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Manning Marable

Author and director of the Institute for the Research in African American Studies at Columbia University, Manning Marable is one of America’s most widely read scholars. Born on May 13, 1950, in Dayton, Ohio, Marable received his A.B. degree from Earlham College in 1971, his M.A. degree in American history from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1972, and his Ph.D. in American history from the University of Maryland in 1976.

Marable’s academic career began in 1980 with a position as the senior research associate of Africana Studies at Cornell University. In 1982, Marable became a professor of history and economics, and Director of the Race Relations Institute at Fisk University. As a professor of sociology at Colgate University in 1983, Marable was the founding director of its Africana and Latin American Studies Program, and in 1987, he moved to The Ohio State University to become the Chair of the Black Studies Department. From 1989 to 1993, Marable served as the professor of Ethnic Studies at the University of Colorado at Boulder. In 1993, Marable became the founding director of the Institute for the Research in African-American Studies at Columbia University.

Since 1976, Marable has written Along the Color Line, a syndicated commentary series on African American politics and public affairs, which was published in newspapers and magazines in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, the Caribbean, and India. Marable is a prolific author that has written over 200 articles in academic journals and edited volumes. Marable has also written over twenty books, including co-editing with Myrlie Evers-Williams The Autobiography of Medgar Evers: A Hero’s Life and Legacy Revealed Through His Writings, Letters, and Speeches, which was published by Basic Civitas Books in 2005. At the time of his interview, Marable had several books in progress, including one entitled Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention, which is due to be published by Viking in 2009.

In 2002, Marable established the Center for Contemporary Black History at Columbia University, which produced Souls, a quarterly academic journal of African-American studies. In 2005, Marable and members of his Malcolm X Biography Project designed the content for the multimedia educational kiosks featured at the Malcolm X and Betty Shabazz Memorial and Educational Center at the historic Audubon Ballroom in Manhattan, the site of Malcolm X’s 1965 assassination.

Marable passed away on April 1, 2011.

Accession Number

A2005.228

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/4/2005

10/5/2005

12/5/2005

Last Name

Marable

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Earlham College

University of Wisconsin-Madison

University of Maryland

First Name

Manning

Birth City, State, Country

Dayton

HM ID

MAR11

Favorite Season

Fall

Sponsor

John Marshall Law School

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands

Favorite Quote

Knowledge Is Power.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Interview Description
Birth Date

5/13/1950

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Macaroni, Cheese

Death Date

4/1/2011

Short Description

Academic administrator and african american studies professor Manning Marable (1950 - 2011 ) is the founding director of the Institute for the Research in African American Studies at Columbia University. Since 1976, Marable has written Along the Color Line, a syndicated commentary series on African American politics and public affairs.

Employment

Smith College

Tuskegee Institute

Fisk University

Purdue University

Colgate University

Ohio State University

University of Colorado at Boulder

Columbia University

Main Sponsor
Main Sponsor URL
Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579844">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Manning Marable reflects upon the importance of knowing your heritage</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579845">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Slating of Manning Marable's interview, session 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579846">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Manning Marable lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579847">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Manning Marable describes his mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579848">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Manning Marable recalls his mother's influence on his interest in history</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579849">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Manning Marable recalls his great grandfather, Reverend Jack W. Morehead</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579850">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Manning Marable describes the history of the African American bourgeoisie</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579851">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Manning Marable talks about his mother's support of integration</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579852">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Manning Marable talks about his mother's view of being American</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579853">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Manning Marable describes his father's family background, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579854">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Manning Marable describes his paternal great grandfather, an escaped slave</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579855">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Manning Marable describes his father's family background, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579856">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Manning Marable talks about his paternal great grandfather and grandfather</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579857">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Manning Marable describes his father's growing up and the Great Depression</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579858">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Manning Marable describes how his parents met and married</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579859">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Manning Marable describes his father's education and workload</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579860">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Manning Marable describes the de facto segregation of Dayton, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579861">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Manning Marable describes his father's black nationalism</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579862">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Manning Marable describes his earliest childhood memories</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579863">Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Manning Marable describes growing up in Jefferson Township, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579864">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Manning Marable talks about his experience at Jefferson Township High School</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579865">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Manning Marable describes his decision to attend Earlham College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579866">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Manning Marable describes his experience at Earlham College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579867">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Manning Marable recalls formulating his political activism in college</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579868">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Manning Marable describes his experience in Africa</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579869">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Manning Marable describes the founding of the African National Congress</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579870">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Manning Marable talks about his mentor, Louis R. Harlan</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579871">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Manning Marable recalls his experiences of discrimination as a graduate student in Maryland</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579872">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Manning Marable reflects upon his role as a historian and a teacher</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579873">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Manning Marable reflects upon the impact of his newspaper column</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579874">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Manning Marable recalls his early experience in academia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579875">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Manning Marable recalls his early experience with political activism</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579876">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Manning Marable reflects upon black political activism in the 1970s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579877">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Manning Marable reflects upon the dearth of black political activism in the 2000s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579878">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Manning Marable reflects upon the effects of deindustrialization</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579879">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Manning Marable reflects upon popular culture in the 1970s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579880">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Manning Marable reflects upon the effect of trauma on memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579881">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Manning Marable describes the sights and smells of growing up</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579882">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Manning Marable describes the founding of Tuskegee Institute in 1881</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579883">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Manning Marable describes his family's housing development work in Tuskegee</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579884">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Manning Marable recalls Congresswoman Shirley Chisolm's presidential campaign</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579885">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Manning Marable talks about historical efforts to found an all-black state</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579886">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Manning Marable recalls his experience at Fisk University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579887">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Manning Marable describes his experience at Colgate University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579888">Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Manning Marable talks about Reverend Jesse L. Jackson's presidential bid</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579889">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Manning Marable describes the impact of Reverend Jesse L. Jackson's presidential bid, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579890">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Manning Marable describes the impact of Reverend Jesse L. Jackson's presidential bid, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579891">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Manning Marable describes the emergence of the black underclass</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579892">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Manning Marable recalls his most notable publications from the 1980s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579893">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Manning Marable describes his experience at The Ohio State University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579894">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Manning Marable explains transformation, an alternative to integration or separatism</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579895">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Manning Marable describes his theoretical and activist work on behalf of the black community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579896">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Manning Marable remembers his diagnosis with sarcoidosis</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579897">Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Manning Marable describes how he met his second wife, Leith Mullings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579898">Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Manning Marable describes his wife's involvement in his treatment for sarcoidosis</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579899">Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Manning Marable reflects upon racial discrimination in healthcare</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579900">Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Manning Marable reflects upon the underlying cause of the Los Angeles riots</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579901">Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Manning Marable remembers his breakthrough to mainstream audiences</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579902">Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Manning Marable talks about African American intellectuals' media access</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579903">Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Manning Marable talks about his associations with other black intellectuals</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579904">Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Manning Marable describes his vision for black studies</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579905">Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Manning Marable talks about affirmative action policy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579906">Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Manning Marable recalls Harold Washington's mayoral victory in Chicago</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579907">Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Manning Marable recalls Reverend Jesse L. Jackson's presidential campaign</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579908">Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Manning Marable recalls his academic productivity at Colgate University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579909">Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Manning Marable describes the revival of black political activism in the 1980s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579910">Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Manning Marable recalls the challenges he faced at The Ohio State University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579911">Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Manning Marable talks about suffering from sarcoidosis</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579912">Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Manning Marable recalls his move to the University of Colorado Boulder</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579913">Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Manning Marable remembers the disintegration of the Rainbow Coalition</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579914">Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Manning Marable describes changes in the leadership of the black community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579915">Tape: 8 Story: 10 - Manning Marable recalls black leaders' failure to address the crises of the early 1990s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579916">Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Manning Marable talks about the spread of crack cocaine addiction</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579917">Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Manning Marable describes governmental neglect of the crack cocaine epidemic</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579918">Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Manning Marable recalls his hope to revive W.E.B. Du Bois' Atlanta University studies</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579919">Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Manning Marable describes his decision to work at Columbia University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579920">Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Manning Marable talks about his second wife, Leith Mullings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579921">Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Manning Marable talks about his wife's involvement in his treatment</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579922">Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Manning Marable talks about his book, 'Beyond Black and White'</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579923">Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Manning Marable recalls reaching mainstream audiences with 'Beyond Black and White'</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579924">Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Manning Marable recalls the Los Angeles riots and the Million Man March</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579925">Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Manning Marable recalls his publications at Columbia University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579926">Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Manning Marable describes the stratification of the black community, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579927">Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Manning Marable describes the stratification of the black community, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579928">Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Manning Marable talks about the Black Radical Congress</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579929">Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Manning Marable critiques President Bill Clinton's policies</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579930">Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Manning Marable talks about the gentrification of Harlem in New York City</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579931">Tape: 10 Story: 8 - Manning Marable explains the concept of neoliberalism</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579932">Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Manning Marable describes his experience at Sing Sing Correctional Facility</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579933">Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Manning Marable talks about founding Souls Journal</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579934">Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Manning Marable describes his work with graduate students of color at Columbia University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579935">Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Manning Marable remembers the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579936">Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Manning Marable talks about the side effects of his medication, chloroquine</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579937">Tape: 11 Story: 6 - Manning Marable talks about his work on a biography of Malcolm X</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579938">Tape: 11 Story: 7 - Manning Marable describes his academic and journalistic goals</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579939">Tape: 11 Story: 8 - Manning Marable describes the neglect of the black victims of Hurricane Katrina</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/579940">Tape: 11 Story: 9 - Manning Marable reflects upon the progress of the African American community</a>

