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Dr. Vivian Pinn

Medical director Vivian W. Pinn was born in 1941 in Halifax, Virginia. She grew up in Lynchburg, Virginia. Pinn received her B.A. degree from Wellesley College in 1963. She earned her M.D. degree from the University of Virginia School of Medicine in 1967 where she was the only woman and only minority in her class. Pinn completed her residency in pathology at the Massachusetts General Hospital in 1970 while also serving as a teaching fellow at the Harvard Medical School

In 1970, Pinn joined Tufts University as assistant professor of pathology in the School of Medicine and the Tufts New England Medical Center Hospital, with a concurrent appointment as the Assistant Dean for Student Affairs. In 1982, she moved to Washington, D.C. where she served as a professor as well as the third woman and first African American woman appointed to chair a department of pathology in the U.S. while at Howard University College of Medicine. Pinn became the first director of the Office of Research on Women’s Health (ORWH) in the Office of the Director at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1991. In February of 1994, she was named associate director for Research on Women’s Health at NIH. While there, Pinn completed a national initiative to reexamine priorities for the women’s health research agenda, as well as areas in need of research. This new strategic plan for the coming decade, Moving into the Future with New Dimensions and Strategies: a Vision for 2020 for Women’s Health Research, was presented publicly at the 2010 NIH Scientific Symposium and the celebration of the 20th anniversary of the ORWH. She also served as co-chair of the NIH Working Group on Women in Biomedical Careers.

In 1989, Pinn was elected as president of the National Medical Association after serving in many other capacities including as Speaker of the House of Delegates and Trustee. The UVA School of Medicine established the Vivian W. Pinn Distinguished Lecture in Health Disparities, and further honored her in 2010 by naming one of its advisory colleges for medical students in her name, the Vivian Pinn College of UVA. In 2011, she received the Tufts University School of Medicine Dean’s Medal. Pinn was elected as a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and of the Institute of Medicine. Pinn has also been elected as an Honorary Fellow of the New York Academy of Medicine, and received the Academy Medal for Distinguished Contributions in Health Policy.

Dr. Vivian W. Pinn was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 22, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.197

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/22/2013

Last Name

Pinn

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

W.

Occupation
Schools

Robert S. Payne Elementary School

Dunbar High School

Wellesley College

University of Virginia School of Medicine

First Name

Vivian

Birth City, State, Country

Halifax

HM ID

PIN06

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

St. Martin

Favorite Quote

I appreciate and encourage self confidence, but I despise arrogance.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

4/21/1941

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Lobster, Fried Clams, Chocolate

Short Description

Medical director Dr. Vivian Pinn (1941 - ) the third woman and first African American woman appointed to chair a department of pathology in the U.S. while at Howard University College of Medicine, served as founding director of the Office of Research on Women’s Health in the Office of the Director at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and as associate director for Research on Women’s Health at NIH.

Employment

Tufts University New England Medical Hospitral

Howard University Hospital and Howard University College of Medicine

Chlease Soldier's Home

Boston Veterans' Administration Hospital

Hadley Memorial Hospital

National Institute of Health (NIH)

Favorite Color

Blue

Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr.

Surgeon, professor, medical director, and contributor to community service, Asa G. Yancey, Sr., M.D. was born to Daisy L. Sherard Yancey and Arthur H. Yancey on August 19, 1916 in Atlanta, Georgia. Daisy was a housewife, and Arthur worked as a U.S. Post Office mail carrier. Mr. Arthur H. Yancey wrote an autobiographical book in 1959 entitled Interpositionulification: What the Negro May Expect. In 1933, Asa G. Yancey graduated as valedictorian from Booker T. Washington High School in Atlanta. He earned his B.S. degree with honors four years later from Morehouse College. Yancey was one of four African American students in his class at the University of Michigan Medical School where his elder brother, Bernise, graduated from medical school in 1930.

Upon receiving his M.D. degree from the University of Michigan Medical School in 1941, Yancey first completed a general rotating internship from 1941 to 1942 at what is now Metropolitan General Hospital in Cleveland, Ohio. It was from this experience that he decided to pursue general surgery training. He served as First Lieutenant in The United States Army Medical Corp. before he returned to complete his residency in surgery at Freedmen’s Hospital, Howard University, where he trained under the guidance of Dr. Charles R. Drew. In 1945, he was a surgical fellow at the U.S. Marine Hospital in Boston and then became an instructor of surgery at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee. Also about this time, Yancey started his involvement with the National Medical Association (NMA), the largest and oldest national organization for African American physicians.

Following his time in Boston and Nashville, he served as the Chief of Surgery at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Tuskegee, Alabama and then the Hughes Spalding Pavilion of Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory Univerisity where he established the first accredited general surgery training program for black surgeons. With his return to Atlanta in 1958, Yancey was invited to join the faculty at Emory University School of Medicine where he became an Instructor of Surgery in 1964. In 1972, Yancey was appointed medical director of Grady Memorial Hospital and associate dean at Emory University Medical School. He was appointed full Professor of Surgery at Emory University Medical School in 1975. He continued to work at the Emory University Clinic and Grady Memorial Hospital until his retirement in 1989.

Yancey has contributed numerous articles to the academic surgical community, and he has been recognized with many awards His article, “A Modification of the Swenson Operation for Congenital Megacolon," published in a 1952 issue of The Journal of the National Medical Association, describes a surgical procedure that preceded Soave’s publication by ten years. Yancey has also written articles exploring issues of medical care, health care, and poverty including "Medical Education in Atlanta and Health Care of Black Minority and Low Income People," and "The Challenge of Providing Health Care for the Poor: Public Hospital Perspective". His book Portrayal of a Lifespan describes life as it was for him in the 21st Century. Yancey received the Bennie Service Award, in 1990 and he receivedan Honorary Doctor of Science from Morehouse College and Howard University. . The Society of Black Academic Surgeons established a lectureship in the name of Asa G. Yancey, Sr., M.D. The Emory University Health System recognized his professional contributions over the years by naming a healthcare facility, The Asa G. Yancey Health Clinic, in northwest Atlanta.

