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Ann Smith

Civic leader Ann E. Smith was born in Jefferson City, Missouri in 1939 where she attended segregated schools. Her grandfather served with the United States Colored Troop regiment during the American Civil War and then graduated from Fisk University. Smith’s father, a principal, and her mother, a high school, pushed her to do well academically and athletically. During high school, she played softball and volleyball. Smith went on to receive her B.A. degree from Lincoln University in Jefferson City, Missouri; her M.A. degree from the University of Iowa; and her Ph.D. degree from the Union Institute and Union University in Cincinnati, Ohio.

Smith began her dynamic career with sixteen years of service in academia. She taught high school in her native State of Missouri and then assumed teaching posts at Eastern Illinois University where she became the first African American appointed as a full-time professor. Smith went on to work at the University of Indiana and then Northeastern Illinois University. While there, she progressed through the ranks from instructor, assistant and associate professor to Assistant to the President and Vice President for Academic Affairs. In 1978, Smith transitioned from academia to business and joined Prudential Insurance Company. After earning several performance awards in her first year as an agent, she was promoted to sales manager. In 1981, she became director of marketing for Cook, Stratton & Company, an insurance brokerage firm. In 1986, she assumed a full time role as vice president of Endow, Inc., an insurance planning and consulting firm she had co-founded seven years earlier. Smith began serving a six-year term on the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois in 1985, thus becoming the first black woman to hold office in Illinois through a statewide election. After serving almost four years, she resigned in July of 1988 to be considered for the position of Associate Chancellor at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), and accepted the appointment in September of 1988. Later, Smith served as director of Community Relations at UIC at the University of Illinois at Chicago, and then became President of the Gamaliel Foundation until retiring in 2011.

Smith has served on the boards of a wide variety of local and national educational, community and cultural organizations, including as vice-president of Business and Professional People for the Public Interest and the West Central Association. She served on the boards of the Illinois Arts Alliance and Foundation, the National Advisory Council for the NAACP, the Duncan YMCA and the Marcy-Newberry Association. Smith was also appointed as chairman of the boards of the Chicago Access Corporation and the Southside Community Arts Center, and served on the boards of the Joel Hall Dancers, the Illinois Committee on Black Concerns in Higher Education and The American College.

Anne E. Smith was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 21, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.232

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/21/2013 |and| 8/22/2013

Last Name

Smith

Maker Category
Middle Name

E.

Schools

Lincoln University

University of Iowa

Union Institute & University

First Name

Ann

Birth City, State, Country

Poplar Bluff

HM ID

SMI29

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Missouri

Favorite Vacation Destination

Puerto Vallarta, Mexico

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

8/17/1939

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Greens (Collard)

Short Description

Civic leader and education executive Ann Smith (1939 - ) taught at Eastern Illinois University where she became the first African American appointed as a full professor. She was elected to the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois in 1985, thus becoming the first black woman to hold office in Illinois through a statewide election.

Employment

Gamaliel Foundation

University of Illinois, Chicago

Endow, Incorporated

Northeastern Illinois University

Eastern Illinois University

University of Indiana

Cook, Stratton, & Company

Prudential Insurance Company

Public Interest and the West Central

Favorite Color

Black

Chrystine Ramsey Shack

Educator Chrystine Ramsey Shack was born on November 18, 1926 in Memphis, Tennessee. She attended The College of New Jersey where she received her B.A. degree and earned elementary education certification. She continued her education at Rider College in New Jersey where she received her M.A. degree.

In 1952, Shack became a document custodian for Project Matterhorn B, a magnetic fusion research project under the direction of Lyman Spitzer, Jr. at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Shack was in charge of filing and transferring top secret documents at the laboratory. After Project Matterhorn, Shack went back to school to earn her Ph.D. from Rutgers University in New Jersey. In the late 1960’s, Shack began working for the New Jersey State Department of Education in Trenton. She then moved to Michigan where she worked in the Department of Vocational Education in Lansing. While in Michigan, Shack contributed a chapter to a publication funded by the Michigan Business Education Association on business curriculum. In 1981, she was named president of Highland Park Community College and was the first woman president of a community college in Michigan.

Shack has served in several capacities as a leader of The Girl Friends, Inc. including as national secretary, parliamentarian, national advisory board chair, president of the Girl Friends’ fund, national budget chair, and national president in 1978. She was profiled in the book They Made It – So Can You, showcasing her career development and was the subject of a senate concurrent resolution praising her academic accomplishments in 1981. She also served on several business associations including the United Business Education Association and chaired their Consumer Economics board.

Chrystine Shack was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 24, 2010.

Accession Number

A2010.087

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/26/2010

Last Name

Shack

Maker Category
Middle Name

Chrystine

Schools

Florida Street Elementary School

Booker T. Washington High School

Wilberforce University

Rider College

Rutgers University

Trenton State College

Colorado State University

First Name

Ethel

Birth City, State, Country

Memphis

HM ID

SHA06

Favorite Season

Fall

Sponsor

National Science Foundation

State

Tennessee

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Tennessee

Birth Date

11/18/1926

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Memphis

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Death Date

8/16/2010

Short Description

Education executive and civic leader Chrystine Ramsey Shack (1926 - 2010 ) was a member of the Project Matterhorn team at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and has served in several executive positions for the national organization, The Girl Friends, Inc.

