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Howard Brown, Jr.

Financier and civil servant Howard Brown, Jr., was born in Eutaw, Alabama, on September 4, 1945, but at an early age he moved with his family to Atlanta. His mother, Bertha, was a teacher, and his father, Howard Brown, Sr., was a bulldozing contractor. After earning his early and high school education in Atlanta, he remained in town, attending Morehouse College and earning his B.A. in 1970. From there he went on to attend the University of Connecticut School of Law, graduating in 1973.

After finishing law school, Brown went to work for the Hartford Insurance Group, rising to associate counsel before he left in 1978. From 1978 to 1981, Brown served as the chief operations officer of O'Sullivan Fuel Oil, where he presided over the expansion of the business. Brown moved into the public sector in 1982, taking a position with the Connecticut Department of Banking, where he headed the legal staff, and by 1985 he was the banking commissioner. While in this role, he became chairman of the National Federal Legislation Committee of the Conference of State Bank Supervisors and was called upon to testify before various committees of the federal government. Brown returned to the private sector in 1992, as the vice president of public finance for Kidder, Peabody & Co. in New York. In 1995, Brown co-founded Greystone Community Reinvestment Associates and is currently the company's chairman and CEO. Greystone structures affordable housing mortgages that are backed by investment securities.

Brown is a founding member of the Connecticut Chapter of the National Association of Securities Professionals and has served on the board of directors of the University of Connecticut School of Law Foundation, the Metropolitan YMCA, the Mark Twain House and the Connecticut Advisory Board to BankBoston Development Company. He is listed in Who's Who in Government Service and has received the Achievement Award as Outstanding Role Model in the Hartford Community. Brown and his wife, Elizabeth, reside in Connecticut.

Accession Number

A2003.184

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/13/2003

Last Name

Brown

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

B.

Schools

University of Connecticut - Hartford

Morehouse College

Henry McNeal Turner High School

First Name

Howard

Birth City, State, Country

Eutaw

HM ID

BRO14

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts

Favorite Quote

What You See Is What You Get

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Interview Description
Birth Date

9/4/1945

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Investment chief executive Howard Brown, Jr. (1945 - ) is the cofounder, chairman and CEO of Greystone Community Reinvestment Associates and is the former deputy banking commissioner for the Connecticut Department of Banking.

Employment

Hartford Insurance Group

O'Sullivan Fuel Oil

Connecticut Department of Banking

Kidder, Peabody & Co.

