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Dr. Clyde Yancy

Professor of internal medicine and cardiologist, Dr. Clyde Warren Yancy, was born January 2, 1958, in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Yancy's parents, Clyde Yancy, Sr., and Hilda V. Jones Yancy moved the family to Scotlandvillle, near the campus of Southern University, where his mother taught in the elementary and secondary lab schools. As a teenager, Yancy became an Eagle Scout, and played the saxophone with Southern University’s marching band at the Sugar Bowl. Yancy attended Southern University’s lab schools through his Southern High School graduation in 1976. Staying at Southern, Yancy earned his B.S. degree in 1978 and went on to Tulane University Medical School, where he graduated with his M.D. in 1982.

Yancy was a resident at Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas from 1982 to 1985; he was a University of Texas (U.T.S.W.) Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas fellow in cardiology from 1986 to 1989, and U.T.S.W. fellow in transplant cardiology from 1990 to 1991. From there, Yancy went on to become the Carl H. Westcott Distinguished Chair in Medical Research, and an associate professor in internal medicine and cardiology. A recipient of the Internal Medicine Outstanding Teacher Award in 1991, Yancy was also awarded the 1998 U.T. S.W. Outstanding Teacher Award by the class of 2001. Also in 2001, Yancy won the Outstanding Research Award and the Daniel Savage Award for Scientific Achievement from the Association of Black Cardiologists. The American Heart Association, for which he is an often-quoted spokesman, named Yancy National Physician of the Year in 2003. In 2006, Yancy became the medical director of the Baylor Heart and Vascular Institute in Dallas, and the head of the center's heart and lung transplant program.

The editor of Congestive Heart Failure, Yancy served on the editorial board of the Journal of Cardiac Failure. Having observed an emerging database of genetic variations in African Americans, which could explain their lower response to traditional heart-failure therapies, Yancy and others in the Association of Black Cardiologists proposed that in African Americans heart-failure is linked to chronic hypertension and should be treated in a different way than in whites. Yancy authored the Role of Race in Heart-Failure Therapy (2002). A widower, Yancy remained in Dallas where he raised two daughters.

Accession Number

A2004.220

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/29/2004

Last Name

Yancy

Organizations
Schools

Tulane University

Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Southern University Laboratory School

First Name

Clyde

Birth City, State, Country

Baton Rouge

HM ID

YAN01

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

Santa Fe, New Mexico

Favorite Quote

Intelligence Plus Character Is The Value Of A Real Education.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

1/2/1958

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Tomatoes

Short Description

Medical professor, cardiologist, and hospital chief executive Dr. Clyde Yancy (1958 - ) serves as the medical director of the Baylor Heart and Vascular Institute in Dallas, as well as the head of Baylor's heart and lung transplant program.

Employment

Parkland Memorial Hospital - Dallas, Texas

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (U.T.S.W.)

Baylor Heart and Vascular Institute - Dallas, Texas

Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Clyde Yancy's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Clyde Yancy lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Clyde Yancy describes his maternal ancestry

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Clyde Yancy describes his mother's personality and scholastic achievements

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Clyde Yancy describes his paternal background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Clyde Yancy remembers the ends of his parents' lives, and his paternal family's achievements

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Clyde Yancy describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood in Scotlandville, Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Clyde Yancy talks about his family's connection to Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Clyde Yancy describes his childhood personality

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Clyde Yancy describes his time in the Boy Scouts of America

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Clyde Yancy talks about the nature of his journey into medicine

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Clyde Yancy recalls his experience in the summer program at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Clyde Yancy talks about juggling early acceptance into Tulane University School of Medicine with finishing his undergraduate degree

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Clyde Yancy remembers his early relationship with and subsequent marriage to his wife

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Clyde Yancy remembers talks about his internship, residency and early career

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Clyde Yancy talks about his wife and family

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Clyde Yancy describes his the effect of his wife's battle with cancer on the family, pt.1

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Clyde Yancy describes his the effect of his wife's battle with cancer on the family, pt.2

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Clyde Yancy describes his early research on heart failure in African Americans

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Clyde Yancy describes his research from 2001 to 2004 on heart failure in African Americans,

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Clyde Yancy discusses theories about African American susceptibility to heart disease

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Clyde Yancy talks about the various factors that impact racial disparities in heart disease

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Clyde Yancy talks about preventing congestive heart failure and the importance of health in the African American community, pt.1

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Clyde Yancy talks about preventing congestive heart failure and the importance of health in the African American community, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Clyde Yancy shares advice for African Americans seeking a healthy lifestyle

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Clyde Yancy describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Clyde Yancy reflects upon his life

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Clyde Yancy reflects upon contemporary lifestyles and family structures

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Clyde Yancy reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Clyde Yancy describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Clyde Yancy narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

1$5

DATitle
Dr. Clyde Yancy describes his early research on heart failure in African Americans
Dr. Clyde Yancy talks about preventing congestive heart failure and the importance of health in the African American community, pt.1
Transcript
So probably the most important thing, kind of fast forward to where we are now, is that I basically had to start my career over. Because I had to decide what kind of physician, what kind of work I would do. And with a lot of blessings, serendipity, hard work, support from others, we have been able to kind of reinvent ourselves. And so what I do right now is have a little bit of dichotomized life. Part of my life is all about supporting my two daughters [Kristin Yancy and Nina Yancy] and providing every possible opportunity I can for them, and giving them that same sense of connectiveness [ph.] and family that I had growing up, but doing it as an end of one, instead of as an end of many in the kind of extended family networks that that lifestyle and that timeframe provided. So that's part of my life, but the dichotomy in my life is that as a professional, I have been really focused. I'm trying to do as much as I can to make a difference. And the area that I have the greatest interest in is just not cardiology or heart disease, but is heart disease that affects patients at the advanced stages. So the specific illness that I focus on is congestive heart failure and heart transplantation. That has been my professional label since 1990. Since 1993, I've directed the heart transplant program here at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas [Texas]. From 1996 through the year 2002, I overlapped with that appointment with the same responsibility of Baylor University Medical Center [at Dallas] here in Dallas. So I ran two heart transplant programs concurrently. I immersed myself into clinical research and started working with others across the country to help identify new treatment strategies that would improve the outcomes for all patients. But somewhere in the mid-1990s I had identified that there seemed to be something a little bit different about the African American patient who showed up that had more advanced disease. They were typically younger. They usually had a previous history of high blood pressure and they were pretty sick when they showed up. And it was such a consistent observation that I began to try to look at my own experience to see if we could make a statement to sensitize the rest of the physician community that maybe there's something else going on here. And I vividly remember my first efforts at trying to bring this information to the community's attention. Got completely shot it down and I was almost castigated from my circle of peers because it was such a contentious thing to suggest that as a function of race a certain disease process could be so uniquely different. But we stuck with it.$$That's right, 'cause you're talkin' about years of--we're lookin'--we're talkin' about years of people speculating on the--what the differences are between black folks and white folks?$$Well are there real physiologic--$$In the 19th century people wrote about it over and over again, mostly white people sayin' that black folks were not--the differences all made us inferior.$$Right. And so there was a lot of sensitivity about bringing an issue like this up and there was a strong effort to put that aside. But working through the scientific process and again looking at data, somewhere around 1996 where we were able to obtain data from one of the bigger initiatives I'd been involved in and I'm actually still involved with it, that was very encouraging. Because not only could I use it to show that there is something different about the African American that has advanced heart disease, but in the same breath I could say, oh by the way when exposed to the right therapies they do just as well. So it was a great message to say you need to be sensitized to the patients that are African American because they may have a more aggressive disease presentation, but with this treatment strategy, they do equally as well. Since that timeframe, that has continued to evolve until we were able to get definitive statements in the medical literature at the highest tier in 2001, and really establish this as a concept. And again, I pay deference and respect to others in my professional discipline that provided opportunities for me. So for example, I was a keynote speaker for the national meeting of heart failure experts [Heart Failure Society of America] in the year 2000 and that was the first opportunity that someone had to bring these issues to our population of physicians in general. And I was invited to write editorials and to share the research that we were doing that all culminated into a definitive statement in the New England Journal of Medicine, which said yes there is a difference, but we can treat these differences and patients do reasonably well. Shortly after that, we got involved in yet another initiative that was even more provocative, which was to specifically start testing the treatment approach exclusively in African Americans. This too was contentious, because it had not been done before for this kind of heart disease. Well, we said, "We are no longer going to be handicapped by the way clinical research is done in this country."$Okay. Now the cure side of this, how to cure congestive heart failure--$$You know what, Larry [Crowe], there is no cure.$$Okay.$$The only cure is prevention. And that gets you into a totally different dynamic. That if we are so convinced that high blood pressure is so important in the development of heart disease in African Americans, then that gives us all the leverage we could ever hope to have. To look at this patient population that has high blood pressure, this silent, innocent, epidemic killer in the African American race. So you know what guys, you have to get your blood pressure checked and if you have high blood pressure, you have to treat it and you have to stay on that treatment consistently and change your lifestyle. Because if you don't, then you will have a reduced longevity. You will have decreased productivity, less time with your family. You will not be able to realize all the benefits of life. I mean, I will be very candid and very personal and tell you that I know what's like to lose a spouse prematurely. I don't think our situation could have been avoided. But for those people that are alive and are at risk and are not taking the steps to avoid premature death, it is just unacceptable, they have to take a different approach.$$Okay. And this different approach would consist of?$$Awareness, knowing that you're at risk, getting yourself screened for high blood pressure. Paying attention to your diet, having a weight that is appropriate for your height. Working with a healthcare provider to know what your ideal weight should be and doing something about it to get to the point, exercising a little bit, staying away from tobacco, using alcohol in moderation. These are things that work for preventing heart disease, preventing stroke, preventing cancer, preventing depression. These are important lifestyle lessons that go beyond just congestive heart failure, but have to do with being functioning, contributing, awake and alert citizens in our community. So I think that's where you start, prevention with these very generic, straightforward lifestyle adjustments, heightened awareness, getting disease identified early and doing something about it.$$It seems to me that, that prevention would have to--you'd have to have like a massive education campaign for prevention to really work. Because people are not gonna.$$But why not, Larry? Why not? Think about what I'm responsible for causing in terms of expenditures in the healthcare budget as a physician who takes care of advanced heart disease. I run a heart transplant program. Every time we do a successful heart transplant, we spend no less than $300,000 the first year, probably $100,000 over the next two or three years after that. A half million dollars spent over three years to save one life. That's if everything goes well. Now imagine what happens if those resources are redistributed on the front side of the disease process so that more people are aware they have high blood pressure and more people are treated for that high blood pressure. So I don't back away from the challenge. Does it need a massive public education campaign, you bet. Does it need a lot of resources to be successful, you bet. But what's the alternative, a workforce that is cannibalized because people die early. That whole social network, that whole family network that was so instrumental in my success is at risk when people die prematurely and you don't have the parents, you don't have the uncles and the aunts there to pick up the pieces. You don't have the role models there to show you how to love one another, how to behave, how to respect each other. There is a fundamental price we pay and I want to be very clear about this, there is a fundamental price we pay because of the poor health in the African American community. It is realized in work productivity; it is realized in economic productivity; and it is important to realize in our social fabric. Our social fabric is at risk because of the poor health in the African American community.