Employment

Central State College

Hampton Institute

Bordentown Manual Training School

Princeton University

Hamilton Township Public Schools

State Department of Education

Mercer County Community College

Rider College

Rutgers University Graduate School of Education

New Jersey State Department of Education

Michigan State Department of Education

Michigan State University Graduate School of Education

Highland Park Community College

Wayne County Community College

Migrant Demonstration Schools

Trenton State College

Main Sponsor
Main Sponsor URL
Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
0,0:21410,300:22364,319:33500,397:33998,460:43540,594:43880,626:44560,679:48810,737:62152,857:65308,887:66168,898:66512,903:78783,1020:80602,1048:83170,1070:86808,1134:93814,1222:109567,1484:114272,1509:131668,1647:145455,1791:147240,1832:148855,1856:149365,1863:154340,1958:156290,2002:160270,2053:160680,2059:166470,2117:190020,2350:191295,2384:191635,2389:202600,2491:222907,2705:223183,2710:223666,2718:223942,2723:237340,2864$0,0:13556,179:38634,358:49003,411:49731,503:94368,895:100893,954:125610,1053:131082,1161:143156,1314:144695,1340:149040,1363:150480,1392:152160,1418:161140,1469:161996,1478:163580,1489:164924,1517:172165,1570:173948,1595:182158,1669:196638,1826:196886,1831:207850,1959:214106,1980:214953,1992:216570,2014:217571,2028:223355,2049:230680,2057:256180,2175:258010,2181:258998,2195:259302,2200:262190,2247:262646,2254:262950,2259:279838,2373:281500,2395
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Chrystine Ramsey Shack's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack talks about her maternal family's roots

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack recalls her mother's career

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack talks about her father

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack remembers her early experiences of religion

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack describes her neighborhood in Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack talks about the Great Depression

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack remembers her maternal family's grocery store

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack remembers her backyard

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack remembers her family's cars

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack remembers her parents' strict discipline

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack recalls her childhood activities

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack remembers the Florida Street School in Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack describes her early influences

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack talks about her extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack remembers Booker T. Washington High School in Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack remembers her early aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack talks about her experiences during World War II

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack talks about her decision to attend Wilberforce University in Wilberforce, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack recalls her admission to Wilberforce University

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack remembers the campus of Wilberforce University

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack describes the tensions between students at Wilberforce University in Wilberforce, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack remembers her mentors at Wilberforce University

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack recalls her social activities at Wilberforce University

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack remembers the reputation of Bishop Reverdy C. Ransom

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack remembers her graduation from Wilberforce University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack describes the split between Wilberforce University and Central State College

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack recalls obtaining a secretarial position at the Hampton Institute

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack remembers meeting her husband

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack remembers how she came to work for Project Matterhorn, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack remembers how she came to work for Project Matterhorn, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack remembers the physicists at Project Matterhorn

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack describes her responsibilities at Project Matterhorn

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack remembers the women at Project Matterhorn

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack recalls her decision to leave Project Matterhorn

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack reflects upon her experiences at Project Matterhorn

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack remembers her transition to teaching

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack remembers teaching business courses at Hamilton High School West in Hamilton Township, New Jersey

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack describes her graduate education

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack recalls earning a Ph.D. degree at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack remembers moving to Michigan

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack describes her experiences as the president of Highland Park Community College in Highland Park, Michigan

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack talks about her work with Shriners International

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack recalls joining The Girl Friends Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack remembers her leadership positions in The Girl Friends Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack describes the social activities hosted by The Girl Friends Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack reflects upon her life

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Chrystine Ramsey reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack talks about her family

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Chrystine Ramsey Shack narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

9$3

DATitle
Chrystine Ramsey Shack remembers how she came to work for Project Matterhorn, pt. 1
Chrystine Ramsey Shack recalls joining The Girl Friends Inc.
Transcript
So in 1948, you went to Bordentown manual training school [Manual Training and Industrial School for Colored Youth] in Bordentown, New Jersey--$$Um-hm.$$--where you were secretary to the superintendent.$$Yeah.$$Okay. And, now that's near Trenton [New Jersey], I suppose that's where--. Now did you like living in New Jersey?$$I liked--loved New Jersey, uh-huh, um-hm. I wanted to go back there when we retired, but he [Ramsey Shack's husband, Arthur Shack] wanted to come to Memphis [Tennessee], so that's how we ended up here. I loved Trenton. I really did.$$Well, that's unusual because he's from New Jersey and you're from Memphis, but you would rather have lived in New Jersey, and he wanted to live in Memphis. So what did he like so much about Memphis?$$I don't know. I have no idea (laughter). But he, he's the one who came here, and left me working in New Jersey. And I ultimately came here. Well, it wasn't ultimately, I guess within a, before a year was over, I was home.$$Okay. Now, 1950, you were secretary to--you got a job with Lyman Spitzer at Princeton University [Princeton, New Jersey].$$With who?$$Lyman Spitzer, right, Dr. Lyman Spitzer at Princeton?$$Yes, and he was the Project Matterhorn director, the atomic energy research program [Project Matterhorn; Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory].$$Now how did you get this job? How did--I mean, how did you hear about that?$$I don't know. I guess I was the best thing coming down the pike (laughter) at that time. I was a good secretary, a damn good secretary. And I had to get top secret clearance to work on the job. And they had interviewed two or three other people, but they didn't pass the clearance procedure, and I did. And I guess, that's how, that's how I got it.$$You know, we know when we look back at that era that there was a lot of really, just ridiculous racial prejudice--$$Um-hm.$$--in the United States. And there's still some now. But, so I guess the question becomes even more so, how did, you know, how did you overcome that or--did--was it an issue raised by Dr. Spitzer or anybody else at the time?$$No, I never ran into a single ounce of prejudice at Princeton, not a one, not a one. When I went for the interview, I had no problem whatsoever until it came time for me to move into the Project Matterhorn office, and I hadn't gotten top secret clearance. And I couldn't work there without it. And I worked in another building completely from where Dr. Spitzer worked. And he would come over to--from Project Matterhorn to where I was and bring work to me there because I couldn't go into the building where they had the top secret, you know, investigations going on. But that didn't last long because they rushed through my clearance, you know. They, somehow they managed to get it going just like that. And I was cleared in a rather short time.$Tell me about The Girl Friends [The Girl Friends, Inc.]. How did you get involved? We don't know the date, but just tell me how you got involved with The Girl Friends?$$Yeah, I remember I was packing up maybe to leave--where was I? In Memphis [Tennessee]? No, I don't think I was in Memphis. I was moving to the Detroit [Michigan] area. I can tell you that. I don't know where I was moving from. And--$$From New Jersey, I guess, right?$$Uh-huh. And I had just gone into The Girl Friends in New Jersey. That's how. So when I moved, I affiliated with the Detroit group right away.$$Okay, so that's 1974 then.$$Um-hm.$$Yeah, that's when you moved to Lansing [Michigan]. So, okay. So you moved to Lansing and there was a chapter in Lansing?$$No, not Lansing. I moved to--when I moved to Detroit--$$Um-hm.$$--that's when I (unclear).$$Okay, and well, tell me, what are The Girl Friends about? What do they do?$$(Laughter) First of all, they're about fun, friendship. They do civic projects nationally, and I guess that's what they're about. They don't--they're not like The Links [The Links, Incorporated] at all where they're constantly asking for money. You pay dues in it, but whatever projects they have, the money, the financing of the projects must come from the dues that you pay. It's not an extra assessment like The Links, and they're not like The Links where they're constantly asking you for money, you know. Each chapter establishes its own national programs. They follow a pattern, it's true, but it's not a demand like The Links where you must put--participate in this paying. You must pay this or pay that. It's not that at all. It's really more of a fun group than it is--they do have projects, national projects, and they make wonderful contributions to, you know, community affairs. But they don't demand money like the other group does at all.$$Okay. So what kind of projects do--national projects do The Girl Friends work on or support?$$Scholarship programs with younger people coming along, I'm trying to think. Most of it is educational. They also have a, The Girl Friends have a Girl Friends Fund [The Girl Friends Fund, Inc.] where every chapter must make contributions to this fund, and then they invest that money in community affairs. I can't, I can't think of the many things they've done, though they do a lot of good work. They really do.