Greystone Community Reinvestment Associates

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91399">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Howard Brown Jr.'s interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91400">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Howard Brown Jr. lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91401">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Howard Brown Jr. describes his mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91402">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Howard Brown Jr. describes his father's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91403">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Howard Brown Jr. describes Eutaw, Alabama, the town where he grew up</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91404">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Howard Brown Jr. describes his earliest childhood memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91405">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Howard Brown Jr. remembers the sights, smells, and sounds of his childhood in Eutaw, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91406">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Howard Brown Jr. talks about the street he grew up on and celebrating holidays with his family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91407">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Howard Brown Jr. describes his childhood personality and nickname</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91408">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Howard Brown Jr. talks about attending Eutaw Elementary School and the teachers who influenced him</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91409">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Howard Brown Jr. talks about being sent to live with relatives in Atlanta, Georgia for high school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91410">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Howard Brown Jr. reflects on how living in Atlanta, Georgia differed from Eutaw, Alabama and the effect on him</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91411">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Howard Brown Jr. describes his experience in Atlanta, Georgia during the early 1960s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91412">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Howard Brown Jr. talks about his experience attending Henry McNeal Turner High School in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91014">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Howard Brown Jr. remembers being in the band at Henry McNeal Turner High School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91015">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Howard Brown Jr. remembers recruiting parties for the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee [SNCC] in Atlanta, Georgia in 1960</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91016">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Howard Brown Jr. describes his role models growing up and the activities he was involved in at Henry McNeal Turner High School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91017">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Howard Brown Jr. talks about his decision to attend Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91018">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Howard Brown Jr. remembers Morehouse College's Dr. Benjamin E. Mays and Dr. Brailsford Reese Brazil</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91019">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Howard Brown Jr. talks about his experience attending Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91020">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Howard Brown Jr. recalls how he became a lawyer and his experience in the United States Air Force</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91021">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Howard Brown Jr. describes meeting his wife, Elizabeth Brown, and his decision to attend the University Of Connecticut School Of Law</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91022">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Howard Brown Jr. talks about moving to Hartford, Connecticut to attend the University of Connecticut School of Law</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91023">Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Howard Brown Jr. remembers the professors who influenced him at the University of Connecticut School of Law and his first job at The Hartford Insurance Group</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88540">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Howard Brown Jr. talks about working at The Hartford Insurance Group</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88541">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Howard Brown Jr. talks about being amongst the first wave of African Americans in corporate law</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88542">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Howard Brown Jr. describes his decision to leave The Hartford Insurance Group</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88543">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Howard Brown Jr. talks about his position as chief operations officer and counsel for O'Sullivan Fuel Oil, Inc., pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88544">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Howard Brown Jr. talks about his position as chief operations officer and counsel for O'Sullivan Fuel Oil, Inc., pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88545">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Howard Brown Jr. discusses the political powers in Hartford, Connecticut in the early 1980s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88546">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Howard Brown Jr. describes the relationship between Hartford, Connecticut and its surrounding suburbs as well as the racial make-up of the city</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88547">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Howard Brown Jr. describes how he became deputy banking commissioner of the Connecticut Department of Banking</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/88548">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Howard Brown Jr. talks about his job as deputy banking commissioner of the Connecticut Department of Banking</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90397">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Howard Brown Jr. describes changes in the banking industry in the late 1970s and early 1980s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90398">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Howard Brown Jr. talks about working as deputy banking commissioner for the Connecticut Department of Banking</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90399">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Howard Brown Jr. recounts how he became banking commissioner for the Connecticut Department of Banking</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90400">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Howard Brown Jr. talks about being the banking commissioner of the Connecticut Department of Banking</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90401">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Howard Brown Jr. describes issues surrounding interstate banking that arose when he was banking commissioner of the Connecticut Department of Banking</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90402">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Howard Brown Jr. talks about the founding of the Connecticut chapter of the National Association of Securities Dealers (NASD)</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90403">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Howard Brown Jr. describes his decision to leave the Connecticut Department of Banking and his time working for Kidder, Peabody & Co.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90404">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Howard Brown Jr. talks about the founding of the Greystone Group</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91413">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Howard Brown Jr. talks about the opportunities he sees within the minority mortgage market</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91414">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Howard Brown Jr. reflects upon what the banking industry can do for inner-city communities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91415">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Howard Brown Jr. talks about opportunities for banking within minority communities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91416">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Howard Brown Jr. reflects upon opportunities for young African Americans within the banking industry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91417">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Howard Brown Jr. talks about his future plans</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91418">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Howard Brown Jr. reflects upon his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/91419">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Howard Brown Jr. reflects upon how he would like to be remembered</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$5