Yancey was married to the late Carolyn “Marge” E. Dunbar and they have four children: Arthur H. Yancey II, M.D, Carolyn L. Yancey, M.D., Caren L Yancey-Covington (deceased), and Asa G. Yancey, Jr., M.D.

Dr. Asa G. Yancey was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 19, 2012.

Dr. Asa Yancey passed away on March 9, 2013.

Accession Number

A2012.056

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/19/2012

Last Name

Yancey

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

G.

Schools

Edmund Asa Ware School

Booker T. Washington High School

Morehouse College

Michigan Medicine

First Name

Asa

Birth City, State, Country

Atlanta

HM ID

YAN04

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Sea Coasts of Alabama, the Gulf of Mexico

Favorite Quote

Let's Get On With It.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

8/19/1916

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Ice Cream

Death Date

3/9/2013

Short Description

Surgeon, medical professor, and medical director Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. (1916 - 2013 ) served as the medical director of Grady Memorial Hospital and dean at the Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia. He also created the first accredited surgical training program for black doctors in Georgia.

Employment

Freedmen's Hospital, Howard University

United States Marine Hospital

Meharry Medical College

Tuskegee Veteran's Administration Hospital

Hughes Spalding Pavilion of Grady Memorial Hospital

Emory University

Grady Memorial Hospital

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:192,5:448,10:960,19:1344,28:1920,38:36183,256:36801,282:56328,440:61034,500:65130,529:65530,535:85077,741:86073,864:120544,1143:123662,1196:128954,1260:129626,1265:132398,1327:135674,1389:142086,1464:173124,1800:189730,1978:200483,2240:225028,2558:225398,2565:229838,2667:230282,2674:256470,2949$0,0:12464,144:20920,171:21640,179:22240,185:25372,194:26488,201:27852,217:28596,224:31696,260:32316,266:33060,274:33760,282:34080,287:39362,333:39946,342:46138,394:49490,415:66710,539:69135,551:71516,577:81731,675:94077,744:94698,755:96290,761:96990,773:97550,783:98320,796:98670,802:98950,807:99370,814:101641,827:103678,856:104842,871:107073,906:108237,923:108722,929:109110,934:128793,1299:129339,1306:131341,1339:132615,1356:139294,1399:148315,1468:149125,1475:154530,1513:161667,1588:166612,1718:166904,1723:169210,1742:170925,1753:172795,1781:175622,1807:176154,1812:188080,1872:191692,1908:194140,1939:205110,2045:211944,2099:238760,2275:239508,2291:244396,2354:246252,2399:246542,2405:249964,2422:250516,2431:254382,2513:264485,2644:274645,2713:275690,2724
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers his father's personality and book

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about his early schooling

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers his elementary school teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his personality as a young child

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls his family's home

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers Atlanta University in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his relationship with his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers his childhood friends

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes the race relations in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls enrolling at the University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers the University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls his residency at Freedmen's Hospital in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about his salary as a medical intern

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his experiences in the U.S. Army, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his experiences in the U.S. Army, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remembers meeting his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls working as a surgeon in Mound Bayou, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes the community of Mound Bayou, Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his role at the Tuskegee Veterans Administration Hospital in Tuskegee, Alabama

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remember the death of Charles R. Drew, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. remember the death of Charles R. Drew, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about the Tuskegee syphilis experiment

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes Dr. William Montague Cobb

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls the history of Grady Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls becoming the chief of surgery at the Hughes Spalding Pavilion in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about the conditions at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls serving on the Atlanta Board of Education

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes the achievements of the Atlanta Board of Education

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls joining the staff of Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about the closure of black hospitals

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. shares his views on public healthcare

