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Dr. Julius W. Garvey

Surgeon and medical professor Dr. Julius W. Garvey was born on September 17, 1933 in Kingston, Jamaica to United Negro Improvement Association founder Marcus Garvey and activist Amy Jacques Garvey. The younger of two sons, Garvey was raised in Jamaica. He graduated from Wolmer's Trust High School for Boys in Kingston in 1950; and then earned his B.S. degree from McGill University in Montréal, Canada in 1957, and his M.D., C.M. degree from McGill University Faculty of Medicine in 1961.

Garvey began his medical career by interning at The Royal Victoria Hospital in Montréal in 1961. In 1962, he began his first residency in surgery at The Mount Sinai Hospital of New York, completing his residency in 1965. Garvey also completed residencies in surgery at the Harlem Hospital Center in 1968, and in thoracic & cardiovascular surgery at the University of Maryland Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland in 1970.Garvey became an instructor in surgery at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1971. The following year, he joined the Albert Einstein College of Medicine as an instructor in surgery, later becoming an assistant professor of surgery. While teaching at Columbia University and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Garvey also served as an attending surgeon in cardiothoracic surgery at the Harlem Hospital Center and Montefiore Hospital, as well as associate attending and head of thoracic surgery at the Montefiore Morrisania Affiliate. In 1974, Garvey was named attending-in-charge of thoracic surgery at Queens Hospital Center, in addition to serving as an attending surgeon in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery at the Long Island Jewish Medical Center. Garvey became the Long Island Jewish Medical Center’s acting program director for the Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery from 1980 to 1982, and assistant professor of surgery at State University of New York at Stony Brook from 1978 to 1988. Garvey also started his own private practice in 1983. Garvey served as chief of thoracic and vascular surgery at Queens Hospital Center from 1993 to 2006, and chief of vascular and thoracic surgery at Wyckoff Heights Medical Center from 2000 to 2004. In addition to his other medical appointments, Garvey served as an attending surgeon at North Shore University Hospital, Franklin General Hospital, Massapequa General Hospital, Catholic Medical Centers, and Little Neck Community Hospital.

Garvey was a certified fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, the American College of Surgeons, the International College of Surgeons, and the American College of Chest Physicians, as well as a diplomate of the Board of Cardiothoracic & Vascular Surgery, the American Board of Surgery, the American Academy of Wound Management, and the American College of Phlebology.

Garvey and his wife, Constance Lynch Garvey, have three children: Nzinga, Makeda, and Paul.

Dr. Julius W. Garvey was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 8, 2016 and March 13, 2017.

Accession Number

A2016.108

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/08/2016 |and| 04/13/2017

Last Name

Garvey

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Winston

Schools

Jonathan Robinson High School

McGill University

First Name

Julius

Birth City, State, Country

Kingston

HM ID

GAR04

Favorite Season

Summer

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica, Europe

Favorite Quote

No problem mon. (with Jamaican accent)

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

8/16/1933

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

Jamaica

Favorite Food

Aki and sawfish

Short Description

Surgeon and medical professor Dr. Julius W. Garvey (1933 - ), son of Marcus Garvey, practiced thoracic and vascular surgery in greater New York, and was chief of thoracic and vascular surgery at Queens Hospital Center and at Wyckoff Heights Medical Center.

Employment

Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons

Albert Einstein College of Medicine

State University of New York

University of Maryland Hospital

Harlem Hospital Center

The Mount Sinai Hospital of New York

Montefiore Hospital

Montefiore Morrisania Affiliate

Long Island Jewish Medical Center

Queens Hospital Center

Little Neck Community Hospital

Catholic Medical Centers

Massapequa General Hospital

Franklin General Hospital

Wyckoff Heights Medical Center

North Shore University Hospital

Garvey Vascular Specialists

Favorite Color

Blue

Dr. James Rosser, Jr.

Hospital chief executive and medical professor James C. Rosser, Jr. was born on September 14, 1954 in Rome, Mississippi. He attended James C. Rosser Elementary school and graduated from Gentry High School in 1971. After briefly attending the University of Florida, Rosser enrolled in the University of Mississippi and graduated from there with his B.A. degree in chemistry and biology in 1974. He received his M.D. degree from the University of Mississippi School of Medicine in 1980. Rosser then completed his surgical residency at Akron General Medical Center where he served as chief resident from 1984 to 1985.

Upon completion of his residency, Rosser began an academic/private surgical practice at Akron General Medical Center and accepted a position as assistant professor of surgery at Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine. In addition, Rosser was appointed as assistant professor of surgery at the Yale University School of Medicine, and as professor of surgery at the Albert Einstein School of Medicine. His hospital appointments include Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam, Netherlands and St. Francis Hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. From 1994 to 2002, Rosser served as chief of videoendoscopic surgery at Yale-New Haven Hospital. Then, in 2002, he was named chief of minimally invasive surgery and director of the Advanced Medical technology Institute at Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City.

Rosser has given more than 350 invited lectures around the world on topics ranging from education to remote control surgery. He has written over fifty peer-reviewed articles, sixteen chapters in books currently in print, and eleven digital books. He holds two patents and he has been credited with the development of several products and appliances. For his efforts, Dr. Rosser has received numerous recognitions and awards, including the NAACP Living Legend Award in Medicine, the National Role Model Award from Minority Access, Inc., the SAGES Gerald Marks Lifetime Achievement Award, and the Society of Laparoscopic Surgeons’ EXCEL award.

Rosser is married to Dana Mitchell Rosser. They have five children: Kevin S. Rosser, Duane C. Rosser, Angela N. Rosser, Taylor E. Rosser, and Tianna M. Rosser.

James C. Rosser, Jr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 4, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.177

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/4/2013

Last Name

Rosser

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

C.

Schools

Gentry High School

University of Mississippi

University of Mississippi School of Medicine

James C. Rosser Elementary School

First Name

James

Birth City, State, Country

Rome

HM ID

ROS05

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Maui, Hawaii

Favorite Quote

You Don't Know What You Don't Know.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

9/14/1954

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Miami

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Spaghetti, Catfish

Short Description

Hospital chief executive and medical professor Dr. James Rosser, Jr. (1954 - ) served as the chief of minimally invasive surgery and director of the Advanced Medical Technology Institute at the Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City.

Employment

Akron General Medical Center

Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine

Yale University School of Medicine

Albert Einstein Medical Center

Children's Hospital Medical Center

Union Hospital

Bellevue Hospital

Washington General Hospital

Riverview Hospital

Providence Hospital

Middlesex Hospital

Best Israel Medical Center

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. James Rosser, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about his maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. recalls the origin of his nickname

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers his mother's personality

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about growing up in Mississippi during the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his father's education

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about his father's service in the U.S. Marine Corps

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about his father's experiences during World War II

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about how his parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. lists his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers the influence of his maternal grandmother

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his earliest memory

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about the music scene in Moorhead, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes the black community in Moorhead, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers his early aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. recalls the influence of comic books and television

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers black representation in the media

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. recalls his family's role in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers the East Moorhead School in Moorhead, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. recalls his parents' role in the voter registration movement

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers his early adolescence

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers visiting Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes the white resistance to desegregation

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes the resources at black public schools in Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers his influential teachers

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about school desegregation in Indianola, Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about his dream of becoming a doctor

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his aspiration to play college football

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. recalls the obstacles to his enrollment at the University of Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers his experiences of discrimination at Gentry High School in Indianola, Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers matriculating at the University of Florida

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his experiences of discrimination at the University of Mississippi

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers his transition to medical school

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers meeting and marrying his wife, Dana Rosser

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. recalls his near expulsion from medical school

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers graduating from the University of Mississippi School of Medicine in Oxford, Mississippi

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his decision to enroll at the Brompton Cardiothoracic Institute in London, England

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers the mentorship of Dr. James D. Hardy

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. remembers his influential medical professors

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. recalls moving to Akron, Ohio

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about the invention of laparoscopic surgery

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his contributions to laparoscopic surgery

