes her involvement with the National Bar Association

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Shelvin Louise Hall describes being an Illinois Supreme Court Circuit Court Judge

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Shelvin Louise Hall talks about handling court cases as Illinois Supreme Court Circuit Court Judge

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Shelvin Louise Hall recalls the nomination of Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court in 1991

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Shelvin Louise Hall shares her views on Clarence Thomas

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Shelvin Louise Hall describes working in the law division as a Circuit Court judge

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Shelvin Louise Hall talks about becoming a justice with the Illinois Appellate Court in 1999

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Shelvin Louise Hall describes running for Justice of the Illinois Appellate Court's First District

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Shelvin Louise Hall describes her job as Justice of the Illinois Appellate Court's First District

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Shelvin Louise Hall talks about her appellate court cases

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Shelvin Louise Hall describes her hopes and concerns for the black community

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Shelvin Louise Hall reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Shelvin Louise Hall talks about her family

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Shelvin Louise Hall describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Shelvin Louise Hall talks about her future plans and recent wedding

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Shelvin Louise Hall narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$1

DAStory

2$7

DATitle
Shelvin Louise Hall talks about her training with the NAACP Legal Defense Fund
Shelvin Louise Hall talks about growing up with Black Panther Fred Hampton
Transcript
So it was--we got to find out I mean we were able to find out more and more about what civil rights law was about and such that by the time I was graduating from Boston University, I applied to the [NAACP] Legal Defense Fund and was chosen as a number one fellow and that meant that they gave me funds to set up private practice. They trained me at the ink fund what we used to call it which is a Legal Defense and Education Fund Incorporated and we call it the ink fund for short. They trained us at their offices and then assigned us to cooperating attorneys throughout the south. So I was assigned to [HM] Gabrielle [Kirk] McDonald and Mark McDonald in Houston, Texas. I was born in Texas, I wanted to go back. I had some idea that's where I wanted to practice law. And so the ink fund--legal defense fund gave me money for books and they gave us a stipend and assigned me to Gabby McDonald [Gabrielle Kirk McDonald] and then for three years after that they supported me being in private practice as long as I was cooperating with them in terms of their civil rights cases. So it was a wonderful beginning for a person who wanted to be a civil rights lawyer.$I want to back track a little bit and talk about Fred Hampton, you said he was a comedian, I've never heard people say that before.$$Fred, Fred, Brother Fred. He was--like I said we lived on the same street. I lived on the 400 block of 17th and he lived on the other side of Washington Boulevard which was, I guess like two blocks away from me--two or three blocks. Immediately across the street from Irving Elementary School which is where we all went to school. He and his brother Bill Hampton was still around and his sister Delores and my mother--like I said was a school teacher but she didn't believe in making brown bag lunches at all and she would much rather give us lunch money and we would go to the restaurants and eat at lunch time. There was a restaurant on the corner called the Maywood Sweet Shop which my brother and I frequented and Fred would come there at lunch and start telling us jokes and he would just--I mean he didn't eat himself, he just came for the entertainment, to be the entertainment. I vividly remember snorting orange soda in response to one of Fred's jokes; I mean it was just hilarious. Eddie Murphy had nothing on him, he was just a natural funny guy and he was just so interesting to contrast that to his image as the vigilant, warrior like Black Panther that the media cast him as. But I knew him as Fred--he used to have a long-we used to call him watermelon head and I saw the play not too long ago that was at Daley College that they put on about his life and they got most of it right except they were talking about Fred was a natural athlete, not a word of truth in it, please. He was leaden, he did play basketball but then I was a cheerleader so you know imagine that. If I could be a cheerleader, Fred could play basketball.$$He played on the team?$$He played basketball, yeah in grammar school now we're talking so; in high school he started growing in consciousness--black consciousness. And I remember very well he was trying--we all went to Proviso East High School and he was trying to convince us to boycott the prom because in his opinion they were not treating black athletes properly at Proviso East. He was saying that well they worked them and while it's football season they are all popular and everything but there was no commitment to their graduating from high school or really treated them less than kindly in his opinion. Subsequently, he couldn't see why they would be heroes when it was football season but there was no commitment to making sure that they were in fact graduates. And so we saw at that time his consciousness and he was you know tweaking us and trying to get us to get focused on the realities of what was going on at the time in Maywood.$$Now was he part of the Black Panther party then?$$Not at that time, he was still--he was not a part of the Panthers at that time but then subsequently when we were going to college he had joined the Panther Party. He had a problem with an ice cream truck that they arrested him for and then he got more and more active with the Black Panthers. I just remember being stunned because I went to-we graduated in 1966 from Proviso East and I went to Hampton at that time immediately out of high school and I remember-was that '68 [1968]--?$$'69 [1969]$$Yeah I was at a rally, I was at a black power rally or an activist rally in Virginia and the word came through at that time that Fred had been killed. I remember being so stunned, I was at the back of the room and I walked all the way up to the front and said you must be kidding, who did you say had been killed and they said Fred Hampton and then I spoke and talked about how I had known him and, and you know, what a really fine and very concerned brother that he was and what a loss it was.