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. talks about his family

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. lists his favorites

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

9$8

DATitle
Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. recalls enrolling at the University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor, Michigan
Dr. Asa Yancey, Sr. describes the community of Mound Bayou, Mississippi
Transcript
Now, what happened when you graduated from Morehouse [Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia]?$$Well (pause), I caught the train (laughter) I caught the train and went to Detroit [Michigan] and I had a cousin there, a Mr. A.W. Prince [ph.] and I was just, my father [Arthur H. Yancey] wrote Mr. Prince and asked if I could live with him and Mr. Prince said, "Yes, I'd be glad to have him." So I was a roomer in Mr. Prince's home and I walked around Detroit and walked the streets looking for a job and that was in the days of, the Great Depression was still going on and a job was mighty hard to find, but I finally found a little job in a furniture store and my job was to keep the stock room straight with the furniture and keep it ready to place in the showroom to see. And, of course, while I was doing that I decided to go out to Ann Arbor [Michigan] and look around a little bit. My brother [Bernise A. Yancey] had finished medical school out there at the University of Michigan and, so I took the train or bus or whatever was moving at the time, and went out there and decided I'd go by the dean's office and tell him I wanted to go to medical school (laughter). He said, "You what?" He said, "You haven't even applied." I'm sure I realized that but that didn't make any difference. I'm here now and I want to go to medical school. He said, "When?" I said, "This September." That was maybe in July or August. He said, "No way. Just forget it." He said, "We took this class and decided who was going to be a member of this class last March and here you come in here in July and talk about you want to go to medical school. Just forget it." (Laughter) So I said, "Thank you very much," and left. And I knew I had a pretty good transcript at Morehouse and probably better than a lot that he had (laughter) so I went on home and wrote Morehouse and asked them to send my transcript to the dean there at, A.C. Furstenberg, at the University of Michigan school of medicine [University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan], which they did, of course, and when I figured my letter had time to get to Morehouse and Morehouse had time to send in a transcript, I went back out there to see the dean and he said, "Well, you're here again," and I said, "That's right, here I am." He said, "What do you want?" I said, "I want to go to medical school," (laughter). "When do you want to go?" "I want to go this July. I want to go this September," and here it is July. He said, "Forget it," (laughter). We took this class--I said, "Now wait a minute." I said, "I have my transcripts and you can see it." But when he got it, he realized it was better than a whole lot that he had and I knew it would be so he says, "Just wait a minute." He sat there a minute or two and I sat there a minute or two and he said, he reached into the drawer and pulled out a blank form, he said, "Fill this out and come on to school" (laughter).$Tell us about Mound Bayou [Mississippi].$$Mound Bayou--$$Yeah.$$--was an all colored town. The word colored was popular at the time. It was a small town and they had a, back in those days our people always joined a burial society and they'd pay twenty-five, fifty cents a week so that when they passed away, they would have enough money in that pool to get a decent looking casket and have a decent service. So, that was, and Mound Bayou was an all Negro town and that was a popular word at the time, and it had a Negro mail and it was just a, the people in the surrounding community and it was just houses here and there and farms and so forth, and the Mississippi Delta country, the land was just as flat as the top of that table, and the people put their nickels and dimes and quarters and fifty cent pieces together and built, and they had a burial organization. That was what it's for, it's a big house there, but after many years had passed, they found they had a lot of money, so they decided to build a hospital and they built the Taborian Hospital [Mound Bayou Community Hospital, Mound Bayou, Mississippi] and the idea was that the people who were members of the Knights and Daughters of Tabor [International Order of Twelve Knights and Daughters of Tabor] would continue to pay their yearly policy, but they could go to the hospital and get treatment free at the time of service, and they did that, but the chief surgeon that they hired to take care of people began to try to collect fees from the patients. Some of them would pay, some of them got mad and objected. So, they came to a parting of the ways and that's how they invited us from Meharry [Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee] to come down and help out, because he wouldn't treat the ones who wouldn't pay him. So, we went down and became chief in the hospital, so I was running the hospital and he built a little tent across the street and took his friends over there. We just ignored him and paid no attention. We just kept running the hospital.$$Sir, what was this doctor's name? What was his name?$$Dr. Howard [T.R.M. Howard]. He finally moved to Memphis [Tennessee] and practiced there for a while until he retired, I guess, I don't know.$$Okay. Is he any relation to the Dr. Howard that was involved in civil rights down there? Is he related to the Dr. Howard from Mississippi that was involved in civil rights?$$I don't remember anything about that.$$Yeah, there was a Dr. Howard from Mississippi that moved to Chicago [Illinois] who was involved in the Civil Rights Movement down there. Famous Dr. Howard.$$He did go to Memphis and then to Chicago, and I can't tell you about the other--I don't know anything about that.

Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr.

Neurosurgeon, medical director, foundation executive and author Dr. Benjamin Solomon Carson, Sr. was born on September 18, 1951 in Detroit Michigan, to Sonya and Robert Solomon Carson. After the couple separated, Carson and his brother Curtis lived with their mother. Although she worked several jobs at a time, Sonya supported the family and played a tremendous role in shaping the lives of her sons. Upon seeing her sons’ poor performance in school, Sonya required them to read regularly and to present her with weekly book reports, although she herself only had a third grade education and had difficulty reading.

In 1969, Carson graduated with honors as the student “Most likely to succeed,” from Southwestern High School, a public school located in southwest Detroit, Michigan. During his early years, although Carson had improved his grades considerably, he had to overcome his temper. After an incident in which he almost stabbed a friend, Carson made up his mind to change his ways. Upon receiving his high school diploma, Carson attended Yale University, where he would meet his future wife, Lacena “Candy” Rustin. After graduating from Yale University with his B.A. degree in psychology in 1973, he went on to the University of Michigan School of Medicine. After receiving his M.D. degree in 1977, Carson trained at Johns Hopkins University, where he completed his internship in general surgery and his residency in neurological surgery. In 1983, Carson traveled to Perth, Australia to serve as a senior registrar in neurosurgery at Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital. A year later, he returned to Johns Hopkins and by the following year was named Director of Pediatric Neurosurgery. In 1987, through a ground-breaking surgical procedure, Carson successfully separated conjoined twins who were attached at the head.

Outside of his work as a world-renowned surgeon, Carson has been civically active. Using his own life story as a background, Carson has written four motivational books, which include: "Gifted Hands" in 1990, "The Big Picture" in 2000, "Think Big" in 2006, and "Take the Risk: Learning to Identify, Choose, and Live with Acceptable Risk" in 2007. The first of these works served as the inspiration for a film of the same title, in which Cuba Gooding, Jr. plays the role of Carson. Carson has also created three foundations—the Carson Scholars Fund, the Ben Carson Reading Project, and Angels of the Operating Room. He serves on the board of directors of the Kellogg Company and CostCo Wholesale Corporation. In 2008, President George W. Bush presented Carson with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian award.

Carson and his wife have three sons, Murray Nedlands, Benjamin Solomon, Jr. and Rhoeyce Harrington.

Dr. Benjamin Carson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on July 12, 2010.

Accession Number

A2010.075

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/12/2010

Last Name

Carson

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Solomon

Schools

Southwestern High School

Yale University

Michigan Medicine

Berea Seventh-Day Adventist Church

First Name

Benjamin

Birth City, State, Country

Detroit

HM ID

CAR22

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Michigan

Favorite Vacation Destination

Amalfi Coast, Italy

Favorite Quote

Trust In The Lord With All Your Heart And Lean Not On Your Own Understanding; In All Your Ways Submit To Him, And He Will Make Your Paths Straight.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Maryland

Birth Date

9/18/1951

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Baltimore

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Vegetarian Chili

Short Description

Neurosurgeon and medical director Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. (1951 - ) was known for his groundbreaking work in neurosurgery, particularly for the operation he performed in 1987 to separate infant conjoined twins, who were attached at the head.