DASession

1$2

DATape

3$6

DAStory

6$7

DATitle
Manning Marable describes the founding of the African National Congress
Manning Marable describes his theoretical and activist work on behalf of the black community
Transcript
And one other event; there was an event that occurred in, at the University of Nairobi [Nairobi, Kenya], one of those half dozen events that changes your life. It was in a class, in a lecture, people were bored. The instructor was K.J. King, Kenneth J. King. He was a Scott, and he was a lecturing in the college and he mentioned something that woke me up, got my attention. He kept mispronouncing Tuskegee [Alabama]. Now you know my family is from now--my--Mar, the Marables relocated and moved everything to Tuskegee in the '50s [1950s]. So, as a kid every summer I went down and I spent time with my [paternal] granny [Fannie Heard Marable], and because I was named for her husband [Manning Marable], I was a pet, Manning, Manning [HistoryMaker Manning Marable]. And family reunion the first weekend in August; Marable, Manning Marable's reunion on Saturday, the first Saturday; Morris Marable's reunion on the first Sunday of August. So Morris Marable and Manning Marable. And those reunions still exist to this day, both, right, okay, for the two great mean. Okay, he pronounced it Tuskagee [ph.] instead of Tuskegee. I said hold, what, hold up K.J. (laughter). I said you're not pronouncing it right. But, he talked about a brother named John Langalibalele Dube, he's a Zulu born in 1871. He was a Kiowa. He was an African, Christian African, second generation of an elite. James Dube was his father, first minister of the Congregational church, sent his kid to Oberlin College [Oberlin, Ohio] where he went to school for a couple of years, 1887, 1889, then he travelled around the United states raising money, came back to the U.S. in 1897 and he gave a graduation address at Tuskegee Institute [Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute; Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, Alabama] in 18--in the spring of 1897. He saw Tuskegee, it blew his mind, and he said, Dube said, the guy is twenty-six, he said what you have here I wanna take back to South Africa and duplicate. I wanna be the Booker T. Washington in South Africa, that's what I wanna do. So get this, Dube raises money, travels around with John Chilembwe, another African who, whose later claim to fame is that he leads a bloody revolt against the British in the Nyasaland, Malawi, in 1915, raises money, goes back in 1899 to South Africa. By 1901, he establishes the Zulu Christian Industrial School, which is now Ohlange Institute, just outside of Durban [South Africa], about fifteen miles outside of Durban in Zululand. In 1901, he founds Ilanga lase Natal, lase Natal, first Zulu language newspaper in South Africa. In 1903, he sends his cousin, Pixley ka Isaka Seme, 1901, to be educated in the United States and he attends Columbia University [New York, New York] and in 1905 Pixley ka Isaka Seme wins the university's prize, grand prize, for oratory, and he's the first black person to graduate from law school at Columbia University, in history, in 1905. Well anyway, Dube and Seme did--go back and they're so frustrated and fed up with the racism they had to deal with, in January 190- 1912 in Bloemfontein in Orange Free State [Free State, South Africa], they have a meeting of other African Americ- Africans about what can we do to develop something. And they looked at the United States as a model. They said well you know got the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People]. Let's develop an organization that will advocate native, educated native rights and fight for equal justice. Let's call it the African National Congress [ANC], and Dube becomes the first president and Seme becomes the first secretary general, right. Interesting story right, Dube becomes the founder of the ANC and all that is traced back to South Africa. K.J. King is talking about this story. I'm finding this very fascinating. I decide to do, in effect that becomes my dissertation topic. I'm a senior, listening to this story, and I said has anybody written on this guy. No. So, I go to grad school and that became my topic.$And the living history it's still living because it's (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Oh, yeah.$$Yeah, you've done remarkable projects using that same template.$$I wanted--selfishly I wanted to remake the field in many ways because I felt that there was an intellectual impasse in black studies. But in '90 [1990], late '90s [1990s], mid-'90s [1990s] it was very clear to me that there was increasingly a disconnect between the black intelligentsia and what I would call the professional managerial black elite, and the situation of the masses of our people and that black scholars had to intervene with a deep commitment to the empowerment and the full emancipation of the masses of our people.$$How are we breaking off? What were the, I mean, how--$$You see it everywhere.$$Okay.$$I mean from bling, bling to the kind of predatory notions of how blackness can be manipulated and marketed, to the disturbing forms of denigration of African American women that are promoted within the reactionary current of hip hop. I'm not one of these people that just denigrates all of, all of hip hop indiscriminately. Much of hip hop is extraordinary and brilliant and de- and profoundly progressive. There is a wing of it, that is. Then there is part of hip hop that is also brilliant. I guess for me the best hip hop, the most brilliant hip hop practitioner has to be Tupac Shakur, but the young brother was deeply divided. The brilliant great work and profoundly misogynistic, profoundly reactionary work as well, and then there's the gangster rap and the other element of it and then the more recent currents that are even more reactionary than gangster rap from the early '90s [1990s] was. So, but--$$What year-- I'm sorry, but go ahead.$$The main thing that I have, when I came here to Columbia [Columbia University, New York, New York] my goal was to create, recreate what Du Bois [W.E.B. Du Bois] did in Atlanta [Georgia]. In the late 1890s, Du Bois once a year and for a number of years until around 1913 at the end, the last weekend of May held the Atlanta University conferences [Atlanta University studies] where you would take up an issue to explore that year and you would produce, bring a whole series of scholars to Atlanta, read papers, and then bind it together and produce a volume. So, if you go to the library and you look for the Atlanta University series, there are these series of sterling volumes interrogating the Negro in business, the college bred Negro, I believe 1901, economics, education, all of those issues, healthcare, educ- you know, and Du Bois created the foundations of African American studies. Everything we do rest on the foundation of Du Bois, and I wanted to build another scaffold, another floor of that for the 21st century, and so we too did conferences and brought in people. We developed innovative conferences and courses and initiatives. So, we have a course where we teach at Rikers Island [New York, New York], at Rikers High [Austin H. MacCormick Island Academy, New York, New York] with four, with fifteen, sixteen, seventeen-year-old black and Hispanic young men. We successfully received seven hundred dollar, seven hundred thousand dollars from the George Soros foundation of the Open Society Institute [Open Society Foundations] to fund that. We are engaged in a project trying to develop a black theory of justice. I call it imagining justice. It simply asks the question if black folk had justice what would it look like, you see 'cause we've never had it. What would it look like? And so my argument is, is that black people within our material culture, that is, our print culture and our manifestos and writings, over a period of two hundred years, we have devised a theory of justice. It has to be gleaned from the print culture and then expressed as a theory. Now as you know, any theory, a legal theory can be used in a court of law. We have an alternative theory of the meaning of justice that can help shape law review articles, it can help shape an argument in court. And so that's one of the projects that we're pursuing; the black theory of justice.

Nathan Hare

African American studies professor and psychologist Nathan Hare was born on April 9, 1933 in Slick, Oklahoma. As a young age he experienced segregation and tense race relations in Oklahoma. Hare planned on becoming a professional boxer until one of his high school teachers suggested he attend college, where he took sociology classes and switched his major from English to sociology. In 1954, he received his A.B. degree from Langston University in Langston, Oklahoma. In 1957, he earned his M.A. degree from University of Chicago. In that same year, he married his wife, Julia Hare, also a noted psychologist and sociologist. Five years later, in 1962, he earned the first of two Ph.D. degrees. The first Ph.D. degree in sociology was from the University of Chicago and the second Ph.D. degree, awarded from the California School of Professional Psychology in 1975, was in clinical psychology.

In 1961, he became an instructor and assistant professor in sociology at Howard University in Washington, D.C. Some of his students included Stokely Carmichael and Claude Brown. Later, in September 1966, he wrote a letter to the editor of the The Hilltop, Howard University’s student newspaper speaking out against then Howard University president James Nabrit’s plan to turn the university’s student body sixty percent white by 1970. As a result Hare was fired in 1967. In 1968, Hare joined the faculty of San Francisco State College (now San Francisco State University) and became the program coordinator of the school's Black Studies program, the first in the United States. This has earned him the title "father of Black Studies" by scholars. As the program coordinator, Hare created the term "ethnic studies" to replace the more pejorative "minority studies." Hare battled with the college administration and left the college just a year later, in 1969. Needing a way to express his thoughts and the ideas of others, he founded the scholarly periodical, The Black Scholar: A Journal of Black Studies and Research in 1969. He left the journal in 1975 to work as a clinical psychologist in community health programs, hospitals, and in private practice. In 1979, he co-founded the Black Think Tank with his wife, Julia Hare. The Black Think Tank addresses the problems and concerns that plague the African American community.

Throughout his career, Hare has served as a consultant and given numerous lectures and presentations. Furthermore, he has written several books and articles including The Black Anglo Saxons, The Endangered Black Family, Bringing the Black Boy to Manhood: The Passage, Crisis in Black Sexual Politics, and The Miseducation of the Black Child. He has been the recipient of many awards such as the Joseph Hines Award for Distinguished Scholarship from the National Association of Black Sociologists, Scholar of the Year Award from the Association of African Historians, and the Lifetime Achievement Award from the National Black College Alumni Hall of Fame. Hare was also awarded the National Council for Black Studies National Award for his distinguished scholarly contributions to Black Studies. Throughout his life, his love of boxing and learning has helped him to fight for social justice.

Nathan Hare was interviewed by the The HistoryMakers on April 5, 2004.

Accession Number

A2004.039

Sex

Male

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

4/5/2004

Last Name

Hare

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

University of Chicago

Langston University

California School of Professional Psychology

Archival Photo 2
First Name

Nathan

Birth City, State, Country

Slick

HM ID

HAR07

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

Oklahoma

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Interview Description
Birth Date

4/9/1933

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/San Francisco

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Greens, Ice Cream

Short Description

Psychologist and african american studies professor Nathan Hare (1933 - ) became the coordinator of the nation’s first Black Studies Program at San Francisco State College, worked as a clinical psychologist in community health programs, hospitals, and private practice, and established The Black Think Tank, which focuses on issues affecting the black family. He is the author of many books and articles and is the recipient of numerous awards.

Employment

San Francisco State College

Black Scholar

Black Think Tank

Howard University

Favorite Color

Light Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191672">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Nathan Hare's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191673">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Nathan Hare lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191674">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Nathan Hare describes his mother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191675">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Nathan Hare talks about his father</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191676">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Nathan Hare shares a story about his maternal great-grandmother's enslavement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191677">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Nathan Hare shares his earliest childhood memories</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191678">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Nathan Hare talks about his siblings</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191679">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Nathan Hare describes his family life as a child in Slick, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191680">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Nathan Hare describes growing up on a farm in Slick, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191681">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Nathan Hare describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up on a farm in Slick, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191682">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Nathan Hare talks about elementary school in Slick, Oklahoma and junior high school in San Diego, California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191683">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Nathan Hare describes winning six Oklahoma statewide academic prizes</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191684">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Nathan Hare describes tense race relations in Slick, Oklahoma in the 1940s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191685">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Nathan Hare talks about going to Landmark Baptist Church and being baptized</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191686">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Nathan Hare talks about his teachers at L'Ouverture High School in Slick, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191687">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Nathan Hare talks about living in San Diego, California for two years during World War II</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191688">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Nathan Hare talks about pursing his interest in boxing</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191689">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Nathan Hare describes his experience at Langston University in Langston, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191690">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Nathan Hare describes the recognition he received from boxing and the deterioration of Landmark Baptist Church in Slick, Oklahoma</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191691">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Nathan Hare talks about joining the U.S. Army Reserves</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191692">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Nathan Hare talks about being awarded the Danforth Fellowship and going to the University of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191693">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Nathan Hare talks about his influential teachers in college and graduate school, and taking a teaching position at Howard University in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191694">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Nathan Hare describes his dissertations</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191695">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Nathan Hare talks about teaching at Howard University in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191696">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Nathan Hare describes being offered the position as coordinator of the black studies department at San Francisco State University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191697">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Nathan Hare talks about teaching Stokely Carmichael and Claude Brown</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191698">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Nathan Hare talks about the end of his boxing career and the inspiration behind his book, 'The Black Anglo-Saxons'</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191206">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Nathan Hare describes his concern about the race issue before the Civil Rights Movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191207">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Nathan Hare talks about his introduction to the Civil Rights Movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191208">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Nathan Hare describes his involvement in the Black Power Committee at Howard University and putting up bail for H. Rap Brown</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191209">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Nathan Hare talks about the formation of the Department of Black Studies at San Francisco State University in 1968</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191210">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Nathan Hare describes the pedagogy of the Department of Black Studies at San Francisco State University in San Francisco, California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191211">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Nathan Hare talks about hiring professors for the Department of Black Studies at San Francisco State University in San Francisco, California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191212">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Nathan Hare talks about creating the journal, The Black Scholar</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191213">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Nathan Hare talks about getting his Ph.D. in Psychology at the California School of Professional Psychology in San Francisco, California</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191136">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Nathan Hare talks about the Black Think Tank</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191137">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Nathan Hare describes being a boxer and an academic</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191138">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Nathan Hare talks about his regrets in life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191139">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Nathan Hare describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191140">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Nathan Hare describes how he would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/191141">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Nathan Hare narrates his photographs</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