Dr. LaSalle D. Leffall, Jr.

Dr. LaSalle Doheny Leffall, Jr. was born May 22, 1930, in Tallahasee, Florida, but grew up in Quincy, Florida. His parents, Lula Jourdan and LaSalle Leffall, Sr. met at Alabama Teachers College. Leffall graduated from Dr. Wallace S. Stevens High School at age 15 years in 1945. Awarded his B.S. degree summa cum laude from Florida A & M College in 1948, Leffall at age twenty-two earned his M.D. from Howard University College of Medicine. There, Dr. Burke Syphax, Dr. Jack White, Dr. W. Montague Cobb and the celebrated Dr. Charles R. Drew taught him.

Upon earning his M.D., Leffall continued his medical training as intern at Homer G. Phillips Hospital in St. Louis; assistant resident in surgery at Freedman’s Hospital from 1953 to 1954; assistant resident in surgery at D.C. General Hospital from 1954 to 1955; chief resident in surgery at Freedman’s Hospital from 1956 to 1957 and senior fellow in cancer surgery at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Hospital from 1957 to 1959. Beginning his military service at the rank of Captain, M. C., he served as chief of general surgery at the U. S. Army Hospital in Munich, Germany, from 1960 to 1961. Leffall joined Howard’s faculty, in 1962, as an assistant professor and by 1970, he was chairman of the Department of Surgery, a position he held for twenty-five years. He was named the Charles R. Drew Professor in 1992, occupying the first endowed chair in the history of Howard’s Department of Surgery.

Leffall has served as visiting professor at over 200 medical institutions in the U.S. and abroad and authored or coauthored over 130 articles and chapters. He is a diplomate of the American Board of Surgery and a fellow of both the American College of Surgeons and the American College of Gastroenterology. His professional life has been devoted to the study of cancer, especially among African Americans. In 1979, as president of the American Cancer Society, Leffall developed programs and emphasized the importance of this study for the benefit of the African American population and other ethnic groups. Cancers of the head and neck, breast, colorectum and soft part sarcomas are his main areas of interest.

Surgeon, oncologist, medical educator and civic leader, and the recipient of many awards, Leffall has taught over 4,500 medical students and trained at least 250 general surgery residents. In 1995 he was elected president of the American College of Surgeons and in 2002 was named chairman of the President’s Cancer Panel. He and his wife, Ruthie have one grown son, LeSalle, III.

Leffall passed away on May 26, 2019.

Accession Number

A2004.064

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/7/2004

Last Name

Leffall

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

D.

Schools

William S. Stevens High School

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

Howard University College of Medicine

First Name

La Salle

Birth City, State, Country

Tallahassee

HM ID

LEF02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Puerto Rico, Maine

Favorite Quote

Equanimity under duress

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

5/22/1930

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Sole

Death Date

5/26/2019

Short Description

Medical professor, oncologist, and surgeon Dr. LaSalle D. Leffall, Jr. (1930 - ) is the president of the American College of Surgeons and chairs the President's Cancer Panel. Leffall has authored over 150 articles, has taught over 4,500 medical students and trained at least 250 general surgery residents at the Howard University College of Medicine.

Employment

Homer G. Phillips Hospital (St. Louis, Missouri)

Freedmen's Hospital, Howard University

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center

Howard University College of Medicine

Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Georgetown University

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of LaSalle Leffall interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - LaSalle Leffall's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - LaSalle Leffall describes his mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - LaSalle Leffall describes his father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - LaSalle Leffall recounts his early years in Quincy, Florida

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - LaSalle Leffall describes his childhood interests

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - LaSalle Leffall describes his early influences

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - LaSalle Leffall recounts his college years at Florida A&M

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - LaSalle Leffall remembers influential teachers at Florida A & M

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - LaSalle Leffall recalls his admission to medical school

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - LaSalle Leffall recounts his experience at Howard University Medical School

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - LaSalle Leffall describes Dr. W. Montague Cobb, a memorable instuctor at Howard Medical School

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - LaSalle Leffall remembers an influential physician, Dr. Charles Drew

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - LaSalle Leffall remembers Dr. Syphax and Dr. White at Howard University School of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - LaSalle Leffall talks about the influence of Dr. Jack White at Howard School of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - LaSalle Leffall recalls his medical internship at Homer Phillips Hospital in St. Louis

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - LaSalle Leffall recounts his experience as one of the first black residents at Gallinger Hospital

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - LaSalle Leffall recalls his surgical residency at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1957-1959

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - LaSalle Leffall recalls his courtship and marriage and his military service in Germany

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - LaSalle Leffall summarizes his career at Howard from 1962-2004

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - LaSalle Leffall details his work with American Cancer Society including foreign humanitarian and research work

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - LaSalle Leffall discusses cancer and race

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - LaSalle Leffall evaluates new cancer treatments

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - LaSalle Leffall discusses his son

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - LaSalle Leffall discusses his wife's family's five generations of college graduates

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - LaSalle Leffall talks about his presidencies of American Cancer Society and American College of Surgeons

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - LaSalle Leffall expresses his hopes for the future

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - LaSalle Leffall talks about working with the Bush family on cancer-related projects

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - LaSalle Leffall discusses the role of attitude in cancer treatment

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - LaSalle Leffall remembers his parents

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - LaSalle Leffall considers his legacy and the role of a teacher

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - LaSalle Leffall considers healthcare reform

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - LaSalle Leffall reflects on the course of his career

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - LaSalle Leffall shares advice for blacks aspiring to be doctors

