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James Hubbard, Jr.

Mechanical engineer and engineering professor James Edward Hubbard, Jr. was born on December 21, 1951 in Danville, Virginia. Hubbard received his high school diploma with a concentration in engineering in 1969 from the Baltimore Polytechnic Institute. In 1971, he enlisted as an officer in the U.S. Merchant Marine and served during the Vietnam War. He attended the Calhoon MEBA Marine Engineering School and became the youngest serviceman to receive the unlimited horsepower, steam and diesel engine Marine Engineering license from the U.S. Coast Guard. Returning to the United States, Hubbard began his undergraduate studies at Morgan State College, but after receiving encouragement from teachers, family and friends, he enrolled at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Hubbard went on to graduate from MIT with his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in mechanical engineering in 1977, 1979, and 1982, respectively.

Hubbard has served as a professor and a researcher both inside and outside of academia. After receiving his Ph.D. degree, Hubbard continued his work as an assistant professor of mechanical engineering at MIT until 1985, and as a lecturer until 1994. While there, he mentored both graduate- and doctorate-level students. Following his tenure with MIT, Hubbard was hired at the Boston University Photonics Center, PhotoSense, Inc. and iProvica. In 2004, Hubbard returned to academia and was named the Samuel P. Langley Distinguished Professor Aerospace Engineering at the University of Maryland. Hubbard’s research has included sensors and system concepts, optoelectronics, and photonics. His work in 1985 resulted in the production of what many consider the first example of an “adaptive structure,” or a structure that can respond to changes in its environment. He also received a patent for his work with “Smart Skin” technology, or a large-area blanket-like sensor that could be used in a number of applications. His work with the Morpheus Laboratory, Hubbard’s research group at the University of Maryland and NIA, has focused on aerodynamic engineering and has resulted in such projects as ornithopters and the Sky Walker program.

Hubbard is a member of the Air Force Studies Board, the Naval Research Advisory Committee, and the Committee on Space Defense Technology. He has garnered several awards in recognition of his work in both industrial and academic settings. Hubbard was the 2009 recipient of the Smart Structures Product Innovation Award from the International Society for Optical Engineering. In 2002, Hubbard received the Black Engineer of the Year President’s Award from U.S. Black Engineer & Information Technology magazine.

Hubbard and his wife, Adrienne Hubbard, have three adult sons: James, Drew, and Jordan.

James Edward Hubbard, Jr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 19, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.090

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/19/2013

Last Name

Hubbard

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

E

Schools

Baltimore Polytechnic Institute

Calhoon M.E.B.A. Engineering School

Morgan State University

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Search Occupation Category
First Name

James

Birth City, State, Country

Danville

HM ID

HUB01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Near Water

Favorite Quote

All that glitters is not gold

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Virginia

Birth Date

12/21/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Hampton

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Flounder (Fried)

Short Description

Mechanical engineer and engineering professor James Hubbard, Jr. (1951 - ) served in the U.S. Merchant Marine during the Vietnam War and became the youngest serviceman to receive the unlimited horsepower, steam and diesel engine Marine Engineering license from the U.S. Coast Guard. Hubbard is the Samuel P. Langley Distinguished Professor Aerospace Engineering at the University of Maryland.

Employment

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Charles Stark Draper Laboratory

Optron Systems, Inc.

Boston University Photonics Center

PhotoSense, Inc.

National Institute of Aerospace

University of Maryland, College Park

improVica

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of James Hubbard's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - James Hubbard lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - James Hubbard describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - James Hubbard describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - James Hubbard talks about his parents' education and their employment

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - James Hubbard talks about his family living under the Jim Crow laws in Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - James Hubbard talks about how his parents met and were married

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - James Hubbard talks about his father's move to Philadelphia to escape the Jim Crow laws of the southern United States

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - James Hubbard describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - James Hubbard talks about living in Philadelphia with his father for a year, and returning to Danville, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - James Hubbard talks about his sister

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - James Hubbard talks about growing up in Danville, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - James Hubbard describes his childhood in Danville, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - James Hubbard talks about living under Jim Crow laws in Danville, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - James Hubbard describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Danville, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - James Hubbard talks about the teachers who influenced him in grade school

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - James Hubbard talks about his performance in math in grade school

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - James Hubbard talks about attending Calvary Baptist Church in Danville, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - James Hubbard talks about the Civil Rights Movement and Bloody Monday in Danville, Virginia in 1963

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - James Hubbard talks about his mother's involvement in the Civil Rights Movement, and his family's move to Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - James Hubbard talks about his experience in school in Baltimore, Maryland, and how it impacted him

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - James Hubbard describes his experience at Baltimore Polytechnic Institute

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - James Hubbard describes his experience in the U.S. Navy Sea Cadet Corps

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - James Hubbard talks about how he became a part of the Maryland Naval Militia

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - James Hubbard talks about his experience in the Maryland Naval Militia

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - James Hubbard talks about his experience at Calhoon MEBA, and entering the Vietnam War

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - James Hubbard describes his experience in the Merchant Marines as a ship engineer on an ammunition ship in the Vietnam War

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - James Hubbard reflects upon his experience with racism during the Vietnam War

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - James Hubbard describes his decision to attend Morgan State University and his experience there

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - James Hubbard talks about those who influenced him to attend the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - James Hubbard describes his experience at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and talks about his mentors there

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - James Hubbard talks about his mentors at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - James Hubbard talks about his involvement and leadership in the Black Mechanical Engineers (BME) organization at MIT

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - James Hubbard talks about HistoryMaker, Shirley Jackson, and the Bell Labs Fellowship for minority students

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - James Hubbard talks about his dissertation research in helicopter rotor acoustics at MIT

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - James Hubbard talks about his financial struggles as a graduate student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - James Hubbard describes his doctoral research on helicopter rotor acoustics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - James Hubbard talks about his mentor, Wesley Harris

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - James Hubbard talks about joining the faculty of the mechanical engineering department at the Massachusetts Institute of technology (MIT)

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - James Hubbard talks about his contributions to the field of piezoelectricity and smart structures - part one

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - James Hubbard talks about his contributions to the field of piezoelectricity and smart structures - part two

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - James Hubbard describes his decision to leave the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1985 - part one

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - James Hubbard describes his decision to leave the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1985 - part two

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - James Hubbard talks about working at Draper Laboratory, and with HistoryMaker Cardinal Warde at Optron Systems, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - James Hubbard talks about his work with photolithography techniques and his decision to become the executive vice president of Optron Systems, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - James Hubbard talks about co-founding the Boston University Photonics Center and founding PhotoSense, Inc. and iProvica, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - James Hubbard talks about his invention of Smart Skin and his patents

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - James Hubbard describes his decision to accept a position as the Langley Distinguished Professor of Aerospace at the University of Maryland

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - James Hubbard talks about the students he mentored, and the "art of being a wolf"

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - James Hubbard describes his experience and his work at the National Institute of Aerospace (NIA)

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - James Hubbard talks about the Sky Walker Program

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - James Hubbard talks about his work on the Air Wolf Project

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - James Hubbard talks about founding a company with his son

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - James Hubbard talks about his wife

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - James Hubbard talks about his family

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - James Hubbard reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - James Hubbard reflects upon his life

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - James Hubbard talks about his father's training as a pilot and how he owned and flew a Piper Cub plane

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - James Hubbard describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community today

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - James Hubbard shares his perspectives on today's generation

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - James Hubbard talks about how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$6

DAStory

7$1

DATitle
James Hubbard reflects upon his experience with racism during the Vietnam War
James Hubbard talks about his work with photolithography techniques and his decision to become the executive vice president of Optron Systems, Inc.
Transcript
So did your view of the [Vietnam] war change any by being over there?$$Emm hmm (NODDING OF HIS HEAD).$$Okay.$$I grew up in the Maryland Naval Militia, part of a small elite team trained by a recon marine; we were all flavors. I was--you couldn't have found a more dedicated patriot; boy did I love my country, and I was proud of my skills; I had learned a lotta ways to kill a person at seventeen, like the military would, and volunteered. Even though I was sent over there by this guy to be hurt, I loved every minute of it. What happened was when I got there, two things happened; there were--everybody was there; there were all services, which shocked me; even Coast Guard. When we got there, you could look around, there was Coast Guard people, National Guard, there was Korean Elite Forces, I mean just around 'cause don't forget now, ships pull in, you got everybody running over there unloading it. I didn't expect that; there were uniforms and insignias that I did not recognize, and the white troops--if you weren't careful, they would call you Nigger in a minute--the white troops; that stunned me, that made a huge impact on me. And then I found out that a lotta them was getting fragged by the brothers over there--$$Emm hmm.$$--for that.$$And fragging is--$$Throw a hand grenade in the outhouse when they go to the bathroom, stuff like that (laughter).$$Getting rid of the Second Lieutenant or--$$They hated a lotta things man, you be walking down the street and a brother would see you and they had this thing that they would do; it was a sign thing.$$I believe it's called the Dap [ph.].$$No, it ain't no Dap. It was a lang-- (simultaneous)--it was a language; they would do this, and I found out that it meant 'Hi my brother, I would die for you.' It was stuff like that but it wasn't a Dap. You be walking, and on the other side of the street, a brother you ain't never seen, you turn to him and he would do this thing, and then you would learn how to answer him back. So it was more racist in Vietnam than it had been in Danville [Virginia], and I didn't expect that; I didn't expect that at all.$$Okay.$$Lotta killing; some guys on my ship killed some people and they (laughter) weren't even supposed to be doing that. Anyway. Nineteen [years old].$So what I was telling you Larry, was that Don [Donald] Fraser left [Draper Laboratory, Cambridge, Massachusetts] to become Deputy Undersecretary of Defense and I left because he was my mentor, and I left to help Cardinal Warde [also a HistoryMaker] because Cardinal was trying to develop a device that I had a lot of experience developing for Draper--$$Emm.$$--and, because of my background, he also wanted me to run the company.$$Okay now, what is this device?$$Do you wanna know technically what--well (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous)--Yeah, technically yeah.$$Okay. So it was during the Star Wars era, and there were a bunch of challenges for Star Wars; people were developing high-energy laser systems, alright? And what they would like for them to be able to do is sit on the ground and shoot down missiles, trying to hurt the United States. The problem, Larry, is when you shine a beam of light through the atmosphere, the currents in the air and all make the beam move all around. I mean if I aim at you if there's wind blowing, it'll blow--literally blow the--you know; I won't hit you. So one of the things you can do is take the beam of light and let it hit a mirror, and then steer the mirror to hit you; and then have a sensor that looks at all these air currents and as they wiggle the beam, the mirror wiggles in the opposite direction, and so the beam stays right on you and you're dead; that's called adaptive optics.$$Hmm.$$Well it turns out, it's really hard to do (laughter). The government, Lincoln Labs, had received a lotta money to develop the system I just told you about, but it turns out that the mirror has to be really flat and hard so they made it out of titanium. But the biggest mirror they could polish that flat was six inches. Then it turns out to do air currents, you have to have at least a thousand action waves on the back to wiggle the frequencies they want. They can only get 300 because it's only a six-inch mirror, and they used 300 piezo crystals to move it. Well, you gotta run piezos at 600 volts Larry; so they had 300 amplifiers in a room, air conditioned to get the 300 but I mean it was huge, it took up a whole building. When I was at Draper, I developed a two-inch mirror that had a million actuators on it. And, you could put it in your pocket; I have a patent on that--$$Hmm.$$--so Cardinal found out about that; I never published anything--a million. And so he was trying to develop the same kind of mirror to do large projection displays for movie theaters and for military use.$$Right, that's right.$$And so it was a natural--he was a gem; come on man (laughter). SAIC [Science Applications International Corporation]--I was interviewing with them 'cause I had worked with the founder of SAIC through Don Fraser; I had been on a government committee with him; his name was Larry Crowe and he was like--Larry Cole--and he was like "Jim, come and work with us." But then Cardinal--so I went with Cardinal and developed this deformable mirror. All kinds of photolithography techniques; I was there four years.$$Okay, and this was for Optron [Systems, Inc.]?$$Emm hmm (NODDING OF HIS HEAD YES), Optron.$$Optron, okay. Cardinal Warde.

Roscoe Giles

Physicist and professor of electrical and computer engineering, Dr. Roscoe C. Giles was born in 1949 in Oakland, California. He was raised in Berkeley, California until his family moved to Chicago, Illinois at age four. Giles attended University of Chicago Laboratory Schools from kindergarten to twelfth grade, graduating in 1966. Obtaining his B.A. degree in physics at the University of Chicago, Giles graduated with honors in 1970. Continuing his study of physics, he went on to acquire his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in physics from Stanford University in 1973 and 1975. Giles was the first African American to earn his Ph.D. degree in physics from Stanford University.

Giles worked as a research associate at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) until moving to the Center for Theoretical Physics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1976. In 1979, he became an assistant professor of physics at MIT. He moved to Boston University as an associate professor of electrical and computer engineering in 1985. In 1992, Giles was named Boston University Scholar-Teacher of the Year and he became the deputy director of the Boston University Center for Computational Science. During 1994 and 1995, Giles won Department of Energy Undergraduate Computational Science Education Awards. The Metacenter-Affiliated Resource in the New England Region (MARINER) project was established at Boston University in October 1995. Claudio Rebbi, Glenn Bresnahan, and Giles became co-directors of the National Science Foundation (NSF) funded the MARINER project.

In 1996, Giles won Boston University's College of Engineering Award for Excellence in Teaching. Giles started as a team leader for the Education Outreach and Training Partnership for Advanced Computational Infrastructure (EOT-PACI) in 1997. He co-chaired the Education Program for the Supercomputing 1997 Conference, benefiting a large group of diverse teachers and exposing thousands of conference attendees to the K-12 use of technology. In 1999, Giles was promoted as a full professor to the department of electrical and computer engineering at Boston University. His research focuses on distributed and parallel computer and supercomputer applications, simulations of large scale molecular systems, advanced computer architectures, computational science, and micromagnetics. In 2000, Giles won the Computing Research Association (CRA) A. Nico Habermann Award. The CRA awarded Giles efforts to increase the participation of underrepresented minorities in the computing disciplines, his service as a faculty advisor and mentor for the Minority Engineers Society, and his mentoring of high school, undergraduate, and graduate students. Giles founded and is the executive director of the Institute for African American eCulture which fights hi-tech inequality. During the Supercomputing Conference in Baltimore, Maryland in 2002, Giles was the first ever African American conference chairman. In 2004, the Career Communications Group selected Giles as one of the "50 Most Important Blacks in Research Science." Another NSF collaboration led by Giles was Engaging People in Cyberinfrastructure (EPIC) launched in 2005. Giles became the chair of the United States Department of Energy's Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) in 2010.

Dr. Roscoe Giles was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 12, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.170

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/12/2012

Last Name

Giles

Schools

University of Chicago Laboratory Schools

University of Chicago

Stanford University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Roscoe

Birth City, State, Country

Oakland

HM ID

GIL06

Favorite Season

Summer

State

California

Favorite Vacation Destination

Camping

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

4/6/1949

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood, Shrimp

Short Description

Physicist and engineering professor Roscoe Giles (1949 - ) was the first African American to earn a Ph.D. in Physics from Stanford University. He worked as a professor at MIT and Boston University, winning several teaching and education awards and was named one of the "50 Most Important Blacks in Research Science" in 2004.