4$8

DATitle
Nathan Hare describes tense race relations in Slick, Oklahoma in the 1940s
Nathan Hare talks about teaching Stokely Carmichael and Claude Brown
Transcript
Could you tell us about, in Slick [Oklahoma], what--was it an all-black town or was it (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) No.$$--mixed or what was the relationship between the, the races there?$$Slick was a town, predominantly white town as was the area surrounding it 'cause Slick was not just a town it was surrounding area of all the people related psychologically, sociologically to each other, and so I was in that and they were--we were set apart, we knew each other, everybody knew each other, at least you didn't know them personally, you knew who they were and you spoke to everybody even if you passing them from behind as strangers, white and black strangers would, would speak, unlike here in the, in the, in the city. And so, we--was very much separated it was like a terror 'cause they might lynch you at any moment at the drop of the hat, we, we knew people that had been lynched and we knew, heard of it and Oklahoma had a high lynching rate because of the combined both the West and South and, and so, we had that there. We couldn't ride in the front of the bus, we couldn't sit and eat in a restaurant and all that, and we had separate schools and, and separate buses and when we were walking to school if our bus was broken down, which usually was the case on a rainy day, then the white bus would pass by and they--they would try to--the driver tried deliberately to run in the water skid water on us kids as we pass by and the white kids would, would lean out and say--call us niggers and we'd call them peckerwoods and things like that, yell at them and stuff, and back and forth and it would keep on going. And, and so that was the kind of way it, it was. If we pass one we'd, we'd usually get in some kind of fight, it was almost like a, a kid play too-fun thing too because you got a great joy out of doing battle with them a little bit (laughter). But, but so it was, it was like that and when I was ten years old, my mother [Tishia Lee Davis]--well there was a bus getting ready to go between Slick and Bristow [Oklahoma], it went for maybe a year or two and my mother said, "Well this is going to--it's going to be segregated we're not going to be able to ride up front and that's not right," and, but, but--by chance she sent us to--with a bucket of cream you could skim it off the milk over time and then sold the cream in the town ten miles away and we'd get things to buy stuff with, money, and we'd take ten cents apiece to go to what they called nigger heaven, which was the balcony of the movie theater that they allowed black people in. They had two theaters and one they allowed black people in, sit upstairs, sometimes we'd throw paper down on the white peoples head (laughter) but anyway-who did it, or where. But any case we went to nigger heaven and so--but I sat on--at, at the front seat when I got on the bus 'cause mother said it was going to be wrong, but a driver pleaded me for thirty minutes, I'd say, to, to move and I wouldn't move, my little brother [Carl Hare] was scared he was leaning over my shoulder because he was scared. The ruckus was going on, he kept pleading but I rode. He would not--I would not leave and he would not bother me, and then mother come 'round with a shotgun and so therefore we ro- I did this, you're talking about '43 [1943], this is thirteen years before Montgomery [Bus Boycott] and so I always had the policy after that to not go past rear of center. I would stand in the front rather than go to the back to sit and I did it all over and I tell, you know, anecdotes about it (laughter), but certainly--I was in Oklahoma not Georgia, maybe Georgia I wouldn't be here to tell the story but that's the way it was down there then.$You had some very interesting students at Howard [University, Washington, D.C.]--$$Yeah.$$--Stokely Carmichael [Kwame Ture] and some other people, could you--$$Claude Brown is the most known--$$Claude Brown, right.$$--he wrote, 'Manchild in the Promised Land' and he was taking my class then, yeah (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Right, right, and you said the people that were in SNCC [Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee]?$$Yeah.$$So, this was the beginning of black power, and the beginning of the student--$$Well, before, yeah--$$--student movement (simultaneous)--$$--(simultaneous) before black power but, but it was, it was about two or three years later--$$Right.$$--they, they formed black power. Things were turning blacker you might say, and blacks were getting the consciousness out of the Berkley [University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California]--University of Cal, Berkley free speech movement, in fact, Art Goldberg had come to Howard, he looked me up in the (unclear), he in there to go to law school, he said, "I heard you're one of the good guys and I'm going here now to law school at Howard 'cause I couldn't go to Berkley," I said, "If I couldn't go to Berkley, I was gonna bring Berkley here to Howard" (laughter) and so he came here and so I had to--all those people were there. And then things were getting a little more concerned, people were perking their ears about what I--they always started perking their ears up about what I was saying, not about race alone, but about other things in general. 'Cause I took the same approach to everything, not just race and so, he--they would be in this--I remember Stokely Carmichael saying to somebody that my notion of a closed ranks approach, modeled after [W.E.B.] Du Bois, but a turning within yourself to beef up yourself and then to confront the, the wall of segregation was the best thing going. But, but first time I ever saw Stokely was when I came there and he was standing--somebody had taken me by the NAG office, Nonviolent Action Group, which was the name of Friends of SNCC because the administration would not let them have a Friends of SNCC group there on campus, but they had to call it Nonviolent Action Group and so a young fellow sat down with us saying--he said, "I don't believe in this nonviolence, but there's nothing else going on so I guess, I'm fooling with that now," and that was Stokely Carmichael I learned later. And so they were there and he was a very good student. I knew he would be outstanding no matter what he had gone into, he could have been a very great mainstream senator or whatever. He--when--I never was surprised, people said were you surprised at, at Stokely Carmichael, I said no, he was two, two years overdue. In fact when Claude Brown, who was a surprise, Claude Brown was always telling me he was writing his autobiography, he had written an article in, in det- detalis- Dissent magazine, called 'Growing Up in Harlem.' He's writing this book on growing up in Harlem, which later on became 'Manchild in the Promised Land,' but I said, "Yeah, yeah, well, I'll leave him alone," because I really didn't think he was really doing anything and so he came out with this book and it became a best seller. And then Stokely Carmichael came by, and he came by my class when he was visiting here, he wasn't famous then and he said--I said, "What do you think of--," going down the hall later, I said, "What do you think about Claude Brown writing that book?" And so he said, "Well, if Claude Brown can do it, anybody can do it." It become so famous I said--writing that book--become so famous he said, "If Claude Brown can do it anybody can do it." Within a year he came back there and we invited him to speak and you couldn't get into the whole building because of, because the people, he had become famous with the black power. But I knew he was going to be outstanding. He was the best student I'd ever had.$$I see.$$He was, he was unusual.

Russell Adams

Russell Lee Adams was born on August 13, 1930, in Baltimore, Maryland, to James Russell Adams, a commercial farmer, and Isabelle, a teacher. Adams' family, including his two brothers and a sister, moved to Quitman, Georgia, where he attended elementary and high schools. After graduating with a B.A. from Morehouse College in 1952, Adams attended graduate school at the University of Chicago, where he earned his M.A. in 1954 and, later, his Ph.D.

From 1958 to 1964, Adams worked in Chicago as a Cook County probation officer. In 1965, he returned to academia as assistant professor at North Carolina Central University in Durham. He worked there until 1969; the next two years he spent at the University of the District of Columbia as associate professor. In 1971, Adams was hired as chair of the Department of Afro-American Studies at Howard University, a position he has held for more than three decades.

A popular keynote speaker, Adams has lectured at many universities, including the University of Maryland, Columbia University, Georgetown University, Rutgers University and Harvard University. As a consultant, he has also developed and evaluated instructional programs and conducted workshops on cultural and curriculum diversity. His clients have included the public school districts of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Wilmington, Delaware; the Montgomery County Board of Education; and black studies programs at a number of American universities.

A prolific writer, Adams has published several books and edited collections, and his work has appeared in numerous periodicals. He writes and reviews articles for the Journal of Negro Education. He also served as a primary adviser and contributor to the three-volume Time-Life series African Americans: Voices of Triumph.

Adams lives with his wife, Eleanor, in Suitland, Maryland. They have one son, Russell Lowell Adams.

Accession Number

A2003.157

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/16/2003

7/28/2003

Last Name

Adams

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Organizations
Schools
Morehouse College
University of Chicago
First Name

Russell

Birth City, State, Country

Baltimore

HM ID

ADA04

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Maryland

Favorite Quote

This Too Shall Pass.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Interview Description
Birth Date

8/13/1930

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Fish

Short Description

African american studies professor Russell Adams (1930 - ) was the professor emeritus and the former chair of Afro-American studies at Howard University.