DASession

1$1

DATape

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DAStory

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DATitle
LaSalle Leffall describes Dr. W. Montague Cobb, a memorable instuctor at Howard Medical School
LaSalle Leffall talks about his presidencies of American Cancer Society and American College of Surgeons
Transcript
One of your teachers, I know, was W. Montague Cobb, and that's someone who--?$$Absolutely, Dr., Dr. W. Montague Cobb was one of my favorite teachers [at Howard University Medical School, Washington, D.C.]. He was a man I met in my first year because he taught anatomy. And he used to have what we would call "bust out sessions". Now, what does that mean? You'd go into him, and you'd say "bust me out", meaning, ask me any question you want to ask me. I think I know the answer. And, and I liked that kind of challenge. And he liked that. He liked young students who felt so confident that they would walk in and say, "Dr. Cobb, bust me out" (laughter), and that meant, ask me anything you want on anatomy. And we wanted to let him know that we knew the answers. And I just enjoyed him as a teacher. And we used to have something called the cadaver walk. On the final examination, they would ask a hundred and eighty questions, and the cadavers have all been dissected then. All the cadavers are dissected. And they would have labels on some of everything, arteries, veins, muscles, bones, all this. And you had to identify those structures. And I really loved that. And when I was a medical student in my later years and as a surgical resident, I used to come back every year to go over with the freshman, medical and dental students, the cadaver, to prepare them, help prepare them for the cadaver walk. But Dr. Cobb was, I think an outstanding teacher, but in addition to that, I worked with him as assistant editor of the "Journal of the National Medical Association", and even though he was not a practicing physician, he did some of the early work in helping to integrate Gallinger Municipal Hospital, which was the city hospital then, but controlled totally by whites, no blacks on the staff. And Dr. Cobb was one of the major ones who helped integrate that hospital. And so in addition to being an excellent teacher as professor of anatomy, he also helped in--on the social basis, for social justice in medicine, helping to integrate Gallinger Municipal Hospital, which later became D.C. General Hospital.$$Now, he was also a musician too, I believe.$$Oh, he loved to play the fiddle, the vio--I say the fiddle. He loved to play the violin. And when we'd have the medical school smoker, he would come, and he would play the violin. He was a very learned man. I, I learned a lot from Dr. Cobb, having worked with him as assistant editor of "The Journal of the National Medical Association", and then having this interest I had in anatomy, I would go and talk with him. And he was just a first-rate individual and it was a, an honor for me to get to know a man like that.$$Now, maybe we should say something about what "The National Medical Association" is?$$The National Medical Association is an association founded in 1895 by black physicians because they were denied admission to the American Medical Association. And the National Medical Association still exists. And we think it exists because even though blacks can now become members of the American Medical Association, the National Medical Association still addresses some issues that affect black physicians disproportionately. And therefore, we still think there is a role for the National Medical Association, even though black physicians can become members of the American Medical Association.$I think the presidency of the American Cancer Society came first, right?$$It did. I became president of the American Cancer Society in 1978, had a year from 1978 to '79 [1979], and had a lot of wonderful trips. I went all around speaking to the different groups and chapters here, went abroad, many different places, to the Soviet Union, the Peoples Republic of China, Vietnam, Liberia. Then other places, just around--the Dominican Republic, this--speaking for the American Cancer Society. But I am a surgeon. I'm a trained surgeon. And my specialty happens to be cancer. That's why I was active in the American Cancer Society. But I'm also active as a surgeon, and I became the first black president, African American president of the American College of Surgeons. That was in 1995 -'96 [1996]. So I, I was deeply honored by that, and I went around speaking to the different chapters. Your primary role as president of the American College of Surgeons is to go around the country, speak to the different chapters with the fellows who are in the chapters, to find out what their concerns are and bring those concerns back to the national body and see what can be done on a national level to help, help address the problems they tell you about. And that's what I did, but in addition, I went to South Africa. I went to Hong Kong, I went to Canada. I went to different places, and--went to Germany. So I got an honorary fellowship from Canada, from South Africa, from Germany. So that was a, the height of my professional career as a surgeon was to be president of the American College of Surgeons. That was the height of my professional career.

Dr. Lillian M. Beard

Pediatrician, author and civic leader Dr. Lillian McLean Beard was born Lillian McLean in Brooklyn, New York. Beard attended P.S. 67, graduated from Brooklyn’s Midwood High School in 1961 and went on to Howard University, where she was mentored by Dr. Ruth Lloyd. In 1965, Beard graduated with a B.S. from Howard University and received her M.D. from Howard University College of Medicine in 1970. Completing her pediatric internship and residency at Children’s Hospital National Medical Center in 1973, Beard worked as a Community Pediatrics Fellow sponsored by the Program for Learning Studies and the Comprehensive Health Care Program of the Child Health and Development Department at George Washington University. Between 1973 and 2000, Beard received eight Physician Recognition Awards from the American Medical Association.

As a practicing pediatrician in Silver Spring, Maryland, Beard works as an associate clinical professor of pediatrics at George Washington School of Medicine and Health Sciences and an assistant professor at Howard University College of Medicine. As a fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics, Beard has held a number of leadership positions with the American Academy of Pediatrics, the National Medical Association and the American Medical Women’s Association.

Sought after by the media, Beard serves as a medical expert for ABC TV-7 and Newschannel 8, as well as a contributing editor to Good Housekeeping Magazine. She writes a monthly “Ask Dr. Beard” column. Her recently published Salt In Your Sock and Other Tried-and-True Home Remedies features medically sound holistic treatments for a variety of ailments. A member of the National Medical Association Hall of Fame, and one of the Washingtonian Magazine’s “Top Doctors”, Beard lives in Maryland with her husband, Judge DeLawrence Beard. She is profiled in the 1998 Women of Courage, Volume II.

Accession Number

A2003.272

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/20/2003

Last Name

Beard

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

McLean

Schools

Midwood High School

P.S. 67 Charles A. Dorsey School

Howard University College of Medicine

Howard University

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Depends on Schedule

First Name

Lillian

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

BEA04

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Can accommodate any audience on the subject of health and health outcomes.

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - $1,000 - $5,000

Favorite Season

Spring

Speaker Bureau Notes

Honorarium Specifics: $2500-5000, depends on the venue, all travel expenses must be covered
Availability Specifics: She is also willing to tailor her schedule to speaking requests.
Preferred Audience: Can accommodate any audience on the subject of health and health outcomes.

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Ocean

Favorite Quote

The Only Dream You Cannot Realize Is The Dream You've Never Had.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

11/15/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Lamb Chops

Short Description

Medical professor and pediatrician Dr. Lillian M. Beard (1943 - ) is a widely sought after medical expert, serving as associate professor of medicine at George Washington School of Medicine and Howard University College of Medicine, and as a contributing editor to Good Housekeeping Magazine.

Employment

George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences

Howard University Hospital

WJLA TV

Children’s Pediatricians and Associates

Favorite Color

Bright Colors

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Lillian M. Beard's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard talks about her mother and her maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard shares stories about her maternal family

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard talks about her father, his family and how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard describes her mother's personality, educational background and her career as a fashion designer

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard talks about performers in her mother's fashion shows and Concord Baptist Church of Christ in Brooklyn, New York, New York

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard talks about her mother's later career

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard describes her father and his interest in politics

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard remembers her paternal grandmother

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard talks about splitting time between Washington, D.C. and New York, New York as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood in Brooklyn, New York, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard remembers that her mother allowed her to speak her mind as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard describes childhood experiences with her mother

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard describes her mission to get accepted to Midwood High School in New York, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard talks about meeting her best friend in 1957 at Midwood High School in Brooklyn, New York, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard talks about encouraging teachers in school

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard describes her activities at and graduating from Midwood High School in Brooklyn, New York, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard describes her life-long dream of becoming a physician

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard talks about choosing to go to Howard University in Washington, D.C. and getting a scholarship

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard describes her experience at Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard talks about her exposure to leaders of the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard describes her social life at Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard talks about reconnecting with her father and going to Howard University College of Medicine in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard explains how Howard University College of Medicine in Washington, D.C. prepared her for the medical field

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard talks about Dr. William Montague Cobb and Dr. Ruth Lloyd at Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard remembers never giving up at Howard University College of Medicine in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard explains her decision to become a pediatrician

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard talks about her pediatric practice

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard describes how pediatric medicine has changed over time

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard talks about the wisdom of medical folklore

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard talks about childhood obesity in the United States

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard talks about rage in children, violence in the U.S. and the Beltway sniper attacks of 2002

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard describes the importance of parenting and nurturing children

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard talks about her book 'Salt in Your Sock: and Other Tried-and-True Home Remedies,' pt.1

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard talks about her book 'Salt in Your Sock: and Other Tried-and-True Home Remedies,' pt.2

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard talks about child birth options and what makes the field of pediatrics unique

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard describes her hopes for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard considers what she would have done differently

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Lillian M. Beard narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$4