Employment

Johns Hopkins Hospital

Sir Charles Gardner Hospital

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:430,4:2950,68:3310,73:5650,130:9300,135:11680,190:14798,216:16286,226:20186,334:20928,342:23260,508:47854,751:50855,793:51235,798:53040,854:59250,955:59725,961:66166,1026:72356,1112:73869,1156:81811,1285:86420,1316:86784,1321:94262,1405:107868,1630:108336,1639:119972,1785:120574,1794:135611,1967:136348,1981:138023,2015:138626,2025:149154,2191:152595,2246:153153,2253:153525,2311:159820,2369:169538,2504:171042,2527:174708,2626:179881,2660:189463,2829:198595,2909:200635,2964:218285,3151:225420,3286:226780,3312:253500,3795$0,0:4554,87:5940,110:13264,239:14841,331:37760,623:43238,799:43985,810:48287,829:49379,843:50107,852:52150,864:52690,871:53230,878:67734,1082:78515,1200:80120,1218:80670,1233:80890,1238:81110,1243:87294,1275:89121,1304:91383,1347:96676,1388:96972,1393:110894,1537:111468,1568:115158,1605:116306,1639:117372,1743:125210,1834:145180,2082:161372,2275:168452,2408:175048,2482:212770,2888:213520,2992:222470,3110:236097,3253:238305,3361:251385,3522:256621,3714:261160,3758:261628,3765:262954,3791:276940,3944:277275,3950:279084,3992:279553,4000:281700,4016:291430,4170:297340,4257
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. talks about his mother's early family life

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. talks about his education in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. recalls the effects of his parents' separation

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. describes his educational experiences in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. remembers his mother's emphasis on reading

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. describes the impact of reading on his education

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. talks about his temper

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. recalls joining the Reserve Officers' Training Corps

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. remember his response to racial discrimination

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. talks about his decision to apply to Yale University

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. recalls his brother's influence

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. remember his transition to Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. describes his transition from psychology to neuroscience

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. remembers the psychology faculty at Yale University

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. talks about his relationship with his brother

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. recalls his social activities at Yale University

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. talks about his relationship with his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. describes his struggles at the University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor, Michigan

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. talks about his strategy for success in education

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. remembers his surgical residency

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. remembers Vivien Thomas

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. describes his experiences of discrimination at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. talks about his religious motivations

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. remembers his first surgical operation

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

3$4

DATitle
Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. recalls joining the Reserve Officers' Training Corps
Dr. Benjamin Carson, Sr. talks about his relationship with his wife
Transcript
Now this is all taking place during your, I guess, the mid-years of high school as you're, you really now have, you feel like you have control of things?$$Right.$$I guess, when you're about fifteen, you know?$$Yeah, fourteen, fifteen, and then, you know, I joined the ROTC [Reserve Officers' Training Corps]. And, you know, that was another major influence in my life. You know, I got teased a lot because of my clothes. Clothes were a big deal in Detroit [Michigan]. You had to have your sharkskins and your silks, and all of this stuff and--$$You know, (unclear)--$$Yeah (simultaneous).$$--(simultaneous) silk and wool.$$Yeah, and, you know, we didn't have money for that, so I got teased a lot. And one day I saw a guy in an ROTC uniform, had three diamonds on his shoulder. He was a full colonel, the highest rank you could obtain--had all the ribbons and metals, and I was just blown away. I said, "Wow, that's cooler than any of these things these guys wear." I said, "I think I'm going to join the ROTC." And, unfortunately, you know, I joined in the last half of the tenth grade, instead of the first half. You're supposed to join in the first half, so you have six full semesters, but at least I was in, even though I joined late. But by that time, you know, I was into my reading phase, into my high aspiration phase, so anything that I did, you know, I just felt, you know, I had to reach the top. And so, I wanted to be a full colonel, even though I joined late, and no one had ever done that. And I made it to full colonel after only four semesters, but I resolved that that was my goal. I was going to become a full colonel somehow. And, you know, I studied all the manuals. I knew all the military strategies, the map reading, the guns, everything. And after my first semester, I got promoted to sergeant. And the fellow who was in charge of ROTC, you know, he knew I was very ambitious. So, he said, "You know what, if I put you in charge of the second hour class, and you can do something with it, I'll promote you to second lieutenant." And that would have been a big jump because that would have allowed me to sit for the field grade exam. Well, that second hour class, they were just horrendous. And the reason that they ran everybody out, you know, they were violent, they were just unruly, and, but I discovered very quickly that they had a great affinity for guns and knives. And, so I said, "I bet we can use this to our advantage," and I got them involved with disassembling and reassembling rifles. I said, "I bet you guys can become the fastest people in the city who can do this." And then, with drills and with fancy drills, and all kinds of stuff, and long story short, they became the premiere unit in the school. And so, I got promoted to second lieutenant after only my second semester. And that allowed me to sit for the field grade exam which you have to be at least a second lieutenant. You can be a first lieutenant, captain, major, lieutenant colonel. And I got the highest score in the city, so I got promoted to lieutenant colonel. And I still had another semester. And I did the same thing the next year, and I got promoted to full colonel, and became the city executive officer for the City of Detroit.$$Now, you were at Southwestern High School [Detroit, Michigan]?$$(Nods head).$$Okay.$$So, you know, I got to go to Congressional Medal of Honor dinners, and to lead the front of the Memorial Day parade. And I met General Westmoreland [William Westmoreland], who is charge of the [U.S.] Army at that time--all kinds of stuff. I was offered a full scholarship to West Point [United States Military Academy, West Point, New York]. But then, I decided, it's not really what I want to do. I really wanted to be a doctor.$Your degree was in psy- psychology, right?$$Yes.$$All right. And that's a jumping off point to going to be a psychiatrist, right (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Right.$$And you were just explaining to us how you--well, how did you choose Michigan [University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan]?$$Well, because I was from Michigan.$$Okay.$$And so, I would get in state tuition, plus there were a lot of grants available, particularly for minorities. And so, it was a very, plus it was one of the ten top medical schools, so I said, "Boy, you can't beat that with a stick."$$Okay. Now, oh, now, you met your wife at Yale [Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut]?$$That is correct.$$Right, okay. So, tell us about that. Now, when did you all meet?$$Well, you know, we met actually before she went to Yale, at a reception for incoming students in Grosse Pointe Farms, Michigan (laughter). And I was an upperclassman, so I was invited, and I was coming to, to meet the new people who were coming, so we could tell something about what it was like, and that was the first time we ever met. But it wasn't until a couple of years later that we actually, you know, hooked up because it turns out that we both wanted to come back home for Thanksgiving. And the recruitment office would pay your way back home if you would visit some schools while you were home. And so, we went together on Yale's dime and, you know, we were going on, eating and having a good time, and we discovered we kind of liked each other. So, you know, Yale was responsible for that (laughter).$$Okay. Now, I read some place that you all, that you were doing a lot of driving, and almost ran into something or--$$Yeah. Well, on the way back from that recruitment trip, you know, we had both probably stayed up later than we should've, and we needed to get the car back to New Haven [Connecticut]. It was a rented car. And so, you know, we were just going, you know, drive straight through. And it was about Youngstown, Ohio that I fell asleep at the wheel--she was already asleep--going ninety miles an hour. And I was awakened by the vibrations, as the car was going off the road, and heading off into a ravine. And, you know, I woke up, and I grabbed the wheel, and I started turning it. And, you know, the car started spinning, just spinning around and around. And they say, you see your life flash before your eyes before you die--that's exactly what happened. All these scenes from my life, and I said, "I'm going to die." And the next thing I knew, the car was stopped, and on the, on the lane next to the shoulder. And just in time for me to pull off before an eighteen wheeler came barreling through. And Candy [Candy Carson] woke up--she said, "What happened?" I said, "Go back to sleep" (laughter). She said, "No, no, no, what happened?" And I told her what happened, and then we just, we said, "The Lord spared our lives. He's got something for us to do." And that was our first kiss, and that's when we started going together.$$That's quite a story.$$Yeah.$$Now--$$And that was the 28th of November 1972, so, we always celebrate the 28th of each month. We call it our monthaversary (laughter).$$Okay.$$So, that was the day that our lives were spared.$$Now, your wife is a musician, right?$$Correct (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) She was a music and psychology major.$$Right. And she was premed, too.$$Okay. She plays the violin?$$Yes.$$Okay, all right. Now, she threatened to play for us while we were doing the interviews--$$(Laughter).$$--while I remember. And your sons play, too, I understand (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Yes, they all play instruments and, you know, as they were growing up. Along with my wife, they had a string quartet called the Carson Four, and they were really quite, quite talented. And they got to play in places, like Las Vegas [Nevada] and Puerto Rico, and a lot of places.$$Okay. Well, when you go to the University of Michigan Medical School, you are married by then, right, or are you?$$No.$$No, okay.$$No, 'cause I was a couple of years ahead of Candy.$$Okay.$$So, I went there, and then we got married when she graduated from Yale.$$Okay.$$So we got married halfway through medical school.