Employment
Cook County States Attorney's Office
North Carolina Central University
University of the District of Columbia
Howard University
Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192683">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Russell Adams' interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192684">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Russell Adams lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192685">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Russell Adams describes his mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192686">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Russell Adams recalls his paternal grandmother's funeral in 1945 and his father's funeral in 1981</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192687">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Russell Adams remembers a final conversation with his father</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192688">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Russell Adams talks about his childhood on a farm in rural Quitman, Georgia and walking over three miles to attend school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192689">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Russell Adams explains how African Americans attempted to avoid racist interactions with white people in south Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192690">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Russell Adams talks about how his parents met in Quitman, Georgia and moved to Baltimore, Maryland</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192691">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Russell Adams describes his passion for reading as a child</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192692">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Russell Adams describes Quitman, Georgia in the 1940s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192693">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Russell Adams talks about his high school experience in Quitman, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192694">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Russell Adams recalls winning a college scholarship and leaving for Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia in 1948</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192695">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Russell Adams talks about his undergraduate experience at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia and Morehouse president Dr. Benjamin Mays</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192696">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Russell Adams talks about HistoryMaker Lerone Bennett and his extracurricular activities at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192697">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Russell Adams talks about his graduate studies at the University of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192698">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Russell Adams recalls notable figures he encountered as an undergraduate at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192699">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Russell Adams talks about the president of Morehouse College, Dr. Benjamin Mays</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192700">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Russell Adams describes etiquette lessons at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192701">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Russell Adams talks about the campus atmosphere at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia during the late 1940s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192702">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Russell Adams explains the influence of the G.I. Bill on HBCUs and the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192703">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Russell Adams talks about the student population at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia during the late 1940s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192704">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Russell Adams describes the social scene at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia during the late 1940s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192705">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Russell Adams describes the professors at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia during the late 1940s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192706">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Russell Adams talks about meeting author Lillian Smith in 1949</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192707">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Russell Adams talks about civil rights lawsuits</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192708">Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Russell Adams explains his decision to pursue his graduate studies at the University of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192709">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Russell Adams talks about the history of segregated interstate travel</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192710">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Russell Adams talks about his housing situation at the University of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192711">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Russell Adams describes the racial discrimination he experienced as a research assistant at the University of Chicago, in Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192712">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Russell Adams recalls seeking opportunities to socialize with African Americans in Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192713">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Russell Adams identifies prominent individuals who taught or performed at the University of Chicago during the 1950s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192714">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Russell Adams recalls observing an ethnic hierarchy at the University of Chicago's Billings Hospital</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192715">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Russell Adams remembers witnessing a meeting of atomic scientists on the University of Chicago campus</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192716">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Russell Adams talks about segregated housing at the University of Chicago and the de facto segregation of public facilities during the 1950s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192717">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Russell Adams talks about Chicago, Illinois in the 1950s and the formation of the American Negro Emancipation Centennial Authority</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192718">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Second slating of Russell Adams' interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192719">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Russell Adams talks about teaching at North Carolina Central University and the philosophy of Washington, D.C.'s Federal City College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192720">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Russell Adams talks about his responsibilities at Howard University in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192721">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Russell Adams explains why department heads must sacrifice their personal scholarship</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192722">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Russell Adams explains the continuing need for Afro-American studies departments</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192723">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Russell Adams talks about the future of Afro-American studies departments and Carter G. Woodson</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192724">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Russell Adams details the history of Afro-American studies at Howard University, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192725">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Russell Adams details the history of Afro-American studies at Howard University, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192726">Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Russell Adams explains the guiding principles for Howard University's Afro-American studies department, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192727">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Russell Adams explains the guiding principles for Howard University's Afro-American studies department, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192728">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Russell Adams talks about economic segregation within the African American community in the post-civil rights era, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192729">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Russell Adams talks about economic segregation within the African American community in in the post-civil rights, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192730">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Russell Adams talks about the purpose of Afro-American studies departments</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192731">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Russell Adams talks about his scholarly publications</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192732">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Russell Adams talks about his research on the administrative foundations of black social advocacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192733">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Russell Adams talks about his essay collection examining the evolution of black community institutions after the Civil War, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192734">Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Russell Adams talks about his essay collection examining the evolution of black community institutions after the Civil War, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192735">Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Russell Adams talks about the history of collective violence against the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192736">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Russell Adams talks about reviewing history manuscripts for American publishing companies</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192737">Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Russell Adams talks about the 1974 book, 'Time on the Cross,' by Robert Fogel and Stanley Engerman</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192738">Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Russell Adams considers why African American scholars have not published extensively on slavery in the United States</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192739">Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Russell Adams talks about the works of Paul Laurence Dunbar and Sterling Brown and his approach to teaching the history of slavery</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192740">Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Russell Adams talks about the American popular interest in history</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192741">Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Russell Adams talks about the sociocultural characteristics of the individuals buried in New York City's African Burial Ground</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192742">Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Russell Adams talks about the African Burial Ground in New York City and the history of slavery in New York State</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192743">Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Russell Adams talks about the emergence of Lost Cause mythology and southern interpretations of the Civil War</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192744">Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Russell Adams explains how the Civil Rights Movement influenced reinterpretations of the history of slavery, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192745">Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Russell Adams explains how the Civil Rights Movement influenced reinterpretations of the history of slavery, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192746">Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Russell Adams describes schools of African studies that emerged in the late 20th century</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192747">Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Russell Adams talks about how support from colleges and universities has legitimized the study of African American history</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192748">Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Russell Adams describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192749">Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Russell Adams reflects upon his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192750">Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Russell Adams considers what he would have done differently</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192751">Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Russell Adams reflects upon teaching Afro-American studies at Howard University in Washington, D.C.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192752">Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Russell Adams describes how he would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192753">Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Russell Adams reflects upon his career choice</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192754">Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Russell Adams narrates his photographs, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/192755">Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Russell Adams narrates his photographs, pt. 2</a>

DASession

1$2

DATape

3$5

DAStory

6$7

DATitle
Russell Adams describes the social scene at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia during the late 1940s
Russell Adams details the history of Afro-American studies at Howard University, pt. 1
Transcript
And we also had young guys' time. For example, the veterans would gamble and to [Benjamin] Mays', you know, dismay. And many is the time, they had two or three prefab buildings on campus [Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia] called vet dorms. It'll hold like twenty-four and twenty-four within these things, and the windows were small. And more than once heavyset guys got caught in the windows when Mr. Nixon [ph.] would go down to rig up the gambling, couldn't get through. It's guys like a fish out of water trying to swim in mid-air. And I remember some of the drinking songs. I wasn't a drinking guy, but one song goes, the words: "You bring the whiskey, I'll bring the gin. We'll never let a sober one in." And it was--so the, the place was called the Dirty Deuce for some reason or another, twenty people in there I guess. But we would have all that kind of fun. And on Sundays when it was raining we'd be depressed, but we'd go to Spelman [College, Atlanta, Georgia]. Depression comes in that the young ladies were not encouraged to leave campus in the rain, like where are you going walking in the rain? So we had to sit and do polite talk, a loveseat for the two couple--for the couple, then there's a lady who is on the staff reading the thoughts of Marcus Aurelius, Reader's Digest, another loveseat and another person doing the same thing. And if it's raining you can't walk outside so you have to blow the Sunday sitting there. So we knew how to talk in code about Monday (laughter). And the great Christmas thing was the Atlanta University [later Atlanta Clark University, Atlanta, Georgia] Joint Christmas Carol Concert, where Morehouse Glee Club, the Spelman Glee Club, and Clark [College, later Clark Atlanta University] would all combine for a tremendous--they still do that, in different ways now. While I was not in the Morehouse Glee Club, I followed the music and went to the events not only because my buddies who were in the thing were there, but because all those young ladies at these other places would be in the crowd, and so that was a major mixer. The library was a place where we went when we could not afford to go anywhere else to meet young ladies. We'd go to Atlanta University Library, as it was called, and we would spell it L-I-E-B-R-A-R-Y (laughter). You studying? No, yeah, I'm studying. That's the lie, right? But we would study, so sooner or later it would be necessary to protect ourselves on academics.$When did Howard [University, Washington, D.C.] first start approaching the idea, and how was it received? The, the, the, the department was established before you, you came there, right?$$Yeah, but only three years.$$Okay.$$Now, Howard moved into what we now call black studies through the history department. Now when [Carter G.] Woodson was there in 1920, '22 [1922], he wanted to start a course on the history of black folks, and he was turned down. Then it was [William] Leo Hansberry, who, in the late '20s [1920s] and the '30s [1930s] in particular, started looking at Africa. And yet, at the same kept finding resistance, and I'd have to say this in terms of the accuracy of the record as much as it comes to me. Howard was, to some extent, beyond medicine and law, ambivalent about the social analysis of the black experience. They would do the medical because it's obvious that the folks they're treating are black. They would do the law because the problems black folks had with the law were up front. But just as Morehouse [College, Atlanta, Georgia], and Spelman [College, Atlanta, Georgia], and to some extent Howard, had trouble deciding what to do with the spirituals, the music, whether you should sing them Anglicized or whether you should sing them with the dialect that the creators used when they did the songs. When I was at Morehouse in the late '40s [1940s] and '50s [1950s], Spelman and Morehouse were still to some extent debating on how to handle that music. So you have had this doubleness [double consciousness] that [W.E.B.] Du Bois talked about. On the one hand he says that I am American but on the other hand I am also African. And so the problem that places like Howard had, how much of either to promote consciously and with some pride. And so when a fellow named Nick Aaron Ford did his book 'Black Studies: Threat or Promise' [sic., 'Black Studies: Threat or Challenge'] back in '52 [1952].$$Now he was a professor at Howard?$$He was at Morgan [State University, Baltimore, Maryland].$$Morgan, okay.$$And he got a little grant to ask the question: to what extent was Woodson's work being picked up by institutions with regular budgets? And he found that Howard, indeed, in '52 [1952] had the most courses on black folks. They had eight, but they didn't call 'em that. They had stuff on the Negro in politics, the Negro in the city, in sociology. Because of Rayford Logan, four or five courses in the history department on that, that dealt with the experience.

Sterling Plumpp

Chicago poet Sterling Plumpp was born January 30, 1940, in Clinton, Mississippi. Educated in public and religious schools, he graduated from high school in 1960 and went on to attend Roosevelt University in Chicago, earning a B.A. in 1968 and an M.A. in 1971.

Growing up poor in rural Mississippi, Plumpp worked in the cotton and cornfields and by the time he was eleven, he was expected to grow up to be a field hand. A bootlegger aunt had other plans for him, however, and paid for him to attend Holy Ghost High School in Jackson, Mississippi. Earning a scholarship to a small local college, Plumpp began his college education, but the scholarship money ran out, so he hitchhiked to Chicago in 1962. He worked in a post office until 1964, and during that time, he began writing his poetry.

Plumpp saw his first poems published in 1971 in Negro Digest and was hired to teach English and later African American studies at the University of Illinois, Chicago. His poetry, often based on blues and jazz rhythms, has won him numerous awards, including the Richard Wright Literary Excellence Award, the Carl Sandburg Literary Award for poetry, and three Illinois Arts Council awards. He has published twelve volumes of his work.

In recent years, Plumpp won a lottery jackpot, and he plans on leaving most of the money to his daughter, whose birth he describes as his most joyous occasion in life. Some of the money will also be used for returning to his native South, as well as a trip to Africa. Plumpp retired from UIC in 2001.

Accession Number

A2003.069

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/8/2003

Last Name

Plumpp

Maker Category
Search Occupation Category
Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Depends on Schedule

First Name

Sterling

Birth City, State, Country

Clinton

HM ID

PLU01

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Depends on audience

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Mississippi

Favorite Quote

You Have to Believe That You're Beyond the Best.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Interview Description
Birth Date

1/30/1940

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Catfish, Chicken

Short Description

Jazz and blues poet, african american studies professor, and english professor Sterling Plumpp (1940 - ) teaches at the University of Illinois Chicago.

