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The Honorable James Clyburn

United States Congressman James Enos "Jim" Clyburn was born on July 21, 1940 in Sumter, South Carolina to Enos Lloyd Clyburn, a fundamentalist minister, and Almeta Clyburn, a beautician. Clyburn was elected president of his NAACP youth chapter when he was twelve years old, and went on to help organize many civil rights marches and demonstrations as a student leader at South Carolina State College (now South Carolina State University), where he graduated in 1962 with his B.S. degree in history. He later attended the University of South Carolina Law School.

Upon graduation from South Carolina State College, Clyburn was hired as a social studies teacher at C.A. Brown High School in Charleston, South Carolina. From 1965 to 1971, he worked as an employment counselor, a director of youth programs and led the South Carolina Farm Workers Commission. After an unsuccessful run for the South Carolina General Assembly, Clyburn joined the staff of Governor John C. West in 1971 and was appointed as the first minority advisor to a South Carolina governor. In 1974, he was named the South Carolina Human Affairs Commissioner. He served in that position until 1992 when he stepped down to run for U.S. Congress. In November of 1992, Clyburn was elected the U.S. Representative for South Carolina's 6th Congressional District, becoming the state’s first African American to serve in Congress since 1897.

As a Congressman, Clyburn was elected co-president of his freshman class in 1993, and was unanimously elected chair of the Congressional Black Caucus in 1998. In 2002, he won an election among three House members to serve as vice chair of the House Democratic Caucus. Clyburn rose to the position of caucus chair in January 2006, and in 2007, he became the first South Carolinian to serve as house majority whip. In 2011, he became the assistant house democratic leader and the third-ranking Democrat in the House of Representatives.

Clyburn has served as Steering Committee Chairman for the International Museum of African American History in Charleston, South Carolina, and as a member of the governing boards of Allen University in Columbia, South Carolina; Brookgreen Gardens in Murrells Inlet, South Carolina; and The Palmetto Conservation Foundation. In addition, he has been awarded honorary doctorate degrees by numerous colleges and universities, and has authored two books: Uncommon Courage: The Story of Briggs V. Elliott, South Carolina's Unsung Civil Rights Battle (2004); and Blessed Experiences: Genuinely Southern, Proudly Black (2014).

Clyburn and his wife, Emily, live in Columbia, South Carolina. They have three daughters: Mignon, Jennifer Reed, and Angela Hannibal.

U.S. Congressman Jim Clyburn was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 20, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.108

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/20/2014

Last Name

Clyburn

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Enos

Occupation
Schools

Boylan-Haven-Mather Academy

South Carolina State University

Lincoln High School

Liberty Street School

Savage Glover School

First Name

James

Birth City, State, Country

Sumter

HM ID

CLY01

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

Favorite Quote

While I Breathe, I Hope.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

7/21/1940

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fish (Fried)

Short Description

U.S. congressman The Honorable James Clyburn (1940 - ) , assistant house democratic leader in the U.S. House of Representatives, was elected to Congress in 1992. He was the author of 'Uncommon Courage: The Story of Briggs V. Elliott, South Carolina's Unsung Civil Rights Battle' and 'Blessed Experiences: Genuinely Southern, Proudly Black.'

Employment

C.A. Brown High School

SC Employment Security Commission

Neighborhood Youth Corps and New Careers

SC Commission for Farm Workers

State of South Carolina

SC Human Affairs Commission

U.S. House of Representatives

Favorite Color

Gray

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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of The Honorable James Clyburn's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - The Honorable James Clyburn lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - The Honorable James Clyburn describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - The Honorable James Clyburn talks about his family's affiliation with the Church of God

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - The Honorable James Clyburn talks about his mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - The Honorable James Clyburn describes his father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - The Honorable James Clyburn describes his father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - The Honorable James Clyburn talks about George Washington Murray

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - The Honorable James Clyburn talks about his research on George Washington Murray

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - The Honorable James Clyburn describes the end of George Washington Murray's political career

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - The Honorable James Clyburn talks about Francis L. Cardozo

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - The Honorable James Clyburn talks about the decision of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - The Honorable James Clyburn talks about the importance of historical fact checking

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - The Honorable James Clyburn describes his father's experiences at Morris College, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - The Honorable James Clyburn describes his father's experiences at Morris College, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - The Honorable James Clyburn talks about his father's honorary degree from Morris College

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - The Honorable James Clyburn talks about his father's career

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - The Honorable James Clyburn describes his father's first wife

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - The Honorable James Clyburn describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - The Honorable James Clyburn lists his siblings

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - The Honorable James Clyburn describes his relationship with his brothers

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - The Honorable James Clyburn recalls a lesson from his father about diplomacy

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - The Honorable James Clyburn describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - The Honorable James Clyburn remembers his neighborhood in Sumter, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - The Honorable James Clyburn describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - The Honorable James Clyburn remembers Lincoln High School in Sumter, South Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - The Honorable James Clyburn recalls his early influences

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - The Honorable James Clyburn remembers enrolling at the Mather Academy in Camden, South Carolina