Lula Ford

Illinois Commerce Commissioner Lula Mae Ford was born on March 11, 1944 to a family of nine in Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Ford’s father was a World War II veteran that worked most of his life in the Pine Bluff Arsenal, and her mother was a homemaker who also instilled in Ford, as a child, the importance of education. After attending Coleman High School in Pine Bluff, Ford went on to graduate from the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff in 1965. She then relocated to Chicago, Illinois where she pursued her M.A. degree in urban studies at Northeastern University and later earned her M.A. degree in science, career education and vocational guidance from the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana.

In 1965, Ford began her teaching career at Horner Elementary School. She served in that capacity until 1975 when she became a counselor for at-risk students. Then in 1976, Ford was hired as the mathematics coordinator at McCorkle Elementary School. She resigned from that position in 1979 to become a liaison for parents and the principal selection committee as the ESEA Reading Teacher and Coordinator. Later in 1984, while serving as a math teacher for John Hope Academy, Ford became the coordinator for the Effective Schools Campaign, organizing GED programs and the school’s black history programs. Ford went on to become the principal for Beethoven Elementary School and was awarded the principal of excellence award for her performance in 1992, 1993 and 1994. She also provided administrative leadership when she fulfilled the position of assistant superintendent of Chicago Public Schools in 1994. Afterwards, from 1995 until 1996, Ford served as the chief instruction officer, advising teachers and faculty on the best teaching practices.

Ford has received many awards and recognitions for her achievements in the field of education including: the Walter H. Dyett Middle School Women in History Award, the Kathy Osterman Award, the Distinguished Alumni Award from Arkansas, Pine Bluff and the Distinguished Alumni Award from Northeastern Illinois University. Ford was hired as the assistant director of central management services for the State of Illinois from 1999 until 2003. In 2003, Ford was appointed to the Illinois Commerce Commission and was reappointed to the same office in 2008.

Ford is an active member of many civic organizations including Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc., the Lakeshore Chapter (IL) of The Links, Incorporated, and the board of the Trinity Higher Education Corporation.

Ford lives in Illinois and is the proud mother of one adult daughter, Charisse Ford.

Ford was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 21, 2008.

Accession Number

A2008.022

Sex

Female

Interview Date

2/21/2008

Last Name

Ford

Schools

Coleman High School

Coleman Elementary School

New Town School

University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff

Jacob H. Carruthers Center for Inner City Studies

University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign

First Name

Lula

Birth City, State, Country

Pine Bluff

HM ID

FOR11

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

Arkansas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Pine Bluff, Arkansas

Favorite Quote

Help Me, Jesus.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

3/11/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Shrimp

Short Description

Education executive, state government appointee, and elementary school principal Lula Ford (1944 - ) held teaching, administrative and counseling positions at several of the Chicago Public Schools before becoming the district's assistant superintendent. She also served on the Illinois Commerce Commission.

Employment

Henry Horner School

Helen J. McCorkle School

John Hope Community Academy

Ludwig Van Beethoven Elementary School

Chicago Public Schools

Illinois Department of Central Management Services

Illinois Commerce Commission

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:4575,77:11700,232:19114,318:20588,358:28427,534:44734,756:46456,774:59308,950:59698,956:64144,1044:65938,1077:74839,1238:78993,1342:88480,1424:89160,1438:96615,1677:99188,1764:99644,1771:100252,1781:116010,1932:120400,2046$0,0:3610,20:4370,33:12578,208:13110,216:14630,266:15162,274:17214,359:29654,551:36623,719:38831,779:39521,787:48400,865:50575,902:51550,926:68202,1144:68586,1151:69994,1186:71594,1229:72106,1242:73066,1272:73386,1278:78680,1330:79618,1353:84628,1415:95238,1693:97086,1777:99858,1849:101244,1881:101904,1902:102300,1909:102564,1942:104214,1967:104610,1978:105534,2004:111792,2071:113808,2103:115824,2151:117420,2187:118428,2203:118848,2212:127254,2316:133622,2398:136943,2487:142300,2579:144736,2617:149758,2694:153858,2742:155055,2773:166374,2937:175895,3034:181220,3108:182195,3125:182720,3133:183095,3139:196898,3280:218855,3662:225755,3797:227890,3887:236947,3992:242000,4050:244457,4132:252778,4267:254940,4293
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Lula Ford's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Lula Ford lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Lula Ford describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Lula Ford talks about her mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Lula Ford describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Lula Ford talks about her father's experiences in the U.S. Army

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Lula Ford describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Lula Ford recalls her neighborhood in Pine Bluff, Arkansas

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Lula Ford remembers her early religious experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Lula Ford describes her elementary school experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Lula Ford recalls her extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Lula Ford remembers the civil rights activities in Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Lula Ford recalls the discipline of Principal C.P. Coleman

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Lula Ford remembers the African American community in Pine Bluff, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Lula Ford remembers the Arkansas Agricultural, Mechanical and Normal College in Pine Bluff, Arkansas