Employment

United States Postal Service

University of Illinois, Chicago

Favorite Color

Blue

DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134271">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Sterling Plumpp's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134272">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Sterling Plumpp lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134273">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Sterling Plumpp recalls his family's reluctance to share stories of American slavery</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134274">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Sterling Plumpp describes his maternal grandfather's personality, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134275">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Sterling Plumpp describes his maternal grandfather's personality, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134276">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Sterling Plumpp describes his maternal grandmother</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134277">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Sterling Plumpp describes his father</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134278">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Sterling Plumpp talks about his mother's family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134279">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Sterling Plumpp recalls his mother's battle with cancer</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134280">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Sterling Plumpp describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134281">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Sterling Plumpp describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134282">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Sterling Plumpp talks about junior high school experiences</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134283">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Sterling Plumpp talks about religion and attending Catholic school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134284">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Sterling Plumpp talks about his experience at a Catholic high school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134285">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Sterling Plumpp talks about deciding to attend college</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134286">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Sterling Plumpp describes his experience at Benedictine College in Atchison, Kansas and his decision to drop out after two years</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134287">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Sterling Plumpp describes his move to Chicago, Illinois and his involvement with the Civil Rights Movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134288">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Sterling Plumpp talks about his interest in becoming a writer and joining the Chicago Organization of Black American Culture (OBAC)</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134289">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Sterling Plumpp talks about his views on black literature and Hoyt Fuller</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134290">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Sterling Plumpp talks about studying psychology at Roosevelt University in Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134291">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Sterling Plumpp talks about being published by Detroit, Michigan's Broadside Press and Chicago, Illinois' Third World Press</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134292">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Sterling Plumpp talks about the Institute of Positive Education in Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134293">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Sterling Plumpp talks about the relationship between the Institute of Positive Education and the Congress of African People</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134294">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Sterling Plumpp describes the split between the Institute for Positive Education and the Congress of African People</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134295">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Sterling Plumpp talks about joining the faculty at University of Illinois at Chicago</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134296">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Sterling Plumpp talks about his publications with Third World Press and other literary magazines</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134297">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Sterling Plumpp talks about 'Black Rituals' and his views on religion</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134298">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Sterling Plumpp shares his perspective on the Jewish salvation narrative</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134299">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Sterling Plumpp explains his views on American politics</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134300">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Sterling Plumpp talks about race and American capitalism</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134301">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Sterling Plumpp talks about 'blackness' in American society and literature</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134667">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Sterling Plumpp describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134668">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Sterling Plumpp describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134669">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Sterling Plumpp talks about rap music and the resurgence of poetry</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134670">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Sterling Plumpp talks about potential writing projects</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134671">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Sterling Plumpp talks about U.S. Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134672">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Sterling Plumpp considers his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134673">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Sterling Plumpp recites from his poem, 'Clinton'</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134090">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Sterling Plumpp describes how he would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/134091">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Sterling Plumpp narrates his photographs</a>

Harold Rogers

Distinguished professor and international activist Harold Rogers was born on December 25, 1942, in Cleveland. He attended John Adams High School in Cleveland before completing a B.A. at Kent State University in 1967. Rogers went on to study at the University of Chicago and earned his M.A. in 1973.

Rogers began his career in education at Antioch College, where he taught in the early 1970s. From 1972 to 1993, he was the Chicago spokesperson for the African National Congress of South Africa. In 1973, he joined the faculty of the City Colleges of Chicago, where he has served as the chairman of the African American Studies Department for Olive-Harvey College since 1980. Rogers served as a labor adviser for the state of Illinois for a number of years; and, from 1987 to 1992, he worked as the district administrator for Congressman Charles Hayes. He was also instrumental in bringing Nelson Mandela to Chicago in 1993 and helped raise funds for Mandela’s election the following April. Rogers participated in the U.S. delegation to South Africa’s first democratic elections in 1994. His areas of expertise included global trade and economics, multiculturalism in education, African history and African American history.

Rogers was an active member of the Black Panther Party, the NAACP and Operation PUSH. In 1975, he joined the board of the Coalition of Black Trade Unionists. Recognized nationally for his gifts as an educator, Rogers has been president of Black Faculty in Higher Education since 1980, a member of President Bill Clinton’s Committee on Higher Education, and a National Advisory Board member for the W.E.B. Du Bois Foundation since 1990. He presided over the African American Studies Program that conducts educational trips to Africa and Cuba since its inception in 1980. He has also served on numerous boards including the Jazz Institute of Chicago and The Vivian G. Harsh Collections. Rogers received an honorary degree from Oxford University in 2008.

Rogers passed away on November 25, 2019.

Harold Rogers was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 7, 2003.

Accession Number

A2003.067

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/7/2003

Last Name

Rogers

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

John Adams High School

Kent State University

University of Chicago

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Evenings, weekends, afternoons

First Name

Harold

Birth City, State, Country

Cleveland

HM ID

ROG04

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - Negotiable

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

Havana, Cuba; South Africa

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Interview Description
Birth Date

12/25/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Grape Leaves

Death Date

11/25/2019

Short Description

Social activist and african american studies professor Harold Rogers (1942 - 2019) teaches at City Colleges of Chicago and is the Chicago spokesperson to the African National Congress.

Employment

City Colleges of Chicago

Olive-Harvey College

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90200">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Harold Rogers's interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90201">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Harold Rogers lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90202">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Harold Rogers describes his family history</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90203">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Harold Rogers describes his father's occupation and personality</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90204">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Harold Rogers describes his mother's occupation and personality</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90205">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Harold Rogers describes how his mother motivated him to get an education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90206">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Harold Rogers describes the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90207">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Harold Rogers describes how he avoided the Vietnam War draft in 1960</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90208">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Harold Rogers describes his experience with SNCC in Birmingham, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90209">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Harold Rogers describes joining the Peace Corps</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90210">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Harold Rogers describes his experience of racism in childhood and college</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90211">Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Harold Rogers describes his disrespect for authority in high school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90212">Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Harold Rogers describes his experience in the Peace Corps, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90213">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Harold Rogers describes his experience in the Peace Corps, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90214">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Harold Rogers describes returning from the Peace Corps and his experience with the SCLC in Birmingham, Alabama</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90215">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Harold Rogers describes how his scar resulted from crossing the Edmund Pettus Bridge on Bloody Sunday in 1965</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90216">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Harold Rogers describes his experience crossing the Edmund Pettus Bridge during the Selma to Montgomery marches in March of 1965</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90217">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Harold Rogers talks about joining the Black Panther Party in Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90218">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Harold Rogers describes his experience meeting Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90219">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Harold Rogers describes his experience with the Black Panther Party in Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90220">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Harold Rogers describes the relationship between the Chicago Black Panther Party and the gangs in 1968</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90221">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Harold Rogers talks about the assassination of Chicago Black Panthers Fred Hampton and Mark Clark in 1969</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90222">Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Harold Rogers reflects on the positive image of the Black Panther Party</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90223">Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Harold Rogers describes becoming disillusioned with the Black Panther Party and relocating to Tanzania in 1971</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90567">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Harold Rogers describes his involvement in Tanzania with the African National Congress and other African liberation movements</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90568">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Harold Rogers describes his experience as spokesman for the African National Congress in the United States</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90569">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Harold Rogers describes his experience in Egypt in 1972 and 1973</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90570">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Harold Rogers describes his experience teaching at Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90571">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Harold Rogers describes his experience as chairman of the Department of African American Studies at Olive-Harvey College in Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90572">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Harold Rogers talks about the decline in youth activism from the 1960s and 1970s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90573">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Harold Rogers talks about teaching African American history to his students</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90574">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Harold Rogers describes his experience in the Coalition of Black Trade Unionists</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90575">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Harold Rogers talks about his organizational involvement with Black Faculty in Higher Education and the African American Studies Program</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/117611">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Harold Rogers talks about his experience with Chicago Mayor Harold Washington, HistoryMaker Congressman Charles Hayes, and Illinois Governor Dan Walker</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/117612">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Harold Rogers describes the role of the African National Congress in ending apartheid in South Africa</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/117613">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Harold Rogers describes Nelson Mandela's eleven city U.S. tour in 1990</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/117614">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Harold Rogers describes Nelson Mandela's personality and his 1993 fundraising trip to Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/117615">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Harold Rogers reflects on Nelson Mandela's resolve and a later visit to the United States</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/117616">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Harold Rogers describes South African President Thabo Mbecki</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/117617">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Harold Rogers describes his experience with the administration of City Colleges of Chicago</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/117618">Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Harold Rogers reflects on the progress South Africa has made since the end of apartheid</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/117619">Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Harold Rogers shares his thoughts on Mali, Timbuktu, and Brazil</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/117620">Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Harold Rogers describes his experience of racial progress in Cuba</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90243">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Harold Rogers describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90244">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Harold Rogers reflects upon his legacy and how he would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/90245">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Harold Rogers narrates his photographs</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

1$7

DATitle
Harold Rogers describes his involvement in Tanzania with the African National Congress and other African liberation movements
Harold Rogers talks about teaching African American history to his students
Transcript
So tell me, we, we were talking about the group in Tanzania.$$Yeah. I mean, I, I left there to do work on my Ph.D [University of Chicago in Illinois], but really to collect material for my dissertation and so forth, 'cause I was kinda disillusioned with what was happening in the United States. I mean, SCLC [Southern Christian Leadership Conference] is falling apart and so forth after [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther] King [Jr.] died. And then the Panthers [Black Panther Party] were falling apart. And the government was on the Panthers, the party. And so, I thought it was like a cooling out period, so to speak. But then, I got hooked up with the little racial movements because Dar [Dar es Salaam. Tanzania] was the center for FRELIMO [Mozambique Liberation Front] of Mozambique; the ANC [African National Congress] of South Africa; ZAPU [Zimbabwe African People's Union] of Zimbabwe; and MPLA [People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola] of Angola; and, and SWAPO [South West Africa People's Organization] in Nimibia. So they were there, and they had training camps there. So then I became a reporter for left-wing magazines in this country on the liberation movements, okay. So I got to know many of the people in the liberation movements at that time, okay. I would go into Northern Mozambique with FRELIMO in terms of their fight against the Portuguese. So, I would write correspondence. So I for-, kinda forgot about my dissertation. I collected some stuff and blah, blah, blah, but, see, I had a grant, so I had to justify doing something. I had a grant from the University of Chicago, okay.$$What, what was your initial research on, I mean, what--$$What my dissertation was going to be on?$$Yeah.$$Oh, east capitalist relationships in East Africa before the fifteenth century--$$Okay.$$--and its relationship between East Africa and India because it was a lot of trade--$$Okay.$$--okay, between the two.$$Oh, it was down trade (simultaneous).$$Right, right. But I kinda lost interest, but I had to do something in terms of kinda justifying this grant and so forth. But nevertheless, I got involved with the liberation movements. Now, once I left Tanzania, then I went to Egypt because I had to do some Arabic stuff in Egypt. And I was able to get a part-time teaching position at the American University in Cairo. Anyway, when I got back, I was given a charge by the ANC to try to financially establish a presence in the United States because the ANC was banned by the U.S. government as being a terrorist organization, okay. So I went to the UN [United Nations], and they sent over from Tanzania to South Africa in the ANC. And the UN granted them observer status, okay, the ANC. But they could only--they could not leave twenty-five miles outside of New York [New York City, New York]. They had to stay within twenty-five miles in New York 'cause they were banned and so forth. I mean, the U.S. government was supporting apartheid and all this kind of stuff. So this, this kind of activity in helping them financially and other kind of ways, kinda got me in close with the ANC. Well, it did. This is reality and so forth, so that led to a lot of things around the world including international conferences and so forth. It led to me being the co-sponsor of the Free Nelson Mandela Committee when he was released in February 2nd, 19-, 1990 from jail. I became the treasurer of the organization of his eleven city tour when he was that first tour when he came and so forth. We raised close to $50 million for the ANC. And then, I had him here in Chicago--$$Now--$$--in '93 [1993].$Now, when you teach students in this generation, I mean, what have you found, or what have you found to be effective, you know, to get students to raise the kind of money it takes for this Black Students Conference and do other things?$$Once you let them know the history and the importance, they respond. But look, you have--take the City Colleges of Chicago [Illinois], for an example. There are 100 and--they say there are 165,000 students in various programs and so forth, scattered into seven different campuses, okay. Of the blacks that are in the City Colleges, 68 percent are black female, okay. So right away, that changes the whole pass because that means that black female was already happening--are being the ones who are getting the jobs and making the money. That's the reality out here. Last year, in every professional field, whether it was lawyer, engineer, doctor, black females suppress--surpass black men, the money, in every professional field out here. So you're talking about a student body that's different, okay, that is female driven in terms of (unclear). Secondly, the skills are poor. I'm talking about--basic reading and writing skills are poor, okay, so that means a lot of remedial stuff. It's not that they're stupid. They just don't know, all right. But once they do know, and you explain to them, then they will participate. I mean, you know, we have people coming from Paul Robeson High School. They don't even know who Paul Robeson was. They (unclear) graduated from Paul Robeson High School.$$It seems strange that, that we have a situation like that.$$You would think so, yeah. So, it's a different, it, number one, it's a different kind of teaching thing, in terms of how you relate, and so forth. Most of my, most of the students I know, they all want to get ahead. I mean, there are very few bad apples, if you want to say that. They want to get ahead. They got a lot of problems. Most of the women got babies. They want to get ahead and want to get a good education. That's the best--that's why I'm teaching because most of them want to get ahead. So, and they're not stupid. You usually got to teach them in a different kind of way. That's all, and so forth. But, and, and many, many of them do very well. I mean, in terms of going to a four-year school and, you know, this kind of thing, and so forth. I mean, they got money problems but everybody got money problems, and so forth. But, no, I enjoy teaching. I can easily retire but I enjoy teaching.

