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Henry Ponder

Henry Ponder was born on March 28, 1928 in Wewoka, Oklahoma. He was the eleventh of fourteen children born to Frank and Lillie Mae Ponder. Ponder excelled in academics and participated in his high school student council as the class president. After hearing a speech by Mary McCloud Bethune, Ponder was inspired to become a university president. He graduated from Douglas High School in 1946 and attended Langston University, where he pledged the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity and received his B.S. degree in agriculture in 1951.

Ponder served two years in the United States Army during the Korean War. When he returned to civilian life, he worked as a research assistant at Oklahoma State University. He then earned his M.A. degree from Oklahoma State University and his Ph.D. from Ohio State University.

Ponder served as both Chair and Assistant Professor for the Department of Agriculture and Business at Virginia State College in Petersburg, Virginia. He also served as the Chairman of the Department of Business and Economics of Fort Valley State College in Fort Valley, Georgia. Additionally, Ponder was the Vice President of Alabama A&M University in Normal, Alabama. In 1973, he fulfilled his dream by becoming President of Benedict College in Columbia, South Carolina. After an eleven year tenure, he became the President of Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee for twelve years. While at Fisk, Ponder was honored as one of the “100 Most Effective College Presidents in the United States.”

In 1996, Ponder left Fisk University to serve as the CEO and president of the National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education. In early 2002, he became President of Talladega College in Alabama. While in his presidency, Ponder helped retain the 160-year-old institution’s accreditation with the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools.

Ponder currently lives on Hilton Head Island in South Carolina with his wife of fifty-five years, Eunice. They have two adult daughters.

Ponder was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 29, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.033

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/29/2007

Last Name

Ponder

Maker Category
Schools

Oklahoma State University

Johnson Grove School

Langston University

Douglas High School

The Oklahoma State University for Agriculture and the Applied Science

The Ohio State University

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Any

First Name

Henry

Birth City, State, Country

Wewoka

HM ID

PON02

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

All

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

No

Favorite Season

Birthday

Speaker Bureau Notes

Preferred Audience: All

State

Oklahoma

Favorite Vacation Destination

Senegal, West Africa

Favorite Quote

Take Your Time, Not Your Life.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

South Carolina

Birth Date

3/28/1928

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Hilton Head Island

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Oysters on the Half Shell

Short Description

University president Henry Ponder (1928 - ) served as Vice President of Alabama A&M University, President of Benedict College in Columbia, South Carolina, President of Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee, and President of Talladega College in Alabama.

Employment

The State Training School for Incorrigible Negro Boys

Tinker Air Force Base

Virginia State University

Fort Valley State College (Ga.)

Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical College

Benedict College

Fisk University

National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education (NAFEO)

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:1530,31:1955,37:32170,375:41698,449:42382,459:44180,470:69971,736:74424,828:89740,1042:90130,1048:152258,1728:195330,2133:195610,2138:201049,2204:204969,2286:224010,2495$0,0:3501,44:21544,262:35830,373:41836,468:43838,505:49658,557:56158,652:57192,667:57850,677:60220,685:61900,707:62635,715:63370,724:69460,841:98512,1116:107963,1223:110000,1244:110776,1253:117410,1310:132726,1548:133166,1557:138030,1566:142818,1637:143490,1646:166575,1971:166883,1976:167499,1989:167807,1994:168192,2003:175710,2063:177573,2096:186323,2205:189088,2244:209492,2475:214890,2533:227170,2779:227545,2785:227845,2790:228520,2802:232230,2831
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Henry Ponder's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Henry Ponder lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Henry Ponder describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Henry Ponder describes his maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Henry Ponder describes his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Henry Ponder recalls his childhood in a large family

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Henry Ponder remembers lessons from his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Henry Ponder describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Henry Ponder describes his father

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Henry Ponder describes his siblings, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Henry Ponder describes his brother, Tinch Ponder

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Henry Ponder describes his sister, Katheryn Ponder Brown

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Henry Ponder describes his brother, Paul Harding Ponder