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$4

DAStory

9$9

DATitle
Dr. James Rosser, Jr. talks about growing up in Mississippi during the Civil Rights Movement
Dr. James Rosser, Jr. describes his experiences of discrimination at the University of Mississippi
Transcript
There's a theory that Mississippi was the toughest place to be raised for black folks in this country. I mean, or, to live.$$Oh, absolutely, it's tough because the oppression was everywhere and you being in your place was everywhere. And see, my, my [maternal] grandparents [Pearl Mitchell and Ludie Mitchell] didn't, didn't vote. But, but my dad [James Rosser, Sr.] and my mom [Marjorie Mitchell Rosser] they were, I'll never forget going to the courthouse in, in '64 [1964], with shotguns, with white people lacing the courthouse when they repealed that you had to go through these tests and everything, the Voting Rights Act [Voting Rights Act of 1965], they were one of the first people to go there and vote. And then subsequently my dad and mom served on the election board. But, they had to go vote under the threat of their lives. I don't think people understand that now. You talk to a youngster now and they can't even fathom that. But here I am, a little kid, my parents gave me front row seats, we, we faced that danger as a family. And, my, my dad and my mom, they were absolute leaders during the Civil Rights Movement. But, a leader of a different kind. The black people called them Uncle Toms, the white people called them agitators, so they were right in the middle. And like my dad said, that's about where we need to be. Where black people didn't, didn't necessarily agree with everything they did. White people didn't necessarily agree with everything they did, now I'll giv- they did. Now, I'll give you an example, this is a burning memory. In Moorhead, Mississippi, where I grew up is in the Delta in Mississippi [Mississippi Delta], the Civil Rights Movement was in full swing, it was probably '64 [1964] or '65 [1965]. Freedom Riders were big. And, they boycotted the town, the, the business district of Moorhead, because we had to go into a drugstore, we couldn't have a malt, a milkshake, we had to get it in the back, this sort of thing. So, they locked down the town, boycotted the whole town. Well, one of the people in one of the stores they boycotted was a Mr. Harry Diamond, Diamond's Department Store. At the time Mr. Diamond was just, you know, as far as I'm concerned, white. But, he was really Jewish, all right. So, they boycotted Mr. Diamond's store, well my dad took offense to that. Because, he just said, "Two wrongs don't make a right." Harry Diamond really all his life had, you know, embraced black people. So, I'll never forget at the height of this boycott, where people are down there with pitchforks and everything like that, signs, my daddy came home on a Saturday. My dad never gets home on a Saturday, because he, my dad was a school principal. But, that was his part-time job. He was, he was, doing crops, selling produce, he was an entrepreneur really. I think that's where I get that from, being an entrepreneur. And he said, "You know what? We're going in town." That was rare. And he did something else rare, he gave us a dollar apiece. My dad doesn't give money for you to go into town like that, that's just, he's an ex-Marine [U.S. Marine Corps] and that was just frivolous. But, on this occasion he said, "I'm giving you a dollar and we're gonna go downtown and we're gonna buy something we don't even need from Harry Diamond." I'll never forget us, get, forget what we did, forget what we did. We all got in our Sunday best. My dad went in and I saw his Marine uniform and his .45, he put the holster on. And we get in the car we all go down. I'll never forget how the people parted as my dad's car came up. And the people, there was a big crowd of people blocking all the, the, the highway, the, the, the street. And so, it parted and we came in and parked. And then my dad got out and it was the first time I ever seen him open the door for my mama (laughter). He was that kind of guy. And we got out and he, he started walking and people just naturally parted, not a word being said. Then all of sudden he stopped right at the back of the car. And I'm saying, "Why is my daddy stopping with these people crazy out here, right now. Let's keep moving." That's me saying as a little child. And he stopped and turned around to address the crowd. And he said, "I'm getting ready to go into Mr. Harry Diamond's department store, and I'm gonna buy something I don't even need. And I'm gonna buy something I don't even need because, let me tell you, two wrongs don't make a right." And he then pointed out, "The shoes on your baby's feet, where'd you get 'em from?" "Mr. Diamond." "Did you pay for it in cash or credit?" "He gave me credit." And he went around and pointed people out in the crowd and basically reviewed everything this man had done. And he said, "Look, I want you to know two wrongs don't make a right. And I'm gonna tell ya right now and I'm going over here and I'm gonna buy this and nobody's gonna stop me." Everybody opened up, my dad walked in, we bought something, came back. And then next day, every merchant was boycotted except Mr. Harry Diamond.$Were you prepared, I mean, you know?$$Was we, were--no I wasn't prepared.$$Okay.$$I had to work a lot harder 'cause I didn't have all the courses that these kids had. I had to come in there and, man, work hard. I'm from a handicapped situation that wasn't my own making. But, we never complained, complained, we just adapted. I'll never forget, the, the black people there it was just amazing because nobody had gotten anything more than a C from English lit before, or English comp, as, as a black person. 'Cause every black person knew every black person on the campus of University of Mississippi [Oxford, Mississippi]. And what your grades were. So, the thing that when I came out and I had got a B in English comp it was like it went through wildfire. And was (unclear) 'cause nobody had done well. Had all these great black kids who came from unprepared situations who always wound up dropping out. And I'll never forget that was a source of pride. Because they would say we weren't gonna be able to do with this sort of thing and we would do it. And I came there, I was a youngster, I mean 'cause I was always ahead. They couldn't even figure out how the heck did you get here this young, and how you staying here and doing well. So, we were able, I was able to establish my reputation there as being a, of being a, a, a great student. And the first black fraternity on campus was Omega Psi Phi [Omega Psi Phi Fraternity], and I was one of the founding members of that. Eta Zeta Chapter in, in '73 [1973], they had not had a black Greek society on campus.$$Now, composition I, I was just thinking that composition that is one thing that University of Mississippi is known for. It's known for its English department?$$Yeah.$$And its writing courses if nothing else 'cause (unclear)--$$And it's tough.$$--all the writers in Mississippi that have, have come out of--$$It's tough.$$--(unclear) have taught there like Faulkner [William Faulkner], so?$$Oh yeah! Yeah so, so that was a, but, but, people weren't doing well. You have to realize at that time three black people couldn't meet for more than fifteen minutes in one spot on our campus. That was in the rule book (laughter). That was in the rule book. But, you know what there was so many good people. Friends today, Mikey Brunt [L. Michael Brunt], who's at Wash U [Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri] who's an unbelievable world class surgeon. He was a guy that befriended me. And to this day, you know, we have just such good feelings about, about each other. You know, and he didn't go to University of Mississippi medical school [University of Mississippi School of Medicine, Oxford, Mississippi]; he went to another place. But, but it's just a beautiful thing to talk about those days in organic chemistry. And all, we always were in those courses together. And he always spoke to me, always befriended me. I mean a lot good people were there. And really, for the most part, I, I think I got through there without a, a lot of problems.$$Okay, how did, I mean did the black students study together, did you have a, were they organized?$$No, no, socially everybody was a crab in the barrel thing. Uh, you know, I mean really wasn't that tight camaraderie everybody wanted to think they were special, and, and individual and, and they didn't do that much. And, and in fact most of the time people weren't doing well as they had done before and they kind of kept that inside. I saw we had a lot of people that would drop out.$$No, Black Student Union?$$(Unclear) yes, they did but it wasn't strong, you know what I mean. As strong as (unclear) we had little simple things, some little organization things. But, I wasn't, I wasn't really a part of that, as much. Because I was trying to get out of there, I think. Well, 'cause I, you know, I wanted to move on. I wanted to move on. The whole point why I accelerated through high school [Gentry High School, Indianola, Mississippi] and through college was to get to do what I wanted to do quicker, you know. I was pushing for that.$$Okay, okay so was there any particular teachers or administrators or students at the University of Mississippi that stand out in terms of their association with you or?$$Not really, because you know that was a big situation, sterile environment. Not really had anybody that was forceful, you were, it was, you were on your own (laughter). You know, you were on your own. And so, no, nobody there. I was just, I didn't want to fail. I didn't want to go home and have people point at me, "Hey there goes Butch Rosser [HistoryMaker Dr. James Rosser, Jr.], he could of done this. He could of done that." I heard that all my life, you know. Somebody went somewhere and could of done this, could of done that. They're still living on what they could of done. I, I didn't wanna do that, I had a fear of failure, I really did.$$Okay.$$A fear of failure.

Clive Callender

Surgeon and medical professor Clive Callender was born on November 16, 1936 in New York, New York. Callender lived in a foster home and then with his father, until his stepmother had to be hospitalized. His Aunt Ella took him in and began his faith-based life. Through his involvement with Ebenezer Gospel Tabernacle at the age of seven, Callender decided to become a medical missionary. After graduating from Commerce High School, Callender received his B.S. degree in chemistry and physiology from New York City’s Hunter College. He went on to attend Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee, where he received his M.D. degree in 1963.

Callender completed a series of residencies at Harlem Hospital, Howard University Hospital, Freedmen’s Hospital and Memorial Hospital for Cancer and Allied Disease. In 1968, he returned to Howard University Hospital to become chief resident. The following year, Callender became an instructor at Howard University. In 1970, Callender served as a medical officer at D.C. General Hospital. He was then invited to Nigeria’s Port Harcourt General Hospital at the end of the country’s Biafran Civil War, where for nine months he fulfilled his life’s goal of becoming a medical missionary. In 1971, Callender received a two-year postdoctoral fellowship through the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to study organ transplant medicine. He studied at the University of Minnesota under Dr. John Najaraian and Dr. Richard Simmons. In 1973, Callender was promoted to the rank of assistant professorship at Howard University Hospital’s medical school and founded the Howard University Hospital Transplant Center. He discovered that the greatest obstacle in transplant medicine was the scarcity of donors and he strove to increase the number of African American organ donors. In 1991, he founded the National Minority Organ Tissue Transplant Education Program (MOTTEP). Two years later, MOTTEP received a $1.2 million in funding from NIH’s Office of Research on Minority Health to develop a minority donor strategic plan and implementation in eleven cities. In 1995, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) awarded National MOTTEP a $5.8 million to expand into fifteen new cities. One year later, Callender was appointed chairman of the Department of Surgery and the first Lasalle D. Lefall, Jr. Professor of Surgery at Howard University College of Medicine.

Callender has served as a spokesperson for organ donation at more than 1000 meetings and is a member of numerous professional societies. He has authored over 125 scientific publications on transplantation. Callender appeared on many national television shows including the Oprah Show, Nightline, CBS Evening News and CNN News. He and his wife Fern, have raised three children: Joseph, Ealena and Arianne.

Clive Callender was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 25, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.146

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/25/2012

Last Name

Callender

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

O.

Schools

Commerce High School

Hunter College

Meharry Medical College

First Name

Clive

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

CAL04

Favorite Season

None

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

To God Be The Glory.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

11/16/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken, Bananas, Corn

Short Description

Surgeon and medical professor Clive Callender (1936 - ) is an internationally recognized leader in organ donation advocacy and the founder of The National Minority Organ Tissue Transplant Education Program (MOTTEP).

Employment

Howard University Hospital

Howard University

National Institute of Health (NIH)

D.C. General Hospital

Howard University Hospital Kidney and Liver Transplant

Favorite Color

Blue, Lavender, Purple

Timing Pairs
0,0:214670,2954$0,0:9019,108:10020,158:32450,482:34050,495:41490,603:61850,887:99805,1348:107230,1483:107980,1493:109255,1515:109855,1528:132444,1844:158058,2214:158555,2222:197711,2735:219824,3042:222560,3088:229932,3201:248831,3421:255210,3492
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Clive Callender's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Clive Callender lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Clive Callender talks about his maternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Clive Callender talks about his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Clive Callender talks about paternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Clive Callender talks about his parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Clive Callender explains why he was raised by his aunt, Ella Waterman

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Clive Callender talks about his religious upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Clive Callender describes the role his father played in his life during his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Clive Callender talks about his childhood dream of becoming a medical missionary

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Clive Callender talks about the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood in Harlem, New York

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Clive Callender talks about his grade school years at P.S. 113 in New York, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Clive Callender describes the differences between him and his twin brother

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Clive Callender talks about ethnic distinctions within the African American community

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Clive Callender talks about the honors program he was in at Commerce High School in New York, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Clive Callender talks about being hospitalized for eighteen months with pulmonary tuberculosis

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Clive Callender talks about a mentor he had while hospitalized

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Clive Callender talks about his lung surgery

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Clive Callender talks about how he was not afraid during his illness because of his faith

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Clive Callender talks his role models and uncles, Drs. Vernal and Herbert Cave

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Clive Callender talks about his first year at Hunter College in New York, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Clive Callender talks about enrolling in Hunter College in New York, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Clive Callender talks about the turning point in his academic career at Hunter College in New York, New York

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Clive Callender talks about being accepted to Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Clive Callender describes an influential physiology professor at Hunter College in New York, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Clive Callender explains how his church raised money to send him to medical school

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Clive Callender talks about being the top student in his class at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Clive Callender talks about his professors at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Clive Callender talks about his experiences at hospitals in Ohio, during an externship and as a surgical intern

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Clive Callender talks about medical advances in treating tuberculosis

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Clive Callender describes why he transferred from Harlem Hospital to Howard University Hospital

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Clive Callender talks about his experience being active in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Clive Callender describes how he met his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Clive Callender talks about being a medical missionary in Port Harcourt, Nigeria pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Clive Callender talks about being a medical missionary in Port Harcourt, Nigeria pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Clive Callender describes how Nigerians reacted to death

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Clive Callender talks about why he thinks that all people of color descended from Africans should visit Africa

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Clive Callender talks about his missionary work in Nigeria

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Clive Callender talks about his memories of his time in Nigeria

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Clive Callender talks about his time at the transplant program at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, Minnesota

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Clive Callender talks about working with Dr. Samuel Kountz, the first African American transplant surgeon

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Clive Callender talks about starting the transplant program at Howard University Hospital

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Clive Callender describes the study he conducted with Dr. James Bayton to understand why African Americans are reluctant to be organ donors

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Clive Callender talks about the reasons African Americans are reluctant to become kidney donors

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Clive Callender talks about the formation of the District of Columbia Organ Donor program in 1982

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Clive Callender talks about the success of the Dow Chemical Company's Take Initiative Program

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Clive Callender talks about the conception of the National Minority Organ Tissue Transplant Education Program (M.O.T.T.E.P.)

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Clive Callender talks about securing funding for the National Minority Organ Tissue Transplant Education Program (M.O.T.T.E.P.)

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Clive Callender talks about the success of the National Minority Organ Tissue Transplant Education Program (M.O.T.T.E.P.)