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$1

DAStory

3$5

DATitle
The Honorable James Clyburn describes his earliest childhood memory
The Honorable James Clyburn talks about his mother's education
Transcript
Now I'm going to go way back for a minute covering some real early ground, do you have an earliest childhood memory?$$My earliest childhood memory is in my mother's kindergarten. I remember being in kindergarten. My mom [Almeta Dizzley Clyburn] started a kindergarten in our church. I guess I was about four or five, four years old or was four because I went to regular school at five, and neighborhood children attended the kindergarten. It was not a big kindergarten, but I remember. Those are my earliest memories of being in my mother's kindergarten.$What did your mother [Almeta Dizzley Clyburn] say about growing up? I mean, or what was your sense of what her growing up was like?$$Well my mom was a very interesting woman. I don't know how she did it but my grandfather [John Dizzley], her father was all about the land, farming. Back in those days every--all the famers had big families. There were thirteen children. My mom--for how she did it, I don't know. She talked her grandfather [sic.] into letting her go away to school. She became the first one in the family to finish high school because they grew up, they got old enough they worked on the farm--that was it. Now a lot of them you know to escape their life, left and went north. My mom never did. She went to Camden [South Carolina], twenty-two miles away and lived in with a family. That's basically looked upon today as a Chicago [Illinois] family but they're rooted in Camden, South Carolina, the Dibbles. She lived with the Dibbles, kept house for them and in return they sent her across the street to Mather Academy [Camden, South Carolina]. When she went there it was called Browning home [Browning Model Home and Industrial School]. In later years, it became Browning Home Mather Academy [Browning Industrial Home and Mather Academy], and even later years after I graduated from what was then Mather Academy, it became Boylan-Haven-Mather Academy after combining with a, with a similar school in Florida [Boylan-Haven School, Jacksonville, Florida]. So my mom went there through the tenth grade. When she and my dad [Enos Clyburn] decided to get married, she decided to transfer from Mather Academy across the street to the public high school which was Jackson. Now the reason for that was because Mather Academy being a private school, sponsored by the United Methodist Church required twelve years to graduate. During this time, the public schools went through the eleventh grade, so in order to finish a year early and get married, she went across to Mather Academy.$$You mean to Jackson?$$Right across.$$Yeah.$$To Jackson High School [Camden, South Carolina].$$Okay.$$And, so she graduated from Jackson High School after going to Mather through the tenth grade.$$Now, do you know--well, one question first of all. The Dibbles she stayed with would they related to Eugene Dibble [Eugene H. Dibble, Jr.], the doctor at Tuskegee [Alabama]?$$Absolutely.$$Okay.$$Absolutely.$$Those are Chicago Dibbles we're talking about?$$That's exactly right.$$They're related to the Robert Taylor. And the Taylors and all of them (unclear) (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Sure, the Palmers.$$Yeah.$$And quite frankly if my memory serves, [HistoryMaker] Valerie Jarrett is in that family.$$She certainly is, she is (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Yeah.$$Yeah, so, yeah, that's interesting so, 'cause they do have roots in South Carolina.$$Sure, I knew all of 'em. In fact, they were big property owners. The main street in Camden is Broad Street and they own more property on Broad Street than anybody else back in those days.$$Okay, all right. And, now did--Jackson High School was a colored high school, right, you know?$$Yes.$$And did--was there--now Jackson went to the eleventh grade. Do you know if the white high school went to twelfth?$$No, all public schools went to eleventh grade.$$O- okay, so all of 'em. Okay, all right.$$But the private schools went to the twelfth.$$Okay, all right. And, you know, so if you finished the eleventh grade in Jackson, you could qualify to go to college (unclear) (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Yes, you were high school--you were a high school graduate.$$Okay, all right, all right, all right. So your mother got married, you know, after she graduated?$$My mother got married, she married my dad. She was my dad's second wife.$$Okay.$$His first wife [Rebecca Rambert Clyburn] died in childbirth.$$All right. Now did your mother--was she at this point, or did she have a--or even before that, this point, did she have aspirations for some career or anything that she wanted to do that she, you know?$$Well, she wanted an education and she basically wanted to go to school, and I'm told that after she and my dad were married, they basically accepted a call to pastor in Sumter [South Carolina] because Morris College was there and they wanted to go a place where they could both go to college.$$Okay.$$And, so that was the reason for going to Sumter where they went before I was born.

Dr. Raphael C. Lee

Dr. Raphael C. Lee was born in Sumter, South Carolina, on October 29, 1949. Graduating from high school in 1967, Lee went to the University of South Carolina, where he earned his B.A. degree in electrical engineering in 1971. Lee enrolled in Temple University School of Medicine and Drexel University College of Engineering; in 1975, earning both his M.D. and his M.A. degrees.

Lee began his career in surgery at the University of Chicago Hospitals as an assistant resident in surgery in 1975. In 1979, Lee received his Sc.D. degree in biomedical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and in 1981 he left the University of Chicago for Boston to do further teaching, research, and surgery. Lee held dual faculty appointments at Harvard University and M.I.T. in 1983, teaching electrical engineering, bioengineering, and surgery. In 1989, Lee returned to the University of Chicago, where within two years he had become a full professor, and eventually, professor of surgery, dermatology, organismal biology and anatomy, and molecular medicine. Lee also served as the director of molecular cell repair research at the University of Chicago.

Lee's resume includes a list of awards, recognitions, professional memberships, and publications. Lee was awarded a 1981 MacArthur Prize Fellowship, and a 1985 Searle Scholar Award, as well as being named by the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago as one of the sixteen outstanding scientists in African American history. In 2018, Lee received the Pierre Galletti Award from the American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, generally considered America's highest award in the field of biomedical engineering and technology, for his contributions to understanding the molecular biomechanics of traumatic injuries. Lee held a membership in the New York Academy of Science; was awarded a fellowship by the American College of Surgeons; and was a member of the Biomedical Engineering Society. Lee was also listed in Who's Who in America, Who's Who in the World, Notable 20th Century Scientists, and was named as one of America's 100 Brightest Young Scientists by Science Digest.

Lee specialized in the repair of scars and burns, and developed a number of treatments in the course of his research.

Accession Number

A2003.108

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/23/2003

Last Name

Lee

Maker Category
Middle Name

C.

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

St. Jude's Catholic School

Bishop England High School

University of South Carolina

Drexel University

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Temple University

St. Anne Catholic School

First Name

Raphael

Birth City, State, Country

Sumter

HM ID

LEE01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Skiing, Sailing

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

10/29/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Plastic surgeon Dr. Raphael C. Lee (1949 - ) specializes in the repair of scars and burns and is a professor of surgery at the University of Chicago.