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Henry Ponder describes his sisters, Mayme Ponder Jackson

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Henry Ponder describes his remaining siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Henry Ponder describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Henry Ponder describes his chores on the farm

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Henry Ponder describes his childhood home

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Henry Ponder recalls being responsible for the farm from an early age

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Henry Ponder remembers growing up during the Great Depression

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Henry Ponder describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Henry Ponder describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Henry Ponder recalls the Johnson Grove School in Wewoka, Oklahoma

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Henry Ponder remembers Douglas High School in Wewoka, Oklahoma

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Henry Ponder recalls hearing Mary McLeod Bethune speak

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Henry Ponder describes his extracurricular activities in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Henry Ponder describes his childhood entertainment

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Henry Ponder recalls how his family avoided the effects of the Dust Bowl

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Henry Ponder describes his decision to attend college, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Henry Ponder describes his decision to attend college, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Henry Ponder describes his first year at Oklahoma's Langston University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Henry Ponder recalls meeting his wife at Langston University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Henry Ponder remembers his academic success at Langston University

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Henry Ponder describes his professors at Langston University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Henry Ponder talks about the role of college fraternities and sororities

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Henry Ponder talks about how fraternities changed in his lifetime

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Henry Ponder describes fraternities' community involvement

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Henry Ponder remembers his graduation from Langston University

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Henry Ponder recalls being drafted to serve in the Korean War, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Henry Ponder recalls being drafted to serve in the Korean War, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Henry Ponder remembers his promotion to sergeant in the U.S. Army

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Henry Ponder describes his experiences in Korea and Japan

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Henry Ponder recalls his graduate studies at The Oklahoma State University for Agriculture and Applied Science

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Henry Ponder remembers joining the faculty of Virginia State University

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Henry Ponder recalls earning a Ph.D. degree at The Ohio State University for Agriculture and Applied Science

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Henry Ponder remembers the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Henry Ponder talks about voting rights and segregation in Oklahoma

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Henry Ponder remembers segregation in Virginia and Oklahoma

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Henry Ponder remembers the assassination of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Henry Ponder recalls the reaction of Virginians to President John Fitzgerald Kennedy's death

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Henry Ponder describes his daughters' births

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Henry Ponder remembers moving to Fort Valley, Georgia, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Henry Ponder remembers moving to Fort Valley, Georgia, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Henry Ponder describes his civil rights activism in Fort Valley, Georgia, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Henry Ponder describes his civil rights activism in Fort Valley, Georgia, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Henry Ponder describes his experience at Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University in Huntsville

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Henry Ponder recalls the assassination of Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Henry Ponder recalls the assassination of Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Henry Ponder describes how he became the president of Saint Paul's College in Lawrenceville, Virginia

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Henry Ponder recalls his decision to reject the presidency of Saint Paul's College

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Henry Ponder remembers his presidency of Benedict College in Columbia, South Carolina

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Henry Ponder talks about expanding the academic programs at Benedict College

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Henry Ponder recalls his decision to become president of Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Henry Ponder talks about achieving his goal of becoming a college president

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Henry Ponder recalls his presidency of the National Association for Equal Opportunity and Higher Education

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Henry Ponder describes organizational involvement

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Henry Ponder describes his work as a consultant in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Henry Ponder describes his presidency of Talladega College in Talladega, Alabama

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Henry Ponder describes his involvement in the church

Tape: 7 Story: 11 - Henry Ponder remembers receiving his first honorary degree

Tape: 7 Story: 12 - Henry Ponder talks about his retirement in Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

Tape: 7 Story: 13 - Henry Ponder talks about his older daughter, Cheryl Ponder

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Henry Ponder talks about his daughters' educations and careers

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Henry Ponder describes his marriage to Eunice Ponder

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Henry Ponder reflects upon his life

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Henry Ponder describes his message to future generations

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Henry Ponder describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Henry Ponder narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$7