DAStory

2$1

DATitle
Howard Brown Jr. reflects on how living in Atlanta, Georgia differed from Eutaw, Alabama and the effect on him
Howard Brown Jr. describes changes in the banking industry in the late 1970s and early 1980s
Transcript
Now what --what was that--was the Atlanta [Georgia] a change for you in many ways living there and how did it differ from Eutaw [Alabama]?$$Atlanta was a real eye opener for my sister [Dannette Lureatas Brown Daniels] and me in several respects. One was I was free to catch the bus and to go downtown by myself which was never allowed in Eutaw to go anywhere by yourself. We were exposed to the black colleges, black football games at [Alonzo] Herndon Stadium which is, which is right--which was right by Morris Brown College [Atlanta, Georgia]. The rivalry between the black high schools: [David T.] Howard [High School], [Booker T.] Washington High [School], [Henry McNeal] Turner [High School] and it was just, just an amazing thing to see the, the pride and--the-just, just the social life, just the hustle and bustle that black folks were doing and the properties that were being expanded at that point. There was Collier Heights where black folks were building their own homes, and not so much that they were moving into areas that whites were abandoning, they were building their own communities and I thought that was such a marvelous thing to see. It sort of reminded me of what my father had done with Brown Avenue [in Eutaw, Alabama].$$And, so a new world really opened up for you is what you are saying?$$Yes.$$And how did that affect you and--you know sort of the relationship to your environment around you?$$Well, it gave me the sense that I too could extend into this world and begin to carve out a way for myself. It wasn't so much that it was family and you were representing a Brown or whomever, but you were representing yourself and you had to rely on your own initiative in a very competitive--very competitive environment, and that's what Atlanta was.$[And isolated from banking.] Insurance had continued to be regulated by the states and not by the federal government --that has historic origins. So then here comes say 1980 or thereabouts. There's the Community Reinvestment Act passed in 1978 [sic, 1977]. The states after passage didn't have to, but after passage various states began enacting their own CRA [Community Reinvestment Act] legislation. Connecticut enacted its version. So, so you have this great impetus from the Federal government and now from the state governments to provide banking resources and sources of credit into areas where banks have their offices and of course we know where the banks' offices were located, they were located in downtown, but who lived downtown? Well, there are -- there were a few folks who lived in the high rises but mostly it was blue collar workers, it was the black folks; it was other ethnic groups who had very limited banking. So that's where the CRA came in, and getting back to the deregulation thing that was very big. You had financial services companies or financial holding companies wanting to get involved in insurance. Several of them wanted to do securities work. There were various legal schemes devised to allow bank holding companies to create security subsidiaries called "Subsection 20 Subsidiaries" which was expressly allowed by the Bank Holding Company Act. So there were a lot of unique mechanizations being proposed to tear down the barriers that separated banking, securities and insurance. So heading up legal you had to really be you know on top of your game to make sure you knew what you were approving and what you were getting involved in.$$Now were you -- this -- first of all, this is a time of a lot of change happening, you know and sort of creative approaches and where also -- isn't this the time of junk bonds or Mike Milken [Michael Robert Milken] and junk bonds or this is a little --?$$They are coming up and around about that time. The mid-1980s saw a lot of what I now refer to as "innovative and creative" investment opportunities. Course junk bonds now are the mainstay of the corporations that don't have investment grade debt. So inherently there was nothing really -- I shouldn't use absolutes, but I will say inherently junk bonds proved to be a very effective way of funding corporations that did not have investment grade ratings from the rating agencies. The problem with the Milken dilemma and those that followed it or were involved in it, is that there were also sprinkled amongst the junk bonds, there was some insider trading claims and other issues that questioned -- that brought into question securities law violations.

Dr. Doris Young-McCulley

Doris Jean Young-McCulley was born on April 5, 1947 in Eutaw, Alabama to Lucille and Willie Young. The oldest of six children, Young-McCulley has served the medical needs of Chicago residents for over 25 years.

Earning a bachelor's degree in biology from Gustavus Adulphus College in Saint Peter, Minnesota in 1969, Young-McCulley taught marine biology at Kennedy High School in Edina, Minnesota. Rejoining her family in Chicago, Illinois, Young-McCulley earned an M.B.A. in hospital administration from the University of Chicago in 1971. That year, she worked as a night administrator at the Chicago Foundling Home. She enrolled in Rush University's Medical College, completing the requirements for an M.D. in 1974. In 1979, she became an attending physician at Cook County Hospital and a senior attending physician at Provident Medical Center. The following year, she became an associate attending physician at South Shore Hospital and a consulting physician at Jackson Park Hospital. She served in all four of these positions simultaneously. In 1989, while still caring for patients at Jackson Park and South Shore Hospitals, she was hired as an attending physician at Northwestern Memorial Hospital. An associate attending physician at Michael Reese Hospital since 1993, she also serves as an attending physician at Little Company of Mary Hospital in Evergreen Park, Illinois.

Young-McCulley has taught medicine throughout her career. She began in the Infectious Disease Teaching Program at Cook County Hospital in 1974, and she taught for six years as a professor of medicine at Northwestern University Medical School. She volunteers at South Suburban Hospice in Flossmoor, Illinois as a medical director and counsels children at Brave Heart. She has also been an administrator, serving as medical director for several medical centers, including: Provident Hospital, Bogan/ DuSable Adolescent Health Center and Crane Adolescent Health Center. Young-McCulley and her husband, Bernard McCulley, have been married since 1970.