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Lula Ford talks about her interests at the Arkansas Agricultural, Mechanical and Normal College

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Lula Ford recalls her civil rights activities in Pine Bluff, Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Lula Ford describes the black business district in Pine Bluff, Arkansas

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Lula Ford remembers moving to Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Lula Ford describes the start of her teaching career

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Lula Ford recalls her first impressions of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Lula Ford remembers the influential figures in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Lula Ford recalls teaching at the John Hope Academy in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Lula Ford talks about the desegregation of the Chicago Public Schools

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Lula Ford describes her graduate studies

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Lula Ford recalls her transition to educational administrative positions

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Lula Ford talks about Harold Washington's mayoral campaign

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Lula Ford describes her work at the Ludwig Van Beethoven Elementary School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Lula Ford recalls her accomplishments as the principal of Ludwig Van Beethoven Elementary School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Lula Ford describes her administrative roles in the Chicago Public Schools

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Lula Ford talks about the underperformance of the Chicago Public Schools

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Lula Ford describes her assistant directorship of the Illinois Department of Central Management Services

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Lula Ford talks about her experiences as an Illinois Commerce Commissioner

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Lula Ford describes her organizational memberships

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Lula Ford talks about the Citizens Utility Board and Illinois Governor Rod Blagojevich

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Lula Ford describes her social and political volunteer work

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Lula Ford describes her hopes for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Lula Ford reflects upon her life and legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Lula Ford describes her family and how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Lula Ford narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

1$3

DATitle
Lula Ford describes the black business district in Pine Bluff, Arkansas
Lula Ford recalls her accomplishments as the principal of Ludwig Van Beethoven Elementary School in Chicago, Illinois
Transcript
Okay, now before we leave Pine Bluff [Arkansas], tell us something about 3rd Street [sic. Avenue]? Third Street was a, I would call a, the black metropolis of downtown Main Street. You had all kinds of black businesses, the beauty colleges were there. Wiley Branton taxis [Branton's 98, Pine Bluff, Arkansas], their family owned the taxicab, black taxicab company.$$Wiley Branton [Wiley A. Branton, Sr.]?$$His family the Brantons owned the taxi cab company. Then there was a hotel there, exclusively for blacks. And everybody who would leave out of, if you wanted to go eat, where you could sit you would go to 3rd Street. You could find everything barber shops, beauty shops, every. And, and certainly juke joints, all that would be on 3rd Street. Downtown was Main Street, you know, where you have the stores, Kresge [S.S. Kresge Company] and Woolworths [F.W. Woolworth Company] all those kinds of things would be on the Main Street. And I think that was probably 5th [Avenue] or 6th Avenue but 3rd Street was where most blacks would come up from the rural areas and would be able to get food and just have a good time.$$Okay, so a lot of pe- people from the smaller towns would come, come into (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Small towns came to Pine Bluff.$$Would they come in on the weekends and something?$$They'd come in on a Saturday.$$Okay. Was there a lot of live music in those days?$$Yeah, you, I met, when I was in college [Arkansas Agricultural, Mechanical and Normal College; University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, Pine Bluff, Arkansas], that's the first time I saw Ike and Tina Turner Revue and Bobby Bland. We had what was known as the Rec- Townsend Recreational Center [sic. Townsend Park Recreation Center, Pine Bluff, Arkansas]. And that's where you would have the live acts. Bobby "Blue" Bland's band would come in. As I said Ike and Tina Turner Revue, that's where I first saw them.$$Okay, was it unusual for, for the big named acts to come through?$$No, not for Pine Bluff (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Okay.$After I, I, I added bicycles for perfect attendance all year, I got a--bought I don't know how many bicycles my first year. And iss- gave them out for perfect attendance. So, it improved my attendance but, because when, if you have five children in the family and monitor them and I say why is this child absent, they say, "He has chickenpox." I knew then that if he, he has five brothers and sisters next week they are gonna be out. So, I, then I told the board [Chicago Board of Education] I said, "You all got to give me a waiver, so I can get some perfect attendance here, because my children, there's an epic- chickenpox epidemic. Any time you have this close of quarters and you have this many children in a family you're gonna have that." So, I've had indicators of success always my first year. But, then I could see my children going out of a lower quarter, quartile. But, when I look back and saw that these children are getting ready to go to gym and taking out time away from task onto me. I must I need to, the second year I said I need to extend my school day. So, I brought my teachers in and I said, "I can pay you an hourly rate but I need you one hour after school. How many people," only wanted the names of the people who cannot stay. Only three people could not stay. That's because they were in school. I extended my school day from--to 3:30. And they could only teach reading, extend my reading. And that's when my scores began to improve. And that's the model that Paul Vallas took when he took over the Chicago Public Schools. He took the model that I had created at Beethoven [Ludwig Van Beethoven Elementary School, Chicago, Illinois] and that was extended day reading (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Really okay?$$If you know your children are not getting enough time on task and I know that my parents were not going to be able to do some of the kinds of things that I needed them to do, then I needed my children there longer. I also, brought another gym teacher. And then Compton [HistoryMaker James W. Compton] was the president of the school at that time and I did get the gym. That was one of my goals. The gym did come the year I left. And they named it after me the Ford Arena [ph.]. It was built but I was--$$Where, where is it?$$It's at the, it's in the school.$$At Beethoven?$$Beethoven yeah.$$Okay.$$Built it on the front side of the school.$$They call it the Ford Arena?$$Uh-huh.$$Okay.$$Oprah [Oprah Winfrey] adopted the school, when I was there. I did a grant with Stedman [Stedman Graham], I have a picture of that one over there. She adopted the school. And she would take my top reading scorers from kindergarten through eight out for lunch. She had, she did that two years and then she visited the school. So, we had a lot of support.$$Was it easy to get a hold of Oprah?$$I, I met her through Edmund, I mean Stedman.$$Okay.$$Uh-huh.$$Okay.$$But, you know, how that was, we did a grant together and then she got a lot, he got a lot of play out of that. And then she, the children went crazy, she would send limousines for them, of course they were excited about that. But, it was an interesting time to be in schools. But, I think I gained most of my weight being a principal. 'Cause you would be so tired at the evenings that you would go home and Gladys [Gladys Luncheonette, Chicago, Illinois] was in the area so I would get a dinner go home and go to bed. My daughter [Charisse Ford] was away in college and I had no husband at the time, so. But, it was very rewarding.$$Okay. Now, so you won, you won three awards during that period of time, you said. And Paul Vallas took your model. I mean did he ever officially acknowledge that was the model, he got?$$Yeah.$$Okay, all right.$$And the mayor came to our school.$$Okay.$$President Clinton [President William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton] visited my school in 1994.$$Okay.$$Mrs. Edgar [Brenda Edgar], Jim Edgar's wife came out and read to my kindergarten children. I have pictures of that also over there. But, because and, and six legislators from the state came to see how I was spending my state Chapter I [Elementary and Secondary Education Act Chapter I] money. And that was the way I was spending it to make sure that my children got time on task.