Employment

University of Chicago

Massachusetts General Hospital

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Harvard University

Favorite Color

Patterns

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Raphael Lee interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Raphael Lee's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Raphael Lee recalls his family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Raphael Lee talks about his parents' backgrounds

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Raphael Lee remembers his childhood communities

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Raphael Lee explains his family tradition of practicing medicine

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Raphael Lee recounts his elementary and high school careers

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Raphael Lee shares experiences from his undergraduate years

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Raphael Lee recalls his social life at University of South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Raphael Lee gives an overview of his education at Temple University

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Raphael Lee discusses his transition into faculty appointments

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Raphael Lee talks about receiving the MacArthur Fellowship

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Raphael Lee details his research findings on skin tissues

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Raphael Lee describes his work in treating electrical trauma victims

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Raphael Lee explains the differences in eletrical trauma and burn victims

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Raphael Lee talks about his current responsibilities

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Raphael Lee shares his thoughts on the public's view of plastic surgery

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Raphael Lee discusses the gratification he draws from his work

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Raphael Lee comments on mankind's evolutionary path

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Raphael Lee discusses burn treatments

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Raphael Lee talks about his preferred research strategy

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Raphael Lee gives career advice

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Raphael Lee considers his legacy

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

4$6

DATitle
Raphael Lee talks about receiving the MacArthur Fellowship
Raphael Lee discusses burn treatments
Transcript
In '81 [1981], you won the MacArthur Prize Fellowship?$$Yes. In 1981, the first year of the, that the MacArthur Fellows Program was in place. There was a--I was fortunate to be one of the, included in that group.$$Okay. And they used to call this the genius award, right?$$Well, the newspapers call it the genius award. I mean the spirit of it was to try and find individuals that showed unusual promise, who could actually, might do something if they had the resources that they did not have. So someone with tremendous--. There's lots of Nobel laureates and so forth, and many great scientists, there that are well funded and are working as hard as they can, and having enough resources to do whatever. So identifying those individuals in a program like this was not what the goals were. The goals were to find individuals who might do something different, and someone who's in the midst of a career change, for example. Someone who is a brilliant person, very creative in one area, well-known in one area, now wants to make a big change. Physicist is now going to become, you know, a concert pianist or something (laughs). So these were the kinds of, you know, unusual opportunities. And of course, and that's where the idea--I mean, how do you label it? What's the catch term? So, genius award, so we're all sort of branded as geniuses. And I was a student at the time and that had pluses and minuses. Because you know you get, as a resident in surgery, you have the presidents of the universities coming over to meet with you and so forth. And that generates a lot of tension. And it's easy for me to understand that now (laughs).$$Did some of the veterans feel a little bit like--?$$(Simultaneously) Well, it's some pretty sharp people you're pushing aside there, you know, on the totem pole. And--.$$(Simultaneously) You're a genius (laughs).$$Yeah. Now we're gonna find out, you know (laughs). So, there's good things about it and there's some things that are not so good about it. But I have to say I think overall, it's a good thing. It was a good thing because as a young person, you're given a lot of public recognition around your own capability. And every single day you try and prove that to yourself, but in addition, they set standards for yourself that you really want to achieve. And I can't tell you that I honestly wake up every morning and say, "I gotta prove something." I don't. That's not true. But the bottom line is that--. And I think my mother [Gean Maurice Langston] and father [Leonard Powell Lee] both all throughout my childhood were always--. And I think we probably all have heard that. I mean it's a very common thing in the South to hear, in South Carolina if you're gonna do something, do it well. You know, if you're gonna do the job, do it right or don't do it. That was the culture that I grew up in. If you're not gonna be the best, don't get involved. And that's basically my culture. And I don't think that I'm saying anything different than that.$And then the guy with some brown skin and doesn't look, you know, the usual facial features. And he's saying, "Well, you know, you can change the water structure and you can repair damage, prevent tissue death from trauma. And after a burn, you can uncook the tissue. You can unboil the egg." They--.$$(Simultaneously) Tell us about that. I don't know how technical it is. But what do you mean by that?$$Well, when you heat proteins, and we've been talking about this, and you change their structure, their nature. Basically, you know, the clear part of an egg becomes white for example because the proteins have lost their structure and they coalesce. And the light scatters differently than it did before, so it's no longer clear. It becomes, you know, boiled. Well the primary amino acid structure of those proteins hasn't changed at all. If you can predict the protein, if mean if you burn it in a flame it will, but a boiling process doesn't reach that temperature. So that, it's theoretically possible, and certainly been demonstrated with many proteins in separation that you can unboil that. You can basically renature, refold that protein. And so one of the main strategies of the research we're doing today, is to create those polymers that will change the local water structure, so that the protein--'cause it's the water binding to the protein that prevents it from going back. And the fact that the protein are all aggregated and precipitated out and there're ways to break it up. And, in fact, you know, there are natural proteins called stress proteins that do much of that kind of work. But when that system gets overwhelmed, then you might need some additional help with some polymers that might mimic those affects. And that's the thrust of our work right now, to make, to really reduce the tissue loss in a burn injury for example, and in other forms of trauma, in ways that were not thought possible before. And we've had some success. And as we look in the literature we find that forty years ago people have demonstrated that you can do similar things. But really they weren't focused on the medical problem, they were more interested in just the physical chemistry of it. But somehow it was not picked up by medical community.

Dr. George Jenkins

Growing up in a rough neighborhood in Newark, New Jersey, Dr. George Jenkins beat the odds and followed a dream. Born on February 6, 1973, he attended University High, where his life changed. At age thirteen, while at a dentist's office, Jenkins became curious about the process, and the dentist proceeded to tell Jenkins about his different tools and teach him about teeth. From that moment, he wanted to be a dentist.

In high school, Jenkins befriended Sampson Davis and Rameck Hunt, two equally bright individuals living in the same rough area. Jenkins had learned about a program at Seton Hall University that paid for minority students to attend if they enrolled in a pre-medicine or pre-dental program. Jenkins set about convincing his friends to apply. All three were accepted, with Davis and Hunt pursuing medicine. The three spent the next four years studying together to keep their grades and spirits up. After graduation, the three were split, with Davis and Hunt heading to medical school, and Jenkins remaining in Newark to attend the University of Medicine and Dentistry in New Jersey. They remained in close contact, visiting one another each week to study and boost one another's morale. In 1999, the three young men became doctors, and the following day, a local newspaper ran a front-page story about them with the headline, "Start of Something Big." Today, Jenkins is a faculty member of community health at the University of Medicine and Dentistry.

The Three Doctors, as they have become known, have written a book about their experiences, The Pact: Three Young Men Make A Promise and Fulfill A Dream, which was a New York Times bestseller. They have also established a nonprofit organization, the Three Doctors Foundation, to provide scholarships to inner-city youth and they tour the country speaking and inspiring students to follow in their footsteps. In 2000, the three were honored with an Essence Award for their community service. They have plans to begin appearing in music videos and on billboards with the hopes of giving disadvantaged youth alternate role models.