Employment

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Boston University Center for Computational Science

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Roscoe Giles' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Roscoe Giles lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Roscoe Giles describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Roscoe Giles talks about his mother's aspirations to become a teacher

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Roscoe Giles describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Roscoe Giles talks about his paternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Roscoe Giles talks about his grandfather's military service

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Roscoe Giles describes his father's educational background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Roscoe Giles describes his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Roscoe Giles talks about his brother, Morris Giles

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Roscoe Giles describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Roscoe Giles describes his childhood neighborhood and home

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Roscoe Giles describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Roscoe Giles talks about his experience at the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Roscoe Giles describes his family's involvement in the church

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Roscoe Giles talks about the University of Chicago's scientific history

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Roscoe Giles talks about his education at the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Roscoe Giles talks about his interest in electronics

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Roscoe Giles talks about how science fiction movies inspired him as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Roscoe Giles talks about his favorite teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Roscoe Giles describes his experience at the University of Chicago Lab Schools

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Roscoe Giles talks about developing social skills as a scientist

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Roscoe Giles talks about his peers at the University of Chicago Lab Schools

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Roscoe Giles describes his decision to attend the University of Chicago

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Roscoe Giles describes the technology that was available to him in college

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Roscoe Giles talks about the faculty and research at the University of Chicago's physics department

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Roscoe Giles remembers the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Roscoe Giles talks about his wife, Linda, and their move to California

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Roscoe Giles talks about his mentors and the minority program at Stanford University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Roscoe Giles describes his dissertation on the modeling of quark confinement - part one

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Roscoe Giles describes his dissertation on the modeling of quark confinement - part two

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Roscoe Giles talks about the discoveries made at the Stanford Linear Acceleration Center (SLAC)

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Roscoe Giles talks about the Hertz fellowship

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Roscoe Giles talks about his experience at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Roscoe Giles talks about his research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Roscoe Giles talks about his transition to the role of a computer engineer

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Roscoe Giles talks about the development of the internet

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Roscoe Giles talks about improvements at Boston University

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Roscoe Giles discusses the interplay of theory, experiment, and computation in science

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Roscoe Giles talks about the his involvement in professional organizations

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Roscoe Giles discusses his curriculum for computational science

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Roscoe Giles describes the MARINER project

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Roscoe Giles describes his work with the Fayerweather Street School

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Roscoe Giles talks about his work with the Education Outreach Training

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Roscoe Giles describes his role as chair of the Supercomputing Conference

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Roscoe Giles talks about the Institute for African American e-culture

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Roscoe Giles talks about technology and various forms of learning

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Roscoe Giles talks about being honored by the Career Communications Group

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Roscoe Giles describes Engaging People in Cyber-infrastructure

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Roscoe Giles talks about the Advanced Scientific Computer Advisory Committee

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Roscoe Giles talks about his professional associations

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Roscoe Giles discusses the future of scientific computing

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Roscoe Giles shares his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Roscoe Giles shares his advice for future engineers and computer scientists

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Roscoe Giles reflects upon his career

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Roscoe Giles discusses his computer preferences

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Roscoe Giles reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Roscoe Giles talks about his family

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - Roscoe Giles asks questions to challenge young people

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Roscoe Giles tells how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$4

DAStory

5$3

DATitle
Roscoe Giles describes the MARINER project
Roscoe Giles talks about the discoveries made at the Stanford Linear Acceleration Center (SLAC)
Transcript
Now, tell us about project, the MARINER project?$$Oh, so, MARINER [Metacenter-Affiliated Resource in the New England Region], so what happened here [Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts] was that we were building up the computing facilities. We had the Center for Computational Science and MARINER was an outreach project that we tried to link those together with the educational resources and provide a framework for doing computational science research, education and so on within the local area. It was supported by an NSF [National Science Foundation] outreach award. What was true then was that the National Science Foundation for scientific computing ran a group of super computer centers. And associated with them, they wanted partners in regional areas to help bring computational science out to universities and so on. MARINER was such a partnership with the super computer centers. That all evolved over time to a new, within the world of NSF-supported activities, to something called the Partnerships for Advanced Computational Infrastructure which tried to group the outreach activities and the regional activities with the actual main super computer, you know, funding into a large umbrella grant. And we later worked on that. So the thing called the NCSA [National Cyber Security Alliance] alliance and the part that I was associated with was called EOT PACI. The PACI is Partnerships for Advanced Computational Infrastructure and the EOT is Education Outreach Training which was the kind of language then.$$Okay, now, you worked with Claudio Rebbi and Glenn Bresnahan?$$Right, that's right. So Claudio is the director or was the director of the Center for Computational Science and Glenn Bresnahan is the director of the Scientific Computing and Visualization Facility here at BU [Boston University]. So that's a part of the sort of information technology and systems division of the university. And so all of us worked together to, to lead that MARINER effort and then worked on the subsequent efforts. And always that, that set of people were involved in the infrastructure grants at the university that brought new computer systems. So we had at that time a series of large-scale computers that were brought to the university. You know, every four years or so, we would get a new machine by matching university resources with grant resources that we'd get, you know, through competitive grants with the National Science Foundation.$Okay, okay, now, you submitted a publication to the American Physical Society in '74 [1974] called 'Semi-Classical Dynamics of the SLAC Bag' and that (unclear) (simultaneous)--$$Yep, that's, that's my thesis, basically.$$Okay.$$I mean that was a piece of my thesis. I think that was the main publication that came out of it, and semi-classical method, the quantum mechanics was not taken into account for the bag itself.$$Okay, now, tell us now, what's the significance of some of these developments here? In '72 [1972], the Stanford Positron Electron Accelerating Ring operations began.$$Um-hum.$$Now, what are we talking about there? What's going on?$$Well, okay, so, originally, SLAC was this linear, I mean the name almost says it, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The joke was that somebody originally wanted to call it the Stanford High Intensity Tube, but thought better of it. Anyway, sorry, don't think about that too long (laughter). But, anyway, so the linear accelerator would take, you know, it was based on the klystron tubes that, you know, had been invented in the context of radar, micro, basically took microwave radiation, accelerated electrons along a two-mile path and smashed them into things. The, the colliding ring was [Burton] Richter's idea that was a variant of that where instead of colliding electrons with positrons, you use the electron beam to create a positron beam and then had a single ring that, that--well, or double ring, that made the electrons go one way, the positrons go the other way and smashed them into each other. The, the neat thing about that experiment is that because they're a matter and anti-matter, the positrons and electrons, when they interact, it's possible for them to annihilate each other and create many more varieties of things or at least a different variety of new particles, compared to colliding electrons and protons because of the way, I mean they're just different things. So it's colliding one--it's like two different kinds of chemicals, you know, make different outcomes. So, that was the, the history. The thing that, the idea of it, of what started then. The expectation at that time was that this was another way to look into the zoo of elementary particles and just get a slightly different angle. What happened, I think around '74 [1974], '73 [1973], '74 [1974], was there was a very big surprise in those experiments where a single new particle was produced out of that or essentially, a single new particle, rather than just another spray of high-energy particle garbage, you know, like the thing we were talking about before, the jets. So a new particle was formed that seemed to last a relatively long time. That was then reflected a new kind of quark being discovered. Basically, it was a new kind of quark and its anti-quark that were being produced, which is now called the charm quark. They, this was also discovered and with the, you know, a lot of discussion, shall we say, between the CERN [The European Organization for Nuclear Research, Switzerland] lab and Sam Ting [Samuel Chao Chung Ting] as MIT [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts] versus Richter and SLAC. Ting called it the 'J particle' and, and Richter called it the 'psi' and they got the Nobel Prize [in physics in 1976], I guess together for that, though it's not clear that either side ever agreed who was really first. And, but anyway, that, that was the big discovery in SLAC, and during the time that I was there. One quick little anecdote, the first time I went out to talk about my thesis, I went to the University of Oregon, Eugene [Oregon], and then up to the University of Washington, Seattle, to talk about that research that I did. And the, the time I went was about three weeks after the discovery of the 'psi' particle. And so you can imagine how much people in Oregon or anywhere else wanted to hear about my little bag model compared to having me give them a talk about the latest SLAC discovery. So I had to brush up relatively quickly on all the experimental discoveries so that people would sit still long enough for me to tell them about the bag model.

Cardinal Warde

Engineer and engineering professor Cardinal Warde was born on July 14, 1945 in Christ Church, Barbados to Rosetta Irene Ward. After graduating from high school, Warde moved to the United States and enrolled in the Stevens Institute of Technology. There he played for the institute’s varsity soccer team, and received his B.A. degree in science in 1969. He continued to study physics in graduate school at Yale University. In 1971, Warde earned his M.Phil. degree, and in 1974 he earned his Ph.D. degree in physics. As a doctoral student, he invented a new inferometer with the ability of operating at absolute zero temperature. The device measured the refractive index and thickness of solid oxygen films used for his dissertation research.

In 1974, Ward joined the faculty in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at Massachusetts Institute of Technology as an associate professor. At MIT, Warde's interest shifted toward the engineering applications of optics. He became involved with other members of the faculty in the development of devices for enhancing the performance of optical atmospheric (wireless) communication systems to improve communication performance in inclement weather, and on the development of photorefractive materials for real-time holography and optical computing. To date, he has published over one hundred technical papers on optical materials, devices and systems. Warde is also an entrepreneur. In 1982, he founded Optron Systems, Inc., an incubator company dedicated to developing novel electro-optic and MEMS displays, and light shutters and modulators for optical signal processing systems. Then, in 1999, he co-founded Radiant Images, Inc., a company engaged in the manufacture of transparent liquid-crystal VLSI microdisplays for digital camera and camcorder viewfinders, portable telecommunications devices, and display eyeglasses.

Warde is an inventor on twelve patents, and has published three book chapters in addition to over one-hundred-fifty technical papers on optical materials, devices and systems. Warde is former associate editor of the The Journal of Display Technology and fellow of the Optical Society of America. He has been recognized with a number of awards and honors for his work, including the Renaissance Science and Engineering Award from Stevens Institute of Technology in 1996, the Companion of Honour Award (the second highest honor awarded by the Government of Barbados) in 2003.He received honorary doctorate degrees in science from Universidad Carlos III de Madrid and the University of the West Indies.

Cardinal Warde was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 11, 2012

Accession Number

A2012.220

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/11/2012 |and| 4/28/2013

Last Name

Warde

Organizations
Schools

St. Christopher's Primary

Christ Church Foundation School

Harrison College

Stevens Institute of Technology

Yale University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Cardinal

Birth City, State, Country

Hopewell

HM ID

WAR15

Favorite Season

Summer

Sponsor

National Science Foundation

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

I Believe The Next Google Can Be Developed In The Caribbean.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

7/14/1945

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

Barbados

Favorite Food

Peas, Rice

Short Description

Engineer and engineering professor Cardinal Warde (1945 - ) was the co-founder of Radiant Images, Inc., a company engaged in the manufacture of transparent liquid-crystal VLSI microdisplays for digital camera and camcorder viewfinders, portable telecommunications devices, and display eyeglasses.

Employment

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Optron Systems, Inc.

Radiant Images, Inc.

Main Sponsor
Main Sponsor URL
Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Cardinal Warde's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Cardinal Warde lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Cardinal Warde describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Cardinal Warde talks about his mother's growing up in Barbados

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Cardinal Warde describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Cardinal Warde talks about Barbados

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Cardinal Warde talks about his father and how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Cardinal Warde talks about his parents' personality and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Cardinal Warde talks about his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Cardinal Warde describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Cardinal Warde describes the sights and sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Cardinal Warde talks about getting radio, running water and electricity in his village

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Cardinal Warde discusses the history of Barbados

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Cardinal Warde discusses the history of Barbados

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Cardinal Warde talks about his early education

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Cardinal Warde describes his experience in elementary school

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Cardinal Warde describes his experience in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Cardinal Warde talks about conducting chemistry and rocketry experiments with friends

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Cardinal Warde talks about deficiencies in his high school education

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Cardinal Warde describes his mentors and their influence on his choice of college

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Cardinal Warde talks about Stevens Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Cardinal Warde discusses the cultural differences between American blacks and Caribbean blacks

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Cardinal Warde talks about living in Hoboken, New Jersey

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Cardinal Warde talks about math and physics at Stevens Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Cardinal Warde talks about playing varsity soccer at Stevens Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Cardinal Warde talks about reactions to Dr. Martin Luther King's assassination

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Cardinal Warde talks about his jobs and interests while at Stevens Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Cardinal Warde describes his experience at Yale University

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Cardinal Warde discusses his research in low temperature physics and the properties of solid oxygen

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Cardinal Warde describes his decision to work at Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Slating of Cardinal Warde's interview, session 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Cardinal Warde recalls being hired at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Cardinal Warde remembers changing the focus of his research

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Cardinal Warde describes the Department of Electrical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Cardinal Warde talks about the field of electrical engineering

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Cardinal Warde remembers his early mentors at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Cardinal Warde describes the development of the microchannel spatial light modulator

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Cardinal Warde remembers the start of his company, Optron Systems, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Cardinal Warde recalls the work in image display technology at Optron Systems, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Cardinal Warde talks about the acquisition of Radiant Images, Inc.

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Cardinal Warde talks about his work in optical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Cardinal Warde describes his current research in optoelectronics, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Cardinal Warde describes his current research in optoelectronics, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Cardinal Warde talks about the developments in artificial intelligence

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Cardinal Warde talks about the prospects for the machine learning field

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Cardinal Warde talks about the fields of electrical engineering and neuroscience

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Cardinal Warde talks about the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies initiative

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Cardinal Warde talks about the capabilities of computer systems

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Cardinal Warde describes his teaching methodology

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Cardinal Warde talks about his electrical engineering students

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Cardinal Warde describes the Minority Introduction to Engineering and Science program

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Cardinal Warde talks about the importance of mathematics

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Cardinal Warde talks about the STEM fields

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Cardinal Warde talks about the Student Program for Innovation in Science and Engineering

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Cardinal Warde talks about the Caribbean Diaspora for Science, Technology and Innovation

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Cardinal Warde recalls the individuals involved with the Student Program for Innovation in Science and Engineering

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Cardinal Warde talks about the programs of the Caribbean Science Foundation

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Cardinal Warde describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Cardinal Warde reflects upon his career

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Cardinal Warde reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Cardinal Warde describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$4

DAStory

4$10

DATitle
Cardinal Warde talks about math and physics at Stevens Institute of Technology
Cardinal Warde describes his decision to work at Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Transcript
Alright. Now, how did your studies go? Were you prepared for Stevenson?$$Well, it turns out that from my high school, Harrison College, I had a good preparation in mathematics and physics. And enough chemistry that during the first year--first semester--I didn't have to work very hard. So, so from that perspective, I was well prepared. From the perspective of literature and so on, I was not as well prepared. I hadn't read as much as some of my other colleagues had read, and I found it easier to do the sciences than to do the literature. It was partly because of interest. Excuse me. So, so I looked--like I was a young, black, smart kid, you know, 'cause when all the other guys were struggling with calculus and all that, that was second nature to me. And so I was helping people after a while with homework, so I made some friends, you know. And after the first year, I realized that things weren't as bad as I had imagined and that yeah, I could survive here, and you just have to pick your friends carefully and you feel people out first, see where they stand before you say too much or do too much and I was--I try to use some common sense in all my inter-personal relationships. I always waited to see if I was gonna be accepted before I, you know, opened up, so to speak.$$Okay. So, you had good grades I take it. (Simultaneous)--$$--(Simultaneous) I was on the Dean's List. Yeah, yeah.$$Okay. What area of physics did--were you drawn to?$$At that early age we didn't--I mean, it's too early to specialize. In physics, normally one starts off with mechanics, and under the British system, applied mathematics looked a lot like physics, like mechanics. So I had no trouble with that kind of physics. And then we moved on to electricity and magnetism. I have a little bit of it at Harrison College. (Unclear) --and that kind of thing (unclear). So, but I didn't have it--it was not calculus-based physics at the time. So then, introducing the calculus into physics was new to me. But it was a piece of cake because I really like calculus. So the physics was what I would call general physics. It was mechanics, electricity and magnetism, and then later on it was waves (ph.). And I still didn't have a specialty in physics, so when I graduated with a bachelor's degree in physics, I had taken a whole bunch of basic physics courses in different disciplines, but I wasn't a specialist in any of them. So I sampled around, I took some special relativity, I took thermodynamics, electricity magnetism, advance mechanics, and I took one astronomy course--astrophysics course. But I didn't specialize. Only after I got to graduate school did I start to specialize.$So this is--this is--now did you--was there--now you're at Yale [University, New Haven, Connecticut] during this time and you were hired almost, from what I understand, almost immediately by MIT [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts]--$$Right, so--$$--after you got your Ph.D.?$$--after I got my Ph.D., I decided I really wanted to stay in science and--(simultaneous) I was not a citizen.$$Yeah. Okay.$$I still wasn't a citizen. And I needed to find a job where my employer would have let me apply for at least permanent residence. So I applied at big companies. I applied to IBM [International Business Machines Corportation]. I don't know which other ones I applied to. And I applied to a whole bunch of universities 'cause I knew universities would do that. I picked all the ivy leagues [ivy league universities]. And IBM called me first and says they'd like to interview me. And I told them also I didn't want to do solid oxygen. In fact, I didn't want to do solid state physics, I wanted to do optics because it was the optical thing that really got me out of the hot water when I was trying to do my research. I said, "this optical field, I like this stuff." The laser had just been invented also, and people were talking about fiber optics and integrated optics and all kinds of stuff like that. I thought it was fascinating, and that's when I said to myself, "I also want to be an engineer now. I'm ready to be an engineer." No longer theoretical, you know. No longer doing physics, or science for the sake of science. So I applied to IBM in Fishkill, New York and they invited me for an interview. I was up there two days interviewing. I also applied to MIT and Harvard [University, Cambridge, Massachusetts]and Princeton [University, Princeton, New Jersey], Yale, you name it. And MIT was the only school that called me for an interview. And IBM had not yet made its decision, so I came here, I gave a job talk, they liked it, and a couple of days later they said "we're interested in hiring you." So I called up IBM. I says "I have a job. I'm gonna take it." So, IBM actually never made an offer formally. And I came here, and I've been here ever since.