DAStory

4$2

DATitle
Henry Ponder recalls hearing Mary McLeod Bethune speak
Henry Ponder remembers his presidency of Benedict College in Columbia, South Carolina
Transcript
Had you thought about what you would like to become?$$Yes, I did. And this is another anecdotal story that I'll tell. When I was in the seventh grade [at Johnson Grove School, Wewoka, Oklahoma], I heard, and I don't know how I heard this, because I didn't read it in the newspaper, that's my point. And we didn't have television, and I know it wasn't on the radio. So, I heard it, that Mary McLeod Bethune was speaking in Wewoka [Oklahoma] at a Methodist church one night. And I said, "I'm going to go hear her." Now during this time--let me back up a little and say that during this time, the greatest person in the African American community, when I was in the seventh grade, was a college president. I mean that was something that nobody thought you could ever become. It was like you're flying to the moon now. But this was a college president, and I'm four miles in the country, and I walked four miles into town to hear her speak. And my mother [Lillie Mae Edwards Ponder] let me go, she thought--and again, I think about all these things and say that my mother even knew how important it was for me to hear this person speak, because it might do something for me. I mean she never told me this, but now as adult, that's all I can make of it. And I walked in and listened to Miss Bethune speak. She had on a mink coat, I remember that. And apparently, it was fall, or chilly, and the church wasn't heated apparently, because she didn't take her coat off. All of this is in retrospect now, I'm guessing. And I listened to her speak, and goodness, I was so impressed with this woman. She was just outstanding, she was a dynamo. And then I walked four miles back home from that. And in that trip from that church to home, as a seventh grader, I said "I'm going to be a college president." So, Miss Bethune was my role model. And now let me just hasten to say, when I made that decision, I had enough realization to know what it took. If you're going to be a college president, first of all you've got to finish the eighth grade. I mean, these are things that just fell into place. Then you've got to go to high school. You got to graduate from high school, then you got to go college. You got to graduate from college, and then you've got to go to graduate school, you know, all these things. As I progressed, I realized that all these things had to be done. And that thought is the thing that drove me to do the education that I have been fortunate enough to get.$Then a few years later in '73 [1973], I was offered a job as president of Benedict College in Columbia, South Carolina, and we took that. And that was a good experience, a very good experience. We had all the things that we wanted, and we were able to do some things to make sure that the college grew. We increased the endowment, added some new programs, increased the enrollment, and increased the number of Ph.D.'s on the faculty. We did all the things that we should do. We raised money; we were able to raise quite a bit of money, and we left the place with about $13 million in the endowment. So--$$The endowment was very--well, let's talk about Benedict College. Because historically it was a college that was established for recently emancipated African Americans. Is that right?$$That's correct.$$So, how did you feel about that part of the history of the school?$$Well, I took pride in that part of the history. It was, it was started by the, the first president was Henry Tisdale [sic. Timothy L. Dodge]. And a lady from Boston [Massachusetts] gave the money to buy the land to set up the first school, to set up the first building for the recently emancipated African Americans. And I felt very good about this, and felt that the school needed to stay true to that heritage, rather than trying to hang out its shingle as educating the elite. Rather than that, we ought to make sure that we try to educate those youngsters that have difficulty getting into colleges and universities on a general basis. So in other words, I took the position that if I had a choice--if I didn't have but five positions left in my freshman class, and had a choice between five students who had the highest GPA [grade point average] possible, or students who just barely had a GPA for admission--I would take the five on the lower end, because those on the upper end could always go someplace else if they wanted to, and those on the lower end couldn't. So, I took that position. I also took the position that we hang our shingle out as an open admissions college. And an open admissions college means that you accept students where they are, and proceed to move them to where they ought to be at graduation, so let's stay true to that image rather than trying to compete for the high scoring students. And I also reasoned that if we tried to compete with Harvard [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts], we can't do that. Harvard knows how to educate smart people, they know how to do that. If we tried to compete with them on that, we'd lose every time. But Harvard does not know how to educate youngsters who need to be motivated. We know how to do that. Let us continue to do that, and let Harvard continue to do what they're doing. If we do that, then there will always be a place for a Benedict College.