DAStory

4$4

DATitle
Dr. Lillian M. Beard shares stories about her maternal family
Dr. Lillian M. Beard explains her decision to become a pediatrician
Transcript
(Phone ringing) Are there are any stories that they passed down from that [maternal] side of the family about life in the 19th century or?$$Many stories. Well, my, one story that I always, I found it fascinating as a physician the fact that my mother's [Woodie Durden McLean] oldest siblings were twins, and they were born in 1903 and that in 1903 and with medicine being whatever it was on that da--that time, they were delivered by midwives, but because they were twins they were so very small. They were premature, and they were small enough that my mother tells me that her mom told her that the midwife placed them in these Mason jars, not their heads, but just their lower bodies and put them and wrapped the jars and put them near the fireplace. So, I look at that as probably the earliest type of incubator and it was so that they would preserve their, their body temperature. Now, it couldn't be the jar that I imagined today that's like a fruit jar, but large jars they were placed in, the jars were wrapped and placed near the fireplace. Well, it was amazing to me to hear that story because they each lived to be in their--well one died at age eighty-nine and the other died at age about ninety-three and here we're talking about twin deliveries at home in 1903 that were delivered by midwives, placed in jars, incubated, and grew into exceed their life expectancy being black men born at that time.$$Yeah that is an amazing story.$$So, I, I always found that story fascinating, particularly as I became a physician and really reflected on that on what the adverse conditions had to have been during that period of time to have been in the rural South and just sort of amazed at the resourcefulness and creativity of people that the things they had to come up with to survive.$$Yeah that's something. Any other stories? Is there any, is there, there any information about how your, about your grandparent, your grandparents on how they, their, their parents or your great-grandparents?$$Well, I have information and it's a little bit fuzzy for me right now, but I was always fascinated by the fact that my grandfather had so much land and I actually have documents that show how the land was deeded over generations and how ultimately my grandfather's [Lawton Durden] land was forty--I'm sorry, seven square miles of property, which is quite, I realized it's quite a bit of property and I recall being so impressed growing up going to visit in Georgia and feeling that no matter how far we drove this was property owned by my grandfather. Well, much of that has since been divided amongst my mother's siblings, all of whom are now deceased and their heirs, so it isn't that extensive now, but my grandfather secured his land from his family as well as from my grandmother's [Lily Belle Durden], his wife's family and he was a very smart businessman, so he kept records of all the deeds and all the bequests or how it was bequeathed, so we do have all of those records.$$Yeah is there or was there a story about how so much land was accumulated in the mid-19th century and you know I guess--was it accumulated before the Civil War or after the Civil War or do you know?$$It was, it was probably over time. And I say over time, some was before the Civil War and I'm sure much of it was after the Civil War. Some of it was actually purchased and there are the purchase documents that are available. Some was as I said just through being bequeathed, and there are always, there are these stories that I don't know the full details. My mother [Woodie Darden McLean] has them about how my great-grandfather purchased my great-grandmother out of slavery--that my great-grandfather was not a slave he was an indentured servant, so he received pay, and he purchased my great-grandmother out of, out of slavery and married her and because he was an indentured servant and working he purchased property. He always purchased property and acquired property, so I, I've heard, I grew up hearing those stories.$Okay, now how did you decide to become a pediatrician? Was it because of the influence of Dr. Clark or what was it?$$Dr. Bomse, the influence of Audrey's [Bomse] father, Dr. Bomse. He was certainly a very good picture for me of, of what a pediatrician was and how a pediatrician's life could be shaped. But, I think it was really my exposure in the clinical years of medical school. I had the opportunity to do an externship at Walter Reed [U.S.] Army Hospital [sic, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland], and it was during the pediatric rotation in medical school [at Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C.] in my junior year that I really felt that I was a part of a team. When I was at Walter Reed, the director of the department there, Colonel B. Hughson [ph.] was the first person who didn't just refer to me as the medical student. Usually on rotations it's like, "Oh the medical student can go and"--with this anonymous medical student. Colonel B. Hughson turned to me as a third year student and said, "Dr. Beard what do you think about this patient?" Well, all of a sudden I'm a part of the team and Colonel B. Hughson is asking my opinion. That made me really want to be an active part of the team. True, I was a medical student, but he actually asked what I thought of the patient, so it made me want to get to know everything there was to know about the patient's history, about what was going on because on rounds I was going to be asked to give my opinion. That was the first rotation where I knew I was a part of the team, and it's the little things like that that influence our choices. So, that made me feel very important and very comfortable with pediatrics. But, then again I, I really liked surgery because I seem to have had some very good manual mechanical skills in terms of surgical skills, tying, suturing, the things that you think of in surgery. And I can remember at that time Dr. Lewis Kurtz and the department of surgery at Howard [University, Washington, D.C.] making the comment to me that I was a natural for surgery, that I had the hands for surgery, and I felt gee maybe I should go into surgery. And Dr. John Clark and the Department of OB/GYN [Obstetrics and Gynecology] telling me I was a natural for OB/GYN and I felt like well maybe this is it because the actual aspects of caring for women and delivering babies I had the opportunity to deliver several babies as a medical student and just seeing new life come into the world, being there and facilitating it and handing a baby to a nurse or to the mom it's, it's such a good feeling and I felt well maybe this is what I want to do. So, I was in conflict about what I truly wanted to pursue. But, in the end, pediatrics really did win me over. It was the opportunity to be a part of another individual's life for a long period of time. I could be there from birth all the way through their childhood into adulthood that I could be a virtual member of that person's family and that's what pediatrics has been and I'm now treating the children of my children. I'm on my second generation, so it is really a full circle of love and I'm a virtual member of so many families. I'm a part--I get the invitations to the kindergarten graduations, the college graduations, the weddings. I get the birth, their birth announcements and I see their children now, so it's, for me it was an excellent choice of specialties, and I truly enjoy it.

Dr. John Clark, Jr.

Dr. John F. J. Clark, Jr. was born in West Virginia on December 8, 1922. After attending Charleston public schools, he enrolled in West Virginia State College in 1939, but left for Ohio State University in 1941 and earned his A.B. degree in 1943. Clark then entered Howard University School of Medicine, earning his M.D. degree in 1946. He continued his training at Howard University Hospital as a resident in obstetrics and gynecology, finishing in 1951.

Upon the completion of his residency, Clark began working at Howard as a clinical assistant, and by 1955, he was an instructor in obstetrics and gynecology. A year later, he was named assistant professor, and in 1957, he began consulting at the District of Columbia Hospital, as well. That same year, he became chairman of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, a position he retained until 1976. Clark was named a full professor in 1964, and continued consulting at area hospitals, including Norfolk Community and Sibley Memorial. In 1972, Clark wrote “The Weekly Health Column,” which was distributed to thirty-five African American newspapers across the country on the health concerns of women and children. Clark worked at Howard University until 1996 as a professor, and remained there as a consultant until his death.

Active in a variety of other areas, both civic and professional, Clark served as a consultant to the Food and Drug Administration, the Department of Defense and the Medical Society of the District of Columbia. He also headed up a March of Dimes campaign and was an activist in the integration of hospitals.

Clark held the distinction of training more qualified black physicians in obstetrics and gynecology than anyone in the world and was honored numerous times. In 1978, both the College of Medicine and the Hospital (Howard University) honored him with the Kaiser-Permanente Award for Excellence in Teaching, and the National Medical Association presented him with an award for being a Distinguished Physician, Teacher and Scholar. The Howard University College of Medicine endowed the John F.J. Clark, M.D. Chair in Obstetrics and Gynecology on his behalf in 1994, and President Bill Clinton praised him for the work he did through the generations.

Clark passed away on September 8, 2008 at the age of 85.

Accession Number

A2003.240

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/11/2003

Last Name

Clark

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

F. J.

Organizations
Schools

West Virginia State University

Howard University College of Medicine

First Name

John

Birth City, State, Country

Charleston

HM ID

CLA07

Favorite Season

Football Season, Fall

Sponsor

SuperValu

State

West Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Florida

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

12/8/1922

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Cookies (Chocolate)

Death Date

9/8/2008

Short Description

Medical professor and obstetrician Dr. John Clark, Jr. (1922 - 2008 ) taught for fifty years at Howard University College of Medicine, which endowed the John F. J. Clark, M.D. Chair in Obstetrics and Gynecology on his behalf in 1994. Clark held the distinction of training more qualified black physicians in obstetrics and gynecology than anyone in the world.