Paula Hammond

Chemical engineer and engineering professor Paula Therese Hammond was born in 1963 in Detroit, Michigan. Although she grew up wanting to become a writer, Hammond changed her mind after taking a junior high school chemistry class. She was hooked by the idea of using two materials to create a something completely different. After graduating from high school, Hammond attended Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where she obtained her B.S. degree in chemical engineering in 1984. She was then hired by Motorola in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, where she worked for two years. In 1988, Hammond earned her M.S. degree from Georgia Institute of Technology and then returned to MIT to earn her Ph.D. degree in chemical engineering in 1993.

Following a postdoctoral research fellowship in chemistry at Harvard University, where she became interested in surface chemistry, Hammond went on to become a faculty member of MIT. In 2003, she worked as a Radcliffe Institute Fellow, focusing on a project that allowed for the creation of polymers that form micelles in water. These isolated packages could be used to assist in drug delivery. Hammond is the Bayer Chair Professor of Chemical Engineering, and serves as its Executive Officer. Additionally, she has participated in the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She also helped found the Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies (ISN), whose mission is to help design more functional technology for the nation’s soldiers. Hammond’s research interests include the nanoscale design of biomaterials, macromolecular design and synthesis, and directed assembly using surface templates. In 2010, Hammond made a research agreement with Ferrosan A/S, a pharmaceutical company, to develop a bandage that would use Hammond’s technological innovations in Ferrosan’s collagen bandages. Throughout her career, Hammond has served as a mentor to many graduate and undergraduate students and has published nearly 150 scholarly articles pertaining to her research in chemical engineering. She has also encouraged an increase in the presence of minority scientists and engineers at MIT by chairing the Initiative on Faculty, Race and Diversity.

Hammond has won numerous awards for her work as a scientist and as a professor. She was named the Bayer Distinguished Lecturer in 2004 and the Mark Hyman, Jr. Career Development Chair in 2003. In 2010, the Harvard Foundation awarded her the Scientist of the Year Award at the annual Albert Einstein Science Conference. Hammond has also been named one of the “Top 100 Science Stories of 2008,” by Discover Magazine. Hammond is married to Carmon Cunningham, and they have one son, James.

Accession Number

A2012.218

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/9/2012

Last Name

Hammond

Middle Name

T

Schools

Georgia Institute of Technology

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Harvard University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Paula

Birth City, State, Country

Detroit

HM ID

HAM04

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Michigan

Favorite Vacation Destination

Aruba, Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Science informs....

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

9/3/1963

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

All Food

Short Description

Chemical engineer and engineering professor Paula Hammond (1963 - )

Employment

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Georgia Technical Research Institute

Motorola, Inc.

Dow Chemical Company

Favorite Color

Intense Colors

Timing Pairs
0,0:2231,41:9312,172:15229,307:15617,312:16490,322:16878,327:25112,387:26176,422:27544,451:28000,459:29596,482:31040,505:31420,512:31876,522:33472,560:34460,574:38560,594:41409,644:42025,654:44181,685:44643,693:55376,827:62862,987:65766,1040:74444,1108:76390,1134:78390,1183:84870,1300:85510,1309:86550,1323:87750,1339:92710,1437:93430,1447:94550,1483:102423,1578:112387,1728:112752,1734:117132,1838:135196,2004:135572,2031:136418,2044:144972,2173:152235,2217:154746,2253:155556,2266:155961,2272:157419,2286:159930,2324:164142,2395:164466,2400:170624,2456:171464,2467:176084,2535:176588,2543:178352,2578:180032,2597:181292,2616:181796,2624:189294,2689:189689,2695:190084,2701:193495,2737:193933,2745:194444,2754:196415,2801:197437,2819:197875,2827:198386,2836:200138,2868:203642,2921:204153,2930:204737,2939:212127,3002:213666,3034:214638,3048:215367,3059:228557,3219:238609,3383:239399,3396:244455,3509:249646,3542:250238,3551:250534,3556:252014,3581:252606,3591:254456,3628:254752,3633:256602,3670:256898,3675:260154,3725:260820,3736:271271,3842:271656,3848:272195,3857:280130,3977:285350,4028$0,0:4925,42:5249,47:8246,126:9623,150:10109,157:11405,189:11891,196:12701,207:14402,232:14888,239:15455,245:31750,435:32170,441:33850,467:39814,546:45568,578:46974,600:47270,605:48750,631:49046,636:52376,707:59166,773:59628,781:60288,792:61212,809:64380,868:64908,876:66030,895:66624,905:67218,921:67812,931:71244,1002:71772,1012:72036,1017:72300,1022:81869,1142:82247,1149:84326,1187:90340,1264:91188,1273:102114,1426:105002,1469:105762,1479:110702,1573:111462,1586:113210,1610:117629,1636:118577,1651:127578,1754:128766,1772:131934,1834:140550,1886
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Paula Hammond's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Paula Hammond lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Paula Hammond talks about her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Paula Hammond talks about her mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Paula Hammond talks about her mother studying nursing at Howard University and Wayne State University

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Paula Hammond talks about her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Paula Hammond talks about her father's background

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Paula Hammond talks about her father's community involvement

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Paula Hammond talks about her likeness to her parents

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Paula Hammond talks about her brothers, Gordon Francis Goodwin and Tyehimba Jess

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Paula Hammond recalls her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Paula Hammond talks about growing up in northwest Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Paula Hammond remembers the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Paula Hammond talks about Motown and the music of her childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Paula Hammond talks about her early school days

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Paula Hammond talks about her most memorable teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Paula Hammond discusses her early aspirations to become a writer

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Paula Hammond describes the cultural changes in Detroit, Michigan and increasing gang activity

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Paula Hammond talks about her decision to attend Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Paula Hammond talks about studying at Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Paula Hammond talks about the professors that mentored and inspired her

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Paula Hammond talks about meeting her husband, John Hammond

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Paula Hammond talks describes the discrimination she faced while working at Motorola in Fort Lauderdale, Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Paula Hammond talks about working at Georgia Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Paula Hammond talks about her doctoral studies at Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Paula Hammond talks about her post-doctoral research at Harvard University

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Paula Hammond talks about her return to Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Paula Hammond describes her current research concerning the directed assembly of nanomaterials

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Paula Hammond discusses the practical application of her research

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Paula Hammond talks about liquid crystalline and block polymers

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Paula Hammond talks about dendritic block copolymers and tissue engineering

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Paula Hammond talks about the use of biomaterials in the human body

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Paula Hammond discusses nanoparticle drug delivery and other discoveries

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Paula Hammond talks about her honors and awards

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Paula Hammond talks about her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Paula Hammond gives advice to young minority students of science

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Paula Hammond reflects on her career

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Paula Hammond shares her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Paula Hammond talks about her family

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Paula Hammond tells how she would like to be remembered

DASession

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DATape

4$5

DAStory

6$1

DATitle
Paula Hammond describes her current research concerning the directed assembly of nanomaterials
Paula Hammond discusses nanoparticle drug delivery and other discoveries
Transcript
All right. Now, since you've been here, professionally you've been involved with--and I'm going to ask you to explain some of these things.$$Yes. Sure.$$It seems that we have a menu of your--of the areas you concentrate in.$$Oh, sure. And I can help you narrow them too, if some of them are--some may be more important than others, you know.$$$$Okay. Well, what about macromolecular design and synthesis?$$All right. That just refers to the fact that we make new polymers. We actually, in my group, have a couple of different skill sets. One of them is what you just described. We can, understanding the function that we want a polymer system to have, design the polymer to do what we anticipate it needs to do. So, we actually use synthetic chemistry as a tool in that case to make a new material system that will do what, you know, the desired function.$$Okay. Now, I don't know if it's time to talk about this or not, but this is--I guess this what you--this is the core of what you're doing now. I guess, it's you're using-- you're doing nanomaterials--$$That's right.$$--where you're able to layer different compounds together and make new materials.$$That's right. Exactly. And, in fact, that's the other skill set that we use. We put that all in the category of self-assembly or directed assembly. We take a material that has a certain interaction with another material, and in a controlled fashion, assemble a new structure from those two systems, two or more systems. Sometimes even one singular system can undergo soft assembly. In this case it's two systems. We're taking a positively and negatively-charged material and alternating them. And, in doing so, we create nanoscale layers, and we build these materials nano layers at a time, and we can put different material systems into different layers. With that level of control, we can design a material system from the bottom up, and determine what function exists, and how it will function based on what we incorporate into the film.$$Okay. And this is--the final product is a thin film, right?$$The final product is a very thin film, sometimes as thin as a few (tenths?) of nanometers; sometimes as thick as microns. And, we can actually coat a very broad range of things, very large structures as large as--well, there's no limit. It essentially can be--very large structures can be coated or very, fine, tiny structures and features can be coated. So, we can coat everything from a nano particle that's used for drug delivery, to an electrode that is used in electrical chemical energy applications, to a very large surface that is used as an optical reflector for an antireflective surface for a large glass structure, for example.$$Okay. So, this is what you mean by self-organized polymer systems?$$Yes. That's one of the ways in which we generate self-organized polymer systems. The other is to use that synthetic tool to create a molecule that assembles with itself in water, and we make some of those systems as well. They assemble into micellar particles, small nanoparticles when they're in water, based on hydrophobic or water hating and hydrophilic or water-loving segments.$$Okay. Okay. What about alternating electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly?$$Yes.$$That's what you just described.$$That's what I just described.$$Okay.$$Layer-by-layer assembly. The automated pieces that we--the process I was describing originally was done by dipping and allowing time for the material to absorb it to go on time. We developed an automated approach that sprays these systems one after the other, and we can generate the films much faster. One of my students invented this approach. We patented it, and we actually have a company he founded called, Svaya Nanotechnologies in Sunnyvale, California. It was founded in 2009, and it's in its third round of funding right now. And he's the one who's coating things that are as large as this table or long, rolled, reel-to-reel pieces of film, using the layer-by-layer technique.$All right. Now, what have been, I guess, your career research highlights? I know--now, you teach and do research, right?$$I teach and do research. That's right. I would say some of the career highlights include some of our more recent work, including nanoparticle drug delivery work that we've been doing. We've been able to find, very recently in our lab, a way to generate RNA, which is the mechanism we can use to turn off bad genes that can cause disease or promote disease in a way that is very unique. It allows us to deliver a large amount of RNA in a nanoparticle without causing toxic side effects, which are common with other methods of RNA encapsulation. So, that's something I think is a highlight, and we just published the work last year. Some of the earlier highlights include the work that we've done in designing these layer-by-layer films to release different drugs at different times, and it's something that we've been able to demonstrate with simple systems, but we're now trying to make more advanced films so that you can, for the implant example, release antibiotics, get rid of any infection, and release the growth factors to bring in these new healthy cells to the body.$$Okay. Now, we were reading about a partnership--well, a research agreement that you all made with--that MIT [Massachusetts Institute of Technology] made with Farrosan.$$Oh, yes. That's right. This is with the sponge that stops bleeding, essentially. And we, actually, from that work developed a coating that can be released or deployed very rapidly. And that's another very recent highlight in our work, which we hope will, ultimately, be licensed, and used--deployed to the Army.$$Okay. That's exciting stuff. Now, you're written over 150 articles or maybe more by now. I know this is an old project.$$Oh, yes. Yes. It's a little over 200 now, but it's close (laughs).

Oliver McGee, III

Civil engineer and academic administrator, Oliver G. McGee III, graduated from the The Ohio State University (OSU) in 1981 with his B.S. degree in civil engineering. McGee went on to earn advanced degrees from the University of Arizona, receiving his M.S. degree in civil engineering and his Ph.D. degree in engineering mechanics and aerospace engineering in 1983 and 1988, respectively. He was a graduate teaching associate in the department of civil engineering and engineering mechanics, while attending the University of Arizona. From 1986 to 1988, McGee worked as a senior research associate at OSU. In 2004, McGee earned his M.B.A. degree in business administration and finance from the University of Chicago Booth School of Business.
 
In 1997, McGee was appointed senior policy analyst in the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) in the Executive Office of the U.S. President. In 1988, McGee began teaching at OSU as an assistant professor of civil engineering and engineering mechanics. In 1992, McGee became the first African American faculty to be promoted to associate professor with tenure in the century and a quarter year history of OSU’s engineering college. He then became, in 1992, associate professor of civil and aerospace engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology. Along the way, he served in a number of visiting professorships at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), including the first opening class of MIT’s Martin Luther King Jr. Visiting Professors. Later, McGee was promoted to full professor and chair of the Department of Civil Engineering & Geodetic Science in 2001, becoming the first African-American full professor and chair in the 150-year history of OSU’s engineering college. Between 1999 and 2001 McGee served as the U.S. deputy assistant secretary of transportation for technology policy at the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), and special assistant to the President at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Howard University hired McGee as the school's very first vice president for research and compliance in 2007. Under his leadership, the new office raised the profile of the Howard principal investigator, launched the first-ever research communications documents Research at The Capstone, and constructed a new central management for research facility at Howard University’s C. B. Powell Building, adjacent to the school’s Louis B. Stokes Science Library.
 
For his research and education initiatives, McGee has been awarded grants totaling more than $8 million. In 2007, he founded the Washington, D.C.-based consulting firm, Partnership Possibilities for America. The firm’s concepts on education, economics, and politics are covered in a number of McGee’s many books and publications. In 2012, he submitted three books for publication, including Bridging the Black Research Gap, available online through Amazon Create Space and Revilo Group Publishing, L.L.C. McGee has authored more than 50 articles appearing in academic journals such as, ASME Journal of Turbomachinery, ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering, ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, International Journal of Solids and Structures, ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics, and Civil Engineering Systems. For his contributions, McGee has been honored by numerous organizations, including the American Council on Education (ACE), American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU), Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Council for the Advancement and Support of Education (CASE), National Science Foundation (NSF), and National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA).
 
Oliver G. McGee III was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 11, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.235

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/11/2012

Last Name

McGee

Marital Status

Single

Middle Name

George

Schools

The Ohio State University

University of Arizona School of Law

Woodward Career Technical High School

University of Chicago

Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania

First Name

Oliver

Birth City, State, Country

Cincinnati

HM ID

MCG05

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cambridge, England

Favorite Quote

Our Words Create Our World.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

10/28/1957

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Houston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Salmon

Short Description

Civil engineer and engineering professor Oliver McGee, III (1957 - ) was the former chair of the Civil & Environmental Engineering & Geodetic Science Department at The Ohio State University. McGee was also a full professor of mechanical engineering in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Howard University.