Thomas W. Cole

Thomas Winston Cole, Jr. was born the second of four children to Eva and Thomas W. Cole, Sr. on January 11, 1941, in Vernon, Texas. The Cole family moved to Marshall, Texas, where his father was appointed President of Wiley College from 1958 to 1971. During his childhood, Cole attended public school and was an active Eagle Scout.

Cole graduated from high school in 1958 and attended Wiley College where he was active in the Kappa Chi and Alpha Kappa Mu Honor societies. Graduating summa cum laude from Wiley College in 1961, Cole received his B.S. degree and the Southern Regional Fellowship. Cole attended the University of Chicago and earned his Ph.D. in organic chemistry in 1966; it was here that he studied with P.E. Eaton and they became the first chemists to synthesize the Cubane Carbon Skeleton System.

Cole began his professional career in 1966 as an assistant professor at the Atlanta University Center, in Atlanta, Georgia. During his tenure, Cole would serve as chairman of the department of chemistry between 1970 and 1979; the Fuller E. Callaway Professor of Chemistry between 1969 and 1979; Chair of the Atlanta University Center chemistry department; and Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs between 1979 and 1982. Cole also worked as a research scientist for Procter & Gamble and the Celanese Fiber Company. From 1982 to 1986, Cole was president of West Virginia State College. Following his presidency, Cole was appointed Chancellor of the West Virginia Board of Regents, one of four African Americans to head a state system of public higher education.

Cole returned to Atlanta to accept a position as president of Clark College in 1988, and led the oversight and planning for the consolidation of Clark College and Atlanta University. Cole served simultaneously as president of both institutions during the 1988-1989 academic years until his appointment as President of Clark Atlanta University in 1989. Cole continued to serve as president until 2002.

After retirement, Cole lived in Atlanta, Georgia, with his wife, Brenda.

Accession Number

A2006.173

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/15/2006

Last Name

Cole

Maker Category
Middle Name

W.

Schools

Wiley College

University of Chicago

H.B. Pemberton High School

First Name

Thomas

Birth City, State, Country

Vernon

HM ID

COL11

Favorite Season

None

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

It Is Amazing What You Can Accomplish If It Doesn't Matter Who Gets The Credit.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

1/11/1941

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Steak

Short Description

University president and chemistry professor Thomas W. Cole (1941 - ) was the president of Clark Atlanta University, whose formation from Clark and Atlanta Universities he oversaw. He was also president of West Virginia State College, Chancellor of the West Virginia Board of Regents, and a professor of chemistry at the former Atlanta University.

Employment

Atlanta University

West Virginia State College

West Virginia Board of Regents

Clark Atlanta University

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:231,4:4697,189:5005,194:11474,287:12226,296:12602,301:12978,306:13448,313:14858,327:23668,428:28996,492:31290,542:31808,558:32104,590:37668,661:38244,672:38748,680:39396,689:39828,696:40476,712:41340,731:44508,780:64569,957:66395,990:66727,995:67225,1002:73950,1071:84264,1266:99830,1516$0,0:390,3:1950,24:2340,30:5070,143:5538,150:12010,199:14506,244:36068,662:40312,675:41896,713:50994,812:82220,1182:86305,1275:92434,1353:102108,1457:107402,1540:119630,1701:127430,1782:129530,1824:140492,1941:140927,1947:141797,1958:143537,1987:143885,1992:150272,2053:154088,2142:159184,2216:159500,2221:159816,2226:160369,2234:162890,2290:167016,2361:179258,2550:179832,2558:180160,2563:182374,2591:185490,2646:187704,2689:201970,2800:202390,2807:202810,2815:207634,2835:218836,2957:227990,3190:232294,3283:240290,3370:241050,3377
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Thomas W. Cole's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Thomas W. Cole lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Thomas W. Cole remembers his maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Thomas W. Cole describes his paternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Thomas W. Cole describes his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Thomas W. Cole describes his father, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Thomas W. Cole describes his father, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Thomas W. Cole lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Thomas W. Cole describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Thomas W. Cole explains his family's move to Bryan, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Thomas W. Cole remembers Washington Elementary School in Bryan, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Thomas W. Cole remembers his elementary school teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Thomas W. Cole describes his father's approach to civil rights