Conrad Walter Worrill

Conrad Walter Worrill was born on August 15, 1941, in Pasadena, California. His mother, Anna Bell, was the first African American to sing in the Pasadena Philharmonic Orchestra and his father, Walter, was a college-educated YMCA manager. Conrad Worrill became an activist and scholar whose goal is to advance the cause and concept of African independence and self-determination both in the United States and internationally.

After moving to Chicago on his ninth birthday, Worrill became serious about athletics. He gained his first racial consciousness through competitive swimming when his black YMCA team faced serious heckling. In 1962, he was drafted into the Army and shipped to Okinawa, Japan. While overseas, he read profusely about African American history, culture and politics. After he returned to Chicago in 1963, Worrill attended George Williams College but became radicalized by the Black Power movement. After graduating in 1968, a West Side YMCA hired him as the program director. He earned his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He headed George Williams College's Urban Institute in 1973 and began teaching at Northeastern Illinois University in Chicago in 1976, where he is the coordinator and professor of Inner City Studies Education. While organizing in 1983 to elect Chicago's first black mayor, Harold Washington, Worrill co-founded the Task Force for Black Political Empowerment. As the national chairman of the National Black United Front (NBUF), Worrill is working aggressively to change the American public school curriculum to be inclusive of the contributions of Africans and African Americans.

Worrill is the elected economic development commissioner of the National Coalition of Blacks for Reparations in America (N'COBRA). He served as special consultant of field operations for the historic Million Man March/ Day of Absence on October 16, 1995, in Washington, D.C. As part of the fight to win reparations for the American descendants of slaves, he traveled to Geneva, Switzerland, in 1997 with a delegation to formally charge the U.S. Government with genocide and human right violations before the Commission on Human Rights. The delegation presented the commission with a "Declaration of Genocide by the United States Government Against the Black Population in the United States" with 157,000 signatures.

Upon returning to the United States, Worrill presented this petition to the United Nations in New York City. In 2001, he led a 400-member delegation to the UN World Conference Against Racism in Durban, South Africa. He writes the syndicated weekly column "Worrill's World," which is widely read in African American newspapers across the country. In August 2002, Worrill organized a national reparations rally attended by thousands.

Worrill passed away on June 3, 2020.

Accession Number

A2002.144

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/13/2002

12/15/2009

Last Name

Worrill

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Walter

Schools

Pacific Oaks Children's School

John Farren Elementary School

William H. Ray Elementary School

Hyde Park Academy High School

Pasadena City College

Malcolm X College

Central YMCA College

George Williams College of Aurora University

University of Chicago

University of Wisconsin-Madison

First Name

Conrad

Birth City, State, Country

Pasedena

HM ID

WOR01

State

California

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Interview Description
Birth Date

8/15/1941

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Chicken

Death Date

6/3/2020

Short Description

Nonprofit chief executive and african american studies professor Conrad Walter Worrill (1941 - 2020) is a reparations leader and chair of the National Black United Front. He traveled with a delegation to Geneva, Switzerland in 1997 to formally charge the U.S. Government with genocide and human right violations before the Commission on Human Rights.

Employment

U.S. Steel

Sears YMCA

United States Army

George Williams College

Northeastern Illinois University

Favorite Color

Blue, Green

DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20408">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Conrad Worrill interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20409">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Conrad Worrill's favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20410">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Conrad Worrill details his family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20411">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Conrad Worrill gives his brother's name</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20412">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Conrad Worrill recounts his parents' courtship and early marriage</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20413">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Conrad Worrill recalls his father's education</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20414">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Conrad Worrill remembers his father's early career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20415">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Conrad Worrill describes race relations in the Pasadena, California of his youth</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20416">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Conrad Worrill recalls his family's move to Chicago and his traumatic elementary school experience</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20417">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Conrad Worrill recounts his involvement in sports at the Wabash YMCA in Chicago</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20418">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Conrad Worrill illustrates his family's relationship with Jackie Robinson</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20419">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Conrad Worrill talks about his family's relationship with Jackie Robinson</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20420">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Conrad Worrill recalls some of the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Chicago</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20421">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Conrad Worrill lists his childhood role models</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20422">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Conrad Worrill details his involvement in high school sports</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20423">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Conrad Worrill remembers DuSable High School winning the state basketball championship</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20424">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Conrad Worrill provides the socio-political context of his senior year of high school</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20425">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Conrad Worrill recounts his wild college years</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20426">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Conrad Worrill provides the socio-political context of his college years</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20427">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Conrad Worrill discusses his rising awareness of Civil Rights issues</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20428">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Conrad Worrill recalls his experiences in Army basic training</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20429">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Conrad Worrill relates his overseas experience in the Vietnam War</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20430">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Conrad Worrill recounts his efforts to be productive after returning from the Army</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20431">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Conrad Worrill talks about his decision to finish college after his return from the military</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20432">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Conrad Worrill explains how he got involved in social work</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20433">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Conrad Worrill recalls his entree into political activism with Fred Hampton</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20434">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Conrad Worrill discusses his involvement in Black Power</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20435">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Conrad Worrill details how he gave the Sears YMCA back to the black community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20436">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Conrad Worrill remembers being courted by other social service organizations</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20437">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Conrad Worrill recalls Catalyst's impact on the black community in Chicago</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20438">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Conrad Worrill describes Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s relationship to Chicago</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20439">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Conrad Worrill recalls the assassination of Fred Hampton and C. T. Vivian's 'Black Curfew' declaration</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20440">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Conrad Worrill lists the social service programs funded as a result of unrest in the Chicago black community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20441">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Conrad Worrill recounts his experiences in graduate school and community organizing</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/20442">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Conrad Worrill details the political context of his graduate school years</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672438">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Slating of Conrad Walter Worrill's interview, session 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672439">Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Conrad Walter Worrill recalls his work at the YMCA during the Civil Rights Movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672440">Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Conrad Walter Worrill remembers the black consciousness movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672441">Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Conrad Walter Worrill recalls enrolling at the University of Chicago</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672442">Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Conrad Walter Worrill talks about working on his first political campaign</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672443">Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Conrad Walter Worrill remembers the assassination of Fred Hampton</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672444">Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Conrad Walter Worrill recalls joining the Ph.D. program at the University of Wisconsin-Madison</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672445">Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Conrad Walter Worrill describes his doctoral dissertation</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672446">Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Conrad Walter Worrill describes Black Nationalist activities in Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672447">Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Conrad Walter Worrill remembers Charles O. Ross, Jr.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672448">Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Conrad Walter Worrill recalls the development of Communiversity</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672449">Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Conrad Walter Worrill talks about the start of the Jacob H. Carruthers Center for Inner City Studies</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672450">Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Conrad Walter Worrill describes the history of the Abraham Lincoln Center in Chicago, Illinois, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672451">Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Conrad Walter Worrill describes the history of the Abraham Lincoln Center in Chicago, Illinois, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672452">Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Conrad Walter Worrill recalls working at George Williams College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672453">Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Conrad Walter Worrill talks about accepting a professorship at the Jacob H. Carruthers Center for Inner City Studies</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672454">Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Conrad Walter Worrill describes the Communiversity activities at the Jacob H. Carruthers Center for Inner City Studies, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672455">Tape: 8 Story: 10 - Conrad Walter Worrill describes the Communiversity activities at the Jacob H. Carruthers Center for Inner City Studies, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672456">Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Conrad Walter Worrill talks about the conflicts between Marxism and nationalism in the Pan African movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672457">Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Conrad Walter Worrill describes socialist theories</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672458">Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Conrad Walter Worrill describes the founding of the National Black United Front</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672459">Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Conrad Walter Worrill describes the National Black Independent Political Party</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672460">Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Conrad Walter Worrill talks about the activities of the National Black Independent Political Party in Chicago, Illinois</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672461">Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Conrad Walter Worrill recalls the contention against Chicago Mayor Jane Byrne</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672462">Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Conrad Walter Worrill recalls rallying Chicago leaders to support mayoral candidate Harold Washington, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672463">Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Conrad Walter Worrill recalls rallying Chicago leaders to support mayoral candidate Harold Washington, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672464">Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Conrad Walter Worrill describes a flyer used in Harold Washington's campaign</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672465">Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Conrad Walter Worrill recalls the community support of Harold Washington</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672466">Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Conrad Walter Worrill talks about Mayor Harold Washington's accomplishments</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672467">Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Conrad Walter Worrill recalls the death of Mayor Harold Washington</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672468">Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Conrad Walter Worrill talks about the Free South Africa movement</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672469">Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Conrad Walter Worrill talks about campaigns against genocide in Africa</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672470">Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Conrad Walter Worrill talks about social and racial issues of the 20th century</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/672471">Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Conrad Walter Worrill talks about books on African American history</a>

Jacob H. Carruthers, Jr.

Professor Jacob Carruthers was born on February 15, 1930 in Dallas, Texas. He was a firm believer that a large part of liberating African American people comes from understanding and connecting history, culture and heritage. He received a B.A. from Samuel Huston College in Austin, Texas in 1950; an M.A. from Texas Southern University in 1958; and a Ph.D. in Political Studies from the University of Colorado in 1966. From 1966 to 1968, Carruthers worked as an assistant professor at Kansas State College before joining the staff of Northeastern Illinois University's Center for Inner City Studies (CICS). Carruthers, along with Dr. Anderson Thompson, Robert Starks, Dr. Conrad Worrill and others shaped the CICS program into one that emphasizes self-determination, activism and study of the global black community.