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Clive Callender talks about the challenges the National Minority Organ Tissue Transplant Education Program (M.O.T.T.E.P.) faced working in the Native American community

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Clive Callender talks about National Minority Organ Tissue Transplant Education Program's (M.O.T.T.E.P.) efforts to educate people on health and preventative care

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Clive Callender talks about the donor shortage in the United States and the cost of addressing the problem

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Clive Callender explains the need to educate minority communities about stem cell transplantation pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Clive Callender explains the need to educate minority communities about stem cell transplantation pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Clive Callender talks about health issues in the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Clive Callender talks about overcoming religious objections to organ donation

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Clive Callender talks about the "Be Blessed Model"

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Clive Callender talks about becoming chair of the department of surgery at Howard University College of Medicine in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Clive Callender talks about effect of the environment on people's health

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Clive Callender talks about his thoughts on the Affordable Care Act and universal healthcare

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Clive Callender explains his medical philosophy

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Clive Callender explains what he would do differently in his career

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Clive Callender reflects on his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Clive Callender shares some stories of successful transplant patients

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Clive Callender talks about his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Clive Callender talks about his wife, children, and twin brother

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Clive Callender talks about how thankful he is for his health

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Clive Callender talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Clive Callender narrates his photographs

DASession

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Clive Callender talks about the "Be Blessed Model"
Clive Callender talks about working with Dr. Samuel Kountz, the first African American transplant surgeon
Transcript
Okay, you had something called the "Be Blessed Model"?$$Well, one of the things that we developed after our last grant from N.I.H. [National Institutes of Health] was to look at end-stage renal disease and find out what really is the causation factor. And as we look at some work done by [Dr.] Jules Harrell at Howard University [Washington, D.C.] who started his effort in 1982 and others across the country, we recognized that part and parcel of it institutionalized racism. Part and parcel of it is doing those things that are contrary to the soul and the mind of mankind. And out of it we've evolved--actually, Dr. Alonzo Campbell at Howard University was part of our team, evolved the "Be Blessed Model" which looks at the biological aspects of it, the environmental aspects of it, the behavioral aspects of it, the willingness to love, the willingness to forgive. And as we've looked at those elements of it, we have recognized that one aspect of it that most people don't even think about, but a very positive aspect of it is, is spirituality. And so as we've looked at, and when, as we put together "Be Blessed Model", we, we identified those factors that are associated with positivity and good health. And those factors that are associated with negativity and bad health, and so if you promote the positive, then what will happen will be, you win that race. If you promote the negative, that is hostility, lack of forgiveness, lack of love, then you will promote the losing the race--I'm sorry, the winning the race and dying early. Okay, that's the bottom line. If you, if you win the race, that means you die early. If you lose the race, that means that you have adopted those positive elements of forgiveness, of love and therefore, you will not be likely to be as afflicted by those negative elements and, and have a lot of hostility because it turns out, that institutionalized racism, hostility and hating are, are factors that result in you dying early. And so this then is what the "Be Blessed Model" is all about, promoting those elements that are spiritually positive and going away--doing away with those elements that are negative. One of the things that is associated with obesity is depression and, and not having love in your life. And so you eat so much, and you get too fat. And then you get too fat and you also get kidney disease, you get hypertension and those other things. So that this is what the "Be Blessed Model" is all about. And one of the things we'd like to do, apply broadly, is to see how we can not only have this as something that we've tested and done with some volunteer groups, but to see how this is done across the country, how--and if we can promote these positive attitudes and, and positive spirituality elements, if that then will help us turn around this negative tendency that we have towards winning that race from the cradle to the grace--to the grave, a race that we want to lose.$Now, Dr. [Samuel] Kountz, he, he's an African American?$$Yes, he was actually from Arkansas and wound up in Stanford [University, Palo Alto, California], and then after exceling in Stanford, was, he was appointed as the Chairman of Surgery at [State University of New York] Downstate Medical College [New York, New York]. And so shortly after I finished my training at University of Minnesota [Minneapolis, Minnesota] [clearing throat], I found the opportunity to work with him on weekends and often so that while I did my transplant training at University of Minnesota, and you might read some places that (laughter), that I trained under [Dr. Samul] Sam Kountz, it's not actually true. I did my training with John Najarian, but when I returned as a fully-trained surgeon, I spent a lot of time with Sam Kountz, learning from him, the arts and science of transplant surgery as he had learned them. And he was one of the pioneers, it was an opportunity to learn a lot from him. It was interesting as well to work with him and Khalid Butts who is, who was his right hand there because in 1980, he actually died of complications of high blood pressure. You'll actually read in the literature that he died of something he contracted in Africa, but the truth of the matter is that he actually died of complications of high blood pressure. We, as doctors, aren't always good patients. We don't always take our medication as we should. And he developed complications of high blood pressure, which resulted in him being in the hospital and one of the medications he took resulted in him getting a seizure and convulsions and because of the fact that he had some anatomical differences in his neck, they had difficulty intubating him. As a consequence, he had brain damage that resulted in his later death and him never being able to practice surgery again. So he died at around the age of fifty in the prime of his career, the prime of his life. But in spite of what you read in the books, he actually died of complications of high blood pressure. But he was a great friend and a great surgeon and great human being who has a legacy of his own that will live on. As a consequence of my interaction with him, shortly after his death, I put on at least six Samuel Kountz International Symposia which would honor, honor his legacy and, and try to get people to recognize the minority dilemma in transplantation that existed yesterday and today and we hope will be eliminated tomorrow. But it, it's something that is important to acknowledge and be aware of.$$Okay, well--so he was, Kountz, Dr. [Samuel] Kountz was involved in kidney transplantation, right?$$He was a pioneer in kidney transplantation. He came along shortly after John Najarian and [Richard] Rich Simmons and [Thomas] Tom Starzl and those blacks who were the pioneers of kidney transplantation. He did some things in transplantation that hadn't, hadn't been done before. He did a lot with live donor transplantation, was one of the first to use intravenous steroids to reverse rejection episodes and was one of the first to do live transplantation on television, which was televised across the United States. He was quite a, a surgeon and was internationally renowned, had gone to Egypt and other places to do transplants, to take transplantation outside of the United States of America. He was quite a pioneer and quite a surgeon who became the first African American president of the Society of University Surgeons.

Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr.

Surgeon, professor, medical director, and contributor to community service, Asa G. Yancey, Sr., M.D. was born to Daisy L. Sherard Yancey and Arthur H. Yancey on August 19, 1916 in Atlanta, Georgia. Daisy was a housewife, and Arthur worked as a U.S. Post Office mail carrier. Mr. Arthur H. Yancey wrote an autobiographical book in 1959 entitled Interpositionulification: What the Negro May Expect. In 1933, Asa G. Yancey graduated as valedictorian from Booker T. Washington High School in Atlanta. He earned his B.S. degree with honors four years later from Morehouse College. Yancey was one of four African American students in his class at the University of Michigan Medical School where his elder brother, Bernise, graduated from medical school in 1930.

Upon receiving his M.D. degree from the University of Michigan Medical School in 1941, Yancey first completed a general rotating internship from 1941 to 1942 at what is now Metropolitan General Hospital in Cleveland, Ohio. It was from this experience that he decided to pursue general surgery training. He served as First Lieutenant in The United States Army Medical Corp. before he returned to complete his residency in surgery at Freedmen’s Hospital, Howard University, where he trained under the guidance of Dr. Charles R. Drew. In 1945, he was a surgical fellow at the U.S. Marine Hospital in Boston and then became an instructor of surgery at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee. Also about this time, Yancey started his involvement with the National Medical Association (NMA), the largest and oldest national organization for African American physicians.

Following his time in Boston and Nashville, he served as the Chief of Surgery at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Tuskegee, Alabama and then the Hughes Spalding Pavilion of Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory Univerisity where he established the first accredited general surgery training program for black surgeons. With his return to Atlanta in 1958, Yancey was invited to join the faculty at Emory University School of Medicine where he became an Instructor of Surgery in 1964. In 1972, Yancey was appointed medical director of Grady Memorial Hospital and associate dean at Emory University Medical School. He was appointed full Professor of Surgery at Emory University Medical School in 1975. He continued to work at the Emory University Clinic and Grady Memorial Hospital until his retirement in 1989.

Yancey has contributed numerous articles to the academic surgical community, and he has been recognized with many awards His article, “A Modification of the Swenson Operation for Congenital Megacolon," published in a 1952 issue of The Journal of the National Medical Association, describes a surgical procedure that preceded Soave’s publication by ten years. Yancey has also written articles exploring issues of medical care, health care, and poverty including "Medical Education in Atlanta and Health Care of Black Minority and Low Income People," and "The Challenge of Providing Health Care for the Poor: Public Hospital Perspective". His book Portrayal of a Lifespan describes life as it was for him in the 21st Century. Yancey received the Bennie Service Award, in 1990 and he receivedan Honorary Doctor of Science from Morehouse College and Howard University. . The Society of Black Academic Surgeons established a lectureship in the name of Asa G. Yancey, Sr., M.D. The Emory University Health System recognized his professional contributions over the years by naming a healthcare facility, The Asa G. Yancey Health Clinic, in northwest Atlanta.

Yancey was married to the late Carolyn “Marge” E. Dunbar and they have four children: Arthur H. Yancey II, M.D, Carolyn L. Yancey, M.D., Caren L Yancey-Covington (deceased), and Asa G. Yancey, Jr., M.D.

Dr. Asa G. Yancey was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 19, 2012.

Dr. Asa Yancey passed away on March 9, 2013.

Accession Number

A2012.056

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/19/2012

Last Name

Yancey

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

G.

Schools

Edmund Asa Ware School

Booker T. Washington High School

Morehouse College

Michigan Medicine

First Name

Asa

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

YAN04

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Sea Coasts of Alabama, the Gulf of Mexico

Favorite Quote

Let's Get On With It.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

8/19/1916

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Ice Cream

Death Date

3/9/2013

Short Description

Surgeon, medical professor, and medical director Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. (1916 - 2013 ) served as the medical director of Grady Memorial Hospital and dean at the Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia. He also created the first accredited surgical training program for black doctors in Georgia.

Employment

Freedmen's Hospital, Howard University

United States Marine Hospital

Meharry Medical College

Tuskegee Veteran's Administration Hospital

Hughes Spalding Pavilion of Grady Memorial Hospital

Emory University

Grady Memorial Hospital

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers his father's personality and book

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about his early schooling

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers his elementary school teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his personality as a young child

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls his family's home

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers Atlanta University in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his relationship with his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers his childhood friends

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes the race relations in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls enrolling at the University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers the University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls his residency at Freedmen's Hospital in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about his salary as a medical intern

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his experiences in the U.S. Army, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his experiences in the U.S. Army, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers meeting his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls working as a surgeon in Mound Bayou, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes the community of Mound Bayou, Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his role at the Tuskegee Veterans Administration Hospital in Tuskegee, Alabama

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remember the death of Charles R. Drew, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remember the death of Charles R. Drew, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about the Tuskegee syphilis experiment

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes Dr. William Montague Cobb

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls the history of Grady Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls becoming the chief of surgery at the Hughes Spalding Pavilion in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about the conditions at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls serving on the Atlanta Board of Education

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes the achievements of the Atlanta Board of Education

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls joining the staff of Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about the closure of black hospitals

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. shares his views on public healthcare