Accession Number

A2002.104

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/12/2002

Last Name

Young-McCulley

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Organizations
Schools

John Farren Elementary School

Du Sable Leadership Academy

University of Chicago Booth School of Business

Gustavus Adolphus College

First Name

Doris

Birth City, State, Country

Eutaw

HM ID

YOU02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Warm

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Interview Description
Birth Date

4/5/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Greens

Short Description

Attending physician, medical professor, and medical director Dr. Doris Young-McCulley (1947 - ) was the former head of Provident Hospital in Chicago, Illinois.

Employment

Chicago Foundlings Home

Cook County Hospital

Provident Medical Center

South Shore Hospital

Jackson Park Hospital

Northwestern Memorial Hospital

Michael Reese Hospital

Little Company of Mary Hospital

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56476">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Doris Young-McCulley's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56477">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Doris Young-McCulley lists her favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56478">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about her family history</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56479">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Doris Young-McCulley shares stories about her great-great-grandmother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56480">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Doris Young-McCulley continues to talk about her great-great-grandmother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56481">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Doris Young-McCulley shares stories about her ancestors</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56482">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Doris Young-McCulley describes the sights, smells, and sounds of her childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56483">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Doris Young-McCulley remembers her first experience of segregation</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56484">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Doris Young-McCulley describes growing up on a farm and her grade school years</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56485">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about her father's value for education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56486">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Doris Young-McCulley describes her siblings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56487">Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about her parents</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56488">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about her family's move to Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56489">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about her inspiration to become a doctor</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56490">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Doris Young-McCulley recalls influential people at DuSable High School like her counselor, Katherine Bogan</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56491">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about her high school activities</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56492">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Doris Young-McCulley describes her strong support system</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56493">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Doris Young-McCulley describes her college experience at Gustavus Adolphus College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56494">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Doris Young-McCulley describes her path to Rush Medical College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56495">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about her academic progress at Gustavus Adolphus College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56496">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Doris Young-McCulley describes her experience of racial discrimination at the University of Chicago and at Rush Medical College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56497">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about her father's experiences with racial discrimination in the U.S. Army</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56498">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Doris Young-McCulley describes the student population at Rush Medical College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56499">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about the organ system approach at Rush Medical College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56500">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Doris Young-McCulley describes the impact of medical school on her personal life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56501">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Doris Young-McCulley shares memorable experiences as a hospital administrator and doctor</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56502">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about preventative care and medical management</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56503">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Doris Young-McCulley discusses urban health issues</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56504">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Doris Young-McCulley describes health issues affecting African Americans in urban environments</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56505">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about the history of Provident Hospital and her role as its medical director</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56506">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Doris Young-McCulley discusses factors behind hospital closures including the closure of Provident Hospital</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56507">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about the importance of health care education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56508">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Doris Young-McCulley reflects upon her legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56509">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about how she would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56510">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Doris Young-McCulley reflects on how her parents would view her achievements</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56511">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Doris Young-McCulley narrates her photographs, pt.1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/56512">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Doris Young-McCulley narrates her photographs, pt.2</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$4