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Thomas W. Cole remembers Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Thomas W. Cole recalls his high school band

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Thomas W. Cole remembers H.B. Pemberton High School in Marshall, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Thomas W. Cole recalls his participation in the Boy Scouts

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Thomas W. Cole remembers segregation in Marshall, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Thomas W. Cole recalls his decision to attend Wiley College in Marshall, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Thomas W. Cole remembers pledging Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Thomas W. Cole recalls the student protests at Wiley College

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Thomas W. Cole remembers meeting his wife

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Thomas W. Cole recalls leaving the University of Texas in Austin, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Thomas W. Cole describes his studies at the University of Chicago

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Thomas W. Cole explains the significance of his cubane research

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Thomas W. Cole remembers President John Fitzgerald Kennedy's assassination

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Thomas W. Cole remembers teaching at Atlanta University in Atlanta, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Thomas W. Cole remembers working for Procter and Gamble Company

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Thomas W. Cole recalls becoming the Fuller E. Callaway Professor at Atlanta University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Thomas W. Cole describes his students at Atlanta University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Thomas W. Cole remembers the Vietnam War draft

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Thomas W. Cole remembers Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Thomas W. Cole remembers working with the Atlanta Public Schools

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Thomas W. Cole recalls his sabbatical at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Thomas W. Cole remembers working for Celanese Fibers Company

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Thomas W. Cole recalls teaching at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Thomas W. Cole remembers his National Science Foundation grant

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Thomas W. Cole describes his programs in the Atlanta Public Schools

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Thomas W. Cole recalls serving as provost of Atlanta University

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Thomas W. Cole recalls his presidency of West Virginia State College in Institute, West Virginia

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Thomas W. Cole remembers his delegation to China

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Thomas W. Cole recalls his chancellorship of the West Virginia Board of Regents

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Thomas W. Cole remembers his consideration as a gubernatorial candidate

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Thomas W. Cole recalls his decision to leave West Virginia

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Thomas W. Cole recalls consolidating Clark College and Atlanta University

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Thomas W. Cole describes the details of the Clark Atlanta University merger

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Thomas W. Cole remembers funding changes at Clark Atlanta University

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Thomas W. Cole describes his international outreach for Clark Atlanta University

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Thomas W. Cole talks about Great Schools Atlanta

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Thomas W. Cole describes Project Kaleidoscope

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Thomas W. Cole reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Thomas W. Cole describes his concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Thomas W. Cole describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Thomas W. Cole reflects upon his legacy