Employment

Howard University Hospital

District of Columbia Hospital

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of John Clark interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - John Clark's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - John Clark shares details about his family's history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - John Clark talks about his grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - John Clark talks about his mother and sisters

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - John Clark talks about notable West Virginians

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - John Clark reflects on his father

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - John Clark discusses the educational background of his family

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - John Clark reflects on his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - John Clark discusses his education and decision to become an obstetrician/gynecologist

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - John Clark shares stories about college and medical school

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - John Clark recalls serving as the head of DC General Hospital's OB/GYN department

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - John Clark discusses realtionship between health status in the black community and the number of black physicians

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - John Clark reflects on his legacy and accomplishments in the field of medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - John Clark discusses problems and challenges facing the black community

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - John Clark shares his concerns about the prison system and obesity

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - John Clark talks about medical experimentation, hysterectomies, and the treatment of over-weight patients

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - John Clark talks about his recent book and how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$2

DAStory

7$4

DATitle
John Clark reflects on his father
John Clark shares stories about college and medical school
Transcript
Tell us about your father [John F.J. Clark Sr.] now. What was he like and what did he do? Tell us about his schooling. You've mentioned it a couple times. But just tell us the whole story.$$Well Dad's first wife died and he didn't marry again, 'til sixteen years later. Now he was forty-four when I was born. And he was not a man throwing the football and so on and basketball.$$Now how did he and your mother meet?$$Well, she was teaching. School teaching. Yeah. And--.$$Was she teaching in his school?$$She was at the same elementary school. She was (unclear). In fact, he spent more time with us academically. He loved to do math. And we loved the math. And he went to give examples and so on. Was in charge of the summer school. Occasionally he didn't have enough people, he'd make us go to summer school . Not because it was needed it, 'cause education wise. So that's whether we--I didn't learn--well as far as sports, he was not out there throwing the ball with me. Yeah. I wanted to play football so bad. But during our education, I started skipping grades. And I was thirteen in the tenth grade. I weighed 108 pounds. I was sixteen when I graduated and I weighed a 126 pounds.$When I was on the track team, I would occa--we would occasionally go to--I went to Indiana. And we stopped in Indianapolis overnight. I could not eat with the team. Bill Willis threw the shotput. And he said, "Well we'll fix the coach." He'd ordered 50 eggs. I ordered so many eggs. And went to Bloomington. Sat down to the table in Bloomington. He said, "Well since you boys like eggs so well I'm bring--buy you some more eggs." Willis told him, "Coach, if you don't order me two steaks, you're gonna hit the floor." And (laughing) that's why I remembered Bill so. The same thing when we went to Ann Arbor [Michigan]. I stayed in a hotel named Roosevelt. We couldn't eat with the team.$$Not even in Ann Arbor, Michigan. All the way up in --.$$We stayed in Detroit and took the bus.$$Mm-hm.$$I remember all these hotels. One was named Lincoln in Indianapolis. Another one was Roosevelt in Detroit [Michigan].$$Now wait a minute. You couldn't stay in the Lincoln hotel?$$No, I stayed in Lincoln. I couldn't eat in the dining room.$$Okay.$$And I know what to do. And see we stayed over night in Indianapolis. The bus in Bloomington. In Bloomington we couldn't eat with the team. We couldn't eat with the team in Indianapolis. Couldn't eat with the team in Detroit--Roosevelt.$$Probably [West] Lafayette [Indiana] either, I guess. Yeah.$$Yeah.$$And pretty much--.$$Well only 'cause I wanted (unclear). I was only on the indoor track team. Michigan State I don't remember. But I wasn't impressed with those things. Well anyway I'm glad I came to Howard [University]. I thought Washington [D.C.] would be a--I was always bashful (laughing). child. I didn't know how I would survive this big city and so forth. But having a sister was the best thing that happened there. Like a design to come to Howard. In fact, (unclear) when I came to medical school, I was elected president of my class in medicine here. And I was all four academic years president of the class. But one school calendar was a war zone. See '43 and '46 [1943-1946] (unclear). And I was very vocal (laughing). Changing the curriculum and doing certain things. It was an enjoyable time for me.$$Okay. Was it--it was never a tough time when you (unclear)?$$(simultaneously) Not academically.$$Okay.$$Yeah. Actually--Well I say a few things in life not important. It is a fact. Two P's, either political or propaganda. And actually when I applied for a resident--well an intern, you only have a few choices. Freedman's Hospital [Washington D.C.] when I graduated, Harlem Hospital [New York, New York]or (unclear).$$Homer [G.] Philips [Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri]?$$Yeah, Homer Philips. All those are small little hospitals. So I wanted to do OB/Gyn [obstetrics/gynecology]. And I stayed at Freedman's. I accepted Harlem and so on. Harlem was a very prejudiced. You interned at Harlem, but very few people at that time got to do a residency in OB. Italians and Jewish people were very strong and they were graduates. And when I applied at Howard for a residency in OB/ Gyn, Dr. Ross thought I was too radical. I talked too much. I asked too many questions and he gave several sermons. He gave me about--a sermon about Peter (laughs) and what Paul--What was the Lord had changed the name?$$Oh Peter. Yeah he was--$$Yeah.$$No. No, Paul.$$Yeah.$$He changed his name from Saul to Paul.$$(unclear) Gave me that lecture. He said, "Clark you need to--." See I would ask questions. 'Cause I'm raising questions. "What are you doing? Or why are you doing this?" He was always being the (unclear). And he gave me a lecture about Peter. "You need a real change." And he asked me, "Where'd you go to school?" I'd say, "Ohio State." "Well I'm glad you didn't go to Lincoln. Cause you never see a freshman talking to a sophomore. And I said, "Well I'm glad I didn't go to Lincoln too." (laughs). That didn't help it.

Dr. James Bowman

Geneticist, medical professor and pathologist Dr. James Bowman was born on February 5, 1923 in Washington, D.C. to James E. Bowman, a dentist and Dorothy Bowman, a homemaker. Bowman graduated with honors from Dunbar High School in 1939 and went on to study biology at Howard University where he earned his bachelor's degree in 1943. By attending medical school as part of the U.S. Army Medical Corps at Howard University, Bowman was able to obtain his medical degree in 1946. His intention was to become an Army medical officer, but at the time, segregation prevented it, so Bowman continued his studies in pathology. After an internship at Freedmen's Hospital in Washington, D.C., Bowman did his residency in pathology at St. Luke's Hospital in Chicago from 1947 to 1952.

In 1955, Bowman accepted a position in Iran where he studied favism, a disease which relates to the deficiency of glucose-6-dehydrogenase. From 1961 to 1962, Bowman studied genetics at the Galton Laboratory at the University College London. After returning from London, University of Chicago professor Alf Alving invited Bowman to take a faculty position there in the malaria research unit. His research on enzyme deficiency at the University of Chicago sent him abroad to do population studies. Bowman traveled to Mexico, Ghana, Nigeria, Ethiopia and Uganda among other places. From 1981 to 1982, Bowman studied under the Henry J. Kaiser Senior Fellowship at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University.

An expert in the fields of pathology and genetics and professor emeritus in the departments of pathology and medicine at the University of Chicago, Bowman also served on the Committee on Genetics; the Committee on African and African American Studies; and as a senior scholar for the MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics. He also published more than ninety works in the fields of general human genetics; hematological population genetics; genetic variation among diverse peoples; and ethical, legal and public policy issues in human genetics. One of his most notable books entitled, "Genetic Variation Disorders in People of African Origin," was co-authored with Robert Murray. Bowman and his wife, Barbara, raised one daughter, Valerie Bowman Jarrett.

Bowman passed away on September 28, 2011 at age 88.

Accession Number

A2002.192

Sex

Male

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

9/27/2002

Last Name

Bowman

Marital Status

Married

Organizations
Schools

Paul Laurence Dunbar High School

Howard University

Archival Photo 2
First Name

James

Birth City, State, Country

Washington

HM ID

BOW03

Favorite Season

None

Sponsor

National Science Foundation

State

District of Columbia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Outside of the U.S.

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

2/5/1923

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Potato Salad, Rice, Ham

Death Date

9/28/2011

Short Description

Medical professor, pathologist, and geneticist Dr. James Bowman (1923 - 2011 ) was an expert in genetic pathology and a world traveler. Bowman was professor emeritus in the departments of pathology and medicine at the University of Chicago.