Accession Number

A2003.135

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/16/2003

Last Name

Jenkins

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

University High School of Humanities

Louise A. Spencer Elementary School

Seton Hall University

New Jersey Dental School

First Name

George

Birth City, State, Country

Sumter

HM ID

JEN02

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

Just Do It.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

2/6/1973

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pasta

Short Description

Health advocate and dentist Dr. George Jenkins (1973 - ) fulfilled his dream of becoming a dentist, although he grew up in a rough neighborhood in Newark New, Jersey. Along with Sampson Davis and Rameck Hunt, Jenkins wrote a book about his struggles titled, "The Pact: Three Young Men Make A Promise and Fulfill A Dream," and co-founded the Three Doctors Foundation, to provide scholarships to inner-city youth.

Employment

University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:934,85:10222,188:12922,244:17458,304:23394,333:27327,437:28638,459:29259,471:30087,485:31881,519:32571,535:35952,620:36228,625:36711,638:41127,753:42507,789:50156,854:50642,864:50966,869:52991,903:54287,931:57395,948:61337,1032:61775,1040:62067,1045:62724,1057:65206,1113:68856,1210:76412,1318:77500,1423:86408,1605:100038,1768:101814,1896:102184,2012:105958,2057:109510,2170:138980,2701:143610,2729:147990,2844:148230,2849:153896,2943:154302,2951:158884,3089:172204,3390:183557,3673:188900,3706$0,0:560,24:2450,136:22120,614:22540,621:24290,667:39072,876:41304,972:51024,1134:73960,1516:75320,1533:75640,1538:75960,1543:77880,1617:79880,1658:91660,1776:95428,1823:95744,1828:98114,1859:116245,2186:119193,2277:119595,2284:121940,2347:122409,2355:130851,2574:132124,2605:141146,2661:141398,2666:143477,2720:143729,2725:146060,2772:154904,2913:155614,2929:168482,3197:173696,3298:173968,3303:176076,3400:177436,3432:177708,3437:180496,3496:181720,3524:182332,3534:184576,3597:184916,3606:185256,3612:200074,3878:203026,3960:207778,4090:213420,4148
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. George Jenkins' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. George Jenkins lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. George Jenkins talks about his difficulty in finding out about his family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. George Jenkins talks about his father

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. George Jenkins describes his mother's personality and the support she provided for him

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. George Jenkins describes how his parents met and his mother's move to Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. George Jenkins describes growing up in and around the Stella Wright Housing Projects in Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. George Jenkins describes the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood in Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. George Jenkins describes being inspired by his teacher at Louise A. Spencer Elementary School in Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. George Jenkins describes his experience at University High School in Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. George Jenkins describes his decision to become a dentist when he was thirteen

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. George Jenkins describes how he avoided the distractions in order to pursue his dreams

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. George Jenkins describes how his friends became involved in criminal activity in Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. George Jenkins describes meeting HistoryMakers Dr. Sampson Davis and Dr. Rameck Hunt at University High School in Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. George Jenkins talks about his extracurricular activities at University High School in Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. George Jenkins describes deciding to attend Seton Hall University in South Orange, New Jersey with HistoryMakers Dr. Sampson Davis and Dr. Rameck Hunt

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. George Jenkins describes growing up without a father

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. George Jenkins describes increased gang activity in Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. George Jenkins describes being racially profiled by the police in Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. George Jenkins describes his experience in dental school at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. George Jenkins talks about the difficulty of finding a sincere mentor

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. George Jenkins describes the pact he made with HistoryMakers Dr. Sampson Davis and Dr. Rameck Hunt to support each other through medical school

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. George Jenkins remembers the doubts he felt during his residency

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. George Jenkins describes graduating from the University of Medicine and Dentistry in New Jersey in 1999 with HistoryMakers Dr. Sampson Davis and Dr. Rameck Hunt

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. George Jenkins describes deciding on a career path after his residency

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. George Jenkins describes how growing up in Newark, New Jersey helped him relate to patients during his residency

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. George Jenkins describes his community health involvement at the New Jersey Dental School in Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. George Jenkins describes the Three Doctors Foundation

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. George Jenkins talks about "The Pact," a book he co-wrote with HistoryMakers Dr. Sampson Davis and Dr. Rameck Hunt

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. George Jenkins reflects upon the importance of staying in Newark, New Jersey

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. George Jenkins describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. George Jenkins describes his plans for the future, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. George Jenkins describes his plans for the future, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dr. George Jenkins talks about his faith

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. George Jenkins reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. George Jenkins describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$2