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about his family

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. lists his favorites

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. narrates his photographs

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Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls enrolling at the University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor, Michigan
Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes the community of Mound Bayou, Mississippi
Transcript
Now, what happened when you graduated from Morehouse [Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia]?$$Well (pause), I caught the train (laughter) I caught the train and went to Detroit [Michigan] and I had a cousin there, a Mr. A.W. Prince [ph.] and I was just, my father [Arthur H. Yancey] wrote Mr. Prince and asked if I could live with him and Mr. Prince said, "Yes, I'd be glad to have him." So I was a roomer in Mr. Prince's home and I walked around Detroit and walked the streets looking for a job and that was in the days of, the Great Depression was still going on and a job was mighty hard to find, but I finally found a little job in a furniture store and my job was to keep the stock room straight with the furniture and keep it ready to place in the showroom to see. And, of course, while I was doing that I decided to go out to Ann Arbor [Michigan] and look around a little bit. My brother [Bernise A. Yancey] had finished medical school out there at the University of Michigan and, so I took the train or bus or whatever was moving at the time, and went out there and decided I'd go by the dean's office and tell him I wanted to go to medical school (laughter). He said, "You what?" He said, "You haven't even applied." I'm sure I realized that but that didn't make any difference. I'm here now and I want to go to medical school. He said, "When?" I said, "This September." That was maybe in July or August. He said, "No way. Just forget it." He said, "We took this class and decided who was going to be a member of this class last March and here you come in here in July and talk about you want to go to medical school. Just forget it." (Laughter) So I said, "Thank you very much," and left. And I knew I had a pretty good transcript at Morehouse and probably better than a lot that he had (laughter) so I went on home and wrote Morehouse and asked them to send my transcript to the dean there at, A.C. Furstenberg, at the University of Michigan school of medicine [University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan], which they did, of course, and when I figured my letter had time to get to Morehouse and Morehouse had time to send in a transcript, I went back out there to see the dean and he said, "Well, you're here again," and I said, "That's right, here I am." He said, "What do you want?" I said, "I want to go to medical school," (laughter). "When do you want to go?" "I want to go this July. I want to go this September," and here it is July. He said, "Forget it," (laughter). We took this class--I said, "Now wait a minute." I said, "I have my transcripts and you can see it." But when he got it, he realized it was better than a whole lot that he had and I knew it would be so he says, "Just wait a minute." He sat there a minute or two and I sat there a minute or two and he said, he reached into the drawer and pulled out a blank form, he said, "Fill this out and come on to school" (laughter).$Tell us about Mound Bayou [Mississippi].$$Mound Bayou--$$Yeah.$$--was an all colored town. The word colored was popular at the time. It was a small town and they had a, back in those days our people always joined a burial society and they'd pay twenty-five, fifty cents a week so that when they passed away, they would have enough money in that pool to get a decent looking casket and have a decent service. So, that was, and Mound Bayou was an all Negro town and that was a popular word at the time, and it had a Negro mail and it was just a, the people in the surrounding community and it was just houses here and there and farms and so forth, and the Mississippi Delta country, the land was just as flat as the top of that table, and the people put their nickels and dimes and quarters and fifty cent pieces together and built, and they had a burial organization. That was what it's for, it's a big house there, but after many years had passed, they found they had a lot of money, so they decided to build a hospital and they built the Taborian Hospital [Mound Bayou Community Hospital, Mound Bayou, Mississippi] and the idea was that the people who were members of the Knights and Daughters of Tabor [International Order of Twelve Knights and Daughters of Tabor] would continue to pay their yearly policy, but they could go to the hospital and get treatment free at the time of service, and they did that, but the chief surgeon that they hired to take care of people began to try to collect fees from the patients. Some of them would pay, some of them got mad and objected. So, they came to a parting of the ways and that's how they invited us from Meharry [Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee] to come down and help out, because he wouldn't treat the ones who wouldn't pay him. So, we went down and became chief in the hospital, so I was running the hospital and he built a little tent across the street and took his friends over there. We just ignored him and paid no attention. We just kept running the hospital.$$Sir, what was this doctor's name? What was his name?$$Dr. Howard [T.R.M. Howard]. He finally moved to Memphis [Tennessee] and practiced there for a while until he retired, I guess, I don't know.$$Okay. Is he any relation to the Dr. Howard that was involved in civil rights down there? Is he related to the Dr. Howard from Mississippi that was involved in civil rights?$$I don't remember anything about that.$$Yeah, there was a Dr. Howard from Mississippi that moved to Chicago [Illinois] who was involved in the Civil Rights Movement down there. Famous Dr. Howard.$$He did go to Memphis and then to Chicago, and I can't tell you about the other--I don't know anything about that.

Dr. Janice Hutchinson

Pediatrician and child psychiatrist Dr. Janice Gertrude Hutchinson was born on September 22, 1947, in Chicago, Illinois to Dorothy and James Hutchinson. She and her twin brother Jamal J. Hutchinson began their education at the Catholic school, Holy Name of Mary. They then attended Morgan Park High School, graduating in 1965. Hutchinson enrolled at Stanford University, where she took pre-medical courses but majored in sociology. After receiving her B.A. degree in 1969, she attended the University of Cincinnati Medical School, earning her M.D. degree in 1973. During her final year of medical school, she worked at the John F. Kennedy Hospital in Monrovia, Liberia. She completed her residency in pediatrics at Montefiore and Rush University Medical Centers before returning to school to earn her M.P.H. degree from the University of Illinois.

In the early 1980s, Hutchinson joined the Rush University Medical School as adjunct faculty. Disinterested in private practice, she joined the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps before taking a leave of absence to work in a refugee camp outside of Bangkok, Thailand. When she returned to the United States, she completed a child and adolescent fellowship at the Institute for Juvenile Research (IJR) at the University of Illinois. At the same time, she served as a public health doctor at the American Medical Association (AMA) where she worked on issues of teen pregnancy and child abuse. When the HIV antibody was identified in 1982, she was concerned about the devastating effect of the disease on children and helped to organize the AMA's first major HIV conference in the mid-1980s.

After Hutchinson completed her residency in adult psychiatry at the University of Cincinnati and at St. Elizabeths Hospital in Washington, D.C. , she was selected as the medical director and administrator for Children's Mental Health Services in Washington D.C.'s Department of Mental Health. Hutchinson currently works at Howard University where she is an associate professor of psychiatry and pediatrics and the residency training director in psychiatry for the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. Board certified in pediatrics, adult and child psychiatry, Hutchinson has taught and written about child abuse, domestic violence, teen pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, children’s impulsivity and aggression, incarcerated juveniles and mental illness, the use of antidepressants with children and youth suicide. In 2005, she received the American Psychiatric Association’s Irma Bland Excellence in Teaching Award. Hutchinson co-authored Losing Control: Loving a Black Child with Bipolar Disorder with Cassandra Joubert and Linda Thompson Adams in 2007. Hutchinson is a member at large of the Washington Psychiatric Society.

Dr. Janice Hutchinson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 26, 2008.

Accession Number

A2008.095

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/26/2008

Last Name

Hutchinson

Schools

Holy Name of Mary School

Morgan Park High School

Stanford University

University of Cincinnati

University of Illinois at Chicago

First Name

Janice

Birth City, State, Country

Chicago

HM ID

HUT02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Illinois

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

Acknowledge God In All Thy Ways And He Will Lead Thy Paths. Lean Not On Your Own Understanding.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

9/22/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Fish, Fried Chicken

Short Description

Medical professor, pediatrician, and psychiatrist Dr. Janice Hutchinson (1947 - ) is an associate professor of psychiatry and pediatrics, and the residency training director in psychiatry at Howard University College of Medicine. In 2007, Hutchinson co-authored the book, "Losing Control: Loving a Black Child with Bipolar Disorder."

Employment

Rush University Medical Center

United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps.

American Medical Association (AMA)

District of Columbia Department of Mental Health

Howard University Hospital

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:8675,122:11905,204:12380,210:14850,236:20075,307:24635,351:31380,467:43105,549:43389,555:43673,560:44454,576:45945,607:46442,615:47436,632:62417,886:62843,894:65399,944:66606,966:68665,1004:84664,1122:121307,1618:123132,1647:126490,1703:126928,1713:127366,1727:127804,1733:129337,1752:129921,1762:131454,1802:133936,1836:144400,1966:159320,2157:160280,2170:162368,2184:162912,2194:163456,2203:167944,2293:186448,2547:186752,2552:188044,2567:188348,2578:188804,2585:194456,2650:198406,2715:199986,2727:200618,2736:201250,2746:201566,2751:203462,2783:204884,2808:205911,2817:206701,2829:207096,2835:216020,2924:216344,2929:218126,2970:227490,3088:246420,3322:246636,3327:257230,3435:259160,3442$0,0:5046,110:38782,616:40645,624:41155,631:41495,636:51185,785:92152,1303:92468,1308:97682,1395:112898,1624:125350,1808:128200,1830
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Janice Hutchinson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson talks about the land owned by her maternal grandparents in Paducah, Kentucky

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson describes her mother's adolescence in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson talks about her father's experience as a Pullman porter in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson describes her mother's personality and how she takes after her

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson describes her childhood in Chicago, Illinois and her father's personality

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson recalls the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson talks about her experience at the Holy Name of Mary School and Morgan Park High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson describes her childhood love for reading

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson describes life in her childhood home in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson talks about what inspired her to become a pediatrician

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson recounts her decision to attend Stanford University in Stanford, California

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson talks about her decision to major in sociology at Stanford University in Stanford, California

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson recalls her mentors and black organizations at Stanford University in Stanford, California

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson talks about her decision to attend medical school at the University of Cincinnati in Cincinnati, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson reflects upon her mother's illness and death in 1970

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson describes the racism and sexism she experienced while attending the University of Cincinnati Medical School

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson recalls her medical work in Liberia between 1972 and 1973

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson describes her medical residency at Montefiore Medical Center in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson talks about how pediatrics has changed since the 1970s

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson describes her career in public health in the 1980s and working at a refugee camp in Bangkok, Thailand

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson describes her public health work with the American Medical Association in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson talks about her 1980s research into the effects of HIV/AIDS on vulnerable populations

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson talks about her work as medical director and Administrator for Children's Mental Health Services in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson talks about problems with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in youth

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson reflects upon how society and medicine treat mental disorders

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson describes coauthoring the book 'Losing Control: Loving a Black Child with Bipolar Disorder'

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson describes teaching at Howard University in Washington, D.C. and writing about minority health issues

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson reflects upon the shifting demographics of drug use and criminality among African Americans and women

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson talks about her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson reflects upon her life choices and her spirituality

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Janice Hutchinson talks about how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

4$7

DATitle
Dr. Janice Hutchinson recalls her medical work in Liberia between 1972 and 1973
Dr. Janice Hutchinson describes her career in public health in the 1980s and working at a refugee camp in Bangkok, Thailand
Transcript
Okay. All right. Well, anything happen before graduation that--was there ever a time when you thought you weren't gonna make it or wanted to stop?$$My mother's [Dorothy Howell Hutchinson's] death was a great challenge. It was a deep challenge, both in medical school and in life. It was a very profound challenge, but I, my senior year, I went to Liberia and worked at JFK Hospital [John F. Kennedy Medical Center] in Monrovia [Liberia], and I also worked what's called upcountry at a hospital called Phebe [Hospital, Bong County, Liberia]; you know, when you're in those situations where there are few medical resources you do everything. I fainted my first day on the wards, on the pediatric ward in Liberia. We were rounding on a hundred kids. About halfway through kid number fifty or so, I just hit the floor. I think I was just dehydrated. The same thing happened when I went to work in Thailand in a refugee camp. I fainted my first day in camp. I think I was just dehydrated. I don't seem to tolerate heat very well. I guess I just don't keep up with the fluids well enough, but anyway. So, I was in Liberia for a couple months or so, starting my Albert Schweitzer international healthcare work.$$What was Liberia like? Did you have any conception of what it would be like in Liberia or in Africa, period, that you--$$Not really, no, no. [President William R.] Tolbert [Jr.] was still in office. He died shortly thereafter. He was overthrown.$$Yeah, he was murdered--$$He was murdered viciously.$$Publicly and viciously, yeah.$$I made friends with a family there, the Stewarts, with whom I'm still friendly and close and going to the wedding of one of their grandchildren in a couple of weeks down in North Carolina. I met a number of doctors there who trained in the United States, guys who were surgeons, I came to appreciate the United States and all of the benefits and the wonders of our life. I was stunned by Africa, though. I've never, ever been any place that beautiful. When I was in Europe, and I was in Europe for six months as a student, I visited twelve countries including Hungary and Czechoslovakia, all of the Scandinavian countries. I never saw anything like what I saw in Africa, still haven't.$$You mean Liberia itself?$$In Liberia; well, in every African country I've been to since, but, I mean it was just stunning. I mean, it was breathtaking. I didn't, I mean, I can remember thinking to myself this must be the world as God first made it. That's how it hit me. I was going, we had a bus ride into a village that had a doctor once a month and I was going with a pharmacist on a big bus with some volunteers and we were going to provide the monthly medical services to pregnant women and sick children, and old men and I saw diseases, typhoid fever, malaria, things I've never seen in the United States, leprosy. At one point, I was little concerned I was going to come back and develop leprosy, but you're the doctor, (laughter) that's a chance you take, you know. It goes with the territory. But, it was a fabulous, fabulous experience. I learned to eat Liberian food; what they called chop, African chop, highly spiced food, saw hundreds of kids a day, had babies die in my hands and my arms, had interpreters, of course. It was a challenge; in some ways, very stressful, very stressful, but a tremendous, tremendous experience. So, that was my senior year of medical school.$All right. So, you're back in Chicago [Illinois] at Rush [University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois] as a resident, was it in psychiatry or--$$I finished pediatrics in Chicago, eventually wound up I was adjunct faculty in Rush Medical School [Rush Medical College, Chicago, Illinois]. I used to sit on the admissions committee there.$$So this is the early '80s [1980s] now?$$'80s [1980s] yes, yeah. I worked the AMA [American Medical Association] for a while, for about four years at their Public Health Division. I worked in the Commissioned Corps of the [United States] Public Health Service for about four years. During that time, I have accumulated a lot of leave. I went to work in a refugee camp about an hour-and-a-half outside of Bangkok [Thailand] with Cambodian and Laotian and Vietnamese refugees. I had a team of six medical students and two residents and we took care--we saw a hundred kids a day, at least. I had interpreters from all these other nationalities and I came to appreciate better why people have trouble differentiating black people, because I was unable to differentiate Cambodians from Laotians from Vietnamese and I was told that they were obviously different, so that was a good experience for me to, you know, step into another culture and to understand where some other people are coming from. Just like when I was in Africa, I, the first time in my life, had second degree burns on my face from exposure to the sun. I never could understand why white people were so upset about sunburn and used all this sunblock. I spent thirty minutes in the sun with some African kids on a basketball court and the next morning I had blisters everywhere and it was incredibly painful, and I never, ever said I didn't understand about sunburn again. So, I was able to cross cultures in some ways.