Frances Graves Carroll

Frances G. Carroll was born on May 8, 1932, in Chicago, Illinois. She attended Raymond Elementary and Forestville Elementary, and graduated from DuSable High School in Chicago before earning her B.A. degree in early childhood education from Roosevelt University. Carroll completed her Master of Education degree in special education from Chicago State University and received her PhD in education from The University of Sarasota in Sarasota, Florida.

Carroll has spent much of her adult life teaching in the Chicago education system and training future teachers and principals. From 1954 to 1999, she taught the Professional Advancement Courses for the Chicago Public Schools. Carroll has taught at the City Colleges of Chicago, Governor’s State University, Chicago State University and Roosevelt University. In the early 1970s, she worked at DePaul University with the Model Cities Program while serving as the Director of the Inter-Institutional Teacher Training Program for Early Childhood Education. In this capacity, Carroll trained instructors from eleven universities in childhood education. She has worked as an elementary school counselor and in the public school system’s mental health programs. From 1979 to 1984, Carroll served as Coordinator of the school system’s Evaluation and Diagnostic Unit. From 1984 to 1992, she was the Director of Staff Development for Special Education Teachers. In this position, Carroll trained parents to advocate for their special needs children. She was the parent coordinator of Cook County Juvenile Detention Center from 1992 to 1995, where she created a interactive parent program and lobbied successfully to change the school’s name to Nancy Jefferson Alternative School (named for a local social advocate) because the name of the school hurt students’ opportunities when they attempted to transition into gainful employment.

In 1999, Carroll became the president of the Carroll Family Foundation, a scholarship foundation for students with special needs. Carroll started the foundation with her own money and serves as the board director. That same year, she joined the SAS program at DePaul University where she mentored principals in effective instructional practices and administrative leadership. In 2000, she became the vice-president of Group 17 Education Consultants, Inc., and in 2003, Carroll was appointed to the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. As a newly appointed trustee, Carroll re-stimulated the debate over the use of Chief Illiniwek as the University of Illinois mascot. Due to Carroll’s patient effort, the University of Illinois board officially retired the image of Chief Illiniwek in March 2007.

Carroll married Floyd Carroll on April 22, 1956, in Chicago at Progressive Baptist Church. They have two adult children, Floyd, Jr., and Francesca, and are members of the Greater Bethesda Baptist Church.

Accession Number

A2008.019

Sex

Female

Interview Date

2/19/2008 |and| 7/10/2008

Last Name

Carroll

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widow

Middle Name

Graves

Schools

Du Sable Leadership Academy

Benjamin W. Raymond Elementary School

Forrestville Elementary School

Roosevelt University

Chicago State University

Argosy University

First Name

Frances

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

CAR16

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cancun, Mexico

Favorite Quote

To God Be The Glory.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

5/8/1932

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Education executive and education instructor Frances Graves Carroll (1932 - ) was a leader in the field of special education in Chicago, Illinois from 1954 to 1999. She also served on the Board of Trustees for the University of Illinois and as a chapter president of the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority.

Employment

Frances E. Willard School

Andrew Canegie School

Andrew Carnegie School

Chicago Public Schools

Urban Teachers Corps

Consortium of Colleges and Universities

Kennedy-King College

Governors State University

Roosevelt University

Cook County commission on women's issues

Nancy B. Jefferson Alternative School

Favorite Color

Green, Pink

Timing Pairs
0,0:45572,759:81902,1202:97475,1422:100250,1488:111895,1661:112504,1669:114505,1696:144735,2057:145110,2063:146610,2099:147210,2108:147585,2114:158400,2227:172090,2393:172636,2401:174365,2425:175184,2434:175639,2440:189818,2623:197544,2717:199266,2744:200250,2758:201480,2809:211692,2991:280369,3849:326310,4516$0,0:8160,236:14628,304:19332,375:20004,384:27480,508:28404,523:31260,559:43883,746:44248,753:46438,794:49285,838:66962,1084:77087,1262:77411,1267:77735,1272:78221,1280:78788,1292:79112,1297:109650,1606:116748,1845:117060,1850:126821,1965:134825,2126:144100,2218:144660,2227:145300,2241:145940,2252:146260,2257:161244,2532:161572,2537:161900,2542:175164,2690:175554,2696:180156,2813:180858,2856:183510,2898:183822,2903:190710,3002
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Frances Graves Carroll's interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Frances Graves Carroll lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her father's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her father's occupations

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Frances Graves Carroll describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers her father's taste in clothes

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers living in Alabama

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her childhood home

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers her classmate, Quincy Jones

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls her friendship with Marion Lett Beach

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls attending Forrestville Elementary School

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls her early interest in music

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Frances Graves Carroll describes the Progressive Baptist Church in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers Walter Dyett

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls her early aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers the marching band at DuSable High School

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers the Bronzeville neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her experiences with black hair stylists in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls the businesses in Chicago's Bronzeville neighborhood

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her likeness to her twin sister

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Frances Graves Carroll talks about her transition to college

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Frances Graves Carroll talks about African American politics in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls her teachers at DuSable High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Frances Graves Carroll describes the history of Chicago's DuSable High School

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers attending the Chicago Teachers College

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls transferring to Roosevelt College in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls her sister's political activities at Roosevelt College

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls her cultural experiences at Roosevelt College