DAStory

11$10

DATitle
Dr. George Jenkins describes his decision to become a dentist when he was thirteen
Dr. George Jenkins describes the pact he made with HistoryMakers Dr. Sampson Davis and Dr. Rameck Hunt to support each other through medical school
Transcript
Okay, I wanna go back to I guess grade school I guess--no, or middle school. I read that when you were thirteen a dentist, you know, explained to you what dentistry was about, showed you some tools, and you were inspired by that.$$Yeah, that, that was the next sort of turning point for me when I think back because I went to those sessions to get my orthodontic treatment with the lessons that, that Ms. [Viola] Johnson taught me. So when I was there I, I guess I was searching for what, what am I gonna attach this dream to, this, this dream of becoming a professional. I guess I was just exploring, and then I was just curious with what he was doing. And I guess he picked up on that, so he took that as a teachable moment. And he was giving me information about the teeth and the tools, and then he would quiz me in the next visit, you know, no more than five minutes each time I saw him. And that, you know, and I think more so than his profession that interest me, it was him and how he seemed to be happy, seemed to be able to help people, and just be really, it seemed like he was just dynamic with what he was doing. And it just really impressed me at, at an early age, at that, at that age of thirteen. And that, from that moment on, I was like, I wanna be like him, whatever he's doing. And it was just, he was a dentist, and not even--you know, people would think: okay, he was an orthodontist, so why didn't you wanna do orthodontist? That's because I didn't know what he was doing. All I wanted to be like was him, and they told me he was dentist, so I wanna be a dentist. And I just from that day forward trying to model myself after him, but I don't even know what he looks like or his name or anything. He doesn't even know the influence that he's had on me as well as my other partners. So I'm sure he'd get a kick out of it if he was to know that. But--$$So you don't even know if he knows--$$I know he doesn't know.$$--knows it.$$I know he doesn't know. There's no way he can know 'cause I'm, I'm sure there were so many people in his seat, and--$$Was he in a clinic or something with a lot of-$$He was working in a clinic. He was a resident in training to, to, to become a full-fledged orthodontist. So I'm sure he didn't, he doesn't remember at all. I don't even remember him, so I know he doesn't remember me.$$Okay, all right, but, yeah, that's something. So the third, third grade really opened up a whole world of things for--(simultaneous)--$$It really did, it really did. That's, I think that, that echoes the importance of, of getting to our kids young, before--you know, it's easy--you can--like I was able to deal with the realities of my community after her lessons because I never let it get me down. I never let any of that stuff get to me because I knew all I gotta do is this here, and just keep doing these assignments, keep doing what these teachers ask of me, and I'm gonna be fine despite what I see around me. All I have to do is find a way to get around the challenges that are gonna come in my way and obstacles. And if I don't get over those obstacles, and I get stopped in the middle, then that's fine too, but I had to try, and I had to see for myself if it was out there. I could say okay, well, it look like, you know, the way the odds are stacked I'm not gonna make it so I'm not gonna try. The odds were, did look like that, but I had to figure out for myself if I could do it or not. I didn't wanna be a shoulda, coulda, woulda type of person. I know that I would have been eating myself--you know, I would have been eaten alive inside if I didn't at least try to go for my dreams. I wouldn't have been able to live with that.$When you were at dental school [New Jersey Dental School in Newark, New Jersey], did, did you have the same--well, I guess you couldn't have had the same level of interaction with your two friends [HM Dr. Sampson Davis and HM Dr. Rameck Hunt] because they're in medical school.$$Yeah. The interaction definitely decreased because we were living together. And when they moved away to, to pursue their medical degrees, we were on the phone all the time. And I was up where, where they were every weekend, or they were at my place every weekend. So we talked every day and saw each other every weekend, so it was pretty much the same thing. Like, everything that I needed in terms of our support system was already on autopilot. So it just took a phone call or a visit to get these things, you know. It was already, it was already a machine, a well-oiled machine. It was just a matter of continuously keeping it well-oiled, you know, and just--it was--the principles were instilled in us to the point where they became instinctual. So a lot of that stuff we had already instilled in each other. It was just a matter of keeping each other strong to, to keep doing what they were doing so that our academic endurance holds, hold out until we get across that stage.$$Okay, now, you all had it actually--did you all formally make a pledge to each other that you would do this or--$$We, we did--we never did any sort of corny blood, we didn't cut our fingers or, or sign any contracts, but when we agreed to go to school together, from high school [University High School in Newark, New Jersey] to embark on higher education, it was so many unsaid sort of rules that were made that day. We, we knew, we, we all knew we were in the same boat where we needed, financially we needed in a number of ways. And we all had to deal with these fears about college because it was unknown, and it was pumped to us in a negative sort of life, more so than it was promoted to us in a positive light. So all of us were dealing with a lot of these things, and we realized that, after all of us sat and thought about it and talked about it, realized that none of us would be as afraid to go if we were to go together. We realized that would be a--it's gonna be hard, but it's gonna be a little easier, because when we get there, we don't have to look for a support system, find friends. We could care less if we met another a friend when you got two good buddies from high school with you. I could care less if I meet another friend. But that attitude drew people to us, so we had lots of friends outside of our circle, but I guess they saw how tight we were. But we just felt good about it. I guess it was just God's way of just working through us that time at that early age because we didn't really think about it. We just went for it, didn't have any idea how magical that union would be, and how instrumental it would be in the pushing all of us to heights that none of us thought we could make individually; that I'm just glad it happened the way it happened. You know, I'm just excited that it happened the way it happened. But it wasn't very much thought. It was really all unsaid and, and just be--maybe we said it before and didn't realize it in our conversations as we were going through high school, but we knew. When we were gonna go together, we knew we would have to have each other's back when it came to protecting each other physically, protecting each other academically, just protecting each other. And that was, each other's responsibility was to make sure--you know, it was like the buddy system when you swim at camp, you know. You, you, you, you don't go out there without at least a buddy to, to alert someone if you're having trouble in the water if they can't save you. And that's, we, we kind of created a buddy system to help us navigate through academia because it was really scary like a sea, like being stranded in the sea. You're looking around, you don't see any horizon, and you just gotta keep swimming and keep swimming until you find land. And we just decided to kind of use each other to help that go on.

Alexine Jackson

Alexine Clement Jackson is active in volunteerism and community service for the African American community. Jackson was born in Sumter, South Carolina, on June 10, 1936. Jackson's mother, Josephine Clement, was active in North Carolina politics and business and volunteered her time to a number of civic organizations. Her father, William A. Clement, was an insurance executive who devoted great amounts of time to civic and fraternal organizations. Jackson earned her B.A. from Spelman College in Atlanta and an M.A. in speech pathology and audiology from the University of Iowa.

Jackson has devoted her life to civic organizations. She is the former national president of the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA), and in that capacity she traveled to the Middle East as part of a fact-finding mission in 1996. Jackson led the American delegation to the 1999 World YWCA Council in Cairo and was a delegate in the 1995 Council in South Korea. Prior to that, she had been chosen as a development education consultant by the YWCA to explore issues relating to women in poverty, and traveled to the Philippines, Mexico and Kenya, as well as participating in the International Learning Center in Hawaii. The Taiwanese Minister of Foreign Affairs invited Jackson, along with six other leaders of women's organizations, to visit the country in 1985 and speak to different groups.

After a fifteen-year battle with breast cancer, Jackson served on the board of the Cancer Research Foundation of America and was the chairperson of the Intercultural Cancer Council, where she focused her energies on minority cancer education and prevention. In 2009, Jackson became the chair of the board of directors for Susan G. Komen for the Cure. With more than twenty-five years of work in civic organizations, Jackson has garnered numerous awards for her work. She has been awarded the 2001 Community Service Award by the Black Women's Agenda, the Woman of Courage and Distinction Award by the National Association of Colored Women's Clubs, and was named Washingtonian of the Year by Washingtonian magazine. Her husband, Aaron, is the chief of the Division of Urology at Howard University Hospital.