Dr. Donna M. Mendes

Medical professor and vascular surgeon Dr. Donna M. Mendes was born to Benjamin and Bernice Mendes on October 25, 1951. The second of three children raised in Oceanside, New York, Mendes attended Hofstra University in New York in 1969. With the help of her parents and Hofstra University counselor, Beatryce Nivens, Mendes became a pre-med major and graduated from Hofstra University in 1973 with her B.A. in biology.

In 1973, Mendes enrolled in Columbia University’s College of Physicians and Surgeons. Mendes chose to study peripheral vascular surgery, which is the treatment of the vessels that branch out of the heart. Mendes graduated the following year and became an intern at St. Luke’s Hospital and a visiting clinical fellow at Columbia University’s College of Physicians and Surgeons. She became a resident at St. Luke’s in 1978, and a surgical resident two years later.

In 1981, Mendes was promoted to surgical chief resident at St. Luke’s Hospital, and served as a fellow in vascular surgery at Englewood Hospital in 1982. After completing her vascular surgery fellowship, Mendes returned to St. Luke’s Hospital and became an instructor in clinical surgery at Columbia University’s College of Physicians and Surgeons.

In 1986, Mendes married her husband, Ronald LaMotte, and became the first African American female vascular surgeon certified by the American Board of Surgery. Mendes’ clinical research has focused on the effects of race on vascular disease, and she seeks to discover why peripheral arterial disease (blockages of blood vessels away from the heart) seems to impact African American patients more frequenctly, and with greater severity.

In 1990, Mendes became assistant clinical professor of surgery at Columbia University. She was hired as the chief of St. Luke’s Hospital’s Division of Vascular Surgery in 1993. Five years later, Mendes had become the senior attending surgeon in the Department of Surgery at St. Luke’s, and was hired as the attending vascular surgeon at the Department of Surgery Lenox Hill Hospital in 1999.

Mendes lives in Englewood, New Jersey, with her husband.

Donna M. Mendes was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 28, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.116

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/28/2007

Last Name

Mendes

Middle Name

M.

Schools

Hofstra University

Columbia University

First Name

Donna

Birth City, State, Country

Oceanside

HM ID

MEN01

Favorite Season

Fall

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

I Love That.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

10/25/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken

Short Description

Medical professor and vascular surgeon Dr. Donna M. Mendes (1951 - ) became the first African American female vascular surgeon certified by the American Board of Surgery.

Employment

St. Luke's Hospital

Columbia University

Lenox Hill Hospital

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:10790,179:11205,185:11786,194:14608,347:26892,586:29963,646:30544,654:43771,830:44127,835:44661,844:48221,916:53116,996:76996,1221:77280,1226:77777,1234:82425,1313:82870,1319:84472,1344:86608,1373:87142,1382:87943,1411:89545,1437:92838,1483:98032,1520:98878,1550:99348,1556:109712,1665:111512,1698:115328,1787:116552,1820:116840,1825:133540,2004$0,0:3096,80:3698,89:4816,104:13502,307:17114,377:31522,588:33628,628:34096,635:36280,681:36592,686:43222,797:44782,829:45328,838:45718,844:47746,881:48214,888:50320,955:59060,983:59780,993:61140,1020:64580,1100:66100,1126:72100,1226:72420,1231:73460,1246:74420,1260:75300,1273:75860,1282:81220,1366:81700,1373:95231,1548:96232,1568:101006,1682:104856,1741:105164,1746:111480,1796
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Donna M. Mendes' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes describes her mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes recalls celebrating the holidays

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes talks about her parents' marriage

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes describes her father's career and hobbies

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes recounts her early education

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes describes her early racial identity

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes talks about her experiences in school

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes talks about notable individuals from Roosevelt, New York

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes recalls the assassination of Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes describes her decision to pursue premed at Hofstra University

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes describes being encouraged to attend medical school

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes recalls her first autopsy

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes describes her classmates at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes describes her experience at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes describes the Washington Heights neighborhood of New York City in the late 1970s

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes talks about her decision to pursue a surgical internship at St. Luke's Hospital

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes discusses the predominance of men in the surgical field

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes describes her fellowship at Englewood Hospital

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes describes opening her own practice after the completion of her fellowship at Englewood Hospital

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes talks about her mentor, Dr. Dardik

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes reflects upon her role as the first African American woman certified vascular surgeon

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes describes her marriage to her husband, Ronald LaMotte

Tape: 2 Story: 14 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes describes her certification by the American Board of Surgery

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes describes her challenges as an African American female doctor

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes describes her specialty in limb salvage surgery

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes talks about the risk factors for amputation

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes talks about the Association of Black Cardiologists, Inc.

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes talks about the prevalence of heart disease in black women

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes describes her own research into vascular disease

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes talks about racial discrimination in healthcare

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes talks about her patient relationships

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes recalls being named the Teacher of the Year

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes describes the medical advancements she witnessed

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes talks about her mentors

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes describes the diversity council at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes recalls her health outreach work with Maya Angelou

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes describes her health advice for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes talks about the importance of mentorship

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes reflects upon the role of women in the surgical field

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes reflects upon her career

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes describes her goals and how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes talks about her involvement with The Links, Incorporated

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes describes her youth education program

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Donna M. Mendes reflects upon her life

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

5$1

DATitle
Dr. Donna M. Mendes talks about the prevalence of heart disease in black women
Dr. Donna M. Mendes recalls her health outreach work with Maya Angelou
Transcript
Why do you think minority women are suffering at higher rates than the general population for heart disease?$$Because risk factors are not controlled as much, because the younger black woman is exercising a lot more. Just, for instance, what I used to say is when I'm in my car, and I'm driving along say Park Avenue [New York, New York]. And I used to be at Lenox Hill Hospital [New York, New York], which is on 74th Street [sic. 77th Street]. So you're, you're passing Lenox, so you see all the women that were about this big. Then you get to 96th Street, and all of a sudden the body habit just changes. Now that's genes, but a lot of it changes also because--and I don't mean jeans with they put on.$$Yeah, yeah (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) That's genes, but it's also--$$--the DNA, yeah.$$Yeah (laughter). But it's also what is, what is eaten. And so we have got to just be a little bit better about that too. So why does it affect black women more? Well, we're, we're not real complainers. So therefore, you might have a heart attack you think something else is going on as, as opposed to it really being an MI [myocardial infarction] and, and, and stress. Those are the reasons.$$And stress plays a much greater role than people have believed in the past?$$Absolutely, absolutely. And I, I don't know the pathophysiolog- physiological answer, but it does, it does play a role. The other reason why black women or African Americans period are affected more is that if, indeed, there is less blood flow to the heart muscle, the heart muscle will no longer pump effectively. It'll develop a, it will, it will develop a cardiomyopathy. So the muscle doesn't--when your, when, when your heart pumps, it's supposed--vigorously pump and get the blood out. But if you have heart disease or you've had some evidence of muscle damage, the heart doesn't, doesn't pump vigorously, so there's a lot of heart failure because of that. So it's--hopefully, hopefully, the message will get out.$My outreach with [HistoryMaker] Maya Angelou is not really my outreach. It was more the Association of Black Cardiologists [Association of Black Cardiologists, Inc.]. And they did a tape on emphasizing the risk factors for heart disease, and they had Maya Angelou speak. It was, it was a cut and paste. They had, they did an interview with, and Sylvia [Sylvia Woods] was a patient of mine, Sylvia of the renowned restaurant [Sylvia's Restaurant, New York, New York]. And she was such a great patient that as soon as we were able to do the angioplasty, she was able to, 'cause it was affecting her leg, she was able to walk really well. And so they, they interviewed me with, with Sylvia. They interviewed Maya. They interviewed Dr. Ann Brown [ph.], who's a professor of medicine at, up in Washington [D.C.] I believe. I could be wrong about where exactly she is. But she helped prove that not--that women who have heart attacks, black women who have heart attacks, have an increased risk of heart failure from this cardiomyopathy that I was discussing before. So that's certainly somebody that you should, that you should try to interview. But Maya spoke about what the risk factors were. And in the tape we have five generations of women who get together for this one Thanksgiving Day, and, and what we, what we strongly push in it is that rather than having Thanksgiving Day and eating the entire day and not getting up and walking around doing some exercise too, during the tape, they had their dinner, and then they went out. And this, and the older woman was with the young--with her god--with her grandchild, great-grandchildren. It was just wonderful. It was just that we--the, the emphasis again is on living and not just sitting. You know, it's like being participatory.

Dr. Levi Watkins

Distinguished surgeon Dr. Levi Watkins, Jr., was born on June 13, 1944, in Parsons, Kansas, the third of six children; his father, Levi Watkins, Sr., was a college professor who became president of Alabama State College in Montgomery, Alabama. After graduating as valedictorian from the Alabama State Laboratory High School, Watkins entered Tennessee State University, majoring in biology and further developing his interests in political science and civil rights. After graduating with honors from Tennessee State in 1966, Watkins became the first African American to be admitted to and to graduate from Vanderbilt University’s School of Medicine.

After graduating from Vanderbilt, Watkins started a general surgery residency at Johns Hopkins University Hospital in 1971, where he was the first black chief resident of cardiac surgery. Watkins continued his professional career by conducting cardiac research at the Harvard Medical School of Physiology from 1973-1975. At Harvard, Watkins investigated the relationship between congestive heart failure and the renin angiotensis system. After returning to Johns Hopkins, Watkins was a cardiothoracic surgery fellow from 1976 to 1978; he became a full-time faculty member in 1978 in the Division of Cardiac Surgery, joining the medical school admissions committee a year later.

In 1980, Watkins performed the world’s first human implantation of the automatic implantable defibrillator; he also developed the cardiac arrhythmia service at Johns Hopkins. Watkins did research on coronary heart disease in African Americans through the Minority Health Commission and Panel for Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery; because of this work on behalf of minority students he was appointed to the National Board of the Robert Wood Johnson Minority Faculty Development Program in 1983.

In 1991, Watkins was promoted to full professor of cardiac surgery and dean for Postdoctoral Programs and Faculty Development at Johns Hopkins. In these positions, Watkins revolutionized postdoctoral education in America by helping to establish the nation’s first postdoctoral association. In 1992, Vanderbilt University established a Professorship and Associate Deanship in Dr. Watkins’s name to honor his work for diversity in medical education.

Watkins received honorary degrees from Sojourner Douglass-College (1988), Meharry Medical College (1989), Spelman College (1996), and Morgan State University (1997); his other professional affiliations included the American Board of Surgery and the American Board of Thoracic Surgery. Watkins has been the recipient of numerous accolades over the years, including the Vanderbilt Medal of Honor (1998), the Johns Hopkins University Alumni Association Heritage Award (1999). In 2000, Watkins was honored by the Guidant Corporation for pioneering work on the automatic defibrillator.