Employment

White House Office of Science and Technology Policy

United States Department of Transportation

Ohio State University

Howard University

Georgia Institute of Technology

United Negro College Fund

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Favorite Color

Mulatto

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Oliver McGee's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Oliver McGee lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Oliver McGee talks about his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Oliver McGee talks about his sister's artistry

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Oliver McGee talks about his interest in learning more about his family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Oliver McGee talks about his mother's upbringing and her passion for education

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Oliver McGee talks about his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Oliver McGee talks about his paternal great-grandfather's relation to Sitting Bull and his interest in learning more about his ancestry

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Oliver McGee talks about Cincinnati Woodward High School

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Oliver McGee talks about how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Oliver McGee talks about his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Oliver McGee talks about his likeness to his mother, her influence on him, and her career at the University of Cincinnati

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Oliver McGee describes his earliest childhood memory and talks about his father's career as a fireman in Cincinnati, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Oliver McGee talks about his elementary school teachers and his early aptitude in math

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Oliver McGee talks about his struggles with reading as a child and how he overcame it

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Oliver McGee describes his childhood neighborhood, his interest in classical music, and the culture of Cincinnati, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Oliver McGee describes the sights, sounds and smells of Cincinnati, Ohio and talks about his mentors

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Oliver McGee talks about his academic performance in elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Oliver McGee talks about race relations in Cincinnati, Ohio during his childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Oliver McGee talks about his parents' difficult relationship, their divorce, and his decision to live with his mother

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Oliver McGee reflects on the assassinations of Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Kennedy family

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Oliver McGee talks about improving his reading skills, starting high school, and his mother's parenting and influence

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Oliver McGee talks about witnessing domestic violence during his childhood and the importance of perseverance

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Oliver McGee talks about his high school geometry teacher and learning Euclidean Geometry

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Oliver McGee talks about his experience as a drum major at Ohio State University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Oliver McGee talks about his high school band and his musical interests

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Oliver McGee talks about his high school math preparation

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Oliver McGee talks about the demographics of Woodward High School

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Oliver McGee reflects on his high school counseling, his concerns about education policy, and his concerns for the education of future generations

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Oliver McGee talks about his job at McDonald's and his mother's aspirations for him

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Oliver McGee talks about his decision to attend The Ohio State University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Oliver McGee talks about Minnie McGee's influence on his decision to major in engineering at The Ohio State University

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Oliver McGee talks about the history of drum majors and the band at The Ohio State University and his experience as an understudy to Dwight Hudson

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Oliver McGee talks about football and his experience as a drum major at The Ohio State University

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Oliver McGee talks about his professors and his experience in the engineering department at The Ohio State University

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Oliver McGee talks about meeting Dr. Julian Manly Earls and his mentors at the NASA Lewis Research Center and the University of Arizona

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Oliver McGee talks about his dissertation

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Oliver McGee talks about the relevance of his doctoral research on the field today and the goals of scientific research

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Oliver McGee talks about adjusting to the environment in Arizona

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Oliver McGee talks about African Americans pursuing careers in academia

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Oliver McGee talks about his experience teaching at The Ohio State University

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Oliver McGee talks about his professional awards and his appointment to the faculty at the Georgia Institute of Technology

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Oliver McGee talks about Charles Vent's influence on his appointment to the White House Fellows Program

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Oliver McGee talks about being appointed as a White House Fellow

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Oliver McGee talks about his experience as a White House Fellow and his interest in science policy

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Oliver McGee talks about his research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and his mentee, Keith Coleman

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Oliver McGee talks about meeting Bob Nash and his influence on his appointment to the Department of Transportation

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Oliver McGee reflects on his experience serving in the White House and talks about the people who were instrumental in his career there

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Oliver McGee talks about leaving the White House, his decision to study business, and his experience at the Wharton School

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Oliver McGee talks about his experience at the University of Chicago

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Oliver McGee talks about his book, "Jumping the Aisle: How I Became a Black Republican in the Age of Obama"

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Oliver McGee talks about graduating from the University Of Chicago Booth School Of Business

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Oliver McGee talks about his interest in philanthropy

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Oliver McGee talks about his experience teaching at Howard University

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Oliver McGee talks about his desire to become a university president

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Oliver McGee reflects on his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Oliver McGee talks about his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Oliver McGee reflects on his life choices and talks about his family and friends

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Oliver McGee talks about his books

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Oliver McGee talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Oliver McGee describes his photos

DASession

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DATitle
Oliver McGee talks about his experience as a White House Fellow and his interest in science policy
Oliver McGee talks about his book, "Jumping the Aisle: How I Became a Black Republican in the Age of Obama"
Transcript
Okay. Now, what--can you choose what kind of duty you would perform at the White House as a Fellow or did they have certain categories for you?$$You do have to answer the questions in the essays, "What would you like to do as a White House Fellow?" And I had expressed that I'd like to work for the president's science advisor. I wanted to do some work I science policy and, you know, and that was inspired by what Chuck Vest would inspire me on, the public understanding of science at the time, and making science understanding--helpful for society, and give back to society. We do our work and our calculus in our laboratories, but it's got to be useful for society. So that was my focus. And the top 30 national finalists' interview was at the Naval Academy in Annapolis. And you go there for about two or three days. They give you this big, giant matrix where they're interviewing all of the commissioners of the White House Fellows Commission. And the reason they choose 30 is because they're actually selecting about 14 or 15 final fellows. And typically, they choose three or four of those from the military, because Johnson actually formed his fellowship from the military. He wanted to have the military complex to understand the policy side of government, and that's why he formed this White House fellowship. So, they typically have, you know, military folks going through. And they have sort of like a two of a kind, two of every kind, like in Noah's ark. And that was my first experience of being like a "reality" television program, "The Apprentice" or you might say whatever television shows you see in that, you know, that thing that you see on television where they're going through. So we were like Noah's ark; two of every kind. And so, they had two scientists; me and a young lady from Minnesota. And we just kind of raced our way through that for two or three days. And it was an endurance match. You see if you can keep up with the endurance and last. And I was doing so fine, and then I got confused in the matrix one day, I missed one of my interviews. And that interview was with the one renowned Roger Porter, who was Bush One's Economic and Domestic Policy Advisor. I got mixed up, a matrix, and I got the wrong time, and he was sitting where and saying, "Where's Oliver?" (laughs). Of course, Larry, I was bounced out (laughs). But I'm pretty sure it's part of the discussion, you know. I learned a valuable lesson that you have to be on time and time is a very important thing in life. It was a very important lesson I had to learn. Still learning it. But I want to share with the young people. Watch your time.$$Okay. So, you didn't get a chance to be--now, okay, what. You didn't get a chance to serve as a White House Intern.$$That's right. I didn't get selected.$$Right.$$Along the way, I had the help of Uncle Chuck. He was disappointed. He said, "Oh, well, I'm sorry about that, Oliver. You got to learn a valuable lesson on that." And then he--two weeks later, I got a call from John Deutch, who was the Deputy Secretary of Defense, and Ernie Moniz, who was the Undersecretary of Science in the White House Science Office. And they wanted for me to meet in their offices at MIT. Ernie Moniz was the chair of the physics department, and John Deutch was a faculty member of the physics department. And those were two of the most momentous meetings I've ever had at that time in my career. John Deutch was a wonderful gentleman. Very, very soft spoken; very stately. His office was a highly decorated place of plaques from presidents dating back to Nixon. And he's been on so many boards and commissions. And he just simply looked at my resume and he asked me one question: "Oliver, why do you want to serve?"$$And (unclear) (simultaneous).$$And I told him, "I want to serve because I want to make a difference. I want to make a difference in science and technology. I want to understand science policies so we can increase the public's understanding of science. It's a very simple answer." And he said, "Thank you." And then I spoke with Ernie Moniz afterwards and he gave me a book on "Science with a National Interest," that he had wrote for President Clinton. And he said, "What do you think of this?" And we went over it and talked about it, and we talked about the issues in it. And it was a very delightful interview. And then two weeks later I got a call from the White House from Daryl Chubin. He said, "Hello. I'm the Assistant Director for Science and we've been looking at your background here, and we would like for you to come and talk with us, and the President's Science Advisor would like to have a conversation with you." After I picked my jaw up off of the floor, I flew to Washington and had a day of interviews in the White House Science Office. It was--wonderful people. Wonderful people. Daryl Chubin and Bev Hartline and Arthur Bienenstock, who is in the upper administration at Stanford [University], and Duncan Moore. The science advisor was Jack Gibbons. I met Cynthia Chase, who was the secretary; and Donna Coleman. And they had a White House intern named James Bucksbaum (ph. splg.). And we all had lunch and everything. And then the two--oh, I'd say about a week later, they said, "When can you join us? We like you."$Now, what's the name of your latest book?$$"Jumping The Aisle: How I Became a Black Republican in the Age of Obama."$$Okay. Okay.$$That's a rhetorical question.$$Yes (laughs).$$It's really about belief in America. It's not about yea or nay or any candidate or anything like. Most people were looking at the book, "Why you're writing about America?" I find America fascinating under the [President Barack] Obama Era. You know, when we elected the first black president, we made America interesting. Whether you're for him or against him, you got to understand the ride is fun, and we're paying attention. And that's what black leadership does. We're so innovative when we do it. We have to be creative. We have to be nimble. We have to try and test things. Some things work, some things do not. We have to listen. We have to be able to mend our mistakes. We got to keep trying. And then we have to know when to step down. Because everything we're doing is history. So America is interesting under the Obama because it's about history. So I wrote a book about that, respecting the history and showing the way, and then looking to a future on getting to 2076. And those are wonderful principles of leadership learned from Mike Eusem (ph. splg.) at Wharton School in his leadership course. Oh, Mike Eusem. Mike Eusem had us climbing a tree to learn leadership at Wharton. When I went through that course, I was wondering, "Why are we climbing a tree?" But he was teaching us how leadership is dependent on those who are under you, as well as those who are pulling you up. The Age of Obama is doing that now. Valerie Jarrett, one of your HistoryMakers is doing that now. Mitt Romney and Paul Ryan are doing that now. The American people are doing that now. Because we're doing leadership and making the decision, independent decision.

Valerie Taylor

Computer science and engineering professor Valerie E. Taylor was born on May 24, 1963. She attended Purdue University where she received her B.S. degree in computer and electrical engineering in 1985 and her M.S. degree in electrical engineering in 1986. She continued her education at the University of California at Berkeley where she received her Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering and computer science in 1991.

That same year, Taylor joined the faculty at Northwestern University as an assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering. She became an associate professor in 1997 and then a full professor in 2002. In 2003, Taylor transferred to Texas A&M University where she was named head of the Department of Computer Science and Engineering as well as the Stewart & Stevenson Professor. Since 2004, Taylor has been the Royce E. Wisenbaker Professor and head of the Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Her research interests lie in high performance computing. Taylor is currently working on “Prophesy,” a database used to collect and analyze data to predict the performance on different applications on parallel systems. She has been supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) for the “OptiPuter” and “New Approaches to Human Potential Realization through Information Technology Research” as well as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) University Research, Engineering and Technology Institutes (URETI) Program for “Nanoelectronics.” Currently, she is funded by the National Science Foundation to use Prophesy in conjunction with two other tools for the purpose of exploring the performance and power for applications on current parallel systems.

In 2001, Taylor received the Pathbreaker Award from the Women in Leadership at Northwestern University and the Hewlett Packard Harriet B. Rigas Education Award. The following year, Taylor was named a Young Outstanding Leader by the University of California, Berkeley’s Distinguished Engineering Alumni Society. That same year she also received the Computing Research Association’s (CRA) A. Nico Habermann Award for outstanding contributions aimed at increasing the numbers and/or successes of underrepresented groups in the computing research community. She has also been recognized as a Sigma Xi Distinguished Lecturer and in 2005, Taylor was given the Richard A. Tapia Achievement Award for Scientific Scholarship, Civic Science, and Diversifying Computing. Since 2008, Taylor has served on the Board of Directors for the Computing Research Association.

Accession Number

A2012.190

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/14/2012

Last Name

Taylor

Schools

Purdue University

University of California, Berkeley

Maria High School

St. Leo Elementary School

First Name

Valerie

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

TAY12

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

What's up?

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

5/24/1963

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bryan/College Station

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Greens (Collard), Smoked Turkey

Short Description

Computer scientist and engineering professor Valerie Taylor (1963 - ) studies high performance computing, with particular emphasis on the performance analysis and modeling of parallel and distributed applications.

Employment

Northwestern University

Texas A&M University

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:2764,27:5305,66:6537,89:7692,116:8231,137:8770,146:10002,167:10310,172:12851,236:24175,371:25365,384:26130,394:43944,609:48884,684:55270,737:57547,765:58240,774:61903,831:65240,840:65758,848:66054,853:66794,865:67238,873:68866,902:69162,907:70420,925:73158,979:73602,987:79163,1030:80498,1045:80854,1050:81744,1064:82100,1069:93299,1220:94916,1248:104865,1329:105630,1339:105970,1344:107415,1360:113110,1445:114725,1472:115745,1488:120690,1515:122186,1545:123274,1562:123614,1568:158400,1958:161637,2010:173570,2219:174830,2239:176860,2272:177280,2280:177840,2289:182320,2378:185120,2437:196870,2618:198470,2654:201510,2685:201830,2702:209190,2896:222724,3021:223540,3051:229756,3134:236140,3210:238492,3246:241410,3252:241895,3258:242865,3269:244708,3291:245193,3297:245872,3306:247618,3343:248006,3348:250750,3371:251270,3381:252115,3407:255078,3476:263058,3680:265262,3728:276713,3854:277496,3875:277931,3881:295378,4107:295834,4113:298342,4157:298722,4166:300622,4216:312370,4417:313510,4433:317400,4494:332570,4714:336415,4749:337262,4762:337724,4773:344731,4937:345501,4954:353556,5068:354524,5085:371835,5316:372435,5326:373035,5335:376560,5431:376860,5436:385380,5510:387564,5540:398950,5668$0,0:2688,40:3456,54:3904,63:4160,74:4672,84:5312,93:5824,104:6144,110:6464,116:7168,129:7424,134:7872,154:9280,186:10368,236:11776,274:12032,279:12608,291:21618,366:23504,395:24078,403:24898,415:25718,435:26292,443:31950,535:32278,540:33754,563:36390,569:36702,574:38340,609:41694,686:43410,711:45282,744:47388,783:47778,789:48090,794:48558,802:48948,808:50040,826:50586,835:50898,840:51366,847:56904,926:57918,942:65914,975:66348,983:66968,999:67526,1009:67898,1017:68518,1029:71080,1050:73870,1073:74936,1092:75510,1101:76002,1108:76412,1114:79774,1190:80348,1198:81988,1221:82316,1226:83300,1242:87562,1274:88532,1287:89405,1298:90084,1309:92897,1413:97941,1453:98329,1459:98814,1466:99202,1471:102500,1477:103109,1486:104240,1509:110350,1592:110654,1608:114682,1696:115594,1712:115898,1718:120875,1759:121400,1768:122075,1779:123125,1796:123425,1801:124700,1822:125750,1842:126125,1849:126725,1859:128675,1891:130175,1919:130925,1932:137667,1972:138052,1978:139207,1997:139592,2004:140670,2019:141748,2036:142595,2048:143134,2057:144443,2081:149754,2123:150006,2128:150258,2133:150825,2144:151329,2154:152211,2172:152589,2179:153219,2190:153534,2196:156440,2236:156890,2244:158015,2264:158690,2275:158990,2280:160790,2316:162440,2345:162740,2350:163040,2355:164840,2387:166565,2420:166865,2425:167765,2440:168065,2448:172742,2470:173665,2486:177286,2544:178782,2572:188341,2705:195940,2743:196396,2750:198144,2784:200570,2799
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Valerie Taylor's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Valerie Taylor lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Valerie Taylor describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Valerie Taylor talks about Emancipation Day and the differences between the South and the North

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Valerie Taylor talks about her mother's growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Valerie Taylor describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Valerie Taylor talks about her father's growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Valerie Taylor talks about her father's career and interest in music

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Valerie Taylor talks about how her parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Valerie Taylor describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Valerie Taylor talks about her household and describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Valerie Taylor talks about her childhood home and neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Valerie Taylor describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Valerie Taylor talks about her childhood home

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Valerie Taylor talks about her elementary school experience

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Valerie Taylor talks about her father's company, Sonicraft

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Valerie Taylor talks about her developing interest in technology and her father's company, Sonicraft