Accession Number

A2003.156

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/15/2003

Last Name

Jackson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Clement

Schools

David T. Howard High School

Oglethorpe Elementary School

Whitted Elementary School

Hillside High School

Spelman College

University of Iowa

First Name

Alexine

Birth City, State, Country

Sumter

HM ID

JAC08

Favorite Season

Summer

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

6/10/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Indian Food

Short Description

Civic volunteer and foundation chief executive Alexine Jackson (1936 - ) is a former YWCA national president. After a fifteen-year battle with breast cancer, Jackson served on the board of the Cancer Research Foundation of America and was the chairperson of the Intercultural Cancer Council.

Favorite Color

Black, Jewel Tones

Timing Pairs
0,0:5138,97:5878,109:6322,115:7358,128:8542,148:10244,181:10540,186:11206,196:12982,232:13278,237:13944,247:17340,259:17628,264:18420,278:18924,286:19284,292:20220,308:23388,372:23748,378:24396,398:24756,404:25332,413:28068,460:28572,469:30012,491:30660,501:31884,521:32964,541:33612,556:34332,584:39291,598:39753,605:40292,613:43295,690:45220,720:48377,779:53286,825:53874,833:55554,864:56058,871:56394,876:57150,886:58158,901:58914,912:59502,920:62190,963:63282,984:63954,996:67766,1016:68686,1029:69882,1046:80095,1169:80865,1183:81173,1188:81481,1193:83098,1231:83483,1237:83791,1242:85023,1269:85562,1278:87718,1320:88719,1335:93740,1383:94084,1388:94772,1398:95546,1410:97524,1443:101910,1529:102684,1542:103200,1548:108966,1613:109390,1619$0,0:6794,208:7584,222:7900,227:8216,232:9796,272:10191,279:11297,298:12008,326:12482,333:13746,350:14299,361:14773,369:15168,375:15563,381:16037,390:17064,409:17617,417:18486,435:21725,491:30012,517:30792,528:32196,548:37032,625:38046,643:39450,677:39996,685:41010,705:41322,710:43662,745:44208,753:56883,887:57499,896:58038,904:59886,951:60502,960:61118,971:61426,977:62196,989:62889,1000:63505,1039:71051,1218:71359,1223:81302,1301:82764,1347:87408,1422:89128,1454:89988,1465:91622,1488:92052,1494:92482,1504:94632,1527:100960,1562:101416,1568:102252,1577:102784,1586:103088,1591:103392,1596:104912,1622:105368,1628:107572,1668:107952,1674:109548,1733:110232,1744:111752,1789:115172,1881:115552,1887:125768,2023:126096,2028:126588,2036:130688,2113:135120,2151:135840,2163:140720,2236:141040,2241:148260,2305:149060,2314:151760,2346:152960,2361:153560,2368:156060,2405:160290,2434
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Alexine Jackson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Alexine Jackson lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Alexine Jackson talks about her maternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Alexine Jackson talks about her paternal great-grandfather, Rufus A. Clement, who donated land to build a school in Cleveland, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Alexine Jackson talks about her paternal grandfather and the Presbyterian faith in her paternal family

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Alexine Jackson talks about the history of her paternal family's employment at the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Alexine Jackson describes her parents' personalities and their civic engagement in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Alexine Jackson describes segregation and the African American business community in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Alexine Jackson describes the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up in Charleston, South Carolina and Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Alexine Jackson describes her maternal family in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Alexine Jackson describes her maternal family in Atlanta, Georgia, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Alexine Jackson explains how she skipped a grade in elementary school when she moved to Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Alexine Jackson lists the schools she attended in Atlanta, Georgia and Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Alexine Jackson describes the activities she enjoyed as a child in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Alexine Jackson describes the type of student she was at Hillside High School in Durham, North Carolina and at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Alexine Jackson describes influential teachers and reflects upon the positiveeffects of segregation

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Alexine Jackson reflects upon the limitations of her experience growing up in Durham, North Carolina during the Jim Crow Era

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Alexine Jackson describes the activities she participated in and her social experience at Hillside High School in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Alexine Jackson lists the presidents of Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia from 1953 through the 2003

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Alexine Jackson describes memorable professors from Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Alexine Jackson talks about graduating from college, earning a master's degree and then starting a family

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Alexine Jackson talks about the birth of her first children in 1959 and moving to Greenwood, Mississippi in 1963

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Alexine Jackson describes the town of Greenwood, Mississippi where she moved with her husband in 1963

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Alexine Jackson talks about giving birth to two of her children in Greenwood, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Alexine Jackson talks about starting a daycare center in Greenwood, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Alexine Jackson describes the tactics used in Greenwood, Mississippi to intimidate African American voters during the 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Alexine Jackson talks about her husband's medical career in Greenwood, Mississippi and his urology residency at the University of Iowa in Iowa City

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Alexine Jackson compares and contrasts her experiences living in Iowa City, Iowa and Greenwood, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Alexine Jackson talks about her social life in Iowa City, Iowa

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Alexine Jackson explains how her husband became chief of the Division of Urology at Howard University Hospital in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Alexine Jackson explains her involvement in the YWCA and her family's history of involvement in the organization

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Alexine Jackson talks about her work with the Intercultural Cancer Council and the disparities in cancer rates within minority communities

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Alexine Jackson explains the early history of YWCA USA

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Alexine Jackson talks about HistoryMaker Dorothy Height and YWCA USA's one imperative of eliminating racism

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Alexine Jackson talks about the aspect of YWCA USA's mission that promotes the empowerment of women's leadership

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Alexine Jackson talks about the economic status of women in corporations and female entrepreneurs

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Alexine Jackson describes the worldwide disparity in women's access to economic resources

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Alexine Jackson talks about the efforts of international organizations like the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and the World YWCA to educate women

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Alexine Jackson describes the purpose of The Community Foundation for the National Capital Region and the problems facing day laborers

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Alexine Jackson describes the many civic and non-profit organizations in which she is involved

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Alexine Jackson describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Alexine Jackson reflects upon her racial identity, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Alexine Jackson reflects upon her racial identity, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Alexine Jackson talks about volunteerism and philanthropy in the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Alexine Jackson reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Alexine Jackson considers what she would do differently in her life

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Alexine Jackson describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Alexine Jackson narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Alexine Jackson narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$3