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers her classmates at Roosevelt College

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers her teacher certification exam

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls the start of her teaching career

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers the influence of Frances Horwich

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Frances Graves Carroll describes the rules and activities in her first grade classroom

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls earning a master's degree in special education

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls moving to the Woodlawn neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Frances Graves Carroll describes the early guidelines for special education

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers the overcrowding in the Chicago Public Schools

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her home in Chicago's Woodlawn neighborhood

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls the overcrowding at the Andres Carnegie School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her approach to special education

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Frances Graves Carroll talks about her success as a special education teacher

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Frances Graves Carroll argues against the use of medication to control students' behavior

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls her support for mental healthcare in the Chicago Public Schools

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls working with the Consortium of Colleges and Universities

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls training special education teachers

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls serving as the diagnostic coordinator for the Chicago Board of Education

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls earning a doctoral degree in special education

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her doctoral dissertation

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls serving as a special education director for the Chicago Public Schools

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers serving on the Cook County Commission on Women's Issues

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her work on the Youth Guidance board

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls serving as principal of the Nancy B. Jefferson Alternative School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers Nancy Jefferson

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls the renaming of the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center's school

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers working with parents at the Cook County Juvenile Detention Center

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls the heat wave of 1995 in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her tenure at the Nancy B. Jefferson Alternative School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Frances Graves Carroll talks about the Carroll Family Foundation

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her education consulting firm

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls the campaign for a new mascot at the University of Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Frances Graves Carroll explains the perceptions of the Chief Illiniwek mascot

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls her proposal to remove the University of Illinois' racist mascot

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers the removal of the Chief Illiniwek mascot

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Frances Graves Carroll describes the aftermath of Chief Illiniwek's removal

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Frances Graves Carroll talks about the history of the Native American community

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Frances Graves Carroll reflects upon her life

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Frances Graves Carroll reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her family

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Frances Graves Carroll talks about her activities at the Greater Bethesda Missionary Baptist Church in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her involvement in the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Frances Graves Carroll describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Slating of Frances Graves Carroll's interview, session 2

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her civic activities with the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Frances Graves Carroll describes the breakfast program at the Greater Bethesda Missionary Baptist Church in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Frances Graves Carroll describes the Youth Guidance agency

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her professional memberships and honors

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her leadership of the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Frances Graves Carroll remembers the activities at the Progressive Baptist Church in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls her early role models, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Frances Graves Carroll recalls her early role models, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 10 - Frances Graves Carroll talks about the importance of volunteerism

Tape: 8 Story: 11 - Frances Graves Carroll talks about the removal of the Chief Illiniwek mascot

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her motivations to retire Chief Illiniwek

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Frances Graves Carroll describes her tactics for retiring Chief Illiniwek

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Frances Graves Carroll talks about the changes in the field of special education

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Frances Graves Carroll describes the state of special education programs

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Frances Graves Carroll talks about her family's influence

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

7$1

DATitle
Frances Graves Carroll recalls transferring to Roosevelt College in Chicago, Illinois
Frances Graves Carroll talks about her success as a special education teacher
Transcript
Mom [Grace Winstead Graves] said, "Well, why don't you try Roosevelt [Roosevelt College; Roosevelt University, Chicago, Illinois]?" At that time we were a little bit more able, and tuition was thirteen dollars a semester hour. So, they had a break. We had a winter break, and we took the letter--we never threw away anything. We took the letter down to Roosevelt, and they admitted me the same day. I took my grades, and so if we didn't get admitted we could go right on back to Teachers College [Chicago Teachers College; Chicago State University, Chicago, Illinois] (laughter) in February or whenever school started. And so Roosevelt started earlier, and so we got registered to make sure it was a real registration, and started at Roosevelt. And my life was different from that day on.$$So this about 1950?$$Nineteen fifty-two [1952].$$Two [1952]. Okay, okay.$$And life, it was a whole different world of freedom--the liberalism, the acceptance. And they had Lorenzo Turner [Lorenzo Dow Turner]. I don't know if you ever heard of Dr. Lorenzo Turner. And he brought African students into Roosevelt from Nigeria. Every year he would to Ghana or Nigeria and bring students back. And to my knowledge, that was the first university--I know we didn't have him at Chicago Teachers College. And he lived at 39th [Street] and Ellis [Avenue] in a big old house. And he would invite his classes over to meet and to discuss with the African students. And we would take them to our church [Progressive Baptist Church, Chicago, Illinois], and the music was so--after studying the African culture--studying it--you could not tell the difference between the African music and the music at the Baptist church. And so it was very, very interesting. And then my mom would invite them to dinner, and we would have African and Asian students.$$Now, can, do you remember the names of some of the students that--$$Well, Atunde Adakawa [ph.], I remember that name; Atunde I can remember. And there was a Joe Williams [ph.], but he was from Liberia. So, they spoke English, you know. Now, all of the students spoke English because they had to speak English to come here. But there was maybe five or six. Some we stayed closer friends with. Atunde was really, in fact he--when I got married he was, he was at the wedding. I stayed with him and met his wife. He's dead now. Because he went back to Africa. But there were many, at least twenty that we interacted with. And then Dr. Turner died. When Dr. Turner died, in maybe the '80s [1980s], we kind of lost that relationship. But by that time, the world was going international. We moved to 60th [Street] and Blackstone [Avenue], across the street from the International House at the University of Chicago [Chicago, Illinois]. And so then we would have African Americans, Africans, Asians, and Indians for Thanksgiving dinner and Christmas dinner. Remember, I said my mom was a good cook.$$Okay. So, when you say you moved, was that you and your sister [Grace Graves Dawson], or--$$Me and my sister and my mother.$$And your mother, okay.$$We bought our mother a house when we graduated from college at twenty-one. We bought her a house at 60th and Blackstone.$$Okay. So you maintained these--now this is interesting in this time period, and important too, that Dr. Turner was trying to, you know, bring together the--$$Right.$$--African students and the black students.$$He, he did. And, you know, of course we didn't understand the significance of it. It was just that you loved your professor. St. Clair Drake was there. And Turner, and Rice [ph.], he's still there. He may have just retired now, but he was an historian at Roosevelt. And the president of Roosevelt, Sparling [Edward Sparling], was exceptional, and he would come and talk to the students. Now, presidents do that now. But to have the president--we never saw the president at Chicago Teachers College. But Dr. Sparling would come into the cafeteria, which was on the first floor of Roosevelt and talk to us. He would come up to the lounge and ask how you're doing. And so, as a result of that kind of interest and relationship, the first society that was formed within the alumni was the Sparling society, and you had to pay a hundred dollars, which was a lot of money in '54 [1954] to belong to the Sparling society. We're charter members of the Sparling society. Our names are now on, have been all the time, in the student lounge on the wall for the Sparling society.$So--$$We've talked about several different things at the same time.$$Yes.$$Do you want to go back to special ed [special education]?$$Yeah, we--yeah (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) I just had one more point about special ed.$$Okay.$$Is that in--what was it--late in '69 [1969] or the '70s [1970s], I was able to--after going into special ed, naturally when you just get your master's degree in a subject and you get a chance to really teach it, it's exciting. So I guess I was very excited about what I was doing, and the challenges were to see if you could overcome them. And having been at Carnegie [Andrew Carnegie Elementary School, Chicago, Illinois] for--just when it was starting up--what I call startup school--I had many friends. So, what I would do to--if you got, if you did your work real well, the first thing then was to teach work habits. Because in the classroom, most of the kids who got identified was because they didn't do the work. So, you had a routine. Everybody had a job, but you had a routine where you had to be finished by a certain length of time. That gave me the time to get my paperwork done, pages, attendance, et cetera, and then we would move into instruction. And, but, when--if they were able--and I had big boys--if they were able to read at the same level groups--so you read--if you didn't know the words and you didn't know how to read because you had fooled around or whatever--they'd learn how to read. So, I taught the phonics method. But once they learned how to read, then they had to read at their grade level. And so then I got my friends to take them into their classes, so they got to sit in the classes with the regular level. And Carnegie went up to the sixth grade, so I would put them mostly in the fifth and sixth grade because they were big boys. And the male teachers--I had male teachers in the fifth and sixth grade, and they loved my kids because they were so well behaved and they would pay attention. So they would go to their regular grades, and then at the end of the year I got the principals to let me transfer them to their regular grades. So, that was--the parents started asking that their children be in my special ed classroom. So that was like, I guess that was a real reward for me. And the kids really loved--and I took them everywhere. We went on long trips. We went to Galena [Illinois], we went to the museum, we went on train rides, and whatever I heard of. I went skiing, and I would tell the kids about all the activities. And so, they were motivated. They got to go if they participated and did their work, and I could get the principal to let me take them everywhere. Parents would go along with them to Springfield [Illinois]. We went everywhere, so that was unheard of for special ed kids to go. And the people never knew they were special ed. I never told them they were special ed, and they would compliment them on their behavior. You know, you better not say a word, you know (laughter).