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Valerie Taylor talks about her childhood television

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Valerie Taylor talks about the social atmosphere of Maria High School

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Valerie Taylor talks about the politics around education in Chicago

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Valerie Taylor talks about her experience at Maria High School

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Valerie Taylor talks about the racial climate in Chicago during her adolescence

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Valerie Taylor talks about her high school teachers and the ID program sponsored by IIT

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Valerie Taylor talks about her decision to attend Purdue University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Valerie Taylor talks about her social life, her peers, and the National Society of Black Engineers at Purdue University

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Valerie Taylor talks about the importance of study groups

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Valerie Taylor talks about her professors and mentor at Purdue University

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Valerie Taylor talks about her decision to pursue her Ph.D. degree

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Valerie Taylor talks about her experience living in California

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Valerie Taylor talks about her Ph.D. advisor at the University of California at Berkeley

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Valerie Taylor talks about her dissertation research concerning parallel computing and finite analysis

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Valerie Taylor talks about her experience defending her dissertation

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Valerie Taylor talks about her involvement in the Black Engineering and Science Students' Association

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Valerie Taylor talks about her decision to become a professor at Northwestern University

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Valerie Taylor talks about her experience as a professor

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Valerie Taylor talks about receiving the National Science Foundation Investigator Award

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Valerie Taylor talks about balancing family with her career

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Valerie Taylor talks about Prophesy

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Valerie Taylor talks about GriPhyN and AADMLS

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Valerie Taylor talks about her professional awards and outreach activities

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Valerie Taylor talks about Richard Tapia

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Valerie Taylor talks about her perceptions of Texas

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Valerie Taylor talks about the Institute of African American E-Culture

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Valerie Taylor talks about her experience as department chair at Texas A&M University

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Valerie Taylor talks about the NASA URETI Program and the OptIPuter

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Valerie Taylor talks about her awards and professional affiliations

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Valerie Taylor talks about her research

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Valerie Taylor talks about her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Valerie Taylor reflects upon her legacy and life choices

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Valerie Taylor talks about her family

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Valerie Taylor talks about being a single mom

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Valerie Taylor reflects on how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

1$5

DATitle
Valerie Taylor talks about her developing interest in technology and her father's company, Sonicraft
Valerie Taylor talks about her experience as a professor
Transcript
So did you get involved in early programs in technology for youth when you were in grade school, or did it add them later, or--$$Well, I think we were, as children we were exposed to technology through my father's [Willie James Taylor] company. So, for example when I was young, my mother [Ollie Mae Thompson Taylor], that's when my mother went back to school, first at Kennedy King Community College and then National, in terms of getting her degree. And so, on Saturdays my father would take us to work with him. And it's funny, because my sister and I, first we would be at his desk acting like we were secretaries, writing on paper, okay. But then, you slowly ventured to the electronics bench, okay. And so, when you mentioned about smell, one smell that comes to mind is that of a soldering iron. I can tell that smell anywhere because it's something I grew up smelling, you know, going to work with my father on Saturdays. Because oftentimes he would go in, not to work on paperwork, but to be at the bench building something such that when I was in high school, I was very familiar with schematics. I was familiar with breadboard. I could look at a schematic and build a breadboard. And I just thought that was the norm. I could work on bikes (laughter). You were used to having a volt meter around to see if something were connected. You just knew, go get the volt meter and see if you have a current through. (laughter). That was our norm, and for example, in our house, my father built our first speaker. It was nice. Everybody talked about that. The sound from the speaker--and he also built our first record player. So, for a long time our record player had vacuum tubes, okay, where we had to jingle the vacuum tube, and you knew the record player was on because the filament lit up in the vacuum tube, okay. So, everything was, all the electronics were exposed. So, you'd jiggle it: "Okay, the record player's on, play the record." And so, it wasn't until I was high school that we got this record player where everything was enclosed. And I was like, "Dad, where are the vacuum tubes?" (laughter). He'd say, "We have transistors now." (laughter). So, we, I think we grew up with technology, but not knowing it as such, but you just grew up thinking this was the norm. And he always taught you, he would take time to teach you how to fix something. Or, he would say, you know, you would say "Oh, this is broken." And he would go, "Go get the screwdriver." And you knew what a Phillips versus a flathead was, and "Go get the Phillips, let's take it apart and let's see what's going on." And it may be something with the wires. And so, that, that was Dad and that was the norm. So I think all of us, my sister and brother--currently if something's broken, you go, "Get the Phillips, see what's going on, maybe it can be fixed." (laughter). You know, that's your first thought. I think now it's funny because my mother is like "Can't you call a repairman because you know it takes a little while for your father to get to stuff. Go ahead and call." (laughter). But, he'll fix anything first. Uh huh.$$That sounds like an engineer.$$Yes, so we did grow up with technology.$$Now, Sonicraft was the first black technology company to, you know, bring down big government contracts.$$Yes.$$They're well known. I mean, people heard the name. I didn't know your father, but I heard of the name Sonicraft. There's some people, you know, doing this deep technology for the government. And I said wow. Then I met Carl Spite at one point.$$Oh yes, uh huh.$$He was working with Sonicraft. So, it was exciting to a lot of people just to think that we had a company that could do that, because a lot of black people didn't imagine that we had anyone in deep technology.$$Right.$$And so, it was a thrill and, you know, for us to even think about that. (laughter).$$It was. And, but my mother, my mother kept it real, okay. So, and it was interesting, because my father, when George Bush 41 was vice-president under [President Ronald] Reagan, my father went to the White House because of the contract they received from the government. So, we have a picture of him with at that time vice-president Bush.$$Right, right. I saw it yesterday actually standing in front of the White House.$$Yes. So, it's--$$The Sonicraft staff--$$Right. So, it's really phenomenal. And they hired engineers from MIT [Massachusetts Institute of Technology], and it was great, the work that was being done there. So, my father, all of us grew up with Sonicraft. So, my brother, my sister, myself, we all worked at Sonicraft, and our friends. Because my mother's view is if she came home from work during the summer and we were sitting around the house, we had to get a job. Because my mother said, "I'm not coming home to people lounging." And if we had friends over, they had to get a job. So they knew if they came by the house, they had to get a job. (laughter). And she would always tell my father, "Please get the kids a job. So, that way, they'd come home at five, having worked a day." So, when you were eligible to work at sixteen, we were working at Sonicraft.$$Okay, okay.$$Uh huh. And even after my brother graduated with his degree, he worked at Sonicraft. My sister, after she finished with her degree in information systems, she worked at Sonicraft for some time. Her husband, at that time they were just dating, he worked at Sonicraft during the summer as a summer intern while he was in college. So, everybody in our circle, you know, at one summer or another you went through Sonicraft. And it was, it was great.$And we have your comment in the outline that you made that you were, that there was never an image of a black woman professor in your mind, because you'd never seen one.$$Right.$$In all your years in school, you never saw a black woman professor, in college anyway.$$No, so I've never had a black woman professor stand in front of me. So, I went to Northwestern in October of '91' [1991] and I started teaching in January. And so, I went to Janet before teaching, and I'm going, "Janet, what earrings do I wear, how do I look? Do I wear something ethnic? You know, what should I look like in front of the class?" And so, she just laughed and she said, "Yourself." And I go, "But, Janet. You know, and it comes to mind, I've never seen a black woman stand in front of me, so I don't know what it looks like, and I don't know how that person will be received by the students." So, it was very overwhelming, you know, to prepare for the first lecture in class. And you worried about all these different things, because you never had that image before.$$Okay.$$And it really goes to the heart of having those images, uh huh. Because then you could say, this worked, this didn't. And without those images, I didn't know what worked and what didn't. And you know, and that was the reason for asking the question, you know, can you wear something ethnic? You know, how are you being perceived? And so, you know, being yourself, yes, but you, you know, it's a wide range that you have. Because it's not where you wear all ethnic clothes, and you wear big earrings, little earrings, you know, jewelry. What do you wear? Do you wear slacks, skirts? So, it's all these options. And you're just going, you know, what worked and what didn't?$$So did you strike a balance in terms of--$$Yes, over time I began to feel comfortable wearing what I wanted to wear and not what I perceived I should be wearing. And so, because if I feel comfortable in how I look, then it comes across in what I'm doing, that comfort. Because you feel comfortable with the material, and I have no problems with being questioned and how to deal with questions, because I think at Berkeley you're constantly being questioned. And so, your assumption is that if people ask a lot of questions, that means they're engaged. If I give a presentation and I don't get that many questions, I think that's a bad presentation, because that meant that people did not find it interesting enough to challenge me in some way. So, it's not where questions--that I wanted to avoid questions--but it was just the perception of how you're perceived as an instructor. So it was, I think it took probably about a semester, and then I felt comfortable.$$Okay. So--$$And I wore bright colors. (laughter). I wore what I wanted to wear.

Michael Spencer

Electrical Engineer, Computer Scientist and Engineering Professor Michael G. Spencer was born on March 9, 1952 in Detroit, Michigan. Spencer’s passion for teaching is part of a family tradition, his mother and grandparents were teachers. He grew up in Washington, D.C. and travelled to Ithaca, New York to study at Cornell University. He earned his B.S. degree in 1974 and his M.S. degree in 1975. Spencer worked at Bell Laboratories from 1974 to 1977 before returning to Cornell to receive his Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering in 1981.
He joined the faculty of Howard University as an assistant professor in 1984. Spencer also founded the Materials Science Center for Excellence in 1984 and served as its director for the entirety of his career at Howard. He spent the next eighteen years working and researching at Howard, becoming a full professor in 1990 and the David and Lucile Packard Chaired Professor of Materials Science in 1999. During this time, Spencer also worked as a visiting scientist at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)’s JET Propulsion Laboratory. In 1999, he returned to his alma mater, Cornell University as professor of electrical engineering. He served as associate dean of research and graduate studies for the College of Engineering from 2002 to 2008. Spencer directed the Wide Bandgap Laboratory where he researched semiconductor materials like Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Gallium Nitride (GaN), as well as two dimensional semiconductors like graphene. He co-founded Widetronix, a company that builds low power long life betavoltaic batteries. Spencer has written over 130 publications concerning semiconductors and has also co-authored eleven United States patents.

Spencer has received much recognition for his research and teaching. In 1985, he received the Presidential Young Investigator Award from the National Science Foundation. Spencer also received the QEM (Quality Education for Minorities) Giants of Science Award and the Allen Berman Research Publication Award from the Naval Research Laboratory. He served as one of the directors for the National Science Foundation (NSF) Nano-Fabrication Network. Spencer was a member of the program committee of the American Vacuum Society and the International Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials. He also held memberships in the Electronic Materials Conference Organizing Committee and the Compound Semiconductor Symposium Organizing Committee. Spencer lives in Ithaca, New York.
Michael G. Spencer was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 5, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.158

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/5/2012

Last Name

Spencer

Middle Name

Gregg

Schools

Cornell University

New Hampton School

Jefferson Middle School Academy

La Salle Elementary School

Speakers Bureau

Yes

First Name

Michael

Birth City, State, Country

Detroit

HM ID

SPE63

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Adults

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - $200-$300

Favorite Season

None

Speaker Bureau Notes

Honorarium $200-$300 (may be waived or negotiated depending on circumstance)

State

Michigan

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

3/9/1952

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Ithaca

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Electrical engineer, computer scientist, and engineering professor Michael Spencer (1952 - ) is a leader in materials science and holds eleven United States patents.

Employment

Bell Laboratories

Howard University

Cornell University

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:4811,56:5903,67:11727,228:19860,308:20820,322:24740,367:26580,402:28180,439:28500,444:44122,628:44892,640:45277,646:47818,701:48126,706:48434,711:52815,730:57745,805:63790,851:64255,857:70132,889:74560,928:75510,936:76080,942:76935,952:79025,974:81020,993:82065,1005:82540,1011:88554,1048:89490,1062:94014,1126:94404,1132:96354,1165:96666,1170:97914,1196:98226,1201:98616,1207:104794,1250:109170,1294:109995,1307:116260,1362:121096,1425:127468,1488:127998,1494:131708,1531:136394,1557:136718,1562:138986,1598:139958,1616:141011,1634:144575,1682:145061,1689:145790,1694:147005,1711:147410,1717:152346,1740:152634,1746:152994,1752:155874,1804:156954,1819:158610,1854:159258,1866:162184,1878:164692,1921:165220,1931:165814,1943:168904,1961:169996,1975:170836,1989:172432,2012:176082,2022:178904,2063:179485,2072:183742,2099:184374,2108:185085,2118:191484,2194:195934,2220:197628,2245:197936,2253:198783,2266:204756,2329:205274,2338:206088,2351:207272,2374:208160,2387:208530,2393:209196,2404:210084,2423:213682,2445:214048,2452:214353,2458:214780,2466:215390,2479:221850,2546:224034,2577:224762,2586:227800,2613:232222,2704:232486,2709:233542,2727:234400,2742:235324,2756:244960,2834:245800,2848:247312,2869:253200,2910:264987,3077:266261,3094:270078,3109:270654,3118:271806,3137:272454,3146:272742,3151:279552,3237:281961,3291:284808,3353:285684,3363:287436,3406:309241,3572:309873,3585:313707,3617:314358,3629:314916,3636:319450,3683:320099,3698:320335,3703:322460,3737$0,0:448,4:6376,151:13132,198:15750,223:20320,228:21508,241:30039,300:30854,306:48989,475:49624,481:52326,502:52598,507:52938,513:65438,584:68062,624:69690,640:70086,647:72955,692:75160,721:79180,759:80236,771:80908,782:84070,797:85137,809:85719,816:89874,880:90294,886:104544,970:110092,1105:111384,1190:115370,1281:123794,1438:139372,1521:151180,1683:151810,1717:173604,1962:190156,2101:192328,2290:212058,2472:212553,2478:216810,2551:217404,2565:218295,2575:219978,2602:224060,2627:225076,2636:229400,2692:230600,2710:231400,2725:233000,2739:233400,2744:240936,2840:243246,2882:244434,2912:244698,2917:245622,2936:245886,2941:246414,2951:250230,2993:254590,3046:255990,3082:263420,3129:265320,3158:267920,3201:268820,3211:271955,3225:272391,3230:272936,3236:280010,3312
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Michael Spencer's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Michael Spencer lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Michael Spencer describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Michael Spencer talks about the Denmark Vesey Revolt

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Michael Spencer talks about the history of Charleston, South Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Michael Spencer talks about his ancestors in the Marines during the Revolutionary War

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Michael Spencer talks about his mother's childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Michael Spencer describes his mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Michael Spencer describes his father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Michael Spencer describes his paternal great-grandfather acquiring freedom and becoming a teacher

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Michael Spencer describes how his paternal great-grandfather became a shoemaker

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Michael Spencer talks about his paternal great-grandfather losing his stocks in the Stock Market Crash of 1929

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Michael Spencer talks about his great-grandmother Sue Spencer's family pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Michael Spencer talks about his great-grandmother Sue Spencer's family pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Michael Spencer talks about his father growing up in Frankfort, Kentucky

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Michael Spencer talks about his father's career as a beer salesman

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Michael Spencer describes how his parent's met

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Michael Spencer talks about his parents' marriage

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Michael Spencer describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Michael Spencer talks about his household as a child

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Michael Spencer describes the neighborhoods he grew up in

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Michael Spencer talks about elementary school and the assassination of President John F. Kennedy

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Michael Spencer talks about the death of his father

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Michael Spencer talks about his mother's careers

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Michael Spencer talks about government officials his mother worked with

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Michael Spencer talks about his mother being part of African American society in Washington D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Michael Spencer talks about his junior high school

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Michael Spencer talks working with a graduate student on his science fair project

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Michael Spencer talks about Dr. Herman Branson's involvement in the discovery of the structure of DNA

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Michael Spencer talks about Dr. Herman Branson

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Michael Spencer describes how he decided to go to a prep school in New Hampshire

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Michael Spencer talks about his experience at his prep school, New Hampton School, in New Hampshire

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Michael Spencer describes his science classes and extracurricular activities at his prep school, New Hampton School

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Michael Spencer talks about his interviews for admission to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Michael Spencer describes the racial tensions on Cornell University's campus when he attended