DAStory

4$2

DATitle
Doris Young-McCulley shares stories about her great-great-grandmother
Doris Young-McCulley talks about the history of Provident Hospital and her role as its medical director
Transcript
Now you had an ancestor that was brought over here in 1829.$$Yeah.$$Okay, you want to talk about that?$$Well, that was my great-great-grandmother [Lucinda Patterson]. She was brought over as a, well, as a preteen in 1829, and sold in, in South Carolina. I don't know how she, she made it to Alabama. But she was married to a part Indian that I was telling you about, my grandfather, grandfather's father. And I think there are a lot of stories about her that are very significant. Number one, she was sold as a slave, and she remembered being a slave. And she was a hard worker, and she was blessed with long life. As a matter of fact, she was more than 115 years old when she died. There is one of the, my favorite stories is that she never suffered. She died probably what sounds like congestive heart failure. She died in her sleep. Even at the time of her death, she could still see well. She was not totally senile. She was sewing, making a quilt the night of her death, and told my mother [Lucille Young] that she was going to bed early because she thought she was catching a cold, and never woke up. And there are many stories about how she loved to fish, and she would take my mother fishing with her. And she--my mother was actually her babysitter. And they would go fishing, and Grandma Netta would take her, her some food wrapped in some paper, and she'd carry it in her bosom. And when she said she was hungry, she'd pull it out of her sweaty bosom, according to my mother (laughter), and pass it to her for her to eat. And then she would take her hat off her head, and dip up water, and give it to her and expect her to drink this (laughter) water out of her sweaty hat. And that was one of my favorite stories, you know, 'cause you can imagine how you as a child would feel if that would happen to you today. The other stories that I've, I've heard about her was that she was a remarkable woman that, that loved people and service, that she would--and this was not only told by my mother's side, by other pe--older people that knew her, that she would, she considered it her appointed duty to go around and help all the unwed, new mothers in the area. She would go to and visit them, and she'd tell them how to take care of the unborn or newborn baby. She would show them how to make things to, to--for the, the baby. She would teach them how to care for different ailments. You know, one of the things that I learned in medical school was management of asthma, and to know that my great-great-grandmother would, was able to think of how to provide the first tent--oxygen tent. She, her homemade oxygen tent was to put a kettle on over a sheet--oil cloth sheet--and have the baby's head in there. And you know, I think that that was unique. The other thing was that she was very informed with the various herbs and roots that were helpful for care. And, and I've learned these stories over the years. One of my visits, well, about five years ago to one my aunts, she was showing me flagstone, which is one of the herbs that's there for upset stomach. And she gave me a piece of it, and I planted it in my backyard, and you know, just as a memory, thinking about it, I've--and I was thinking that I would make tea out of it and see what it tastes like--different herbal remedies for, like for example, menstrual cramps. Her herbal arrangement for that was nutmeg tea. And I know, just from my scien--scientific background--that nutmeg is very high in prostaglandin inhibitors, and that is probably the same inhibitor that we take Motrin, Anaprox today for. And so that--and you know, from a scientific basis, you could see it might help with premenstrual or menstrual cramps, so that they, and they're very similar. As I go, I, I've, I love to hear the herbal remedies for various ailments. And to know that my great-great-grandmother was the one teaching these things over the years has been an inspiration to me.$Now, I don't wanna exhaust this topic, if you, you have something else to, you wanna add something else to it. But I wanna talk about Provident [Hospital] too. And--$$Okay.$$--and so.$$You know, Provident was another one of those challenges that came up. And in my mind I felt that there was a need for me to give back to the community. I still, and I always feel that because, as you said, that I've had what looks like an undue portion of giving to me throughout my life. And so Provident was going to be my endeavor. I, I have always felt very bad that we have very few institutions that stand over--and those things are important. You know, you say well, institutions are only buildings, but buildings are important because they're physical inspirations of what our past has been. And it was very significant to me that Provident should remain as one of those institutions that had survived more than a hundred years. So when I was asked if I wanted to go back and be the medical director there, I thought I had put all the pieces together in terms of the education, etc., and the connection with the other young committed clinicians, that I should be able to do this. And it was a big challenge because there were a lot of problems facing Provident at the time that I made the transition over as medical director.$$Now before we go further, I think that for the sake of this tape that's gonna last long beyond us, I hope, can you explain the historical significance of Provident Hospital, and what is Provident Hospital?$$Provident Hospital historically was established in 1930 [sic, 1891], I believe. It was a black hospital that serviced the black community, for the most part, although--the poor community as in general. It was significant because it was also a training educational site for young black physicians along the way and for many black nurses, so that it had a lot of history associated with it. It had been affiliated with the, certainly, the tuberculosis epidemic in Chicago. It provided the first chest x-ray testing sites for the bronze community. It was one of the first hospitals to have a director affiliation with University of Chicago [Chicago, Illinois] for the training of young black obstetricians, gynecologists in particular. So it, it had significant historical firsts. It was the first hospital where Daniel Hale Williams had performed that historical open-heart procedure on a young black that had been stabbed outside of the hospital.$$This is the first such procedure in the United States--$$First--$$--on anyone.$$--in anyone.$$Okay.$$So, it was--it's been billed as the first open-heart procedure--and so that there were a lot of historical firsts related to this hospital. And I, for one, was very passionate about the survival of the hospital, so that when I transferred over, it had been plagued with problems related to medical staff organization, trying to man--manage the health staff systems, nursing, and integrating all the service delivery. And I felt that my training over the years would be helpful, so I came over as the medical director. And it was during that period that many hospitals in the Chicago area were closing. And Provident had significant debt load, with the mortgage having built a new hospital owed to the Department of Health and Human Services, as well as debts owed to its vendors. And it did not survive the closure.