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$5

DAStory

10$1

DATitle
Thomas W. Cole remembers meeting his wife
Thomas W. Cole recalls consolidating Clark College and Atlanta University
Transcript
You also said that you met your wife on the campus [of Wiley College, Marshall, Texas]?$$No, I met my wife in high school [H.B. Pemberton High School, Marshall, Texas].$$Oh, you met her in high school?$$I met my wife in high school.$$Oh, okay.$$It's an interesting story. In our day the teachers from East Texas, which is that part of Texas I grew up in and Marshall [Texas] is in, would meet for the annual conference of black teachers. And one of the highlights of the meeting would be an all-star band. And they would invite band members from all of the high schools, and two from this school, three from this, and four from this and then they would, there would be a special director either from one of the colleges who would come in and direct us into performing during the last evening of the, of their conference. And so, my wife played clarinet as well, and so at that time, that's where I met. She and I sat next to each other and so what was a relationship that started out in high school just developed over time. She was two years behind me and so every, every, Easter break when we would meet, I would look forward to that 'cause I'd get a chance to see her. But that's how we met, she lived in a different city and so--and she went to a different college, but we maintained connections and eventually, eventually married in 1964.$$What is your wife's name?$$Her name is Brenda [HistoryMaker Brenda H. Cole].$$And what school did she go to?$$She went to Spelman [Spelman College, Atlanta, Georgia].$So what happened if you would come and be president of Clark [Clark College; Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia]?$$Well, y- you know I really thought after considering the pros and cons that this the job that I was called to do. I had been at Atlanta University [Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia], Clark College was a United Methodist religious school, I'm a lifelong United Methodist. Having been in the AUC Center [Atlanta University Center; Atlanta University Center Consortium, Atlanta, Georgia], I knew half of the faculty at Clark College anyway and I knew them at Atlanta University. I had been president of a school, chancellor of a system, what better opportunity now to take all of that and use it to, to create a new university. And that's in fact how we saw it. Though we knew that Atlanta University needed something, an infusion of, of money or restructuring to, to survive, Clark College was, was constricted in terms of its development. It was landlocked, couldn't do anything really beyond what it was doing. Both schools were without a president so if there was a time to bring them together this was it. The only time. And after having lost a lot of sleep and deliberated and consulted with a lot of people, I finally decided in September of '87 [1987] to, to accept the assignment. Because, if it's gonna happen, I thought it was a, a situation whose time had come. There had been a lot of prior attempts to bring the schools in the Atlanta University Center together, none of them had been successful. In fact, the word was you are not gonna be able to do, and so, being a known entity to Atlanta University and being--having been president of Clark College at the time meant I could bring a little bit of both to the conversation that would, that would eventually lead to consolidation. And so for four months I commuted from West Virginia to Atlanta [Georgia] meeting privately with the board members to orchestrate, if you will, to talk about how do you pull this off. And so by December--between September and December then word was already out that I was coming as president of Clark College and that there is talk--they had a press conference and said that they were talking about bringing the schools together, but really between September and October we had worked it out. The chairs of both boards wanted to do it and so it was really just a matter now of dotting the I's and crossing the Ts and making sure that people who needed to know knew. So they created committees and the usual process like that and deliberated on the issues, the academic issues, the financial issues, the alumni issues, the student issues, and all that. And between January and March of 1988, we decided, or the committee actually decided with my--in--I was really kind of like the, the staff person to the committee. The committee decided on a name, decided on a mascot, decided on, on a motto, decided on all of that because the atmosphere among the members of the committee representing both schools was we wanna make this work. The question is how do we make it work? We know who the president's gonna be so that's a non-issue. Getting the name may be an issue, some of the--where people will end up might be an issue but we'll just have to work that out. And between--in that three-month period they had decided, went public.

Frederick Humphries

Frederick Stephen Humphries served as president of two historically black colleges - Tennessee State University in Nashville, Tennessee, between 1974 and 1985, and Florida A&M University (FAMU) in Tallahassee, Florida, between 1985 and 2001. Humphries was born on December 26, 1935, in Apalachicola, Florida, the son of Minnie Henry Humphries and Thornton Humphries, Sr. He received his B.S. degree in chemistry from Florida A & M University in 1957, and his Ph.D. degree in chemistry from the University of Pittsburgh in 1964. Before his university presidencies, Humphries worked as associate professor at FAMU between 1964 and 1966 and then as assistant professor at the University of Minnesota between 1966 and 1967. He then returned to FAMU as professor of chemistry from 1968 to 1974. During the summers of 1967 and 1968, he was the program director of the Thirteen-College Curriculum Program for Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). This program strengthened the faculty and curriculum at the HBCUs, and was headed by Humphries until 1974.

When Humphries became president of Tennessee State University in 1974, there were two public, four-year universities in Nashville - one for blacks and one for whites. Humphries was the first Tennessee State University president to face the challenge of merging the two campuses and academic programs. He became the president of the unitary effort. As president of FAMU, Humphries worked to increase the number of Black students majoring in the sciences and engineering and entering the PhD programs. In 1994, President Bill Clinton appointed Humphries to a White House Advisory Committee on HBCUs. In 1997, Time magazine and the Princeton Review College Guide named FAMU ‘College of the Year’.