Dr. Doris Young-McCulley

Doris Jean Young-McCulley was born on April 5, 1947 in Eutaw, Alabama to Lucille and Willie Young. The oldest of six children, Young-McCulley has served the medical needs of Chicago residents for over 25 years.

Earning a bachelor's degree in biology from Gustavus Adulphus College in Saint Peter, Minnesota in 1969, Young-McCulley taught marine biology at Kennedy High School in Edina, Minnesota. Rejoining her family in Chicago, Illinois, Young-McCulley earned an M.B.A. in hospital administration from the University of Chicago in 1971. That year, she worked as a night administrator at the Chicago Foundling Home. She enrolled in Rush University's Medical College, completing the requirements for an M.D. in 1974. In 1979, she became an attending physician at Cook County Hospital and a senior attending physician at Provident Medical Center. The following year, she became an associate attending physician at South Shore Hospital and a consulting physician at Jackson Park Hospital. She served in all four of these positions simultaneously. In 1989, while still caring for patients at Jackson Park and South Shore Hospitals, she was hired as an attending physician at Northwestern Memorial Hospital. An associate attending physician at Michael Reese Hospital since 1993, she also serves as an attending physician at Little Company of Mary Hospital in Evergreen Park, Illinois.

Young-McCulley has taught medicine throughout her career. She began in the Infectious Disease Teaching Program at Cook County Hospital in 1974, and she taught for six years as a professor of medicine at Northwestern University Medical School. She volunteers at South Suburban Hospice in Flossmoor, Illinois as a medical director and counsels children at Brave Heart. She has also been an administrator, serving as medical director for several medical centers, including: Provident Hospital, Bogan/ DuSable Adolescent Health Center and Crane Adolescent Health Center. Young-McCulley and her husband, Bernard McCulley, have been married since 1970.

Accession Number

A2002.104

Sex

Female

Interview Date

7/12/2002

Last Name

Young-McCulley

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Organizations
Schools

John Farren Elementary School

Du Sable Leadership Academy

University of Chicago Booth School of Business

Gustavus Adolphus College

First Name

Doris

Birth City, State, Country

Eutaw

HM ID

YOU02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Warm

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

4/5/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Greens

Short Description

Attending physician, medical professor, and medical director Dr. Doris Young-McCulley (1947 - ) was the former head of Provident Hospital in Chicago, Illinois.

Employment

Chicago Foundlings Home

Cook County Hospital

Provident Medical Center

South Shore Hospital

Jackson Park Hospital

Northwestern Memorial Hospital

Michael Reese Hospital

Little Company of Mary Hospital

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

Favorite Color

Blue

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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Doris Young-McCulley's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Doris Young-McCulley lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about her family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Doris Young-McCulley shares stories about her great-great-grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Doris Young-McCulley continues to talk about her great-great-grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Doris Young-McCulley shares stories about her ancestors

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Doris Young-McCulley describes the sights, smells, and sounds of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Doris Young-McCulley remembers her first experience of segregation

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Doris Young-McCulley describes growing up on a farm and her grade school years

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about her father's value for education

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Doris Young-McCulley describes her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about her parents

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about her family's move to Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about her inspiration to become a doctor

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Doris Young-McCulley recalls influential people at DuSable High School like her counselor, Katherine Bogan

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about her high school activities

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Doris Young-McCulley describes her strong support system

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Doris Young-McCulley describes her college experience at Gustavus Adolphus College