Dr. Watkins passed away on April 11, 2015 at the age of 70.

Levi Watkins was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 5, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.044

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/5/2007

Last Name

Watkins

Schools

Alabama State Laboratory High School

Vanderbilt University School of Medicine

Tennessee State University

First Name

Levi

Birth City, State, Country

Parsons

HM ID

WAT09

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Kansas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Nice, France

Favorite Quote

Give Me The Courage To Change The Things I Can. Give Me The Serenity To Accept The Things I Can't Change And The Wisdom To Know The Difference.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Maryland

Birth Date

6/13/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Baltimore

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken, Fried Fish

Death Date

4/11/2015

Short Description

Medical professor and cardiac surgeon Dr. Levi Watkins (1944 - 2015 ) was a professor of cardiac surgery and dean for Postdoctoral Programs and Faculty Development at John Hopkins University. He performed the world’s first human implantation of the automatic implantable defibrillator in 1980, and established the nation's first postdoctoral association.

Employment

Johns Hopkins Medicine

Harvard University School of Medicine

Favorite Color

Blue, Black, Gold

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Levi Watkins' interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Levi Watkins lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Levi Watkins describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Levi Watkins describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Levi Watkins remembers his grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Levi Watkins describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Levi Watkins lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Levi Watkins remembers his neighborhood in Montgomery, Alabama

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Levi Watkins describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Levi Watkins remembers the Alabama State Laboratory School in Montgomery, Alabama

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Levi Watkins talks about his upbringing in Montgomery, Alabama

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Levi Watkins describes the Tennessee Agricultural and Industrial State College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Dr. Levi Watkins remembers integrating the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Levi Watkins recalls his social life at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Levi Watkins recalls the assassination of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Levi Watkins describes his graduation from the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Levi Watkins remembers Johns Hopkins Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Levi Watkins recalls his research at Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Levi Watkins remembers mentoring black students at Johns Hopkins Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Levi Watkins recalls designing the implantable cardioverter defibrillator

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Levi Watkins remembers operating on his father

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Levi Watkins remembers his relationship with his father

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Levi Watkins talks about the mentorship of Vivien Thomas

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Levi Watkins remembers the Johns Hopkins Postdoctoral Association

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Levi Watkins talks about the Robert Wood Minority Faculty Development Program

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Levi Watkins describes his board memberships

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Levi Watkins talks about his mentors

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Levi Watkins describes the Martin Luther King Jr. Commemoration at Johns Hopkins Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Levi Watkins talks about his awards, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Levi Watkins remembers being assaulted at the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Levi Watkins recalls being the subject of 'A Dream Fulfilled'

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Levi Watkins talks about his awards, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Levi Watkins talks about the Levi Watkins Professorship at the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Levi Watkins reflects upon his life

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Levi Watkins shares his advice to aspiring physicians

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Levi Watkins describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Levi Watkins talks about affirmative action

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Levi Watkins talks about the role of religion in the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Levi Watkins reflects upon his values

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. Levi Watkins describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Dr. Levi Watkins reflects upon the importance of history

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Dr. Levi Watkins reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Dr. Levi Watkins describes his mentorship of young people

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Levi Watkins narrates his photographs

Felton James Earls

Dr. Felton James “Tony” Earls is a professor of social medicine at Harvard Medical School and Professor of Human Behavior and Development at the Harvard School of Public Health. He is noted for his pioneering research on violent crime reduction in urban neighborhoods, the causes and pathways of juvenile delinquency, the consequences of children’s exposure to community and family violence and the psychological impacts of HIV/AIDS pandemic on children in sub-Saharan Africa.

Earls was born in January 1942 in New Orleans, Louisiana – the oldest of four born to Ethlyn and Felton Earls II. In 1953, his family moved to Memphis, Tennessee, where his father worked for the U.S. Postal Service, and where Earls graduated from Booker T. Washington High School.

A 1963 graduate of Howard University with a degree in chemistry – four years later, Earls received a medical degree from Howard University School of Medicine. Being interested in the science of medicine rather than caring for sick people, he pursued post-graduate training in neurophysiology at the University of Wisconsin.

Earls left Wisconsin to do a residency in pediatrics at New York Medical College. He went on to study adult psychiatry at Massachusetts General Hospital, public health at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and child psychiatry at the Hospital for Sick Children in London. He joined the faculty of Harvard Medical School in 1974, became Professor of Child Psychiatry and Director of the Division of Child Psychiatry at Washington University in St. Louis in 1981 and returned to Harvard University in 1989.

Earls’ Chicago research project, “The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods,” funded by the National Institute for Mental Health and the MacArthur Foundation, is perhaps his signature work – a ten year, $51 million study. It was a large-scale epidemiological project examining causes and consequences of children’s exposure to community and family violence. Earls and his team of researchers studied the physical health, educational and occupational achievement, and the social relationships of children from birth to adulthood. He gave detailed attention to the social and physical characteristics of the neighborhoods in which they lived and the schools they attended. The project represents one of the largest and most comprehensive (over 8,000 people in 343 Chicago neighborhoods) of child and youth development ever undertaken. Theories drawn from his finding derailed older theories of community violence and crime. His “collective efficacy” theory puts emphasis on a practice of having neighborhood residents solving the problems of crime, violence and substance abuse. In another project in Tanzania, East Africa, Earls used his Chicago study methods to analyze the role of community attitudes and perceptions about HIV/AIDS and its impact on children.

Earls is the Director of the Harvard South Africa Fellowship Program at Harvard University, established to address the needs of South Africans denied access to advanced education by apartheid. Another major and significant activity in his life is serving on the Board of Directors of Physicians for Human Rights at the National Academy of Sciences.

Earls met Mary Carlson, who was studying neurophysiology at the University of Wisconsin when he was doing the same. They were married in Boston in 1971 and are the parents of two daughters, Leigh, born in 1967, and Tanya, born in 1974.

Earls has been devoted to scientific research with a commitment to social change in the spirit and memory of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Accession Number

A2005.259

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/9/2005

Last Name

Earls

Maker Category
Middle Name

James

Schools

Booker T. Washington High School

Howard University College of Medicine

John McDonogh No. 6 School

Samuel J. Green Junior High School

Howard University

First Name

Felton

Birth City, State, Country

New Orleans

HM ID

EAR03

Favorite Season

None

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

1/20/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Medical professor and public health professor Felton James Earls (1942 - ) is a professor of social medicine at Harvard Medical School and Professor of Human Behavior and Development at the Harvard School of Public Health. Earls’ Chicago research project, “The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods,” led to theories that derailed older ones of community violence and crime.

Employment

Washington University in St. Louis

Harvard Medical School

Harvard School of Public Health

University of Wisconsin-Madison

Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
0,0:12271,244:12555,249:13265,265:14756,298:15253,307:16531,341:17667,367:31890,518:32891,537:34739,572:35355,581:35971,592:37049,618:38204,650:39359,667:42593,722:44441,807:44826,813:45673,826:48368,865:63535,1005:64865,1021:66005,1036:89908,1288:90378,1294:93700,1306:95162,1329:101822,1442:102166,1447:102940,1457:116220,1628$0,0:1144,17:1560,22:3016,50:5824,173:15801,308:16880,325:19204,349:19951,361:20698,376:21943,398:24848,444:25678,456:30409,555:30907,560:32401,584:34227,619:34974,630:36966,671:37547,679:48996,720:49384,725:49772,730:55786,812:56465,821:57823,845:58696,853:66510,927:67445,946:71610,1043:76030,1094:77220,1109:78070,1120:82842,1199:83218,1204:83970,1215:85192,1230:85850,1239:86602,1247:94145,1439:94570,1445:95080,1453:96827,1462:97063,1467:99512,1497:100660,1514:101234,1521:102956,1561:103612,1571:104022,1577:106072,1608:106400,1613:113488,1655:114640,1670:118480,1718:123885,1772:124310,1778:125782,1790:126421,1804:127131,1821:127983,1836:134330,1904:138630,1930:139530,1940:140030,1947:140830,1957:143930,1996:144630,2005:145230,2013:145930,2021:147130,2051:147830,2058:160322,2228:164794,2322:166686,2346:167374,2354:168492,2368:168836,2373:169438,2381:177418,2429:178073,2435:178728,2441:182992,2460:190380,2560:190890,2568:198104,2686:198907,2701:199199,2706:203579,2808:204747,2842:205404,2853:206061,2863:206572,2871:207156,2881:208105,2896:209273,2922:215168,2960:216656,2971:220437,2997:220899,3004:221823,3025:222824,3040:228202,3121:231018,3193:242918,3308:243485,3318:246170,3342:248290,3371
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Felton James Earls' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Felton James Earls describes his maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Felton James Earls describes his maternal grandfather's work and his mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Felton James Earls describes his maternal grandmother, his mother and his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Felton James Earls describes his father's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Felton James Earls describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Felton James Earls describes his early educational experiences

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Felton James Earls recalls his teachers in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Felton James Earls recalls segregation in New Orleans and his early interest in science

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Felton James Earls remembers moving from New Orleans to Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Felton James Earls remembers applying to college

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Felton James Earls describes his time at Howard University

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Felton James Earls remembers applying for and attending medical school

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Felton James Earls remembers William Montague Cobb

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Felton James Earls recalls his laboratory work at the University of Wisconsin-Madison

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Felton James Earls recalls Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Felton James Earls describes his impression of Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Felton James Earls describes his wife and his two daughters

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Felton James Earls describes his work and research in London, England

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Felton James Earls describes his research in Boston and on Martha's Vineyard

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Felton James Earls recalls his time at the Washington University in St. Louis

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Felton James Earls describes his return to Boston, Massachusetts in 1989

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Felton James Earls describes the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Felton James Earls describes the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Felton James Earls describes the impact of his study on public policy

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Felton James Earls defines collective efficacy

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Felton James Earls describes his research on collective efficacy and HIV/AIDS

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Felton James Earls describes his involvement in the Anti-Apartheid Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Felton James Earls describes his musical interests

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Felton James Earls describes his hero, Charles Darwin, and his aspirations

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Felton James Earls reflects upon his life

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Felton James Earls describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Felton James Earls describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Felton James Earls narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