Following his tenure as President of FAMU, Humphries became the president and CEO of the National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education (NAFEO), an advocacy organization for the HBCUs. He remained with NAFEO until 2004. FAMU trustees appointed Humphries to a five-year term as Regents Professor at FAMU’s College of Law in Orlando, Florida. Also, one of the newest buildings on the FAMU campus is the Frederick Humphries Science Research Building. There is also a building on the Tennessee State University campus bearing his name.

Humphries was married for forty-six years to the late Antoinette (McTurner) Humphries of Pittsburgh. They raised three children - Frederick Stephens, Jr., Robin Tanya, and Laurence Anthony.

Accession Number

A2006.123

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/17/2006

Last Name

Humphries

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

University of Pittsburgh

The Holy School

Wallace M. Quinn High School

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Depends on Schedule

First Name

Frederick

Birth City, State, Country

Apalachacola

HM ID

HUM02

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Any, Interest in Science and Engineering and Black Participation

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - Negotiable

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

Speaker Bureau Notes

Preferred Audience: Any, Interest in Science and Engineering and Black Participation

State

Florida

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Near Water

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

12/26/1935

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Orlando

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Association chief executive and university president Frederick Humphries (1935 - ) was the former president of historically black schools Tennessee State University and Florida A&M University. He also served as president and CEO of the National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education.

Employment

Florida A & M University

Tennessee State University

National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education (NAFEO)

Education Development Center

University of Minnesota Twin Cities

Favorite Color

Blue, Tan

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Frederick Humphries' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Frederick Humphries describes his career in higher education, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Frederick Humphries describes his career in higher education, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Frederick Humphries describes his presidency of Tennessee State University

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Frederick Humphries describes his career after serving as a college president

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Frederick Humphries lists his favorites, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Frederick Humphries lists his favorites, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Frederick Humphries describes his mother's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Frederick Humphries describes his father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Frederick Humphries talks about his father's occupations

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Frederick Humphries describes his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Frederick Humphries describes his mother's childhood and education

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Frederick Humphries remembers his father's death

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Frederick Humphries describes his maternal family's educational background

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Frederick Humphries describes his siblings' education

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Frederick Humphries recalls his scholarship to Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Frederick Humphries describes his early education at the Holy Family School

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Frederick Humphries talks about segregation at the Holy Family School

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Frederick Humphries describes the influence of his science teacher

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Frederick Humphries remembers Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Frederick Humphries talks about his college basketball career

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Frederick Humphries describes his decision to attend graduate school

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Frederick Humphries recalls being admitted to graduate school while serving in the U.S. Army

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Frederick Humphries describes how he met his wife

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Frederick Humphries recalls his marriage to Antoinette McTurner Humphries

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Frederick Humphries describes his three children

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Frederick Humphries describes his career after he earned his Ph.D. degree

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Frederick Humphries describes the Thirteen College Curriculum Program and the Institute for Services in Education

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Frederick Humphries recalls his challenges as president of Tennessee State University

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Frederick Humphries describes the case of Geier v. University of Tennessee, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Frederick Humphries describes the case of Geier v. University of Tennessee, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Frederick Humphries recalls the merger of Tennessee State University and University of Tennessee at Nashville

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Frederick Humphries recalls his presidency of Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Frederick Humphries describes the Life Gets Better Scholarship program, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Frederick Humphries describes the Life Gets Better Scholarship program, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Frederick Humphries recalls recruiting Life Gets Better Scholarship students

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Frederick Humphries describes the success of the Life Gets Better Scholarship

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Frederick Humphries describes his collaboration with graduate schools at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Frederick Humphries describes the Graduate Feeder Program

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Frederick Humphries remembers developing summer research opportunities

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Frederick Humphries explains his success as a university president

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Frederick Humphries reflects upon his life

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Frederick Humphries describes his plans for the future, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Frederick Humphries describes his plans for the future, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Frederick Humphries describes his hopes and concerns for historically black colleges and universities

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Frederick Humphries describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Frederick Humphries narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