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Michael Spencer talks about the Africana Studies Department at Cornell University

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Michael Spencer describes the engineering department at Cornell University

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Michael Spencer talks about the Black Electrical Engineers and alumni of Cornell University

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Michael Spencer talks about his time as a member of the Nation of Islam

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Michael Spencer talks about Minister Farrakhan and Malcolm X

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Michael Spencer talks about religion

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Michael Spencer talks about his education at Cornell University

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Michael Spencer describes the work environment at Bell Laboratories

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Michael Spencer describes his work at Bell Laboratories

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Michael Spencer talks about his doctoral dissertation

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Michael Spencer talks about his time as a professor at Howard University

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Michael Spencer talks about doing research at Howard University

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Michael Spencer talks about his former students at Howard University

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Michael Spencer describes his decision to leave Howard University to become a professor at Cornell University

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Michael Spencer talks about his research at Cornell University

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Michael Spencer talks about Widetronix, the company he cofounded

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Michael Spencer talks about the prospects of Widetronix

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Michael Spencer describes his publications and patents

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Michael Spencer reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Michael Spencer talks about STEM education in the United States

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Michael Spencer describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Michael Spencer talks about his family

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Michael Spencer talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Michael Spencer describes his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

7$5

DAStory

2$9

DATitle
Michael Spencer describes his publications and patents
Michael Spencer describes the work environment at Bell Laboratories
Transcript
Tell us about some of your publications and would it be correct to generalize that you are publishing more at Cornell [University, Ithaca, New York] than you did at Howard [University, Washington, D.C.]?$$Yeah, I would say so. Certainly more in terms of numbers and also citations are higher, the number of citations are higher.$$Okay, that's when someone else uses your research?$$Yeah, when someone else--$$Cites what you're--$$--cites your work in their publication.$$Okay.$$Yeah.$$All right. What are some of your papers and I want you to talk about some of your patents too.$$Well, we have on the patent side, we have of course in a small company you always--patents are more important. So we have some patents on ways of getting more power out of beta voltaic batteries or nuclear batteries. So power meaning power density and so that's one major area of patenting. In terms of publications, we have, we did a lot of work on using something called scanning probe microscopes to get information about semiconductors. So a scanning probe microscope is based on the material that is piezoelectric. Now piezoelectric means that if you apply electricity to this material it moves a very, very small distance. So in a scanning probe unit you have a little tip which is moved very small distances by these piezoelectric manipulators and as that tip comes close to the surface of the semiconductor it will experience a force and that force that it experiences can be measured. Now using that force and a lot of other things related to it we can make very nice measurements about some of the properties of the material. We can determine what are the electric fields that are coming from dislocations and other problems and so we use that, those techniques. It's called Kelvin probe microscopy to characterize a material. And we were some of the first to do that and so that publication has received a lot--those series of papers have received a lot of citations and that work was started when I came to Cornell. Some of the more recent graphene work in which we have demonstrated a way of actually producing suspended membranes of Graphene. So I told you that graphene is one atomic layer thick. Well we can actually make a membrane that is suspended in space bound on either side, it's suspended and this one atomic layer is literally in space. And so you can actually see right through it with an electronic microscope. And it's really quite amazing that you can actually, that one atomic layer of atoms will self-support but the other amazing thing is you can actually make useful devices out of this one atomic layer. You can put it into vibration and you can make lots of things. So this particular way of suspending the membranes has also you know been given a lot of attention. We're completing a paper now in which we have demonstrated for the first time producing graphene on another material called sapphire and we have studied and we plan on submitting this to the journal 'Nature.' I'm very excited about it. We have studied the way in which the potential of the substrate will actually align the graphene films so that paper has yet to be submitted but it will be soon. And I don't remember what all the things that I put down, one of the other papers I put down on there. I think I probably put down something about a measuring properties of aluminum nitride which we've talked about and we also--and then there was the initial work on grain boundaries which we're very proud of. And you know there, I think there are a number of other things but I think, you know I have over one hundred and twenty publications so I think that's a good--I think right now is a good place to stop. (Laughter).$$Okay.$Now what kind of projects were you working on at Bell Labs and well tell me something about the environment of Bell Labs and as a work environment and what projects were you working on?$$So at Bell Laboratories was divided into divisions or areas, Area 10, Area 20, Area 30, Area 40, Area 50--10 was basic science, 20 was applied engineering, that was my area, 40 I believe was transmission I think or switching. I can't recall all of them. But I was in Area 20 and we did power supplies. I was the only black engineer at Area 20 and my first--and Area 20 had several, a couple of laboratories. A laboratory is a fairly large group of, fairly large group and then departments, laboratory department then groups. So, first departmental meeting one of the technicians raises the question about affirmative action hires. I'm the only black face in the room. It must have been fifty people and were they qualified, something to that affect. Oh god, anyway you asked about--$$Well how was that handled? We can't just skip over that. Now what--?$$How was that handled?$$Yeah.$$It wasn't handled. The question just laid there as the department head sort of moved on and didn't answer.$$There were no affirmative action hires in your department right?$$Well the implication was that I was the affirmative action hire.$$Right, right, right, yeah.$$Being the only black in the room. And it wasn't handled.$$So, well go on. So what was that typical of the atmosphere there or was it--did it get better?$$Well it wasn't typical but it wasn't atypical either. I think you were--I think the way you have to view Bell Labs is it had managers who were both, who were angels, some were angels and others were devils and others were ambivalent.$$Hmm, okay just like in the rest of life I guess?$$Hmm?$$Just like everything else in life?$$Pretty much.$$Every other area.$$Yeah.$$Okay, all right. So I've heard people--now I'll put it like--I've heard people say the people we've interviewed within this month have talked about how Bell Labs had such a wonderful you know, what a wonderful place it was to work because of the way all the you know research scientists were treated and engineers for the most part, freedom to you know explore things and they had well, they were well equipped and they had you know there was a lot of freedom at Bell Labs to explore things and that sort--that's what we were told.$$Well yeah that's absolutely right. That's probably, there were three places in the country to work and Bell Labs was one of them. As an MTS, member of the technical staff, I, you know I had a signature authority of a thousand dollars on my own as I recall. We were more in applied division. In the research area, Area 10, even more flexibility on what to work with. Bell Labs was a monopoly that wasn't very well controlled at that time and so the labs were run on one percent of the profits of the Bell system which was a huge amount of money and they didn't have to worry about getting money so that was always there. So it was a tremendous place to work, wonderful work was done. It has never been duplicated. Again, I'm very proud of the fact that I'm an alumnus of Bell Labs in a technical sense and you meet other people who are alumni of Bell Labs and as I said it has, was not duplicated.

Lucius Walker

Mechanical engineer, engineering professor and education administrator Lucius Walker was born on December 16, 1936 in Washington, D.C. to Inez, a housewife and M. Lucius Walker, Sr., a public school teacher. After attending Armstrong High School for one year, he received a Ford Foundation scholarship to attend Morehouse College at the age of fifteen. In 1954, he transferred to Howard University to study engineering. Walker graduated with his B.S. degree in mechanical engineering in 1957. He continued his studies at Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie Mellon University), earning advanced degrees in mechanical engineering, his M.S. degree in 1958 and his Ph.D. degree in 1966. During his studies, he served as an instructor at Howard University and Carnegie Institute of Technology.

In 1963, Walker joined the faculty of Howard University as an assistant professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering; in 1967, he was promoted to an associate professor and in 1970, he became a full professor. A year later, he became chair of the department of engineering. In 1972, Walker co-founded and directed the Engineering Coalition of Schools for Excellence in Education and Leadership and co-founded the organization, Advancing Minorities' Interest in Engineering. In 1976, Walker became acting dean of the School of Engineering and a graduate professor of mechanical engineering. He was appointed dean in 1978. Throughout his career, Walker also worked for General Electric, Exxon, Ford Motor Company, and Harry Diamond Laboratories. He published many scientific research articles covering topics such as transportation systems analysis, fluid mechanics, and bioengineering. Walker also conducted aerodynamics research using airplane models and holds a patent on a Fluidic NOR device. Lucius Walker retired as dean in 2002 and became a professor emeritus at Howard University.

Walker has been recognized many times throughout his career including receiving the 2008 Distinguished Alumni Award from Howard University. He served on the board of directors of Carnegie Mellon University; Junior Engineering Technical Society and the Center for Naval Analysis, as well as MIT’s Visiting Committee of the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences. Lucius Walker has two children and six grandchildren.

Lucius Walker was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 14, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.054

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/15/2012

Last Name

Walker, Jr.

Marital Status

Seperated

Schools

Lovejoy Elementary School

Terrell Junior High School

Armstrong Technical School

Morehouse College

Carnegie Institute of Technology

Howard University

First Name

M. Lucius

Birth City, State, Country

Washington

HM ID

WAL17

Favorite Season

Spring

State

District of Columbia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts

Favorite Quote

The Future Is Now.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

12/16/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chocolate Bars

Death Date

6/22/2013

Short Description

Mechanical engineer, engineering professor, and education administrator Lucius Walker (1936 - 2013 ) served as dean of the College of Engineering for thirty years and was a major advocate for minority science education.

Employment

Howard University

Carnegie Institute of Technology

Favorite Color

Cream, Crimson

Timing Pairs
0,0:1264,38:1896,62:15046,220:15491,226:16025,233:16381,238:17894,262:24451,341:25375,357:26453,386:27993,419:34926,503:35238,508:43176,626:43624,634:43880,639:44136,644:44840,654:45288,662:48680,735:59500,897:60166,907:60980,919:62090,945:72790,1118:75004,1213:76726,1250:79678,1296:81564,1328:82220,1341:83368,1358:83778,1364:93241,1497:93696,1503:95516,1534:97518,1564:107970,1686:116822,1783:118402,1806:122905,1901:123300,1907:129146,2041:130726,2080:134992,2161:138073,2241:157268,2398:157772,2406:162710,2477$0,0:2595,23:3306,35:4096,49:23180,382:34080,573:75670,985:76230,993:78430,1005:89240,1135:89690,1146:90050,1151:102626,1286:113178,1391:129768,1575:135763,1709:139494,1831:145924,1923:146722,1931:156252,2002:175486,2277:176172,2285:180876,2381:187285,2478:191280,2531:197778,2581:213320,2755:222052,2848:224348,2888:225578,2908:226480,2926:234260,3060:244985,3227:261640,3582:267618,3618:277000,3693:292137,3884:294284,3902:295979,3936:311244,4114:322526,4252:325425,4281:326270,4315:326530,4320:338666,4565:364316,4963:386550,5157
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Lucius Walker's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Lucius Walker lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Lucius Walker describes his mother's family background - part one

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Lucius Walker describes his mother's family background - part two

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Lucius Walker talks about his mother's life

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Lucius Walker describes his father's family background - part one

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Lucius Walker describes his father's family background - part two

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Lucius Walker talks about his father's life

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Lucius Walker talks about his father's interest in science

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Lucius Walker talks about his father's growing up and education

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Lucius Walker talks about how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Lucius Walker describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Lucius Walker talks about being an only child

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Lucius Walker describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Lucius Walker describes his childhood in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Lucius Walker describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Lucius Walker describes his experience at Lovejoy Elementary School

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Lucius Walker describes his childhood interests

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Lucius Walker talks about World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Lucius Walker describes his childhood interest in sports

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Lucius Walker talks about the Ford Foundation Early Admission Program

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Lucius Walker talks about his classmates at Morehouse College in the Early Admission Program

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Lucius Walker describes his experience at Morehouse College in the Ford Foundation Early Admission Program

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Lucius Walker describes his decision to attend Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Lucius Walker describes his experience at Morehouse College and Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Lucius Walker talks about his mentors and peers at Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Lucius Walker talks about HistoryMaker Percy Pierre

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Lucius Walker describes his experience as a student at Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Lucius Walker talks about Carnegie Institute of Technology/Carnegie Mellon University

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Lucius Walker describes his dissertation research

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Lucius Walker talks about how he met his wife

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Lucius Walker describes his decision to pursue a Ph.D. degree in engineering

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Lucius Walker talks about his doctoral dissertation research at Carnegie Institute of Technology/Carnegie Mellon University

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Lucius Walker describes his experience as a faculty member at Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Lucius Walker talks about his work towards increasing African American representation in engineering - part one

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Lucius Walker talks about his work towards increasing African American representation in engineering - part two

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Lucius Walker talks about his work towards the study of cardiac dynamics

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Lucius Walker reflects upon engineering training in America

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Lucius Walker reflects upon his career at Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Lucius Walker talks about the solar car competition

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Lucius Walker describes his post-retirement work in science education

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Lucius Walker reflects upon the awards that he has received

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Lucius Walker reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Lucius Walker describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Lucius Walker reflects upon his career

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Lucius Walker talks about his family

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Lucius Walker describes the Highland Beach community

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Lucius Walker describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Lucius Walker describes his photographs - part one

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Lucius Walker describes his photographs - part two

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Lucius Walker describes his photographs - part three

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$5

DAStory

1$2

DATitle
Lucius Walker talks about his father's interest in science
Lucius Walker reflects upon his career at Howard University
Transcript
My father [Lucius Walker, Sr.] and my mother's [Inez Landers] brother were both in the physics program at Howard [University, Washington, District of Columbia], in the graduate program.$$Okay, all right, now, is there a story behind your father's involvement in physics, you know. That's a--$$Well, I mean, he just always as a young person aspired to be a scientist, you know what I'm saying. At least that's what he told me. And then he sort of influenced my thinking as well, you know, and gave me some confidence that if it was something I wanted to achieve, I could, which I think was a very important dimension that's missing from some young and women's lives, you know, someone who tells them, look, you know, (laughter). My father, incidentally, my father never tutored me per se. What he did was always reassure me that within my own abilities I could do the work, which is kind of a different perspective from, you know, you think that maybe he taught me physics. He never taught me physics. He taught me that if I needed to do physics, I could, you know (laughter).$$Okay, you know, with the emphasis today, I know we've been talking about STEM [Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics] education in the black community for years and how it's not, the hard sciences and some of the equipment to pursue them are not available in the black community--$$Um-hum.$$--especially in the old days when the one-room schools and people, you know. But, so I just imagine there's a story here on some level behind your father being even involved in physics in that, during that time period, you know. I mean, you know, Howard had a department but who inspired--did your father ever talk about how he was inspired to pursue physics?$$Well, it strikes me that he liked science before he ever came to Howard. But I may, you know, that's as best I recall, his telling me that, well, as a young person, like I said, I told you the story about, you know, he had entered a science fair and somehow, someone confiscated his science project. He was eternally upset about that even though he was, you know. I mean it was a thing of his past when I was growing up, you know. He was maybe thirty or forty years old and still talking about his high school science project (laughter), said someone had confiscated it, you know, so and unfairly so. So, he, he--but there's no science, I mean nothing beyond that I could really say at this time.$$Okay.$$That occurs to me.$Now, so what have been some of the highlights of your career at Howard [University, Washington, District of Columbia]? What would you say they are, if you could pick like three things maybe, as highlights?$$Well, one, I mean I've always enjoyed, you know, working with young men and women and, you know, seeing and I'm hoping, hopefully, opening up their vision, you know, for the future and especially as it relates to engineering opportunities. And, of course, Howard gave me a platform to pursue that concept and hopefully, I've inspired many people to, you know, be, pursue engineering careers and be successful in their careers as engineers. Secondly, I guess it would be, and I was real worried back--well, and National Science Foundation [NSF] introduced the idea of engineering education coalitions in the late '80s [1980s], I was concerned that, you know, we'd be a full part of that exercise of--the notion was to renew engineering education and its infrastructure with a special emphasis on increasing, you know, minority and women participating in engineering. But, but it involved more than just the, the people power issue. It also involved, you know, curriculum reforms and, and curriculum restructuring. So, you know, I took the initiative to organize a number of schools under what was titled 'The ECSEL Coalition'. And so finally, I was successful in bringing these schools together, which included MIT [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts] and I had a (unclear), my son finished MIT. So that sort of gave me access. I, City College of New York, University of Washington, Seattle, Penn State [Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania], University of Maryland [College Park, Maryland] and Morgan State [University, Baltimore, Maryland]. That should be seven schools. So those were members of our coalition, and we were funded for, you know, fifteen million dollars for five years, over a five-year period to, to carry out these studies. Subsequently, we were refunded, although I was, you know, so you kind of know when to hold and you know when to fold (laughter). So I was sort of moving out of engineering education, and my directorship of Excel, and, but we were subsequently refunded for another fifteen million [dollars]. And actually, over the course of the program itself, we were funded maybe a couple extra million [dollars] here and there, you know, during the first five years. So I felt some pride that, you know, we were able to play some role, and our greatest contribution was, I think, introducing engineering in the beginning years of students' course of study. And so we had, we had some, that was the Engineering Design 'cause that was our theme, designed across the curriculum broadly conceived was the essence of engineering. And so, so a lot of schools now, you know, try to introduce students, you know, early on in their academic careers to, you know, doing engineering problems and doing engineering designs. And the one, the design we had, it was very exciting in the Washington metropolitan area. It was homeless shelters. You know, a lot of people sleep in the streets during the coldest month of the year, but the students, you know, came up with some low-budget, low-cost type of shelters that these, you know, people could live in. And they actually tested them in the streets here and there. But that has, you know, finally, we understood, you had to be a little careful about that (laughter) because of the liabilities involved in this, you know, in this society that we live in. But in any event, that was one of the contributions that we made, and then on the other end, well, the other end was, you know, maybe changing people's philosophy about how to teach, you know. Myself was, you know, more weighted to just the chalk-talk method as opposed to the whole idea of involving students in the teaching learning process, and, which I think, you know, we were fairly effective at different institutions in changing the philosophy, you know, of how to teach. Well, you've probably heard the Chinese proverb, what is it, "Tell me and I forget, show me and I remember, and involve me, I understand". That was the concept. And so that was one of those things that we got across. And then the last thing was, you know, just to make all participating schools more conscious of the need to increase minority and women as engineering graduates. So those were the three by-products of the effort and, you know, one thing I came to understand was that when you talk about social change, you're talking about a big investment and a lot, lot in terms of, in terms of money and time, wow. It's unbelievably costly to realize social change, but, but, you know, I think all of our schools benefited from the program. And there's some evidence, because like I said, it was funded for an additional ten or, ten years or so.$$Okay.$$What else? Well, those were a couple of the major things that I was involved in, that I feel excited about the outcome. I guess that was the largest quote "program" that I, you know, had any role in developing.