5$5

DATitle
Felton James Earls remembers William Montague Cobb
Felton James Earls describes the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, pt. 1
Transcript
How do you remember Dr. Cobb [William Montague Cobb], he was a friend and he was a friend and colleague of mine. I knew him well (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Oh, now, now, well--$$How do you remember him?$$Well, I remember him as an actor more than an anatomy teacher. And one of the reasons that the class didn't believe him--you see what happened is that the messenger ran down the steps and gave Cobb a, a message, you know, just to read and Cobb, you know, and Cobb did one of these, you know, Shakespearean poses and we said, here he goes again, you know, he's about to break into some, you know, soliloquy from 'Hamlet' or something like that to teach us some anatomy lesson, so when he announced to the class that it, John Kennedy [President John Fitzgerald Kennedy] had been assassinated, our first reaction was that, damn, he's gone too far. I mean this (laughter)--what play did this come from, you know. But that's--I mean, I remember this guy teaching anatomy in a way that was way up here, you know; that it was so eloquent and penetrating and thoughtful. Let me just give you one rhyme that he would say: he would say, "Why does a polar bear sit on a cake of ice?" Now, that, that forever, forever teaches a medical student that spermatogenesis occurs at somewhat lower temperature than body temperature, which is why one has descended testes. And he would just do that all the time, you know (laughter), teaching you very important principles through metaphors, through soliloquies, through--he played the violin in class at times, what a wonderful teacher.$$Oh, he was a beautiful man, interesting man.$Let's talk about your major current research, the Chicago [Illinois] project [Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods]. We'll talk some of the other research activities, but let's talk about that one.$$Well, it was a major event, you know, that I got involved in this research, I mean, partly because I was an accomplished scientist. There was a concern in the late '80s [1980s] and early '90s [1990s] that crime and violence in particular, were out of control, too many homicides, the crack cocaine epidemic was driving a lot of this, and that people started talking, people in criminal justice system, police and parole officers, and that sort of thing, started talking about tough kids unlike they had ever seen before. And, and the term super predator cropped up as a label, you know, on the kinds of crimes and the kinds of people, usually young black men who were committing these crimes. So I decided I wanted to get into this, you know, because that's not the way I saw it and I, I wanted to get into this mix, and an incredible opportunity arose, partly because of my connections at Washington University [Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri] to, to do what would be a landmark study that the justice department [U.S. Department of Justice] and the MacArthur Foundation [John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation] and the National Institute of Mental Health combined interest and said, we would like to find the most outstanding scientist--social scientist in the United States or the world for that matter, to conduct a study someplace in the United States that would set it right, you know, to say what really are the contributions of individuals, families and, and communities to this problem that we have, so that ten years from now we would be in a position to have knowledge, not just opinions about what causes violence and how to address it. So from 1989 really, to now, gradually over a period of time I organized groups of scientists, chose to work in Chicago after moving around the whole United States and thinking about, you know, Baltimore [Maryland] and Philadelphia [Pennsylvania] and Los Angeles [California] and whatever, and from '94 [1994] to 2002 we did a landmark study.$$In Chicago?$$In Chicago.$$Why Chicago and not Boston [Massachusetts]?$$Well, Chicago is big and as a city it represents so many crucial elements of American society. It's--it's got a large black population that is organized at the neighborhood level in terms of income. So you have wealthy black neighborhoods as well as lots of poor black neighborhoods. You have lots of immigrants from Mexico. You have Puerto Rican neighborhoods. In fact, it's the only city in the United States that has both Mexican and Puerto Rican neighborhoods, at least that was the case when we started. And it has whites who represent various stages of immigration to America, from Germans and Polish, to Italian and so forth. So, Chicago is America and in a sense we really wanted to dig in and understand one place, rather than doing a national study and trying to study the--every place. Chicago was sort of paradigmatic of what America is, what it's been and what it's becoming. And, and the--that demographic picture of Chicago has served us very well. In other words, I think, we think we made the right decision by going to Chicago.

Dr. Augustus A. White, III

Prominent orthopedic surgeon Dr. Augustus A. White III was born in Memphis, Tennessee, the son of a doctor and a librarian. After attending segregated schools in Memphis, White graduated from the private Mount Herman School in Northfield, Massachusetts, in 1953. White completed his pre-medical studies at Brown University in 1957, and in 1961 was the first African American graduate of the Stanford University School of Medicine. Receiving his Ph.D. degree in orthopedic biomechanics at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, White became the first African American surgical resident at the Yale-New Haven Hospital; he also served in Vietnam as a captain in the U.S. Army Medical Corps, earning a Bronze Star.

Specializing in care of the spine, White worked at Harvard Medical School as a professor of orthopedic surgery, and as the Ellen and Melvin Gordon Professor of Medical Education. For thirteen years, White served as chief of the orthopedic surgery department at Beth Israel Hospital in Boston; he also founded the academic orthopedic program at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

A noted author in his medical specialty, White co-wrote (with Dr. Manohar M. Panjabi) Clinical Biomechanics of the Spine and Biomechanics of the Musculoskeletal System. White also wrote Your Aching Back: A Doctor’s Guide to Relief; Back Care; Advances in Spinal Fusion: Molecular Science, Biomechanics and Clinical Management; and Clinical Biometrics of the Spine, a standard reference book for orthopedists. In 2006, White was awarded the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Diversity Award for his life’s work, and his contributions to his field.

White met his wife, Anita, during his Ph.D. studies at the Karolinska Institute; the couple had three daughters.

Accession Number

A2005.107

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/21/2005

Last Name

White

Middle Name

A.

Schools

Northfield Mount Hermon School

Brown University

Manassas High School

Stanford University School of Medicine

First Name

Augustus

Birth City, State, Country

Memphis

HM ID

WHI07

Favorite Season

Fall

Sponsor

Ray Shepard

State

Tennessee

Favorite Vacation Destination

Sweden

Favorite Quote

Life Is As It Is.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

6/4/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Gumbo (New Orleans)

Short Description

Medical professor and orthopedic surgeon Dr. Augustus A. White, III (1936 - ) was the first African American graduate of the Stanford University School of Medicine. White taught at Harvard Medical School as a professor of orthopedic surgery, in addition to serving as the chief of the orthopedic surgery department at Beth Israel Hospital in Boston, and the founder of the academic orthopedic program at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

Employment

Beth Israel Medical Center

Harvard University Medical School

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:2870,226:3430,236:4060,256:5040,273:6790,317:8050,349:12180,450:18510,494:23440,602:26670,653:27435,665:29135,691:32280,751:32790,758:39958,821:42548,873:42844,878:45582,953:49652,1026:55904,1067:57632,1104:60192,1172:61280,1205:61664,1212:62880,1248:63520,1257:65376,1312:65824,1320:72780,1411:73100,1416:73420,1421:79420,1575:80220,1589:81420,1610:81980,1618:93138,1728:93822,1739:94278,1746:95874,1787:97090,1807:97470,1813:101422,1891:103550,1939:104994,1996:105374,2002:106514,2018:121790,2246:122135,2278:126827,2376:128069,2399:129656,2429:130898,2455:132761,2506:137062,2538:138595,2565:141150,2647:144581,2716:144946,2722:145676,2733:147136,2758:160888,3003:164272,3089:165928,3121:171530,3191$0,0:1554,31:2210,40:2948,49:6638,121:16396,346:17462,362:25386,488:27726,532:31938,589:34122,634:37086,684:41040,693:41670,701:42510,710:42930,715:47550,780:50420,792:51740,818:52268,827:53060,841:55040,873:56030,894:56360,900:59066,954:59594,963:60122,972:63554,1035:64940,1067:67250,1122:68438,1144:69098,1155:69560,1165:70682,1188:79482,1255:80154,1266:80574,1272:85866,1347:89562,1408:90066,1415:95358,1520:96198,1532:102840,1580:103720,1593:116023,1777:116267,1782:120288,1852:123384,1930:124104,1988:129864,2079:148512,2366:150234,2411:155892,2546:158270,2591:168192,2841:181470,2990:182070,3000:183495,3032:187170,3116:190695,3222:191670,3243:192195,3253:202860,3360:203757,3378:207966,3486:211830,3612:213141,3648:219030,3752:223958,3865:230118,3993:237484,4040:239980,4077
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Augustus A. White III's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Augustus A. White III describes his professional activities

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Augustus A. White III lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Augustus A. White III describes his mother, Vivian Dandridge White

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Augustus A. White III describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Augustus A. White III describes his father, Augustus White, Jr.

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Augustus A. White III recalls his childhood aspirations

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Augustus A. White III describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Augustus A. White III describes his schooling in Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Augustus A. White III describes himself as a student at Memphis' Manassas High School

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Augustus A. White III describes his neighborhood growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Augustus A. White III remembers attending Mount Hermon School for Boys

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Augustus A. White III describes his experience at Mount Hermon School for Boys

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Augustus A. White III describes his jobs at Mount Hermon School for Boys

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Augustus A. White III describes his religious life as a young man

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Augustus A. White III reflects upon his time at Mount Hermon School for Boys

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Augustus A. White III describes his social life at Brown University, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Augustus A. White III describes his social life at Brown University, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Augustus A. White III recalls a conflict with Delta Upsilon Fraternity

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Augustus A. White III recalls being honored by Delta Upsilon Fraternity

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Augustus A. White III remembers attending Stanford University School of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Augustus A. White III remembers deciding to become a surgeon

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Augustus A. White III recalls his internship at the University of Michigan Medical Center

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Augustus A. White III recalls his residency at Presbyterian Hospital in San Francisco, California

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Augustus A. White III remembers his time at Yale New Haven Hospital

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Augustus A. White III remembers serving in Vietnam with the U.S. Army Medical Corps

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Augustus A. White III remembers working in a leper colony, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Augustus A. White III remembers working in a leper colony, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Augustus A. White III remembers being awarded a bronze star from the U.S. military

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Augustus A. White III remembers researching with Carl Hirsch in Sweden

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Augustus A. White III remembers meeting his wife, Anita White

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Augustus A. White III remembers starting Yale University's orthopedic biomechanics laboratory

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Augustus A. White III remembers his appointment at Boston's Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Augustus A. White III describes his book, 'Your Aching Back: A Doctor's Guide to Relief'

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Augustus A. White III describes his books

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Augustus A. White III describes healthcare disparities

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Augustus A. White III reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Augustus A. White III describes his future plans

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Augustus A. White III describes his daughters, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Augustus A. White III describes his daughters, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Augustus A. White III describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Augustus A. White III narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

6$2

DATitle
Dr. Augustus A. White III describes his jobs at Mount Hermon School for Boys
Dr. Augustus A. White III remembers being awarded a bronze star from the U.S. military
Transcript
What was your work assignment [at Mount Hermon School for Boys; Northfield Mount Hermon, Gill, Massachusetts]? You said everybody--$$Yeah, yeah.$$--worked.$$Yeah.$$What did you do?$$Interesting. And, and the, the good thing about the work, too, is like, like the outside world, if you did a good job and you worked hard, you, you kind of got--you know, you moved--you get--you got the better jobs. Everybody had to work to get the better job. My first job was cleaning toilets; that was my first job. And that was--you know, wasn't the best job. Wasn't the best job. And I had a racial incident around that as a matter of fact. And, but anyway, that was my first job. And I--what I wanted to do, I learned--I mean as, as I saw the jobs and I looked around, was to be a waiter, and there were several reasons for that. One is I knew I could satisfy my appetite in that position 'cause I was in and out of the kitchen the whole time. The other thing is I--part of the culture in the South that I grew up in, waiters, that was a very respected--I mean the--a respected job and you, you earned as much money as anybody else in the community basically if you were a professional waiter, if you were really good and you worked in--so it had a sense of sophistication, and I had learned some of that, again, sitting around listening to the adults. And, and the other way--the other thing was you had a lot more free time because you had to be at the dining room to eat anyway, so if you're waiting tables, you're, you're paying your dues and so, so anyway, I aspired to that and, and while I had a lot of trouble with my supervisor in the toilet cleaning job, I was--managed to be a substitute waiter and, and learn my way around the dining room, so ended up getting to be a waiter after the--after my first year. And then I moved on up and I got to be a faculty waiter, which is, you know, the elite waiters, and you--it--it's very nice. And, and, and, and again, I was bringing all this basic professionalism from my southern heritage and they thought--you know, they thought it was the greatest thing in the world, you know? Faculty members wanted to sit at my table, you know, and--because it, it was fun for me to do. And actually, that even--being a waiter--I, I worked as a carhop in the summers too, but I think being a waiter has helped me as a caregiver, a service provider, as a physician, you know? I mean, some of that stuff spills over and, and, you know, I'm, I'm comfortable with that, I enjoy it. So, and then even they had head waiters also, and head waiters, all you had to do is you put on a nice white coat and you just walk--the dining room was a very long dining room, about two or three basketball courts in length and the tables were all--and you just kind of walked back and forth and supervise and observe things. I was not a head waiter but I got invited to be a substitute frequently when the head waiters weren't there, so I would--they would ask me and I'd do that. So--but that was a good evolutionary process, you know? If, if, if you do the right thing and do it well, you know, you can--you can move up, whatever your color is, you know? So--$You were--finished your [U.S.] military service, what year? When were you discharged?$$I finished--well, I had finished that year, then I came back--that would've been '67 [1967] in Vietnam and then I did a year in, in Monterey, California [Monterey County, California], Fort Ord Army Hospital, and so I was there until '68 [1968].$$Okay.$$So I finished my two years with Uncle Sam in 1968.$$You received a Bronze Star [Bronze Star Medal]--$$I did, yes.$$--for--$$Well, I think it was a combination of my work in the leper colony, which interestingly, the military viewed it--I mean, not just in this way. I mean, obviously, from a humanitarian point of view, but, but the official military take on that was that this was a counter insurgency. In other words, the good will of what, in my military uniform and with military equipment and personnel what we were doing to help these patients, which indeed we were doing, was good will. And part of the military strategy when you're fighting an insurgency is to not just shoot at the people, but, but try to get the population to think you're a good guy and you're doing some good. So in the context of that, the humanitarian part, but really, frankly, more important the counter insurgency part of it, that was a major contribution as the military saw it. The other part of that is, the other part of my I guess the, the Bronze Star, was I, I went--they called into the hospital one day and they said, "We have a trooper up on the mountainside out here and that was outside the compound, outside the secure area, and he needs some medical support to get him down off the mountainside. He needs to be evaluated and prepared in a way that we can get him down, and, you know, we want some volunteers to do it, and preferably we'd like you to be a doctor." So I guess I was in a good mood or feeling strong or stupid or whatever, but I thought, okay, I think I can--I, I can do that. And I knew something--being an orthopedist, I knew something about how to splint people, you know, and, and, and they thought it was either a dislocated hip or fractured hip. And so I said, okay, you know. So I, I, I--the troopers got me and the, the--they got the radio contact or whatever, put me in a Jeep and took me out, you know, to the bottom of the mountain and said, "Okay, Doc, go that way." So I, I ran over to the first guy, you know, and he said, okay, Doc, come on. And he ran up the mountainside and I'm running behind him, and he went up, I don't know how far, let's say seventy-five or a hundred yards, and there was another trooper there, and this trooper stopped and said, "Okay, come on, Doc" (laughter). So I was like a baton (laughter).$$Like a relay race.$$Yeah, right. So there were about three or four of these guys. Finally, I got up to where the person was and, and was able to help to splint him and, and, and they did have a stretcher they--there. And, and it--you know, I--this brings up a--an aside. But the real heroes in Vietnam were the nurses and the helicopter pilots, and they were phenomenal. Anyway, the, the guy had to bring the helicopter in on the side of the mountain. He couldn't land it, but he had to bring it in. The mountain comes down this way, here I am with the splinted, got the guy settled down and splinted, and ready to be evacuated off the mountain. The helicopter had to come in, it couldn't land because of the slope, so it just had to hover. And then what we had to do was to take the guy (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Lift him.$$--and put him up into the helicopter. So we, we were able to do all that, but as, as the helicopter was hovering, I looked over the side of the mountain, and I could see the blade was about only a foot and a half from the side of the mountain, you know? And this is how good these guys were. I mean, he, he, he came in there and did that, we got the fellow on, and it was--it was a successful evacuation and so forth. So that was part of, of, of that volunteer effort that, that was--that was recognized, and that's what that was.