In this context, Carruthers earned respect as one of the world's leading experts in classical African civilizations. His interests carried him throughout the continent of Africa, conducting study tours to Egypt, Ethiopia, the Nile Valley, Zimbabwe, Senegal, the Ivory Coast, and other parts of West Africa. Carruthers wrote or edited hundreds of essays and papers on his findings and his major works included: The Irritated Genie: An Essay on the Haitian Revolution, Essays in Ancient Egyptian Studies, Intellectual Warfare, MDW NTR: Devine Speech and Science and Oppression. He lectured at various educational institutions; served on evaluation teams for many area high schools; and worked as a consultant to both the Dayton and Chicago public school systems. Carruthers served as founding president of the Association for the Study of Classical African Civilizations for five years. In that capacity, he led a group of 1,000 black teachers, students, artists and scholars from the United States to the Nubian Cultural Center in Aswan, Egypt for a two week conference and tour of Nubia and Egypt.

He was a founding member and priest of the Temple of African Community of Chicago and founding member and director of the Kemetic (Egyptian) Institute, which sponsors the annual Teaching About Africa program for schoolteachers and administrators. He married his wife, Ifé, in 1986 and had four children.

Carruthers passed away on January 5, 2004 at age 73.

Accession Number

A2002.072

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/13/2002

Last Name

Carruthers

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

H.

Organizations
First Name

Jacob

Birth City, State, Country

Dallas

HM ID

CAR02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Trinidad

Favorite Quote

Lift Up Your Heads, Downtrodden And Discouraged Ethiopians, And Listen To This Marvelous Story Told Of Your Ancestors Who Wrought Mightily For Mankind And Built The Foundations Of Civilization True And Square In Days Of Old.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Interview Description
Birth Date

2/15/1930

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Fried Catfish

Death Date

1/5/2004

Short Description

African american studies professor Jacob H. Carruthers, Jr. (1930 - 2004 ) was professor emeritus at Northeastern Illinois University, and was the founder of the Kemetic Institute. A scholar of classical African civilizations, he was the author of, "Intellectual Warfare."

Employment

Kansas State College

Northeastern Illinois University Center for Inner City Studies

Temple of The African Community of Chicago

Kemetic Institute of Chicago

Favorite Color

Dark Green

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71131">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Jacob H. Carruthers' interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71132">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Jacob H. Carruthers lists his favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71133">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes his paternal family background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71134">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes his maternal family history</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71135">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about his father, Jacob H. Carruthers, Sr.</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71136">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes the effect of his parents' divorce at age five</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71137">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes his experience with racism in his childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71138">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about being unfairly treated by teachers at Phyllis Wheatley High School in San Antonio, Texas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71139">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about his experiences and interests as an elementary school student</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71140">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about his teachers at Phyllis Wheatley High School in Dallas, Texas</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71141">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes his experiences and friendships with people from Africa in his youth</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71142">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71143">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes his aspirations as a youth</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71144">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about attending Samuel Huston College, in Austin, Texas, and entering law school at the University of Texas in 1950</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71145">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes leaving law school and joining the U.S. Air Force from 1951 to 1952</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71146">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes working as a reporter for the Houston Informer from 1953 to 1956</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71147">Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes his Master's Degree program at Texas Southern University in 1958</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71148">Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about teaching at Prairie View Agricultural and Mechanical University in 1961</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71149">Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes boycotting segregated Hempstead, Texas while teaching at Prairie View Agricultural and Mechanical University in the 1960s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71150">Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes leaving Prairie View Agricultural and Mechanical University in 1964 to pursue his Ph.D. at the University of Colorado</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71151">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes his involvement with the "Friends of SNCC", the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, at the University of Colorado</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71152">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes his Ph.D. program at the University of Colorado</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71153">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes his Ph.D. dissertation on the theory of Nonviolent Civil Disobedience</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71154">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about teaching at Kansas State College from 1966 to 1968</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71155">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes his personality</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71156">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about his advising students' demonstrations at Kansas State College</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71157">Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about joining the staff of Northeastern Illinois University's Center for Inner City Studies in 1968</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71158">Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes the Center for Inner City Studies' building, once the historic Abraham Lincoln Centre</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71159">Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about the academics who developed the Center for Inner City Studies in the 1960s</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71160">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about the African-centered approach to history at the Center for Inner City Studies</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71161">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes the difference between a Eurocentric and an African-centered perspective</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71162">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about the key people constructing an African Studies curriculum</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71163">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about Cheikh Anta Diop</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71164">Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about the influence of Cheikh Anta Diop</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71165">Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes forming the Kemetic Institute in 1978</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71166">Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about the response to the Kemetic Institute</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71167">Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about developing the Kemetic Institute in 1978, pt. 1</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71168">Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about developing the Kemetic Institute in 1978, pt. 2</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71169">Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes the creation of the Association for the Study of Classical African Civilizations in 1985</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71170">Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes working with HistoryMaker Asa Hilliard and HistoryMaker Malauna Kerenga at ASCAC</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71171">Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about holding the third Conference of ASCAC in Kemet in 1987</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71172">Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes his experiences at the ASCA Conference in Kemet in 1987</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71173">Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about the response to the ASCAC Conference in Kemet and its theories</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71174">Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes the opposition to Afrocentric perspectives</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71175">Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes attending the 1993 Pan-African Conference on reparations</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71176">Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about attending the anniversary of the Pan-African Congress in Manchester, England in 1995</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71177">Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes the commemoration of Cheikh Anta Diop University in Dakar, Senegal in 1996</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71178">Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes traveling to Ghana in 1997 and South Africa in 1998</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71179">Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about visiting South Africa in 1998 and London in 2000</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71180">Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes visiting Trinidad in 2001</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71181">Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about his publications</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71182">Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes how the Kemetic Institute teaches African history</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71183">Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about establishing the Temple of African Community in Chicago in 1998</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71184">Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about his family</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71185">Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Jacob H. Carruthers reflects on his career</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71186">Tape: 6 Story: 12 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about his legacy</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71187">Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about his hope for the Kemetic Institute</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71188">Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about the value to the African American community of studying Nile Valley Civilizations</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71189">Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Jacob H. Carruthers shares a story about the Kemetic homecoming</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71190">Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Jacob H. Carruthers describes his hopes and concerns for the black community</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71191">Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Jacob H. Carruthers talks about how he would like to be remembered</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71192">Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Jacob H. Carruthers narrates his photographs</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71193">Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Jacob H. Carruthers narrates his photographs</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/71194">Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Jacob H. Carruthers narrates his photographs</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$5

DAStory

7$5

DATitle
Jacob H. Carruthers talks about teaching at Prairie View Agricultural and Mechanical University in 1961
Jacob H. Carruthers talks about holding the third Conference of ASCAC in Kemet in 1987
Transcript
Now, from Texas Southern [University] you move on to Prairie View [Agricultural and Mechanical University, Texas] (simultaneous)-$$Yeah.$$--(unclear) Southern.$$Yeah.$$(unclear).$$I was work--yeah. I was working in the post office, and during the Berlin Crisis of 1961, there was a man teaching political science at Prairie View [PVAMU] who was called up from the [U.S. Army] Reserves to go to Europe to deal with the Berlin Crisis. That left them in the middle of the semester of fall '61' [1961] with no teacher to teach that class. I had a master's degree in political science, so they got in touch with me and asked me would I take over. At first I said no because I was so tired of colleges and all that kind of stuff, and I liked the post office 'cause you didn't have to do anything but learn how to throw mail; and, you know, the money was pretty good; so I said no. But finally, they upped the salary about a thousand dollars more than I was making. And so I left the post office and went to Prairie View [Agricultural and Mechanical University, Texas] with the idea that I would stay there for a couple of years and then move on to something else. By that time, I wanted to be a writer. And so I went to Prairie View. And after a year there, I decided that's what I wanted to be, was a college teacher. And so I, you know, stuck it out and decided to go ahead and get a Ph.D.$$What experiences did you have then that made you decide to become a college teacher?$$Well, in the first place, the students. They were so--you had such a variety in terms of the faculty there. You had some faculty members that didn't care about anything except their checks, and therefore, the students got very uneven treatment. And I really took it seriously, and I got involved in trying to develop the students. And that was one thing. And the second thing, I thought that we needed to develop a professional education, because the Negro schools, most of them at that time, were what I considered to be ridiculous in terms of the way they were kow-towing to segregation. As a matter of fact, while I was at Prairie View [Agricultural and Mechanical University], I got into a whole lot of trouble with the administration, because we decided to boycott the town that we were the major industry of, Hempstead (ph), Texas. They, you know, it was a typical East Texas town. They didn't let black people, you know, do anything on an integrated basis. You couldn't go the restaurants, you had to sit in the crow's nest in the theater, you had to wait on all the white people to get served before--I mean, you know, get service before you could check your groceries out, they wouldn't call you "Mister" or "Mrs." or "Miss". They called--you know, they--they would call us "Prof," you now, to get by that. And so, we made some demands on the town, and the town told us that they were going to stick with the traditions, and they weren't about to listen to a whole lot of foreign colored to come down there, telling them how to change their way of life. And so we decided to boycott the town and we did and we almost closed it down. We closed the Buick dealership down, we closed the mechanic down, because we were the major industry of the town. We almost put the bank in bankruptcy, because we forced the credit union to take the money out of the credit union (sic). And so, you know, that didn't go (simultaneous)-$Okay. So, it seems to me that the idea of going to Kemet or Egypt for--to hold a conference is a tremendous undertaking. I mean, I don't--I can't think of many organizations that can pull something like that off in their third year of existence. And what was it like for you all?$$It was a--it was very--I was sort of reluctant about it as the president of the organization because I realized how much work was involved in it, because I'd been doing study tours for several years by then, and I really was reluctant about it. But there was such a popular demand for it. I mean, we had five or six hundred people in the [ASCAC] association at that time who were just demanding that they wanted to go and hold that conference there and take over--and announce to the world that we were there to take over African--the African antiquity. So we had to run to catch up with the masses, so to speak. It was a lot of work, tremendous work. But, as it turned out, we had one thousand people who went. And that was really something, because the airlines just went crazy trying to get us all there, and it interfered with the Hajj. In North Africa--the Africans in North Africa were trying to get to Mecca (laughs), and we were trying to get to Egypt. And we had all kinds of horrors. They had to--one of our groups we two days late getting there because the Hajj prevailed in northern Nigeria. I believe. The Hajj, who blew us away (laughs), it went and took over the plane and went on to the Hajj. So it was--but it was exciting. And when we all got there, the interesting thing, Aswan is in what they call Egyptian Nubia; and therefore, the people look just like us. When we got off the plane, the people who were--you know, in the town, looked like us. And they started calling us American Nubis. And they started taking various members into their homes and making them put on galabeyas and the galas [ph.] and so forth and so on. So, you know, if we'd kept our mouths shut, they wouldn't have known the difference (laughs). But it was a wonderful, wonderful conference. It excited the non-African world though. The Egyptians who--many of whom do not considered themselves Africans, were very curious, and eventually the equivalent to the FBI in Egypt decided that they were going to record everything we did and watch everything we did and inspect all of our boxes and materials, and so forth and so on. So we had the Egyptian FBI all over the place.

James N. Eaton, Sr.

James N. Eaton, founder of the Black Archives Research Center, was born on September 14, 1930, in Richmond, Virginia. Eaton attended Fisk University, receiving his B.A. in 1952, and his M.A. in 1959. He received his L.H.D. from Florida Memorial College in 1997.