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Doris Young-McCulley describes her path to Rush Medical College

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about her academic progress at Gustavus Adolphus College

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Doris Young-McCulley describes her experience of racial discrimination at the University of Chicago and at Rush Medical College

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about her father's experiences with racial discrimination in the U.S. Army

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Doris Young-McCulley describes the student population at Rush Medical College

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about the organ system approach at Rush Medical College

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Doris Young-McCulley describes the impact of medical school on her personal life

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Doris Young-McCulley shares memorable experiences as a hospital administrator and doctor

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about preventative care and medical management

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Doris Young-McCulley discusses urban health issues

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Doris Young-McCulley describes health issues affecting African Americans in urban environments

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about the history of Provident Hospital and her role as its medical director

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Doris Young-McCulley discusses factors behind hospital closures including the closure of Provident Hospital

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about the importance of health care education

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Doris Young-McCulley reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Doris Young-McCulley talks about how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Doris Young-McCulley reflects on how her parents would view her achievements

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Doris Young-McCulley narrates her photographs, pt.1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Doris Young-McCulley narrates her photographs, pt.2

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$4

DAStory

4$2

DATitle
Doris Young-McCulley shares stories about her great-great-grandmother
Doris Young-McCulley talks about the history of Provident Hospital and her role as its medical director
Transcript
Now you had an ancestor that was brought over here in 1829.$$Yeah.$$Okay, you want to talk about that?$$Well, that was my great-great-grandmother [Lucinda Patterson]. She was brought over as a, well, as a preteen in 1829, and sold in, in South Carolina. I don't know how she, she made it to Alabama. But she was married to a part Indian that I was telling you about, my grandfather, grandfather's father. And I think there are a lot of stories about her that are very significant. Number one, she was sold as a slave, and she remembered being a slave. And she was a hard worker, and she was blessed with long life. As a matter of fact, she was more than 115 years old when she died. There is one of the, my favorite stories is that she never suffered. She died probably what sounds like congestive heart failure. She died in her sleep. Even at the time of her death, she could still see well. She was not totally senile. She was sewing, making a quilt the night of her death, and told my mother [Lucille Young] that she was going to bed early because she thought she was catching a cold, and never woke up. And there are many stories about how she loved to fish, and she would take my mother fishing with her. And she--my mother was actually her babysitter. And they would go fishing, and Grandma Netta would take her, her some food wrapped in some paper, and she'd carry it in her bosom. And when she said she was hungry, she'd pull it out of her sweaty bosom, according to my mother (laughter), and pass it to her for her to eat. And then she would take her hat off her head, and dip up water, and give it to her and expect her to drink this (laughter) water out of her sweaty hat. And that was one of my favorite stories, you know, 'cause you can imagine how you as a child would feel if that would happen to you today. The other stories that I've, I've heard about her was that she was a remarkable woman that, that loved people and service, that she would--and this was not only told by my mother's side, by other pe--older people that knew her, that she would, she considered it her appointed duty to go around and help all the unwed, new mothers in the area. She would go to and visit them, and she'd tell them how to take care of the unborn or newborn baby. She would show them how to make things to, to--for the, the baby. She would teach them how to care for different ailments. You know, one of the things that I learned in medical school was management of asthma, and to know that my great-great-grandmother would, was able to think of how to provide the first tent--oxygen tent. She, her homemade oxygen tent was to put a kettle on over a sheet--oil cloth sheet--and have the baby's head in there. And you know, I think that that was unique. The other thing was that she was very informed with the various herbs and roots that were helpful for care. And, and I've learned these stories over the years. One of my visits, well, about five years ago to one my aunts, she was showing me flagstone, which is one of the herbs that's there for upset stomach. And she gave me a piece of it, and I planted it in my backyard, and you know, just as a memory, thinking about it, I've--and I was thinking that I would make tea out of it and see what it tastes like--different herbal remedies for, like for example, menstrual cramps. Her herbal arrangement for that was nutmeg tea. And I know, just from my scien--scientific background--that nutmeg is very high in prostaglandin inhibitors, and that is probably the same inhibitor that we take Motrin, Anaprox today for. And so that--and you know, from a scientific basis, you could see it might help with premenstrual or menstrual cramps, so that they, and they're very similar. As I go, I, I've, I love to hear the herbal remedies for various ailments. And to know that my great-great-grandmother was the one teaching these things over the years has been an inspiration to me.$Now, I don't wanna exhaust this topic, if you, you have something else to, you wanna add something else to it. But I wanna talk about Provident [Hospital] too. And--$$Okay.$$--and so.$$You know, Provident was another one of those challenges that came up. And in my mind I felt that there was a need for me to give back to the community. I still, and I always feel that because, as you said, that I've had what looks like an undue portion of giving to me throughout my life. And so Provident was going to be my endeavor. I, I have always felt very bad that we have very few institutions that stand over--and those things are important. You know, you say well, institutions are only buildings, but buildings are important because they're physical inspirations of what our past has been. And it was very significant to me that Provident should remain as one of those institutions that had survived more than a hundred years. So when I was asked if I wanted to go back and be the medical director there, I thought I had put all the pieces together in terms of the education, etc., and the connection with the other young committed clinicians, that I should be able to do this. And it was a big challenge because there were a lot of problems facing Provident at the time that I made the transition over as medical director.$$Now before we go further, I think that for the sake of this tape that's gonna last long beyond us, I hope, can you explain the historical significance of Provident Hospital, and what is Provident Hospital?$$Provident Hospital historically was established in 1930 [sic, 1891], I believe. It was a black hospital that serviced the black community, for the most part, although--the poor community as in general. It was significant because it was also a training educational site for young black physicians along the way and for many black nurses, so that it had a lot of history associated with it. It had been affiliated with the, certainly, the tuberculosis epidemic in Chicago. It provided the first chest x-ray testing sites for the bronze community. It was one of the first hospitals to have a director affiliation with University of Chicago [Chicago, Illinois] for the training of young black obstetricians, gynecologists in particular. So it, it had significant historical firsts. It was the first hospital where Daniel Hale Williams had performed that historical open-heart procedure on a young black that had been stabbed outside of the hospital.$$This is the first such procedure in the United States--$$First--$$--on anyone.$$--in anyone.$$Okay.$$So, it was--it's been billed as the first open-heart procedure--and so that there were a lot of historical firsts related to this hospital. And I, for one, was very passionate about the survival of the hospital, so that when I transferred over, it had been plagued with problems related to medical staff organization, trying to man--manage the health staff systems, nursing, and integrating all the service delivery. And I felt that my training over the years would be helpful, so I came over as the medical director. And it was during that period that many hospitals in the Chicago area were closing. And Provident had significant debt load, with the mortgage having built a new hospital owed to the Department of Health and Human Services, as well as debts owed to its vendors. And it did not survive the closure.