Kenneth Carlton Edelin

Kenneth C. Edelin, professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the Boston University School of Medicine, was born in Washington, D.C., on March 31, 1939. Educated in segregated Washington schools through the eighth grade, Edelin graduated from the private Stockbridge School in Western Massachusetts. After graduating from Columbia University in 1961, Edelin taught math and science at Stockbridge School for two years; he then attended Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee, where he earned his M.D. degree in 1967.

In 1973, Edelin worked as the chief resident in obstetrics at Boston City Hospital. Performing abortions after the Roe v. Wade decision, Edelin was indicted for manslaughter in 1974 when he surgically terminated a pregnancy. Convicted on February 15, 1975, and sentenced to one year of probation, Edelin’s case drew national attention. Edelin appealed the decision and the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts overturned the conviction on December 17, 1976.

A national leader in the Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Edelin chaired the PPFA board of directors from 1989 to 1992. Edelin also served on both the New England and national boards of the Legal Defense and Education Fund of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and chaired the Committee on Health Care for Underserved Women of the American College of Obstetrics. In 2007, Edelin authored the autobiographical novel Broken Justice which told the story of his legal struggle for abortion rights in the 1970s. The Planned Parenthood Federation of America established an award in Edelin’s name to honor individuals who excelled in areas of leadership in reproductive health care and reproductive rights. Dr.

Edelin passed away on December 30, 2013.

Accession Number

A2005.104

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/21/2005

Last Name

Edelin

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

Columbia University

Stockbridge High School

Meharry Medical College

Lovejoy Elementary School

First Name

Barbara

Birth City, State, Country

Washington

HM ID

EDE03

Favorite Season

Summer

State

District of Columbia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts

Favorite Quote

If You Doing What You've Always Done, You're Going To Keep On Getting What You Always Got.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Birth Date

3/31/1939

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Death Date

12/30/2013

Short Description

Medical professor Kenneth Carlton Edelin (1939 - 2013 ) was professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the Boston University School of Medicine. Edelin, who became nationally known in the 1970s for his legal battles for abortion rights, served as a leader in the Planned Parenthood Federation of America.

Employment

Boston City Hospital

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Kenneth Carlton Edelin's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin describes his mother's family background and personality

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin describes his maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin describes his maternal grandmother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin talks about his father's family

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin describes his father's personality

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin recalls the lessons he learned from his maternal grandfather

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin describes his oldest brother, Robert Mansfield Edelin

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin describes his brother, Milton Edelin

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin describes his sister, Norma Edelin Johnson

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin describes his childhood neighborhood in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin recalls his time at Lovejoy Elementary School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin remembers giving his sixth grade graduation speech to his dying mother

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin describes his reaction to his mother's death

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin explains how he entered Stockbridge School in Stockbridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin describes the diverse student body at Stockbridge School in Stockbridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin recalls overcoming his stutter at Stockbridge School in Stockbridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin describes the factors that led to his interest in medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin recalls his time at Columbia University in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin remembers teaching at Stockbridge School in Stockbridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin explains why he attended Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin describes his experiences at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin remembers serving in the U.S. Air Force as a general practitioner and obstetrician gynecologist

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin talks about moving to Boston, Massachusetts and his family

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin describes his residency at Boston City Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin remembers his time as first African American chief resident at Boston City Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin recalls his trial for manslaughter for performing an abortion shortly after Roe v. Wade

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin remembers appealing the verdict of his case to the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin describes his accomplishments as chairman of obstetrics and gynecology at Boston City Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin talks about his private practice in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin describes his second wife and their children, Joseph and Corrine Edelin

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin talks about his involvement with the Planned Parenthood Federation of America

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin describes his involvement with the NAACP Legal Defense Fund

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin recalls giving two speeches on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin describes his future plans and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Kenneth Carlton Edelin narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

7$6

DATitle
Kenneth Carlton Edelin recalls his time at Lovejoy Elementary School in Washington, D.C.
Kenneth Carlton Edelin remembers appealing the verdict of his case to the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court
Transcript
Tell me about your years at Lovejoy Elementary School [Lovejoy School, Washington, D.C.]. What was that experience like?$$That was, that was a defining experience for me. And, it was defining for lots of reasons. First of all, Washington, D.C. in the '40s [1940s] and through the early '50s [1950s] was segregated. Everything was segregated. All of the public schools were segregated. There were two, only two or three swimming pools that we could go to during the summer to swim. There were colored theaters. There was the Republic Theatre [Washington, D.C.], and there was the Plymouth Theatre [Washington, D.C.]. And, we couldn't go to white theaters. There was the Howard Theatre [Washington, D.C.], which preceded the Apollo [Theatre, Washington, D.C.] by about ten or fifteen years. Where I remember being taken by my parents [Ruby Goodwin Edelin and Benedict Edelin] to see Louis Armstrong and Stepin Fetchit, and, and all of those folks. But, Lovejoy Elementary School was, was one of the better elementary schools in Washington. All of my teachers were black, or as we said at the time, colored. They had a deep and abiding interest in us. They knew our parents. They expected the best from us. They insisted that we perform at a very high level. And, I remember in second or third grade, the teacher was going around the classroom and asking each student what they wanted to be when they grew up. And, my best friend was sitting next to me who happened to live on my block and he, he said, "I wanna be a truck driver;" smart guy. I remember him very well. Very nice. My very best friend, and very smart. But, he said he wanted to be a truck driver. Well, hell, if he wanted to be a truck driver, I wanted to be one too. So, when she got to me, she said, "Kenneth, what do you wanna be?" And, I said, "I wanna be a truck driver." She said, "What!" And, she stopped and she stood back and she put her hand on her hip, "You wanna be a truck driver? You don't have to go to college to be a truck driver. You need to go to college. You need to be a doctor." And, I said, "Yes, ma'am." You know, I don't know why she jumped on me. I don't know why she insi--she didn't say that Juney [ph.], who was sitting right next to me. But, she said it to me. And, it was something about me or the fact that she knew my parents, or the way I looked, or what she expected of me, that she expected something from me.$$What grade was this? Do you remember how far along you were?$$Third grade, fourth grade; very young, very young. So, it was a feeling that the teachers really cared about us. They knew our families. They had very high expectations for, at least some of us. And, pushed us to excel and to achieve.$The verdict went against the weight of the evidence. Nobody, but nobody after hearing the evidence presented at trial and our arguments against [Newman A.] Flanagan's theory of the case, which changed in the middle of the case by the way, nobody, but nobody thought that I would be found guilty. But, that jury, in this city, with that district attorney, was like the perfect storm. It all came together, at the right place, and at the right time. And, it had a chilling effect on women's healthcare. Hospitals around town stopped doing abortions. Hospitals around town stopped letting residents do pregnancy terminations all up and down the East Coast. Hospitals changed the rules and regulations as to who was eligible for pregnancy terminations and who could do them. It had a chilling effect, which is what they wanted. They wanted to attack a woman's right to choose. They wanted to attack the [U.S.] Supreme Court's ruling in Roe v. Wade [1973]. And, they did. And, they were successful. We, of course, appealed the case. I had to go out on the speaking circuit to raise money to pay for the enormous legal bills which a trial of this nature mounted, and engendered, and caused. And, and at the end of every speech whether it was here in Boston [Massachusetts], or whether it was in Chicago [Illinois], or Los Angeles [California], we passed the hat. We'd pass a bucket. And, ask people to contribute to the Kenneth Edelin Defense Fund. And, we raised enough money to pay for not only the cost of the trial but also the cost of the appeal. And, in December of 1976, after we argued before the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts [SJC], the verdict was overturned. And, not only did the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts overturn the verdict, they entered a new verdict of not guilty, which precluded, prevented, stopped, Newman Flanagan from coming after me again. If they had just thrown out the verdict, he could've come back at me. But, they now--$$How'd you feel?$$Not only did they throw out the verdict, they entered the verdict of not guilty, which was vindication but the scar remains.$$How'd you feel that day?$$That's an interesting question. It's similar to the question how I felt, if you don't mind my say so, when people ask me how I felt when I was sentenced. After I was convicted, I had to be sentenced. And, they judge sentenced me to a year's probation. Well, they say, "Well, you should feel good about having a year's probation." I said, "I shouldn't've been convicted at all. I shouldn't've been indicted at all." So, yeah, I'm happy I'm not going to jail, 'cause I heard all kinds of stories about who was waiting for me at Norfolk County Prison [Norfolk County Correctional Center, Dedham, Massachusetts]. But, I shouldn't've been indicted or convicted in the first place. And, so when the verdict was overturned, I was, I was, it was like huge weight had been lifted off of my shoulders. I was, I was free. I was free. And, that was in December of 1976. And, the SJC said in the final paragraph of their decision, "In the calm of appellate review, it is clear that there was no malice of thought and no criminal intent in providing the care to his patient that the defended provided. And, prosecutors cannot judge what a physician does because prosecutors are not there when decisions are made under the circumstances which they are made." So, that was 1976. Four years later I was chairman of the department of obstetrics and gynecology at Boston University [School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts] in Boston City Hospital [Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts]. And, that was the real vindication, if you will.