William Smith

Senior education executive William L. Smith spent his professional career working to improve inner-city education. Born in Boston, Massachusetts, on January 3, 1929, Smith developed a strong sense of sacrifice and community growing up during the Great Depression.

After completing high school, Smith received a presidential scholarship to Wiley College where he finished a year early, graduating with honors in January, 1949. He then won a scholarship to Boston University to continue his studies, but his plans were interrupted in the fall of 1950 when he enlisted in the U.S. Army at the outbreak of the Korean War. Smith helped integrate General Douglas MacArthur’s famed honor guard and received a Bronze Star and a Purple Heart for his battlefield service. When he returned to the United States, Smith resumed his studies, earning his M.Ed. degree in 1955. Smith then was hired as a teacher and administrator in Cleveland’s public schools, where he worked until 1968.

Smith continued his studies at Case Western Reserve University and just before receiving his PhD degree in education, he was asked in 1970 to join the U.S. Department of Education. He moved to Washington, D.C., and began a long and meritorious career with the Department of Education. There, Smith oversaw teacher training, educational development and vocational education. Starting in 1995, Smith worked as a senior advisor within the Department of Education.

Smith’s writings on teacher education, administration and educational multiculturalism have appeared in some fifty publications. He represented the Department of Education abroad at several international conferences on education.

Smith passed away on February 29, 2008 at the age of 79. He was married to Audrey Morton Smith and had two adult children with his first wife, Mable.

Accession Number

A2003.243

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/9/2003

Last Name

Smith

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

L.

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Josiah Quincy

Boston Technical High School

Abraham Lincoln Junior High School

Claflin University

Wiley College

Case Western Reserve University

First Name

William

Birth City, State, Country

Boston

HM ID

SMI07

Favorite Season

Spring, Summer

State

Massachusetts

Favorite Vacation Destination

New England

Favorite Quote

You're Never Too Small To Give And Never Too Big To Receive.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

1/3/1929

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Steak

Death Date

2/29/2008

Short Description

Education executive William Smith (1929 - 2008 ) was a senior advisor in the U.S. Department of Education who oversaw teacher training programs.

Employment

Cleveland Public Schools

United States Department of Education

Favorite Color

Blue, Red

Timing Pairs
1141,0:1676,6:9571,125:16652,240:18988,291:31952,420:32392,426:33008,434:36388,452:38286,492:51654,660:55530,716:72970,906:93563,1134:95860,1142:114430,1353:125055,1429:138474,1636:139937,1652:141340,1666$0,0:2074,30:2668,42:22780,431:23446,443:29085,462:29570,468:41364,637:58830,901:60762,929:65772,962:67618,985:67973,991:70600,1045:76286,1124:77762,1151:85928,1239:86444,1246:95265,1362:95720,1370:105966,1620:119110,1770:131880,1921:132152,1926:132968,1941:135416,2002:136028,2013:136640,2024:153810,2302:157738,2329:158148,2335:163060,2368:163951,2380:168480,2398:170380,2430:176804,2478:177724,2489:178920,2511:183990,2559:185082,2579:188580,2603:189156,2614:189604,2623:192804,2708:201540,2814:204396,2875:205008,2888:206300,2920:207048,2934:207388,2940:210300,2945:211152,2960:223450,3166
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of William Smith's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - William Smith lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - William Smith shares his limited knowledge of his maternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - William Smith describes his mother, Mary Allen Smith