DAStory

6$9

DATitle
Alexine Jackson talks about the history of her paternal family's employment at the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company
Alexine Jackson explains her involvement in the YWCA and her family's history of involvement in the organization
Transcript
When was your father [William Clement] born and--$$My father was born in 1912 and he was born in Charleston, South Carolina. My grandfather was, he worked for North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company, now, North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company for many years was the largest black business in the country. It's headquartered in Durham, North Carolina. And in those early years, in the early founding years when they were beginning to build up the company, they had districts in different cities. And so, my grandfather was the manager of the Charleston [South Carolina] district. My father started working for North Carolina Mutual [Life Insurance Company] in the summers of college. And he continued to work at North Carolina Mutual and retired after fifty-some years there as executive vice-president. His brother also worked for North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company as the manager of several districts in the--around the country. So, that was sort of the family, the family pattern. My father had a sister who was a teacher and lived in Baltimore [Maryland], married, and moved to Baltimore. But my grandparents lived in Charleston. And when we moved away from Charleston, I lived in Charleston the first five years of my life, and then after my father married again, he was then, he was transferred to Atlanta [Georgia]. And we lived in Atlanta for five years and then he was promoted and we moved to Durham, which was the headquarters--became an officer of the company, and so I really say I'm from Durham, North Carolina--$$Okay.$$--'cause they lived there for more than fifty years.$A lot of things to get involved in Washington [D.C.].$$Oh, yeah, yeah.$$You're--this is basically your career (simultaneous)--$$This is my--this is true, that's true.$$Volunteer, super volunteer, and--$$Yep, that's true. It's been since here, you know, I always say it's been a privilege. And my husband [Aaron Jackson] has always encouraged to do this. And when we first moved here, he said, you know, we decided that a lot of the social things that we would do, we would do through our charitable, you know, our charitable giving. And I did, once the kids were about--my youngest was maybe third or fourth grade and in school all day, I started getting more involved. I started getting involved in arts organizations. And then I started getting involved with the YWCA [USA] here. And, you know, ultimately through, with, through that path, I became president of the YWCA of the National Capital region [sic, area]. Then I was elected to the national board, and then, ultimately, became the National President of the--we call the president, now we call the Chair of the Board [of Directors] for the national organization.$$Now, now, your, your family has a long history with the YWCA (simultaneous)?$$Yes, it does actually. Both my grandparents were--my grandmothers were both involved. My grandmother Dobbs [Ophelia Thompson Dobbs] in Atlanta [Georgia] was in, in those times, the YWCAs were segregated in the South. But even at that, those segregated facilities gave women, black women, an opportunity to develop leadership. And my grandmother in South Carolina also was very much involved with the YWCA in South Carolina. So I always used to say, I'm third generation. And my mother [Josephine Dobbs Clement], too, because my mother in Durham [North Carolina] was on the board of the segregated YWCA. And then when the integration came about, she was one of the first members of the integrated board of the YWCA. And she always had me involved in the teen activities, Y-Teen [Y-Teens Youth Program] and that kind of thing. So I kind of--it was natural when I was asked to, to be a part of it that I, you know, that I join. And I have to say that I, I always attribute any leadership qualities that I've gained had come through my activities with the YWCA. And it's been a wonderful personal experience for me. Much of the travel and the people that I've met has really enriched my life through that experience.

The Honorable Blondell Reynolds Brown

Philadelphia City Councilwoman Blondell Reynolds Brown was the oldest of seven children. She was born on the 10th of October 1952 in Sumter, South Carolina. Her mother, Sadie, taught school and her father, Whittimore Reynolds, worked in construction. Blondell Reynolds Brown is not only a political leader, she is also an educator and community activist.

Four years after graduating from the Philadelphia High School for Girls in 1970, Brown (then Reynolds) obtained a bachelor's degree in elementary education from Penn State University. In 1975, she earned a master's degree in education, having focused on counseling and guidance. That year, Brown began teaching at the elementary level in Philadelphia's public schools. Brown has served children, adolescents and young adults throughout her career. This work has included counseling juvenile delinquents in Pennsylvania's family court unit; supervising summer youth programs in the Philadelphia Opportunities Industrialization Center; and recruiting students for Pennsylvania State University. At the same time, Brown became politically active. She served as a committee person for the 24th Ward, Third Division from 1982 to 1986 and attended the Democratic National Convention as a delegate in 1984, 1988, 1996 and 2000. In 1991, Brown achieved her first full-time job in politics when Senator Chaka Fattah hired her as his legislative director. Brown served as community affairs director for State Senator Vincent Hughes before campaigning in 1999 and winning a seat on the Philadelphia City Council.

Brown has participated in such programs as the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Urban Health Initiative, which aims to institute systemic policy changes for children and youth nationally. Her signature program, held annually in March, is called "Women Making a Difference Celebration." Brown advocates for arts education and has taught weekly dance classes to children for over twenty years and previously served as a board member of Phildanco, a professional dance company. The boards of the Philadelphia Cultural Fund, the National Abortion Rights Action League, the Wellness Center and Presbyterian Hospital have also benefited from her leadership. Blondell Reynolds Brown married Howard Brown in 1994.

Accession Number

A2002.181

Sex

Female

Interview Date

9/10/2002

Last Name

Brown

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Reynolds

Occupation
Schools

Philadelphia High School for Girls

Pennsylvania State University

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Weekends

First Name

Blondell

Birth City, State, Country

Sumter

HM ID

BRO08

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Teens and Adult Women

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes

Favorite Season

Fall

Speaker Bureau Notes

Preferred Audience: Teens and Adult Women

Sponsor

Knight Foundation

State

South Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Favorite Quote

For Work: Shoot For The Moon And If By Chance You Trip And Fall You'll Catch A Star. For Family: You Reap What You Sow.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Pennsylvania

Birth Date

10/10/1952

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Philadelphia

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Salmon

Short Description

City council member The Honorable Blondell Reynolds Brown (1952 - ) has served as community affairs director for State Senator Vincent Hughes and was elected to the Philadelphia City Council.