Steven Richardson

Physicist and engineering professor Steven L. Richardson was born on July 22, 1953 in Brooklyn, New York. His father, Edward Alfred Richardson, was a subway conductor and his mother, Juanita Pearl Richardson, was a nurse. Richardson excelled in academics and pursued his interests in literature, science and mathematics at Brooklyn Preparatory High School. He attended Columbia University where he studied chemistry on a National Achievement Scholarship. He received advanced degrees from The Ohio State University: his M.S. degree in physics in 1981 and his Ph.D. degree in theoretical condensed matter physics in 1983. During his graduate studies, he was an International Business Machines (IBM) Minority Graduate Fellow and a Xerox Graduate Fellow. At Xerox, he discovered a new semiconductor surface for Gallium arsenide (GaAs), which he included in his Ph.D. dissertation.

Following graduation, Richardson was a Chancellor's Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of California, Berkeley and in 1985, he was a Ford Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In 1986, Richardson was hired to work at Eastman Kodak Company as a senior research scientist in the Solid State Science Laboratories. From 1987 to 1988, he took a temporary leave from Kodak to serve as program director for the National Science Foundation (NSF) Condensed Matter Theory Program. In 1989, he joined the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Howard University as an associate professor and associate director of the Materials Science Research Center of Excellence. In 1995, Richardson was promoted to full professor. From 1997 to 2011, he served as a summer faculty fellow with the United States Navy-American Society for Engineering Education’s Summer Faculty Program at the Naval Research Laboratory. Richardson's research utilized supercomputers to calculate the structural, electronic and vibrational properties of molecules. His research has been supported by many public institutions including, the Office of Naval Research, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Science Foundation.

Richardson is a member of the American Physical Society, American Chemical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He has received the National Science Foundation Career Advancement Award and served as a Distinguished Sigma Xi National Lecturer. Richardson works in Washington, D.C.

Steven Richardson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 14, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.151

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/14/2012

Last Name

Richardson

Schools

The Ohio State University

Brooklyn Preparatory High School

Columbia University

First Name

Steven

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

RIC17

Favorite Season

Spring

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Nassau, Bahamas

Favorite Quote

Do only what you can do.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

7/22/1953

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Paella

Short Description

Physicist and engineering professor Steven Richardson (1953 - ) is an expert on the subject of condensed matter physics and serves as a professor at Howard University’s Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

Employment

Howard University

National Science Foundation (NSF)

Eastman Kodak Company

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
0,0:264,3:858,14:1518,28:2178,41:2640,49:3234,59:4950,91:5808,112:6468,124:6930,132:7524,147:7854,153:8250,160:8844,170:9306,178:9768,187:10098,193:10362,198:10824,207:11088,212:11418,218:12342,241:13068,253:17830,276:18650,288:19716,305:20618,318:20946,323:21274,331:28780,424:29365,434:29690,441:30405,455:30860,464:32030,492:32550,502:32940,510:33590,523:33850,528:36110,539:38857,608:39393,618:39795,626:40130,632:40599,641:42554,666:43051,675:43690,686:44045,692:44542,701:45394,715:45962,725:50706,784:51070,789:51616,796:53527,826:56180,837:57720,854:59480,871:62736,883:63180,890:64216,922:65030,934:65474,941:65918,948:66954,966:67472,974:68138,984:69544,1002:72652,1050:73244,1059:73910,1069:74428,1077:75094,1087:79791,1114:82896,1154:83379,1162:84000,1172:84483,1181:84897,1188:85311,1196:85932,1206:86484,1215:92015,1229:93797,1255:94607,1266:99880,1300:100272,1309:100720,1325:101112,1338:101504,1347:101896,1356:102792,1381:103016,1386:103968,1411:104696,1427:107216,1499:107440,1504:108840,1531:109232,1544:109456,1549:109680,1555:109960,1561:110184,1566:110968,1582:114868,1593:115895,1608:116606,1618:117159,1628:117791,1639:118265,1646:119055,1660:121030,1670:122308,1701:122663,1707:122947,1712:123657,1724:123941,1729:124722,1743:125006,1748:125929,1762:126426,1770:128627,1809:129124,1818:132131,1831:133271,1857:137120,1899:137424,1904:138716,1923:139096,1929:139476,1935:142520,1968:143129,1976:143999,1988:144695,1997:158876,2216:165720,2314:166150,2320:167775,2340:168300,2348:168750,2355:169500,2366:170625,2384:171225,2393:171900,2404:172800,2423:173625,2441:174075,2448:174900,2463:178947,2487:179349,2494:180153,2509:180622,2517:183328,2544:189910,2565:190504,2577:191230,2589:192882,2606:193402,2619:194026,2635:194546,2647:195586,2681:196002,2690:196522,2703:196782,2709:199607,2726:200336,2736:201227,2750:202118,2766:202766,2775:204467,2846:207660,2872$0,0:3112,26:3942,45:4606,60:5270,69:5851,77:18774,220:19502,229:23051,275:23597,293:23961,299:24689,306:25053,311:25599,319:30545,343:35198,403:35594,408:36881,425:37772,436:38168,441:42854,460:43244,466:44570,488:45896,507:49178,533:50250,556:50585,562:50853,567:51456,579:52260,593:57670,641:58279,650:59236,663:63357,695:64245,708:65844,726:66603,742:66948,748:67362,756:67776,764:68259,772:70122,817:70743,827:72370,833:74757,891:75835,921:77144,946:77606,954:78068,961:80147,1001:80994,1014:81764,1026:87485,1063:90165,1082:91493,1107:93568,1140:94149,1149:96556,1184:96971,1190:101025,1216:101285,1221:101740,1229:102325,1245:102715,1252:103300,1264:104535,1290:104860,1298:106680,1330:107330,1342:108500,1370:108825,1376:111846,1397:112840,1415:114757,1441:115396,1451:115893,1460:116532,1470:117171,1481:118875,1514:119301,1522:119727,1529:120508,1541:121289,1568:121786,1575:125160,1587:126150,1598:126920,1606:127910,1617:129576,1625:130233,1635:130525,1640:131255,1653:132058,1671:132423,1677:133956,1702:135489,1732:136219,1743:136876,1754:137752,1767:140848,1782:142366,1811:148724,1895:149084,1901:151560,1925:151900,1930:153260,1952:154025,1964:156065,2007:159963,2027:160367,2032:160872,2051:164940,2080:165290,2086:166200,2102:166830,2112:167670,2126:168160,2135:168720,2141:169980,2165:171940,2187:172500,2198:172780,2203:173200,2210:173480,2215:173760,2221:174180,2228:174600,2236:178188,2241:178874,2250:179658,2258:180442,2267:189102,2332:189498,2340:190092,2351:190620,2361:191016,2369:191676,2381:191940,2386:192666,2401:193062,2409:193590,2420:193854,2425:194250,2433:194514,2438:197220,2447:197598,2454:197913,2460:199740,2508:200496,2522:200937,2530:201756,2547:203142,2573:203709,2583:204150,2592:204591,2606:204906,2612:207770,2631
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Steven Richardson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Steven Richardson lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Steven Richardson describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Steven Richardson talks about his maternal family's migration to Pennsylvania

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Steven Richardson talks about his mother's decision to move to New York to study nursing

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Steven Richardson talks about his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Steven Richardson talks about his father's growing up in Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Steven Richardson talks about his father's career

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Steven Richardson talks about his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Steven Richardson talks about his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Steven Richardson talks about living in the projects during his early childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Steven Richardson talks about the stigma associated with the projects, and reflects upon his experience growing up in the Breevort Projects in New York

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Steven Richardson describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Steven Richardson talks about his mother's education

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Steven Richardson talks about his parents' decision to enroll him in Catholic school

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Steven Richardson talks about the disciplinary tactics of the nuns at Catholic schools

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Steven Richardson talks about his experience and his favorite teachers at Holy Rosary Grammar School

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Steven Richardson talks about his decision to attend Brooklyn Preparatory High School

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Steven Richardson talks about the absence of black role models in the STEM fields, during his growing up

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Steven Richardson talks about his decision to apply to Columbia University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Steven Richardson reflects upon his experience in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Steven Richardson talks about his academic struggles at Columbia University, the cultural scene in New York, and his interest in music

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Steven Richardson talks about his study regimen at Columbia University, and his disinterest in pursuing a career in medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Steven Richardson talks about his interest in chemistry and his professors at Columbia University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Steven Richardson talks about his preparation in chemistry

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Steven Richardson talks about his transition into physics

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Steven Richardson talks about Shirley Ann Jackson's role in his decision to focus on condensed matter physics

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Steven Richardson talks about his decision to transfer to Ohio State University, and his research there

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Steven Richardson talks about Gallium arsenide and his work with semiconductors

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Steven Richardson talks about IBM computers and the role of semi-conductors in the development of more efficient machines

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Steven Richardson talks about the contrasting business strategies of Xerox and Apple, and the influence of semiconductors on cloud storage technology

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Steven Richardson talks about his contributions to research on Gallium arsenide

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Steven Richardson talks about his advisor, Bruce Patton, and his advising philosophy

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Steven Richardson talks about his experience as a post-doctoral researcher at the University of California, Berkeley

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Steven Richardson talks about his mentors and funding sources at the University of California, Berkeley

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Steven Richardson talks about the utilization of pseudo-potentials in his post-doctoral research

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Steven Richardson talks about his career at Eastman Kodak, and his decision to take a sabbatical to work at the National Science Foundation

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Steven Richardson talks about his decision to join the faculty at Howard University

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Steven Richardson talks about the funding agencies in Washington, D.C., and his decision to join Howard University

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Steven Richardson talks about his visiting lectureship at Bradley University

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Steven Richardson talks about his interest in traveling, and how he received a visiting lectureship in Portugal

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Steven Richardson talks about his work at Howard University

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Steven Richardson talks about his lectureships at Emory University and the Scientific Research Honor Society

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Steven Richardson talks about the funding agencies in Washington, D.C. and Howard University's funding prospects

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Steven Richardson talks about the progress of graduate programs at Howard University

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Steven Richardson describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Steven Richardson talks about some of his students at Howard University

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Steven Richardson reflects upon his life choices

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Steven Richardson talks about his parents' parenting abilities and reflects upon his upbringing

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Steven Richardson talks about his teaching methods and his concerns about young people

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Steven Richardson reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Steven Richardson reflects upon his career, and talks about the importance of education

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Steven Richardson talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Steven Richardson describes his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$6

DAStory

2$3

DATitle
Steven Richardson talks about his transition into physics
Steven Richardson talks about his interest in traveling, and how he received a visiting lectureship in Portugal
Transcript
So there's no question that taking Honor Organic Chemistry with Nick Turro who's a world's famous organic photo chemist and Gilbert Stork, who's a world famous synthetic organic chemist, these guys were not just great researchers, they were outstanding teachers. And the, the problem was that I became, I actually did very well in organic chemistry, and I loved organic chemistry. So I, so I have a new dilemma. The typical chemistry major, there are two types of chemistry majors. There are those who like to study how to make molecules. Those are organic chemists or inorganic chemists. And then there are those who like to study math and physics to under--to use math and physics to study what the properties of atoms and molecules are. Those are called physical chemists. And you very rarely have a person who wants to do both. So I took, I ended up taking Turro and Stork in my senior year, and I took their graduate courses. My senior year I took the graduate Organic Chemistry course in organic reaction mechanisms with Nick Turro. I took the graduate synthetic organic chemistry course with Gil Stork as a senior. And in retrospect, my grades in organic chemistry were far better than my grades in physical chemistry. So life, life has its way of presenting challenges. You know, I was faced with the question, well, what are you gonna do when you grow up? What's gonna be your profession? What kind of chemist are you going to be? Are you gonna be somebody who's gonna try to figure how to make molecules or are you gonna learn how to make more, learn more mathematics and physics to understand how molecules work. And that was a battle that I had to fight. It turns out, I had to go out and learn more physics and math because I had more experience in organic chemistry and inorganic chemistry than math and physics. And eventually, the math--the physics and the math side won out. I took some courses, I went to Wayne State University, started out being an organic chemist for graduate school. But I discovered--$$So this is in, now, now--$$This was after Columbia.$$So this is 1974, I guess?$$This is 1975.$$Seventy-five [1975], okay.$$So I ended up taking--$$So you graduated in '75' [1975]?$$So I took organic chemistry, I took, I finished my undergraduate work at Columbia in '75' [1975]. I went to Wayne State [University], started taking courses in chemistry and the advanced courses in chemistry and then discovered that I really wanted to be a physicist. So I started taking courses in the physics department at Wayne State, physics and math and came to the realization that, well, if I really wanna learn how to do physics and math, I need to go to, probably a stronger program than Wayne State. And I was fortunate enough to get accepted in the graduate program at MIT [Massachusetts Institute of Technology], in the physics department. That was 1977.$Okay, now, you received a Career Advancement Award from the National Science Foundation in '92' [1992] and in '94' [1994]--now, tell if I'm, if we need to stop over something. But in '94' [1994], you were selected for a visiting professorship in Portugal.$$Yes.$$And how did that take place?$$That, again, goes back to Marvin Cohen. So at the time two of his post-docs, I was one. And we had a post-doc from Portugal. And we shared the same office, and we got along together marvelously, professionally and personally. And one year, after his post-doc, he spent some time at the University of Minnesota, and ultimately, he went back home to become a professor in Lisbon. And so I visited him at least two or three times. I, I should say that going back to being a college student, one of the things that I was always impressed with, professors got, it seemed like they got an opportunity to travel a lot. And they got an opportunity to travel to lots of exotic places. The first time I was ever on an airplane was probably my senior year in high--in college. And today, you know, I travel, not a lot, but I travel somewhat, and you see all sorts of folks on planes. I, I wasn't on my first plane till I was 21. So I must confess that one of the things that got me interested in a career as being a university professor is that in addition to teaching and in addition to doing research, you got an opportunity to go travel and talk and visit different folks in different places and interesting places. So I've been able to travel extensively throughout the continental United States, the Caribbean, Europe, Canada and Asia to basically talk about my own research, to meet other scientists. Science is a global community. It's not an enterprise that knows geographical boundaries. So this visiting lectureship in Portugal was something that primarily, A. Luis Martins helped set up for me just as James Garner, my colleague at Ohio State, he was the one that put my name in for the Bradley lectureship. And I should say in 2001, Ohio State [University] actually put a plaque at the front entrance of the chemistry department in honor of Major Robert Lawrence and his contributions. And we need to do more things like that. People need to know that the African American community is a distinct vibrant, non-homogenous community. We do lots of things and have done lots of things, and will continue to do lots of things. It goes back to this issue of making young people aware of the fact that there are lots of resources and options available out to them. And somebody has to basically take the time to point these things out to them.