Dr. Gloria Jackson Bacon

Dr. Gloria Jackson Bacon has made a career out of caring for the health and welfare of those less fortunate. Bacon was born on September 21, 1937, in New Orleans, Louisiana. Her father, Henry Johnson, was a postal clerk and her mother, Vina V. Johnson, was a schoolteacher.

Bacon earned a B.S. from Xavier University in New Orleans in 1958. She moved to Chicago to attend medical school, attending the University of Illinois School of Medicine, graduating in 1962. Bacon did not intend to stay in Chicago for an extended period of time. However, the inner-city patients she saw reminded her of the people she knew growing up in Louisiana.

In 1968, Bacon was fired from a publicly supported medical facility at the Altgeld Gardens' Murray Homes on Chicago's South Side for making her views on the need to improve the meager care provided there known. In response, Bacon opened the Clinic in Altgeld, Inc., a not-for-profit agency offering total health care and serving as the primary medical resource for the Altgeld Gardens area. The facility handles 15,000 patients a year. The center was funded out of her personal savings and Medicaid reimbursement until 1991, when it began to receive federal funding. The clinic has greatly improved the health of Altgeld Gardens community residents. When Bacon first opened the clinic, the infant mortality rate was 50.2 per thousand, in 1990 this number was reduced to 9.2 per thousand. In 2001, Bacon retired as medical director of the clinic.

In 1992, Bacon returned to singing. Singing had played an important role in Bacon's early development. She performed in many recitals and concerts throughout her youth and college years, but the demands of practicing medicine took precedence. She has been a featured soloist at Chicago Orchestra Hall, ETA Theater and numerous churches.

Accession Number

A2002.129

Sex

Female

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

7/10/2002

Last Name

Bacon

Maker Category
Middle Name

Jackson

Schools

Xavier University of Louisiana

University of Illinois College of Medicine

McDonogh No. 35 Senior High School

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Archival Photo 2
Speakers Bureau Availability

Depends on Schedule

First Name

Gloria

Birth City, State, Country

New Orleans

HM ID

BAC01

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - Negotiable

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Louisiana

Birth Date

9/21/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New Orleans

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Medical director and physician Dr. Gloria Jackson Bacon (1937 - ) dedicated her life to providing health services to the underprivileged housing project Altgeld Gardens. Dr. Bacon founded the Clinic in Altgeld, which reduced the infant mortality rate in Altgeld Gardens from 50.2 per thousand to 9.2 per thousand.

Employment

Clinic in Altgeld Gardens

Chicago Department of Health

Cook County Hospital

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Gloria Bacon interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Gloria Bacon's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Gloria Bacon describes her mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Gloria Bacon discusses her father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Gloria Bacon explains how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Gloria Bacon describes her two siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Gloria Bacon recalls her earliest memory, learning her ABCs

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Gloria Bacon describes her greatest familial influence

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Gloria Bacon remembers the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Gloria Bacon describes her response to being the oldest child

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Gloria Bacon describes activities in her childhood neighborhood

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Gloria Bacon describes her childhood personality

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Gloria Bacon confronts pressure to become a doctor

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Gloria Bacon recalls memorable moments in elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Gloria Bacon remembers an influential teacher

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Gloria Bacon discusses her limited early exposure to white people in New Orleans

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Gloria Bacon describes herself as a well-rounded high school student

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Gloria Bacon chooses to attend Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Gloria Bacon experiences school life in an all-black environment

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Gloria Bacon describes her experience at Xavier University of New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Gloria Bacon describes incidents of colorism from her college years

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Gloria Bacon discusses her coursework at Xavier University, New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Gloria Bacon discovers her interest in singing

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Gloria Bacon chooses to attend Howard University's Medical School, Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Gloria Bacon explains her interest in sewing

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Gloria Bacon finds ways to succeed in medical school

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Gloria Bacon considers diversity at Howard University's medical school

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Gloria Bacon describes her interests in the medical profession

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Gloria Bacon discusses the issues that women in medicine face

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Gloria Bacon discusses her move to the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Gloria Bacon experiences a chilling Illinois winter

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Gloria Bacon becomes pregnant during her second year of medical school

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Gloria Bacon describes her first job after medical school at a Medicaid clinic

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Gloria Bacon finds similarities between Altgeld Gardens, Chicago and New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Gloria Bacon describes her inspiration for opening a new clinic

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Gloria Bacon reflects on the opening of her new medical clinic

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Gloria Bacon discusses the historical and political context of the opening of her clinic

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Gloria Bacon describes patient volume at her Chicago medical clinic

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Gloria Bacon discusses the early stages of her medical clinic's development

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Gloria Bacon considers the socioeconomic situations of her patients

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Gloria Bacon considers black self-determination with respect to the healthcare industry

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Gloria Bacon discusses the beginning of her involvement with Chicago's Provident Hospital

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Gloria Bacon remembers the closing of Chicago's Provident Hospital

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Gloria Bacon discusses lessons learned from managing a medical clinic

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Gloria Bacon describes her experience on the University of Illinois's Board of Trustees

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Gloria Bacon speaks to her love for the black community

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Gloria Bacon describes her concerns and hope for the black community

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Gloria Bacon discusses elitism in the medical field