Employment

Philadelphia Public Schools

24th Ward, Third Division of Philadelphia

City of Philadelphia

Philadelphia City Council

Paul Robeson Cultural Center

Penn State University

Philadelphia Dance Company

"Hello Broadway"

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Blondell Reynolds Brown's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Blondell Reynolds Brown lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Blondell Reynolds Brown describes her family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Blondell Reynolds Brown describes her parents' educational backgrounds

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Blondell Reynolds Brown talks about moving to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Blondell Reynolds Brown describes the sights, sounds, and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Blondell Reynolds Brown describes her childhood neighborhoods in North and Southwest Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Blondell Reynolds Brown describes her childhood interests and activities

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Blondell Reynolds Brown talks about the burden of being the oldest child

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Blondell Reynolds Brown talks about attending Morton McMichael Elementary School

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Blondell Reynolds Brown describes her experiences attending Philadelphia High School for Girls

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Blondell Reynolds Brown describes her extracurricular activities as a youth

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Blondell Reynolds Brown talks about her father

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Blondell Reynolds Brown describes her experiences attending Pennsylvania State University in State College, Pennsylvania

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Blondell Reynolds Brown talks about attending graduate school at Pennsylvania State University in State College, Pennsylvania

Tape: 1 Story: 16 - Blondell Reynolds Brown talks about the teachers and professors who influenced her from elementary school to college

Tape: 1 Story: 17 - Blondell Reynolds Brown talks about running for treasurer at Pennsylvania State University

Tape: 1 Story: 18 - Blondell Reynolds Brown describes her involvement in the black student movement at Pennsylvania State University

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Blondell Reynolds Brown talks about being involved with the Black Cultural Festival and the Paul Robeson Cultural Center at Pennsylvania State University

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Blondell Reynolds Brown talks about the Paul Robeson Cultural Center on the campus of Pennsylvania State University

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Blondell Reynolds Brown describes her regret at not having attended law school

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Blondell Reynolds Brown describes how she began working as a legislative aide on the Senate Education Committee

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Blondell Reynolds Brown describes running for public office for the first time in 1995

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Blondell Reynolds Brown describes being elected as a City of Philadelphia Councilwoman in 1999

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Blondell Reynolds Brown describes the governmental structure of the State of Philadelphia and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Blondell Reynolds Brown compares being a staff member for an elected official and being an elected official

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Blondell Reynolds Brown talks about Frank Rizzo, Sr. and Frank Rizzo, Jr.

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Blondell Reynolds Brown describes the challenges she faced as a City Councilwoman

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Blondell Reynolds Brown talks about the compromise needed for passage of legislation

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Blondell Reynolds Brown talks about keeping her constituents informed

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Blondell Reynolds Brown notes the significance of her election as a Councilwoman for the City of Philadelphia

Tape: 2 Story: 14 - Blondell Reynolds Brown describes her greatest triumph as a City of Philadelphia Councilwoman, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 15 - Blondell Reynolds Brown describes her greatest triumph as a City of Philadelphia Councilwoman, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Blondell Reynolds Brown describes not having to focus on neighborhood issues as an at-large City Councilwoman

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Blondell Reynolds Brown talks about chairing the Committee on Recreation, Parks and Cultural Affairs for the Philadelphia City Council

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Blondell Reynolds Brown talks about being a professional dancer with the Philadelphia Dance Company

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Blondell Reynolds Brown talks about dancing in the show "Hello Broadway" in Atlantic City, New Jersey from 1980 to 1981

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Blondell Reynolds Brown describes her public policy work as Chair of the Committee on Recreation, Parks and Cultural Affairs, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Blondell Reynolds Brown describes her public policy work as Chair of the Committee on Recreation, Parks and Cultural Affairs, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Blondell Reynolds Brown talks about culture in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania's

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Blondell Reynolds Brown describes her signature event, "Women Making a Difference"

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Blondell Reynolds Brown shares her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Blondell Reynolds Brown talks about her legacy

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Blondell Reynolds Brown talks about her plan to write children's books and her daughter, Brielle Autumn Brown

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Blondell Reynolds Brown describes how her mother perceives her success

Tape: 3 Story: 13 - Blondell Reynolds Brown talks about how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 3 Story: 14 - Blondell Reynolds Brown narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Blondell Reynolds Brown narrates her photographs, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Blondell Reynolds Brown narrates her photographs, pt. 3

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Blondell Reynolds Brown narrates her photographs, pt. 4

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Blondell Reynolds Brown narrates her photographs, pt. 5

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

13$4

DATitle
Blondell Reynolds Brown notes the significance of her election as a Councilwoman for the City of Philadelphia
Blondell Reynolds Brown talks about dancing in the show "Hello Broadway" in Atlantic City, New Jersey from 1980 to 1981
Transcript
Now, what's been your greatest triumph, or the thing you're the most proud of that you've been able to accomplish in City Council?$$I think first, getting here. Because I was up against some tremendous odds-fifty-two people in a race for five seats. And three of those fifty-two were incumbents. And historically, in this town incumbents always return. So, we're talking about two slots-fifty-two individuals, two slots. So, the triumph was mounting a strong organizational campaign to get the job done. Because I'd already been through it once, and had a pretty good sense of what was required--of raising the amount of dollars that we did--over two hundred thousand dollars. Some of the opponents were actually party officials, Democratic Party officials, and I ran without the support of the Philadelphia City Democratic Party. So, the triumph of beating those odds and getting here was wonderful, and I believe a great triumph for African-American women. Because in some ways, they are represented by me being at that table of seventeen.$I guess the final chapter of the performance part of dance happened when a bunch of us decided to go to Atlantic City... decided to go to New York to audition for a show that was opening up in Atlantic City [New Jersey]... about five of us from the Philadelphia Dance Company.$$What was this show?$$The show was called "Hello, Broadway," back in 1980, '81' [1981]. So, a bunch of us decided to take, you know, take the leap. And certain members of the dance company and went up to New York City and auditioned, and some of us made it, and some of us didn't. I didn't make it, because I wasn't tall enough. They wanted dancers who were 5'6. So, I, you know, came back to Philadelphia [Pennsylvania] a bit wounded. But then a girlfriend called me and said, "Blondell, all of the dancers didn't show up, and you should come back down and audition again." So I went back down, though I was 5'3, and they were looking for dancers who were 5'6. But I wore three inch pumps. So, now, I met the criteria and (laughter) I could already dance. So, I got the job, and lived my life. I mean for that year and a half, that's how I paid my bills--dancing in "Hello Broadway" in Atlantic City. So, when that short life ended, I started teaching, and taught all the way up until I ran for elected office--teaching dance to children of all ages, from six to seventeen.