Employment

University of Chicago

St. Luke's Hospital

University College London

Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences

Namazi Hospital

Main Sponsor
Main Sponsor URL
Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
0,0:3554,30:31530,402:74161,971:100348,1363:188430,2440$0,0:65271,1042:172740,2497
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. James Bowman's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. James Bowman lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. James Bowman describes his family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. James Bowman describes his father and mother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. James Bowman describes his childhood in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. James Bowman talks about his favorite teachers at Paul Laurence Dunbar High School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. James Bowman describes his experiences attending Paul Laurence Dunbar High School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. James Bowman talks about winning the District of Columbia singles tennis championship

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. James Bowman describes segregation in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. James Bowman talks about attending Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. James Bowman talks about his professors at Howard University

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. James Bowman describes his extracurricular involvement at Howard University

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Dr. James Bowman describes his experiences attending Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Dr. James Bowman compares the standards of Howard University College of Medicine to other medical schools in the 1940s

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. James Bowman talks about serving in the U.S. Army at the Medical Attrition Laboratory in Chicago, Illinois and Denver, Colorado

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. James Bowman talks about meeting and marrying his wife, HistoryMaker Barbara Bowman

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. James Bowman describes why he moved to Iran in 1955

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. James Bowman talks about studying favism in Iran, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. James Bowman talks about studying favism in Iran, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. James Bowman describes favism

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. James Bowman talks about raising his daughter, HistoryMaker Valerie Bowman Jarrett, in Iran

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. James Bowman describes the cultural experience of living in Iran

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. James Bowman talks about living and working in England

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. James Bowman describes being hired at the University of Chicago

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. James Bowman talks about Dr. Alf Alving

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dr. James Bowman talks about being invited back to Iran to lecture

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. James Bowman describes how the American Central Intelligence Agency's secrets were common knowledge amongst people living in Iran

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. James Bowman describes how a British intelligence secret was shared with him

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. James Bowman talks about the National Security Agency

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. James Bowman describes his research at the University of Chicago

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. James Bowman describes his first research trip to Lagos, Nigeria

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. James Bowman shares an anecdote of the treatment of guests in accordance with Nigerian and Middle Eastern traditions

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. James Bowman describes the tensions of traveling to Uganda

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. James Bowman talks about Dr. John M. Branion Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. James Bowman talks about the various African countries he visited

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. James Bowman describes how he learned of the U.S. Civil Rights Movement while living in Iran

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dr. James Bowman describes his reaction to foreigners' perceptions of the United States

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Dr. James Bowman talks about the importance of understanding different cultures

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. James Bowman comments on diversity from a genetics standpoint

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. James Bowman talks about "nature vs. nurture" and power, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. James Bowman talks about "nature vs. nurture" and power, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. James Bowman talks about the Model Sterilization Law and Buck v. Bell

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. James Bowman talks about eugenics around the world

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. James Bowman talks about eugenicist and physicist William Shockley

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. James Bowman talks about Dr. Frances C. Welsing and inherited disorders

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. James Bowman comments on the ideal of an utopian society

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. James Bowman shares his thoughts on religion

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. James Bowman notes how religion and politics can potentially stunt scientific progress

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. James Bowman shares a story about Dr. Joycelyn Elders

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. James Bowman talks about the politics surrounding stem cell research

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. James Bowman shares his thoughts about the future of genetic research, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. James Bowman shares his thoughts about the future of genetic research, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. James Bowman shares his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. James Bowman reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. James Bowman describes the deaths of each of his parents

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. James Bowman talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. James Bowman reflects upon his contributions to research and teaching in Iran

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Dr. James Bowman provides advice for young people and talks about his wife, HistoryMaker Barbara Bowman

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Dr. James Bowman narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. James Bowman narrates his photographs, pt. 2

DASession

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DAStory

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DATitle
Dr. James Bowman describes why he moved to Iran in 1955
Dr. James Bowman describes being hired at the University of Chicago
Transcript
Okay, so how long were you in Denver [Colorado]?$$We were there for about a year and a half, and then my wife [Barbara Bowman, HM] and I thought there was a chance, you know, should I go back to Chicago [Illinois] to Provident Hospital. I was invited back, but I thought that I had had enough of that, and my wife and I thought that we're not very happy to living, even in that time, under segregated conditions. And my wife and I said, and I said, well, it'd be nice to travel and have somebody pay for it (laughter). And we decided to leave the United States. And then during that time, it was during the McCarthy Era too. It was not very pleasant. And so I happened to be at a meeting in Washington, D.C., the International Geographic Pathology, and I met a friend of mine, who had been at Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and was head of Geographic Pathology. And he said, what are you gonna do when you leave the Army? And I said, well, I was thinking of going somewhere, and I was thinking of going to Africa or to India or some place. And he said, what I heard about an excellent place in Iran. There's a new hospital that's being built, and they want Americans and Iranians to open the hospital. I said, now, that's a rare thing. He said, and they're looking for a chairman of the Department of Pathology. So he gave me the address, and I wrote, which was then the Iran Foundation, which was incorporated in New York. And the members of the board of the Iran Foundation were professors from all over the country, and A. O. Whipple and Eastman from Har--from Hopkins and what have you. So my wife and I were invited out for an interview in New York at a yearly meeting they have there. And there was a large banquet, and my wife and I were circulated by members of the board. And at the end of the dinner, they said, well, Dr. Bowman, we'd like to invite you and your wife to Iran. So we said, yes, because everybody said, ah, that's the craziest thing. You wouldn't do it and why would you go there? And where is Iran and what have you? And I said, (unclear) you know, opportunity. And the salary wasn't bad, and it was tax free, so we thought we could make it. So, we, in 1955, we arrived in Iran, and it's the best thing that ever happened because that is--my work in Iran and the research I did there was eventually, was the reason why I was invited to at--the University of Chicago [Chicago, Illinois].$Now, when you left England, where did you go?$$When I went to England, that is, I said, well, you know, we were looking for something else to do. And I remembered Dr. [Alf] Alving who was the, who initiated the studies on this enzyme deficiency that we were studying in Iran. And I remembered what he said. He said, now, Dr. Bowman, when you come to Chicago [Illinois], he said, I'd like for you to see me, talk to me, look me up. And so I called him up, and he said, Oh, oh, I remember. And he said, come over, I wanna see you. So we started chatting and chatting and chatting, and then the next day, he said, you know what? He said, he said, we'd like to invite you to be on the faculty at the University of Chicago [Chicago, Illinois]. It just came out of the blue. I didn't expect it at all or what have you. And so he said, but, he said, the chairman of the Department of Medicine--at that time, the blood bank was in the Department of Medicine. And since I was a pathologist, and I did all sorts of pathology, blood bank, he said, we need someone in the blood bank. They had the blood bank. And that was, oddly enough, was in the department of medicine, he said, but the chairman, the Department--of Medicine, Dr. Jacobson, is going to be at the International Congress of Hematology, and are you going? I said, yes, I'm going there too, in Mexico. He said, he'll, he'll see you there. And so I saw him at his hotel, and he said, go out, he said, let's go out tomorrow, out to the pyramids. And so he took me out to the pyramids, and so we talked and chatted all day. And after we came back, he said, well, you know, he said, I'd like for you to be on the faculty, just like that. I didn't have an interview or anything else. Of course, I said, well, I said something about an interview. And he said, well, you've been with me all day long (laughter). He said, that's your interview. So that's how I started on the faculty of the University of Chicago with a group that was called the University of Chicago Malaria Research Unit, and they were doing research. And that was a unit that actually worked on and developed on prophylaxis for malaria and for treatment of malaria, right through that unit. But these, this research was done at Statesville Prison, and they were doing other studies too. So that's how I started at the University of Chicago.$$That's a wonderful story. I mean very few people are just invited without having to apply (laughter).$$(Laughter).

Dr. Billie Wright Adams

Medical professor and pediatrician Dr. Billie Wright Adams was born in Bluefield, West Virginia. Her father, William Morris Wright, was a country doctor who accepted chickens and potatoes in lieu of cash for his services. Adams received her B. S. degree from Fisk University in 1950. The following year, she received her M. S. degree in zoology from the University of Indiana in Bloomington. Intending to begin a career in research, but not wanting to be isolated in the laboratory, Adams enrolled in medical school at Howard University. After receiving her M.D. degree in 1960, she focused her efforts on pediatric medicine, completing her residency at Cook County Children's Hospital. She then completed a fellowship in hematology at Cook Country Hospital from 1963 to 1964.

From 1964 to 1967, Adams served as a research associate in the Department of Hematology at the Hektoen Institute for Medical Research. She began teach as a clinical instructor at the Chicago Medical School in 1967. Adams served as an attending at Michael Reese Hospital in the pediatrics department in 1970 and then was appointed chief of the Pediatric Hematology Clinic at Mercy Hospital. Two years later, she joined the faculty of the University of Illinois in the Department of Pediatrics as a clinical assistant instructor. In 1976, she was promoted to clinical associate professor. Adams became the project director in 1980 of a United States Department of Health and Human Services funded grant for a Pediatric Primary Care Residency Program at Mercy Hopsital. From 1981 to 1987, Adams served as the Assistant Program Director of Mercy Hospital & Medical Center’s Department of Pediatrics. Her professional responsibilities over the years have also included acting bureau chief of the Chicago Department of Health, Bureau of Community and Comprehensive Personal Health; former president of the Chicago Pediatrics Society and coordinator of a medical student training program at Cook County Hospital.