From 1953 until 1955, Eaton worked as an instructor of history at Miles College in Birmingham, Alabama. In 1957, he took a position as assistant principal at the Hanover School for Boys. In 1958, he left the Hanover School for an instructor's job at Florida A&M University in Tallahassee, Florida. While at Florida A&M, Eaton worked his way up from instructor to the chairman of the Department of History, Geography, and African American Studies. Eaton also worked simultaneously as an adjunct professor of History at Florida State University from 1970 until 1980. In 1975, Eaton founded the Black Archives Research Center and Museum. The museum, housed in the Carnegie Library on the campus of Florida A&M University, opened in 1977. Through the archives, Eaton works to collect, preserve, and display primary source information relating to the experiences and contributions of African Americans. The museums holdings include over 500,000 documents and hundreds of artifacts. Besides his position as curator of the Black Archives, Eaton is a prolific lecturer. He travels the country speaking on black culture and exhibiting historical materials.

Eaton is the founder and a charter member of Friends of the Black Archive, a charter member of the Florida History Advisory Board, and the recipient of the USDA Special Medallion for dedicated research on the 1890 land grant colleges. He was named Florida A&M Teacher of the Year twenty-five times from 1958-1996, and is the recipient of the CASE Professor of the Year Award. He and his wife, Leathea, have five children and lived in Tallahassee, Florida. Eaton passed away on October 26, 2004.

Accession Number

A2002.052

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/20/2002

Last Name

Eaton

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

N.

Organizations
Schools

Van de Vyver School

Fisk University

American University

First Name

James

Birth City, State, Country

Richmond

HM ID

EAT01

Favorite Season

Spring

Sponsor

Knight Foundation

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Virginia Mountains

Favorite Quote

African American History is the History of America.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Interview Description
Birth Date

9/14/1930

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Tallahassee

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Chitterlings

Death Date

10/26/2004

Short Description

Curator and african american studies professor James N. Eaton, Sr. (1930 - 2004 ) founded the Black Archives Research Center in Tallahassee, Florida. Also, Eaton worked his way up from instructor to the chairman of the Department of History, Geography, and African American Studies at Florida A&M University. He was named Florida A&M Teacher of the Year twenty-five times from 1958-1996, and is the recipient of the CASE Professor of the Year Award.

Employment

Miles College

Richmond, Virginia Police Department

Manual Labor School for Colored Boys

Florida A&M University

Black Archives Research Center and Museum

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/6739">Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of James Eaton interview</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/6740">Tape: 1 Story: 2 - James Eaton's favorites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/6741">Tape: 1 Story: 3 - James Eaton describes his mother's background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/6742">Tape: 1 Story: 4 - James Eaton describes his father's background</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/6743">Tape: 1 Story: 5 - James Eaton describes his family life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/6744">Tape: 1 Story: 6 - James Eaton shares his earliest memory</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/6745">Tape: 1 Story: 7 - James Eaton recalls the Richmond, Virginia of his childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/6746">Tape: 1 Story: 8 - James Eaton describes his grandmother's employment</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/6747">Tape: 1 Story: 9 - James Eaton shares memories of his first job</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/6748">Tape: 1 Story: 10 - James Eaton discusses issues of race in motion pictures from his childhood</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/6749">Tape: 1 Story: 11 - James Eaton reflects on segregation and integration</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/6750">Tape: 2 Story: 1 - James Eaton reflects race relations and his relationships with whites</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/6751">Tape: 2 Story: 2 - James Eaton recounts his school life</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/6752">Tape: 2 Story: 3 - James Eaton discusses his interest in Russian history</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/6753">Tape: 2 Story: 4 - James Eaton explains why he started the Black Archives Research Center at Florida A&M University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/6754">Tape: 2 Story: 5 - James Eaton explains his religious affiliations</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/6755">Tape: 3 Story: 1 - James Eaton reviews his undergraduate years</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/6756">Tape: 3 Story: 2 - James Eaton discusses his early employment pursuits</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/6757">Tape: 3 Story: 3 - James Eaton discusses his early years as faculty of Florida A&M University</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/6758">Tape: 3 Story: 4 - James Eaton details his early archival work</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/6759">Tape: 3 Story: 5 - James Eaton discusses access to archival information</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/6760">Tape: 3 Story: 6 - James Eaton recounts the beginnings of the Black Archives Research Center and Museum</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/6761">Tape: 4 Story: 1 - James Eaton discusses the acquisition of a rare cultural artifact</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/6762">Tape: 4 Story: 2 - James Eaton explains the significance of black history</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/6763">Tape: 4 Story: 3 - James Eaton discusses the expansion of the Black Archives Research Center and Museum</a>

<a href="https://da.thehistorymakers.org/story/6764">Tape: 4 Story: 4 - James Eaton considers his legacy</a>

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$2

DAStory

10$4

DATitle
James Eaton discusses issues of race in motion pictures from his childhood
James Eaton explains why he started the Black Archives Research Center at Florida A&M University
Transcript
And then I'll tell you something that really bother me now. I would get my little money, and I would go to the movie. I would go to the movie on Saturdays. Now, I couldn't go on Sundays cause my father [Rev. John Eaton] was a minister, but I could go on Saturday afternoon. There was a movie called the Booker T. Washington Theater on Second Street in Richmond [Virginia]. I would go there, and I had two favorite movies. One was one called 'Wild Bill Hickok', a man called Elliott, Will [sic, Bill] Elliott, and he played Wild Bill, and he had his guns turned backwards. And he could do all that, you know, he'd shoot the Indians all day long. And the other was 'Tarzan'. Let me tell you something about Tarzan. Now, I'm in this movie--and back in those days, you had the seats turned up. And I sat on the seat, you know how you ride the seats. I was in a front seat, of course. And this, the screen would be dark. You'd hear a voice. The voice would holler. And here this white man jumped off a vine with a diaper on and a knife. He would jump off the vine in front of the animals, and the animals would back--would lay down, elephant, and would bow down. And the lion refused to roar. And, "Me Tarzan". And he's in Africa now with his knife and his big--I call it a diaper, a diaper, but I don't know what you would call it now. But anyway, it was shorts. So, and then later on, and I kept going to the movies. Then I started seeing a lady called Jane. A plane crashed, and this white lady fell out this plane, and she had a little bow on, had her bust kind of covered, and she fell out that plane. And she became Jane, Tarzan and Jane, "Me, Tarzan, you, Jane." And, of course, Jane got pregnant, you see. So they had a boy called Boy. Now, that amazed me because nobody called white boys "Boy." They called black kids "boy." We were all boys. And you see, you can't better not call no white person boy back in those days. Nobody told me that. I--you just learn this 'cause that's the way the custom is. And then they had a monkey called Cheetah, and you don't know nothing about Cheetah. That's before your time, had a monkey called Cheetah. And Cheetah had more sense than all the Africans put together. I'm there watching Tarzan, and you know what I'm doing? I'm rooting for Tarzan. I'm telling Tarzan, "Look out, Tarzan, look behind you." And here come these Africans coming by the hundreds. Here's Tarzan standing on the edge of the cliff, picking them up, throwing them off, what you call body slamming them, down the ravine, you know. And he's just throwing them off. And I said, "Tarzan, I told you to look--getting close to you." Boy, isn't mental genocide. Why would a person--I, was black as I was, be cheering for Tarzan to kill his own people. I had no idea of the importance of Africa and, now, history, and what you could learn from that. And then another thing that bothered me, they had a little girl. She had golden hair in little locks rolled around there. Her name was Shirley Temple. Now, me and my brother [John Eaton], there're all them cute little black girls in the neighborhood. We didn't have nothing to do with them. We had arguments over whose girl is Shirley Temple. "She's my girl, no, she's your girl". We had them sticks, rum sticks, and we were fighting each other, you know, fighting over this little white girl, who at the very time she was famous, had a man behind her, a big tall black, man called Mr. Bojangles, Bill Robinson, who was born in Richmond on the corner of Lee Street. Bill Robinson was the best dancer in the world. Fred Astaire will tell you in his book that he learned from Bill Robinson. And the coon dancing and that stuff. Arthur Murray, Fred--Bill Robinson was being--he was saying Mrs., Ms. so and so and so. I remember a movie called 'The Little Colonel' and stuff like that.$When I came back from Duke [University, Durham, North Carolina] in the 19--the later 1960s, they were trying to integrate these two schools. One is called Florida State [University, Tallahassee, Florida]. That's on the other hill, right across the other hill here, and this was Florida A&M [Florida Agricultural and Mechanical] University [Tallahassee, Florida]. I was then the department head of history over here, and the federal government had passed a law that you had to integrate these two schools, with its, with its faculty. And what happened is that they asked me to go over there 'cause I was head of the department, so they didn't want to trust anybody over there. And they sent over here two men to take my place. Now, what does that mean? That they were gonna count us twice. They didn't want many outsiders 'cause a outsider actually might be somebody they couldn't control. So I worked for the state already. I'm under the same kind of contract. So I go over there, and they gonna count me as a part of Florida State faculty and a part of the faculty of Florida A&M. Now, when I taught Russian history over there--same students 'cause they had--both students went to the same classes different days, they all thought I was such a great teacher. Oh, Professor Eaton, you are great, you know your Russian history. But when I taught the Old South, and the Old South is black history, how in the world can you talk about the Old South and not talk about the history and contributions of African Americans? If cotton was king, then the slave was the throne. I always say that. If cotton was king, then slave was the throne because everything based, what, on the back of the labor supply; didn't want, didn't want to believe it. So I said, how can I convince these people of something important enough to get them to see what I'm talking about? So I decided that the only way to do that was to get a museum started and an archive started. And what convinced me more than that is that I had a class over here called "historiography". I sent those students down to the courthouse, county courthouse, right here in Leon County [Florida] to check on lynching in Leon County. And what happened is that, there'd be some older ladies--that's when I was young, I was young once upon a time, and these ladies would take around on Sunday mornings, and they'd show me all these trees and things where they used to hang black people. So I gave my students a assignment, an assignment to go around to the courthouse and find some records that you can use and talk about lynching as it, as it occurred in Florida. The people said, "We never had any lynchings here"; told my students that. They didn't know that I had another white class, same professor, I didn't go myself, that could go down there. So they went down there two weeks later and had the same assignment. And the lady said, "Oh, yes, we got several boxes of papers on lynchings, and furthermore, in the old county jail there's a whole backlog on racism and lynching in Leon County"; same lady, two different groups of students, which meant that unless we control some of our documents, what we gonna do about it? Now, I'm not one who believes--I don't--I do believe that anybody should be able to write history, white, black, blue or polka dot, but somebody who's writing the history of African Americans must also be African American to have experienced some things that whites have never experienced. But that's why today, almost all of the major publications on black subjects are done by white people because they get asset to the--access to the records. And we don't have 'em. So what I decided to do, right, I'm gonna collect my own records. That's how we, how we got started, right here [Black Archives Research Center, Carnegie Library, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, Tallahassee, Florida].