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - William Smith talks about his older sister

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - William Smith talks about his attitude towards corporal punishment

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - William Smith talks about his father, Willie Lee Davis, and his father's friendship with American historian Samuel Eliot Morison

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - William Smith talks about his paternal family history and his family's living situation in Boston, Massachusetts during his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - William Smith talks about the first time he realized he was black, and gender segregation in Boston Public Schools

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - William Smith talks about moving into the Charles Hayden Goodwill Inn for Boys after his mother's death and the influence of Dr. Emil Hartl

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - William Smith talks about his relationship with his father, Willie Lee Davis

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - William Smith talks about influential figures in his life and obtaining a scholarship to Claflin College in Orangeburg, South Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - William Smith describes joining the marching band after transferring to Wiley College in Marshall, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - William Smith describes working to retain his scholarship at Wiley College in Marshall, Texas under a new college president, Dr. Julius S. Scott, Sr.

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - William Smith talks about enlisting in the U.S. Army and how his life ran in parallel with Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. although the two never met

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - William Smith talks about his unit's integration of the 1st Calvary Division

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - William Smith talks about fighting in the Korean War as part of the 1st Calvary Division and his promotion to Master Sergeant in the U.S. Army

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - William Smith begins to describe how his time in U.S. Army Intelligence inspired him to become a teacher

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - William Smith talks about how he began to teach

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - William Smith describes the beginning of his teaching career after leaving the U.S. Army

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - William Smith describes how his military service influenced his comportment as a teacher

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - William Smith describes becoming a doctoral student at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - William Smith describes his experience at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - William Smith talks about his marriages

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - William Smith remembers Richard Derr, an influential professor at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - William Smith talks about being appointed principal of Patrick Henry Junior High School in Cleveland, Ohio in 1965

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - William Smith talks about the start of the teacher in-service education system at Patrick Henry Junior High School in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - William Smith talks about his career in the U.S. Department of Education

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - William Smith talks about influential minds in the field of education

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - William Smith describes his philosophy of education

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - William Smith reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - William Smith describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - William Smith talks about the challenge of passing on certain values to his children and grandchildren

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - William Smith describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - William Smith narrates his photographs

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William Smith talks about his unit's integration of the 1st Calvary Division
William Smith talks about how he began to teach
Transcript
Since then, I went into service, and my buddy who went in with me went to graduate--went to Officer's Candidate School [OCS] because he was in a different company than I, and he had his interview months before I did. And by the time I was ready for my interview for the Officer's Candidate School, the Chinese had crossed the Yalu River and all of us went immediately--I was in a unit that, for the first time, was all black college graduates. A six weeks training program. And we had all college graduates with the exception of two guys, both from New York. One was a seventeen-year-old kid and the other was a druggie, as a matter of fact. But it was a group of young men who have stayed together in terms of relationships all these years since the Korean War. One of the guys was from Toledo [Ohio], his name from Bob Franklin. He was a lawyer, became a judge in Toledo. Another was a guy named Harold Dixon who became a doctor in Philadelphia Pennsylvania]. It was a special group of guys in that--(simultaneous)$$Now this 1950?$$Yeah, 1950.$$Okay.$$And it was prior to Harry Truman desegregating the United States Armed Forces, which was another story. When I went to Korea, Truman had said there will be no all-black, all-white outfits. And I went to the 1st Calvary and most of the boys from the 1st Cav that--it was a MacArthur group that had come from Japan to the Korean War. And a young man from Tennessee said to me, "You're in the wrong place." And I said, "Why is that?" And he said, "We don't have coloreds here." And I said, "You do now." And I integrated the 1st Calvary Division. I did with six other black guys, all college grads.$And one snowy day, the--it--I mean it was snowing up a dirty [ph.]. And all of the officers lived off camp--off post. The non-coms [non-commissioned officers] lived on post, and so when I reported in that morning, the Lieutenant Colonel, Steven P. Hewitt [ph.], I'll never forget him. He had been a writer for the New York Times. And he said to me, "We got a problem." And I said, "What is it?" And he said, Captain so-and-so will not be able to get to the class today, he's snowbound; therefore, we've got 200 recruits that will be in theatre number so-and-so at 9:00 and we've got 200 that will be in theatre number such-and-such that will be in at 10:30. He said, "Those are your two classes for the day. Take the driver and have the driver flip the charts." So as we were driving, the driver and I work out a system whereby he's comfortable at the way he is to turn the charts so either I slap or I had to cricket or something. So we go through the class, and now for the first time I'm teaching it and I know when they're going to sleep. And so I stopped right in the middle of it and I said, "You know, this reminds me." And I tell a joke, and they laugh and everybody is wide awake and I continue. And when I get to the second spot, I tell another joke. The first one, as an example: little boy is in the backyard where his parents have been raising chickens and he'd been taking the manure, and he'd been piling it together. And his father, who was an officer, turned to him and said, "What are you doing son?" And he said, "I'm making a soldier, Daddy." He said, "You are?" He said, "Yes." He said, "Is he an officer?" He said, "No, Daddy. I don't have that much chicken stuff." Well, we didn't use stuff in those days, but it depicted the recruits' image of the officers. And so when I got to the next one, I told another kind of quick joke, and we finished the class and the driver and I were driving to the next class. Now the thing about the theatre is that all the lights are focused on stage, and you can't see out there, but I could because I was on the side and I could look down and see all of the 200 sitting in the first rows. So we do the second one and I'd go back and he would apologize that I had to teach the class and I told him no big thing, I rather enjoyed it. So about four weeks later he receives a citation for outstanding teaching. And he looks at when it was and it was that snowy day and unbeknownst to any of us the Commanding General for the whole area had been visiting our posts and was in the back of the theatre with his staff. And it turned out that not only was he in that theatre, he ended up going to the other theatre to see the other class. And out of it he decided, that's gotta be the best teaching I've seen. Now they're in a dilemma, they have all these officers who are teaching who have never received any citation, and now they have the citation that makes them excellent, and it's done by a non-com. So he said to me, "Well, I'm not sure what we're gonna do, but what we'll do is this, we'll make you a master sergeant, and we'll give you a class. And that's how I began to teach.