Adams was recognized many times for her dedication to pediatric care. In 1997, the Illinois Chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics named her Pediatrician of the Year. She received the 1999 Chicago Medical Society Public Service Award and the 2012 Timuel Black Community Service Award from the Jazz Institute of Chicago. Adams served on the board of the Ounce of Prevention Fund. Adams is the widow of Frank Adams and the mother of Chicago attorney Frank Adams, Jr.

Dr. Billie Wright Adams was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 17, 2002.

Accession Number

A2002.187

Sex

Female

Interview Date

9/17/2002

Last Name

Adams

Marital Status

Widow

Middle Name

Wright

Schools

The Toya School

The Young Street School

Genoa Junior High School

Genoa High School

Fisk University

Indiana University

Howard University

Speakers Bureau

No

First Name

Billie

Birth City, State, Country

Bluefield

HM ID

ADA01

Favorite Season

Fall

State

West Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

West Virginia Mountains, Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Do Unto Others As You Would Have Them Do Unto You.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

5/15/1935

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Watermelon, Fruit

Short Description

Medical professor and pediatrician Dr. Billie Wright Adams (1935 - ) was the program director in the Department of Pediatrics at Mercy Hospital. Adams also served as an associate clinical professor at the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine while maintaining a private practice.

Employment

Cook County Children's Hospital

Mercy Hospital

Chicago Department of Health

Cook County Hospital

University of Illinois College of Medicine

Favorite Color

Black, Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Billie Wright Adams's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams describes her family background

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams talks about her grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams talks about her sister

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams talks about her family's educational background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams describes her father's civic activities in Bluefield, West Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams describes her experience in grade school

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams talks about her experience at Genoa High School in Bluefield, West Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams talks about her experience at Fisk University and her decision to become a doctor

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams talks about her family

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams talks about some of the writers and entertainers who visited her childhood home

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams talks about her childhood experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams talks about her experience at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams talks about her missed opportunities at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams talks about raising her son, Frank McClinton Adams, Jr.

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams talks about her experience in pediatrics

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Billie Wright Adams talks about her experience at Cook County Hospital

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Billie Wright Adams talks about diversity at Cook County Hospital

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Billie Wright Adams talks about the New Cook County Hospital

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Billie Wright Adams describes the type of student she treasures

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Billie Wright Adams talks about how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Billie Wright Adams talks about her regrets

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Billie Wright Adams lists her favorites, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Billie Wright Adams lists her favorites, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

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DAStory

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DATitle
Dr. Billie Wright Adams describes her father's civic activities in Bluefield, West Virginia
Dr. Billie Wright Adams talks about her experience at Cook County Hospital
Transcript
So we knew that it was very important that we have training but even more so that we did community service. My dad [William Morris Wright] was very civic minded and was active there in the city and at the college. He likewise became interested in politics so he did not want an elective office but he did serve as chairman of the democratic branch for the Negroes as they called it, living in Southern West Virginia and was very supportive. And also at that time there was a very active Lincoln University [Chester County, Pennsylvania] alumni club. And as you can imagine in that small state because West Virginia is a small state, that there were few alumnists from Lincoln but the lovely thing about it is that we had Langston Hughes who came to our home. Langston Hughes had graduated from Lincoln and came and spent time at our home and read and we have a book that he signed. Somehow another, the other books were lost in moving but we just of course didn't value it as much. Also Thurgood Marshall had been a graduate of Lincoln, Pennsylvania who had come to Bluefield [West Virginia]. It was not that far away from D.C. and some people would come there sort of as a respite, just to get a little rest. But we did have the sponsorship of the Lincoln Alumni like Horace Mann Bond who was the president of Lincoln, the youngest one, [HM] Julian Bond's father who came to our home. And then when my father [William Morris Wright] died, came there to eulogize my dad on the part of his activity at Lincoln University. So they had people from the capital, Charleston [West Virginia], some of the smaller communities who all got together. And because it was a college town and Bluefield was named as the gateway to the billion dollar coal fields, we didn't have coal mines right in Bluefield but within a radius of twenty some odd miles were coal mines. But in our community we had coal operators, coal owners, the railroad was big. In fact Bluefield was the center for the Norfolk and Western Railroad and that the purpose of that mainly was to transport the coal from the coal fields to other parts going east. And so my dad knew all of those, knew a lot of the people in the community. And I was getting ready to say, with it being the billion dollar coal fields, we also had a lot of musicians who would come there. Some of the big bands we remember. Duke Ellington would bring his band because at the college the sororities and fraternities and the alumni groups would sponsor them in addition to the fact they would go to their one night stands and what we called the coal mines. So I just have good memories of having those people who were in and out of our home and then with my father being a physician, some of the band members who would become ill when they would travel that area, my dad would see them as patients.$With your career, so within the context of knowing the condition of these children and here, and you're working with these children every day, that's what I wanted to know how you deal with attaching and detaching?$$The attachment part is very easy because you always hope that the child will be the mechanism by which this will be a better world. That the child will recognize, respect, the child will then go on to explore their possibilities and again to help us, as I said to make this a better world. So it's easy to attach to children and children respond to you. They can certainly see love and respect. Now the detachment you ask about is a bit more difficult because you know that you have to let go because what is that saying that it is a student and children act as teachers to you. That it is the wise teacher who recognizes that their students can teach them. And I try to be a student of medicine. I can be very opinionated and at times my son [Frank McClinton Adams, Jr.] says judgmental. I hope not so much but absolutely, positively I know that I have some very strong beliefs. It takes a whole lot to get me detached from those beliefs. And I do remember when I first went to Cook County [now called John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County] as an intern and of course if you remember that at that time it was one of the largest hospitals in the world at, I think was it Belleview, but it was the largest hospital with like 3,000 beds. I really became attached to that hospital because I saw it as a place where one could give service and one could learn. I learned so much from my patients. I learned on so many levels and I had made a commitment that I wanted to remain a student of medicine. And yet, I felt having attended Howard Medical School [Howard University School of Medicine] which was a wonderful experience for me. But when I first went to County there were only two black interns my year. I was the only black female at that time and there was another gentleman there who was a graduate of one of the local schools who found it a little difficult to bond with other blacks. But there were some who were in their residency but they interned and trust me that was a lot of work, physical work and a lot of emotional work, but so rewarding. And I learned so much that it stayed with me the rest of my life. And when I rotated as an intern through pediatrics that was then I decided that I wanted to specialize in pediatrics. And I was so impressed with the quality of care, it wasn't perfect but the quality of care and all the good that could be done at that community. That time when I first came, many of the black physicians were not permitted to join the staff of a major hospital and it was then in Chicago [Illinois] that we were--they were instituting the lawsuit--

Dr. Doris Young-McCulley

Doris Jean Young-McCulley was born on April 5, 1947 in Eutaw, Alabama to Lucille and Willie Young. The oldest of six children, Young-McCulley has served the medical needs of Chicago residents for over 25 years.

Earning a bachelor's degree in biology from Gustavus Adulphus College in Saint Peter, Minnesota in 1969, Young-McCulley taught marine biology at Kennedy High School in Edina, Minnesota. Rejoining her family in Chicago, Illinois, Young-McCulley earned an M.B.A. in hospital administration from the University of Chicago in 1971. That year, she worked as a night administrator at the Chicago Foundling Home. She enrolled in Rush University's Medical College, completing the requirements for an M.D. in 1974. In 1979, she became an attending physician at Cook County Hospital and a senior attending physician at Provident Medical Center. The following year, she became an associate attending physician at South Shore Hospital and a consulting physician at Jackson Park Hospital. She served in all four of these positions simultaneously. In 1989, while still caring for patients at Jackson Park and South Shore Hospitals, she was hired as an attending physician at Northwestern Memorial Hospital. An associate attending physician at Michael Reese Hospital since 1993, she also serves as an attending physician at Little Company of Mary Hospital in Evergreen Park, Illinois.