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Gloria Bacon gives advice for those considering the medical profession

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Gloria Bacon discusses her love of writing and performing

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Gloria Bacon discusses her legacy, showing care for the black comunity

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Photo - Gloria Bacon, valedictorian of her grammar school class

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Photo - Gloria Bacon poses as part of Xavier University's homecoming court, 1956

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Photo - Gloria Bacon is sworn in as a member of The University of Illinois Board of Trustees

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Photo - Gloria Bacon, elementary school spring festival queen

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Photo - Gloria Bacon with other members of her high school homecoming court

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - Photo - Gloria Bacon is inducted into the American Academy of Family Physicians

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

1$7

DATitle
Gloria Bacon confronts pressure to become a doctor
Gloria Bacon discusses the historical and political context of the opening of her clinic
Transcript
Well, the truth is, my mother [Vina Velma Johnson] made--I, had a challenge. I went to the, doctor's office. I was maybe in my teens and the doctor said, "Oh, I understand you're going to be a doctor." And I said, "That's what my ma- that's what my mother (with emphasis) wants," like the teenager, like the sullen kind of teenager is going to say. So I got home and my mother said, "No, now, that's the last time I want to hear that from you. You don't want to be a doctor. You don't have to be a doctor. You just do whatever you want to do, but I just was trying to give you some--." Basically, "I'm trying to give you a good start on life." You know what I'm saying, "But you don't have to be a doctor for me. I don't need you to do anything for me." (Unclear) so she fronted me off in such a way that it was, "Okay." (Laughs). I'd been getting all my passes based on the fact that I wanted to be a doctor. (Laughs) Now, you know, here I am in high school, you know, getting ready, people know me all around, all the things that I do. "Am I going to back out?" But I'll say it's like at that point, it was at--it was probably at that point that I took it on because, like I say, she threw it back at me, because I had really in a very sullen way, I mean I was a, good--I could--I had a good, some good years of being a really sullen, ugly teenager. Where you just give the really ugly answers. And so she just threw it at me. I mean just up in my face. And from that point on, then I think that having come to grips with the, with the whole piece of choice, then I made the choice.$Now, can you put this in context the, you know, the--you've done a little bit of it, but the Altgeld, you know, The Clinic at Altgeld [Bacon's medical clinic in Chicago, Illinois], can you put in context historical context in terms of what was happening in the medical industry at that time, you know, I mean what changes were happening, how poor people were actually being treated, you know, (unclear).$$Well, you have a lot of things going on, well, in terms of, now remember Altgeld [Gardens, public housing projects, Chicago, Illinois] was isolated altogether. Altgeld was not part even in 1969, '70 [1970], Altgeld wasn't even part of the regular CTA [Chicago Transit Authority] transportation line. So you had the south, we had the South Suburban line which was a, line that ran straight up [Martin Luther] King Drive, separate, which brought people. But that was like once every hour or once whenever it came. And, so you didn't and then you had to pay a separate fee to get on CTA to go from Alt- you know, to go from Altgeld any place else. So, a lot of the people in Altgeld used Michael Reese [Hospital, Chicago, Illinois] and some, to some extent Mercy [Mercy Hospital and Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois] as a, place because you could come directly on the line, get off on King Drive [Chicago, Illinois] and be by Mercy or be by, Reese. So that going out and going some place else was very difficult. I mean it was two or three bus lines, trips. It was two or three bus fares. It was a lot of time. So that's, one, that's part of what the impetus was in the, in writing of the, of the proposal because it was so difficult. It was not any place easy. Plus, the people in Altgeld basically had been from the projects as we all--it was sometimes in quotes and basically were not reasonably well accepted outside. Many of them did not venture outside. Many of them lived almost like insular lives inside of Altgeld. There's a school. There's a grocery store. There's a church. There's whatever else you basically, the kind of things you need inside. So many of the people lived inside and so going downtown to Marshall Fields [department store] was like going to New York [New York] on a (unclear). It was like, it was like really going away. So that part of it we're looking for was trying to figure out how to bring better quality care inside a development since a large percentage of the people were going to use the services inside and not outside. So that's part of, what's going on. The other piece that I alluded to in the beginning was just, Medicaid [federal medical insurance program] was beginning to evolve. So if you're talking about a population of people in public housing by and large a large percentage of them would be, would be eligible for Medicaid. We're now talking about increasing the access that's available for them to be able to use medical and health care services. So that's, really, what I had in mind. I, like I say, when I'm, I'm trying probably got caught up in the whole, you know, in much more a social, in much more a social, sociological model, rather than me being caught up in medicine. Medicine was like the, sticker. It was like the lost leader piece almost in terms of how you got people in that came for, services. But it really was looking at the total, the total life that was the, and, and some of the things that were missing and, and beginning to try and think about how to do that. And that, that's how, that's really what, the, what the clinic was. It was, it was always more than just a medical facility.$$Were, politics, Chicago politic, did they enter in at all in this? Or was that a factor? Are you--?$$You know, I kind of it's like I, I'm not, I don't read the newspaper daily during the last twenty--most of my life because I, initially, I was getting children ready in the morning and I didn't have time. And then after that, I never got to it. So in, there are a lots of things that I do sometimes which are good and sometimes are bad, where I live my life like separate from whatever the rest of the world's doing, what the rest of the city's doing on that day. And most of the time we didn't really have a lot of fights, and we didn't--I, didn't get into it too much in the way of many problems from time to time. I had good relationships with most of the commissioners of health, you know, basically, either who knew me or who knew what we were doing. And so we could make that kind of contact. I knew [Mayor] Jane Byrne just in terms of mayors by name, and I knew [Mayor] Harold [Washington]. I know the mayor, and, and I think he knows basically the as in--I didn't know, I just met briefly senior, [Mayor Richard J.] Daley. I know Mayor [RIchard M.] Daley at this point, but, not a lot of, interaction. You know, but we pretty much have been my job was to take care of my own business to try to make sure I'm not we didn't get in, we didn't we have not had much in the way of, a fight.