Ralph Etienne-Cummings

Electrical engineer, computer scientist and engineering professor Ralph Etienne-Cummings was born in August 20, 1967 in Mahe, Seychelles to Marguerita Etienne and Eddie Micock. His mother later married Herman Cummings, who formally adopted him. Etienne-Cummings first showed his aptitude for engineering when he fixed the reception on his short wave radio in order to listen to a soccer match. After attending a British boarding school, he moved to the United States with his family. Etienne-Cummings received his B.S. degree in physics from Lincoln University in Pennsylvania in 1988. He went on to receive his M.S. in electrical engineering and his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of Pennsylvania in 1990 and 1994, respectively.

Shortly after receiving his Ph.D., Etienne-Cummings took a position as an assistant professor at Southern Illinois University. In 1998, he moved to Maryland where he began teaching as an assistant professor at Johns Hopkins University. From 2002 to 2004, Etienne-Cummings taught at the University of Maryland, College Park as an associate professor while also holding the position of director at the Institute of Neuromorphic Engineering. In January 2004, he was appointed Associate Director for Education and Outreach of the ERC on Computer Integrated Surgical Systems and Technology at Johns Hopkins University. In 2005, Etienne-Cummings received a secondary appointment in computer science at Johns Hopkins University and in 2008, he became a professor of electrical and computer engineering. While at Johns Hopkins University, Etienne-Cummings sponsored a number of diversity and mentoring programs including serving as co-chair of the Diversity Committee and mentor of the school's Robotics Club. In addition to teaching, Etienne-Cummings served as a consultant engineer for several technology firms including Nova Sensors, Inc., Innovative Wireless Technologies, Singular Computing, Panasonic N. American & Corporation, Avago Technologies, Micron Technologies and others. His research interests include systems and algorithms for biologically inspired and low-power processing, biomorphic robots, applied neuroscience, neural prosthetics, and computer integrated surgical systems and technologies. He holds seven patents and has mentored over thirty-five students at the graduate level.

Etienne-Cummings has served as a visiting scientist at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and as a visiting African scholar at the University of Cape Town in South Africa. He received the National Science Foundation's CAREER Award in 1996 and the Young Investigators Program Award from the Office of Naval Research in 2000. In 2006, Science Spectrum awarded him its Trailblazer Award for Top Minorities in Science and in 2007, Etienne-Cummings was named a Kavli Frontiers in Science Fellow by the National Academies of Science. He has also won best paper awards in high impact technical Journals and Conferences. In 2012, he was elected Fellow of the IEEE for contribution in “Neuromorphic Sensory-Motor Circuits and Systems”. He is married to Shatima Etienne-Cummings, a patent attorney.

Ralph Etienne-Cummings was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 28, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.137

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/28/2012

Last Name

Etienne-Cummings

Marital Status

Married

Schools

Lincoln University

University of Pennsylvania

Seychelles College

Anse Etoile School

St. Augustine's College

First Name

Ralph

Birth City, State, Country

Mahe

HM ID

ETI01

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

Favorite Vacation Destination

Seychelles

Favorite Quote

Essentially.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Maryland

Birth Date

8/20/1967

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Baltimore

Country

Seychelles

Favorite Food

Chicken Curry

Short Description

Electrical engineer, computer scientist, and engineering professor Ralph Etienne-Cummings (1967 - ) is a neuromorphic engineering expert developing biomorphic robots and neural prosthetics.

Employment

Southern Illinois University

Johns Hopkins University

University of Maryland, College Park

University of Cape Town

Institute of Neuromorphic Engineering

Favorite Color

White

Timing Pairs
0,0:3380,76:7090,161:9960,226:15770,354:23016,416:23421,422:31278,561:36440,599:39224,623:43310,700:67986,1077:68712,1096:74388,1260:75510,1284:75906,1291:78480,1347:83496,1463:84552,1488:94880,1588:97142,1626:101234,1683:101678,1690:101974,1695:102714,1718:107582,1786:111476,1819:112236,1832:118392,1996:130170,2116:130578,2123:134946,2182:135234,2187:139266,2293:147714,2429:148568,2470:149910,2491:151801,2577:152106,2610:167535,2827:173270,2876:173630,2881:174080,2887:202995,3166:203469,3173:204259,3191:209710,3351:225292,3526:226356,3541:231828,3626:232664,3638:245210,3771:251230,3879:252000,3897:253470,3931:255570,3974:256550,3983:256830,3988:258160,4022:264808,4065:272030,4196$0,0:2481,19:5451,90:8916,135:12084,170:12777,178:19710,259:27735,401:28710,416:46272,610:47078,626:58270,836:58550,841:59040,911:72118,1079:75465,1124:77949,1181:81192,1264:83124,1297:101186,1580:102077,1592:106290,1623:108581,1695:111978,1795:125985,1972:126510,1982:126960,1989:131010,2064:136790,2113:137659,2129:148719,2336:163465,2548:166240,2613:174920,2714:182600,2878:184760,2925:194389,3068:200472,3211:213686,3427:214026,3433:215862,3467:224514,3552:224879,3558:228529,3627:232179,3706:236997,3815:243859,3963:252367,4042:258529,4178:260267,4215:266034,4321:277148,4431:282548,4474:288310,4516:291622,4658:291982,4673:296302,4765:297094,4780:297598,4788:299182,4821:305248,4861:308732,4936:311964,4972:329960,5190:330500,5198:335360,5272:340968,5339:341280,5344:343620,5404:344556,5461:354248,5694:364289,5833:365384,5872:370210,5939:383810,6129
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Ralph Etienne-Cummings' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about his mother's growing up in the Seychelles

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about the people and the history of the Seychelles

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings describes the architecture, weather, and government of the Seychelles

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about his mother's education and career aspirations

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings describes his relationship with his biological father

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about his step-father

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings describes his biological father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about his likeness to his parents

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about his adopted father, Herman Cummings

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about race relations in the Seychelles

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about his early education

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about his early interest in science

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about his grades and his favorite teacher, Madame Moutia

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about living and studying in the United Kingdom

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about his involvement in track and field in the United Kingdom

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about graduating from high school

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about life in New Orleans

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about his decision to attend Lincoln University

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings describes his experience at Lincoln University and his exposure to African American culture

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings describes personal computers and resources at Lincoln University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about the faculty and notable graduates of Lincoln University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings discusses his physics research at Lincoln University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about his activities and honors at Lincoln University

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about his graduate work at the University of Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about his doctoral research

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings describes how he met his wife and her work at GTE

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about his work at Southern Illinois University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about his work at the Institute of Neuromorphic Engineering

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about the National Science Foundation's Career Award

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings discusses his research at Johns Hopkins University

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about his research on computer controlled locomotion in animals

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings discusses technology controlled by neural impulses

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about his honors and awards

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings describes a typical day in his lab

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about his students' work

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings discusses his current research on overt attention

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings shares his personal ambition

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about his hopes for the future of robotics

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about reactions to his work

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings describes the one change he would have made to his career path

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings shares his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about his family

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about the Seychelles Islands

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about his time in South Africa and Australia

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Ralph Etienne-Cummings describes his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

8$7

DATitle
Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about living and studying in the United Kingdom
Ralph Etienne-Cummings talks about his research on computer controlled locomotion in animals
Transcript
So, okay, so in seventh grade, you moved to Britain?$$After seventh grade.$$After seventh grade.$$Yeah, that's when my, so, yeah, so that time, you know, it was becoming, you know, again, I was, like I'm saying, my mother was always keen on trying to get her children the best education she could. And it became obvious that I was not learning maybe as much as I should have, and I was, you know, I mean I was in a place where I was the star student, but, you know, I wasn't making any progress because, you know, the material was not up to what I was able to keep up with, put it that way. So at that time, they decided that, okay, they were gonna send me to school in the U.K. And what happened there was essentially I had to actually learn new material. So I, so I spent some time just kind of going through books to take their entrances exams to go to the school in the U.K. [United Kingdom]. These days there's, you know, I mean there was all these common, what's called common entrance exams.$$Was U.K. a culture shock?$$Yeah, but so here's the thing that's kind of interesting about, about folks from the Seychelles. I mean we spend, you know, I like to say we spend half of our lives trying to get off the island and the other half trying to get back, right. So you're always like excited about going, you know, abroad and going to different countries. So, yes, I was really keen to go to, you know, to the U.K., but then, of course, it was a big difference from what I'm used to. I mean it was cold, it was drafty (laughter), it was, you know, complete different set of rules, and, you know, less ability to just kind of do your own thing. But at the same time, I needed that structure, I think. I think I was becoming maybe too unruly for my own good (laughter) at that time.$$Okay, so you prepped first in the summer, I guess, before your eighth grade (unclear) (simultaneous).$$Yeah, I mean like you said, well, I work actually, so this was interesting because there was a teacher there at the Anse Etoile School, that was an Irish fellow that they had, you know, imported to teach in the new school system they had just constructed. So he had, and he was a math teacher, I remember. So he, basically, I worked with him a lot, you know, and just, you know, I would do problems in, you know, in this Algebra book or whatever book it was. And he would, he would correct them for me and would teach me new things and so on. So it was not so much that it was over the summer, it was more during the school year. But I just didn't do the same curriculum that other people were doing. I just, you know, I had my own set of books that was a little bit more advanced that I was following. Essentially, that's what it came down to. So it's personalized teaching, you know. It doesn't get any better than that (laughter).$$Okay, now what was the name of your first school in Britain?$$The name was St. Augustine's College.$$Okay, and where, where in Britain?$$So this is in Kent, England.$$In Kent, okay.$$Yeah, that's the county, but, yeah, Westgate is the town, but I don't know if it matters.$$Okay. All right. So now, was St. Augustine's better equipped than the school you had in Seychelles?$$Oh, absolutely, I mean definitely. I mean it was a modern school, you know, for all intents and purposes with, you know, with a science lab and computers, whatever that meant at that time, right? It was, you know, you're talking 1980, so computers were, you know, single machines, you know, and not so advanced as we have today. But, yeah, I mean and they were geared towards teaching children to get ready to go university or to go into the work force, right. So it was a very different modality of operation. And then at the end, the English system, and--which was I guess the same in the Seychelles system too, is that you are working towards these exams, called "O" levels and "A" levels, right, and these are national, or international exams that you work towards. And then you get graded against international students. So that's what we were working for. So the curriculum was very strongly geared towards making sure that you can perform well in these exams.$Okay, now, the, we have an illustration here of a cat with, who's wired up. And is this, this is a schematic of an experiment showing locomotion stimulated by a central pattern generator chip.$$Right.$$Okay, so can you explain this to you?$$Sure. So that's much later, so that's, I guess it's later, but it's a continuation of that same evolution of though, okay. So in the sense that we wanted to understand how does one control legged locomotion, right. So you can make that platform be a, a robotic platform, mechanical. And then you use a, you know, a model of what the spinal cord does, you know, in addition to the brain and everything, right. And you implement that on the robot and the robot can navigate the environment. All right, but more importantly, or at least more importantly, from a human perspective, you know, what happens if that robot was actually a person, all right? And a person that would need such control would be a person with spinal cord injuries, for example, right? So, let's say you are, you know, your spinal cord is severed. The lower part of your body it turns out is fine. The problem is that you cannot control it. You cannot get a signal from your brain to it. So what we wanted to understand there is how do you reactivate the lower part of the body, okay, in such a way that you can get somebody with spinal injuries to walk again, okay. So, so that's the, that kind of, that's the, that's the long-term goal. But you cannot go to human experiments directly. What we tend to do is we tend to look at different animal models that are as close, you know, to the extent that they can be close, to human as you can, as you can find, okay, and also, allow you to do the experiment, right. I mean I guess I could have, we could have done it in monkeys, but monkeys are really hard, okay. So, so cats is a very good model of the human locomotion. So what you see there is an example of, the first example, in fact, of a part of a spinal cord being implemented in a microchip, and then that being used to restore locomotion, restore walking in a paralyzed cat. This, you know, which the next transition of that is, can we do the same thing in a paralyzed human?$$So you could do it in a cat?$$Yeah, yeah. Yeah, with a cat, we've done it in a cat many times.$$Okay.$$The hard part is actually making the cat walk for a long time. You know, in terms of the--there are different ways that you can stimulate the nervous system of the cat to get 'em to walk, and some of them are, makes a cat tired fast. Some of them does not. And lately we've been, made a big breakthrough in getting--and when I say lately, I mean last November, where we had a cat walking for kilometers. The humans were getting tired before the cats were getting tired, you know, and this is all, you know, electrical.$$But is the cat controlling its own walking or is--$$No, no, we are. And this is, this is controlled in the sense that it's on a, it's on a tread, not a treadmill but a walkway. The cat is not free to move around yet 'cause that would require another leap in the technology.$$But is the--I'm sorry, I don't want to interrupt you, but I was just thinking. Is the cat deciding to walk itself or--$$No, no, no, no, it still--$$--are you all stimulating--$$We are stimulating him to walk. But, but the other thing about it is that the cat is actually fully, he's paralyzed only in the sense that he's anesthetized. He's not actually, physically paralyzed, right. So the cat is asleep, right?$$Oh.$$Okay, for these experiments, but we are about to embark on some experiments now that where the cat will be, you know, paralyzed too.$$That's what I was thinking at first that somehow you all found a good cat, paralyzed it and then (laughter)--$$No, no, we try--$$--made it walk.$$Right, no, we try to avoid that as much as possible for all these reasons, right. There are ethical reasons, you know.$$Yeah, ASPCA and all that.$$Yeah.$$But the cat is anesthetized, is actually asleep--$$Right.$$--but he's walking in spite of himself because you all are making him walk?$$Yes, we're able to stimulate his spinal cord in a particular way using, you know, chips that work the similar way as the spinal cord so that the cat then can put, left one leg, put it down, put the other one down and walk down the walkway as often as we want it to do.$$I was just thinking if you could make something that would stimulate a sleeping student to study--$$(Laughter). Yeah, well, I think that would seriously have ethical issues (laughter).$$--to study in spite of himself. But that's interesting, so--$$Yeah, so, so the biggest thing there is that, you know, ultimately, this technology can transfer to helping people with spinal cord injuries. And another aspect of the work that we do is also trying to decode the intent of the person, right. So when you put electrodes in the brain and that will read your mind, if you will, right. And because if you can do that, then you can link the thought process to the stimulation and then you can have the person control the entire thing, right. So that's kind of, you know, the evolution of the work.$$Okay, so that is feasible too because, I was thinking at one point, well, if you had, if a human had paralyzed legs and they wanted to walk, and they had the chip installed, and all that, they would be able to use a remote control instead of the (unclear) (simultaneous)--$$Yeah, exactly. That's the first step. That's a zero (unclear) step as well. You know, pun not intended, but that's the first, you know$$Step, yeah.$$(Laughter) --step in the thing, well, yeah, exactly. You push the button forward, and that would get you to go forward. You turn it to the left, and your leg would turn. So, yeah, that's what we're trying to do first. And then the next thing is, instead of you pushing a button, you just think it, and you go. And we have done that, we have done the thinking part for moving prosthetic limbs, arms, where you can decode the intent of a person to grab a, you know, a glass and, you know, and drink out of it and so on.