Young-McCulley has taught medicine throughout her career. She began in the Infectious Disease Teaching Program at Cook County Hospital in 1974, and she taught for six years as a professor of medicine at Northwestern University Medical School. She volunteers at South Suburban Hospice in Flossmoor, Illinois as a medical director and counsels children at Brave Heart. She has also been an administrator, serving as medical director for several medical centers, including: Provident Hospital, Bogan/ DuSable Adolescent Health Center and Crane Adolescent Health Center. Young-McCulley and her husband, Bernard McCulley, have been married since 1970.

Accession Number

A2002.104

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/12/2002

Last Name

Young-McCulley

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Organizations
Schools

John Farren Elementary School

Du Sable Leadership Academy

University of Chicago Booth School of Business

Gustavus Adolphus College

First Name

Doris

Birth City, State, Country

Eutaw

HM ID

YOU02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Warm

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

4/5/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Greens

Short Description

Attending physician, medical professor, and medical director Dr. Doris Young-McCulley (1947 - ) was the former head of Provident Hospital in Chicago, Illinois.

Employment

Chicago Foundlings Home

Cook County Hospital

Provident Medical Center

South Shore Hospital

Jackson Park Hospital

Northwestern Memorial Hospital

Michael Reese Hospital

Little Company of Mary Hospital

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Doris Young-McCulley's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Doris Young-McCulley lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about her family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Doris Young-McCulley shares stories about her great-great-grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Doris Young-McCulley continues to talk about her great-great-grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Doris Young-McCulley shares stories about her ancestors

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Doris Young-McCulley describes the sights, smells, and sounds of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Doris Young-McCulley remembers her first experience of segregation

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Doris Young-McCulley describes growing up on a farm and her grade school years

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about her father's value for education

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Doris Young-McCulley describes her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about her parents

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about her family's move to Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about her inspiration to become a doctor

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Doris Young-McCulley recalls influential people at DuSable High School like her counselor, Katherine Bogan

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about her high school activities

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Doris Young-McCulley describes her strong support system

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Doris Young-McCulley describes her college experience at Gustavus Adolphus College

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Doris Young-McCulley describes her path to Rush Medical College

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about her academic progress at Gustavus Adolphus College

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Doris Young-McCulley describes her experience of racial discrimination at the University of Chicago and at Rush Medical College

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about her father's experiences with racial discrimination in the U.S. Army

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Doris Young-McCulley describes the student population at Rush Medical College

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about the organ system approach at Rush Medical College

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Doris Young-McCulley describes the impact of medical school on her personal life

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Doris Young-McCulley shares memorable experiences as a hospital administrator and doctor

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about preventative care and medical management

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Doris Young-McCulley discusses urban health issues

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Doris Young-McCulley describes health issues affecting African Americans in urban environments

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about the history of Provident Hospital and her role as its medical director

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Doris Young-McCulley discusses factors behind hospital closures including the closure of Provident Hospital

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about the importance of health care education

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Doris Young-McCulley reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Doris Young-McCulley reflects on how her parents would view her achievements

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Doris Young-McCulley narrates her photographs, pt.1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Doris Young-McCulley narrates her photographs, pt.2

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$4

DAStory

4$2

DATitle
Doris Young-McCulley shares stories about her great-great-grandmother
Doris Young-McCulley talks about the history of Provident Hospital and her role as its medical director
Transcript
Now you had an ancestor that was brought over here in 1829.$$Yeah.$$Okay, you want to talk about that?$$Well, that was my great-great-grandmother [Lucinda Patterson]. She was brought over as a, well, as a preteen in 1829, and sold in, in South Carolina. I don't know how she, she made it to Alabama. But she was married to a part Indian that I was telling you about, my grandfather, grandfather's father. And I think there are a lot of stories about her that are very significant. Number one, she was sold as a slave, and she remembered being a slave. And she was a hard worker, and she was blessed with long life. As a matter of fact, she was more than 115 years old when she died. There is one of the, my favorite stories is that she never suffered. She died probably what sounds like congestive heart failure. She died in her sleep. Even at the time of her death, she could still see well. She was not totally senile. She was sewing, making a quilt the night of her death, and told my mother [Lucille Young] that she was going to bed early because she thought she was catching a cold, and never woke up. And there are many stories about how she loved to fish, and she would take my mother fishing with her. And she--my mother was actually her babysitter. And they would go fishing, and Grandma Netta would take her, her some food wrapped in some paper, and she'd carry it in her bosom. And when she said she was hungry, she'd pull it out of her sweaty bosom, according to my mother (laughter), and pass it to her for her to eat. And then she would take her hat off her head, and dip up water, and give it to her and expect her to drink this (laughter) water out of her sweaty hat. And that was one of my favorite stories, you know, 'cause you can imagine how you as a child would feel if that would happen to you today. The other stories that I've, I've heard about her was that she was a remarkable woman that, that loved people and service, that she would--and this was not only told by my mother's side, by other pe--older people that knew her, that she would, she considered it her appointed duty to go around and help all the unwed, new mothers in the area. She would go to and visit them, and she'd tell them how to take care of the unborn or newborn baby. She would show them how to make things to, to--for the, the baby. She would teach them how to care for different ailments. You know, one of the things that I learned in medical school was management of asthma, and to know that my great-great-grandmother would, was able to think of how to provide the first tent--oxygen tent. She, her homemade oxygen tent was to put a kettle on over a sheet--oil cloth sheet--and have the baby's head in there. And you know, I think that that was unique. The other thing was that she was very informed with the various herbs and roots that were helpful for care. And, and I've learned these stories over the years. One of my visits, well, about five years ago to one my aunts, she was showing me flagstone, which is one of the herbs that's there for upset stomach. And she gave me a piece of it, and I planted it in my backyard, and you know, just as a memory, thinking about it, I've--and I was thinking that I would make tea out of it and see what it tastes like--different herbal remedies for, like for example, menstrual cramps. Her herbal arrangement for that was nutmeg tea. And I know, just from my scien--scientific background--that nutmeg is very high in prostaglandin inhibitors, and that is probably the same inhibitor that we take Motrin, Anaprox today for. And so that--and you know, from a scientific basis, you could see it might help with premenstrual or menstrual cramps, so that they, and they're very similar. As I go, I, I've, I love to hear the herbal remedies for various ailments. And to know that my great-great-grandmother was the one teaching these things over the years has been an inspiration to me.$Now, I don't wanna exhaust this topic, if you, you have something else to, you wanna add something else to it. But I wanna talk about Provident [Hospital] too. And--$$Okay.$$--and so.$$You know, Provident was another one of those challenges that came up. And in my mind I felt that there was a need for me to give back to the community. I still, and I always feel that because, as you said, that I've had what looks like an undue portion of giving to me throughout my life. And so Provident was going to be my endeavor. I, I have always felt very bad that we have very few institutions that stand over--and those things are important. You know, you say well, institutions are only buildings, but buildings are important because they're physical inspirations of what our past has been. And it was very significant to me that Provident should remain as one of those institutions that had survived more than a hundred years. So when I was asked if I wanted to go back and be the medical director there, I thought I had put all the pieces together in terms of the education, etc., and the connection with the other young committed clinicians, that I should be able to do this. And it was a big challenge because there were a lot of problems facing Provident at the time that I made the transition over as medical director.$$Now before we go further, I think that for the sake of this tape that's gonna last long beyond us, I hope, can you explain the historical significance of Provident Hospital, and what is Provident Hospital?$$Provident Hospital historically was established in 1930 [sic, 1891], I believe. It was a black hospital that serviced the black community, for the most part, although--the poor community as in general. It was significant because it was also a training educational site for young black physicians along the way and for many black nurses, so that it had a lot of history associated with it. It had been affiliated with the, certainly, the tuberculosis epidemic in Chicago. It provided the first chest x-ray testing sites for the bronze community. It was one of the first hospitals to have a director affiliation with University of Chicago [Chicago, Illinois] for the training of young black obstetricians, gynecologists in particular. So it, it had significant historical firsts. It was the first hospital where Daniel Hale Williams had performed that historical open-heart procedure on a young black that had been stabbed outside of the hospital.$$This is the first such procedure in the United States--$$First--$$--on anyone.$$--in anyone.$$Okay.$$So, it was--it's been billed as the first open-heart procedure--and so that there were a lot of historical firsts related to this hospital. And I, for one, was very passionate about the survival of the hospital, so that when I transferred over, it had been plagued with problems related to medical staff organization, trying to man--manage the health staff systems, nursing, and integrating all the service delivery. And I felt that my training over the years would be helpful, so I came over as the medical director. And it was during that period that many hospitals in the Chicago area were closing. And Provident had significant debt load, with the mortgage having built a new hospital owed to the Department of Health and Human Services, as well as debts owed to its vendors. And it did not survive the closure.