3$7

DATitle
Frederick Humphries describes the influence of his science teacher
Frederick Humphries describes the case of Geier v. University of Tennessee, pt. 2
Transcript
Two people when I got to high school [Wallace M. Quinn High School, Apalachicola, Florida], Charlie Watson [Charles Watson] was my science teacher.$$Washington?$$Watson.$$Watson.$$Charlie Watson, graduate of FAMU [Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, Tallahassee, Florida]. He was an agricultural major. He taught science because if you got a B.S. degree in agriculture, you had to take physics and chemistry and math courses here at FAMU. You couldn't find a, a math teacher or a chemistry teacher to come to Apalachicola [Florida]. It was a small town, not much to recommending it for a social outlet. Charlie was an Apalachicolian, he was born there, and he cared deeply about Apalachicola. So, he taught all of it. He taught math, he taught chemistry, he taught physics, he taught biology. He was the science man, and Charlie Watson did something phenomenal. When he would recognize that you had some special talent, he would keep you after school and work with you to develop that special talent. So in my class, there were two of us. Two students that he picked and said, "I want you to stay and I'm gonna work with you," and we did. We worked with math, we worked with the sciences, and he taught, taught us far beyond what happened in the daily classes, okay. So Charlie Watson was heavy into my life, right. And so when I got to be a senior, he told both of us that we ought to go to college and that he would help because by now, I had met a young girl I dated. Met a young girl. I liked her. And the typical thing in Apalachicola what people did was they either finished or dropped out of high school and then they went to the [U.S.] military, then they would marry the girl they were going with. And here I was, my brother [Thornton Humphries, Jr.] had gone to the [U.S.] Air Force and here I was thinking about doing the same thing--finishing, volunteer for the Air Force, come back and get my girlfriend and we'd march off into the sunset with a military career. Well, Charlie Watson said, "You can't do that. You got too much happening with you that you need to go to college," and course my mother [Minnie Henry Humphries] was, was preaching that all the time that you, you gotta get out of Apalachicola and you gotta go to college. And so I started preparing myself to, to go to college and not only did Charlie help me, but the principal helped me, too. And they played a force in my life in terms--. Now, I majored in chemistry because I blew up the lab in high school. I, I put sodium with water and had an explosion in the laboratory, and so I said, "I'm gonna master this thing that damn near killed me!" And so I majored in chemistry (laughter) to try to--to try to do that, right. So that's--and, and that was the thing that smart people did. You either majored in math or you majored in chemistry and didn't know nothing about physics or even pre-med for that--for that matter, right. I--it was chemistry or mathematics.$So you solved two problems. You put Roy [Roy Nicks] in as chancellor of the state board of regents [Tennessee Board of Regents], Tennessee State [Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee] which is a problem for him is no longer in the state board of regent, but a part of the University of Tennessee [University of Tennessee] now. The University of Tennessee is satisfied because they maintain the University of Tennessee, they control Nashville [Tennessee] and get to be the University of Tennessee in Nashville [University of Tennessee at Nashville; Avon Williams Campus, Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee]. Well, he told me to take that proposition out to the people at Tennessee State, and I told him I would. So we formed a team and we investigated this whole proposition of what it meant to be the University of Tennessee at Nashville, Tennessee State and UTN combined and merged, or whether you stay Tennessee State. And we looked at the pros and cons of that and when we got through examining that, I went back to the governor [Leonard Ray Blanton] with our answer which was, "We don't want to join the University of Tennessee system. We want to stay part of the state board of regents, we want our autonomy, we want the autonomy of Tennessee State continued, and therefore we applaud merger but not with the University of Tennessee Nashville." So boy, did all of the stuff hit the fan then, right, because I told the governor I couldn't sit on this any longer, that I had to speak to the people, my student body and the faculty and all of that at Tennessee State because everybody knows that something is going on, but they haven't heard from me. So, I gotta go back and address this, right. He said, "I don't want you to address it today 'cause I'm going out here to the board to make Roy Nicks chancellor of the state board of regents," right. "But after I do that, you are free to--." So then I, I called the whole university together in the convocation and announced that we applauded merger, but to stay a member of the state board of regents and then that went into the court, and so when the, the federal district judge, Judge Gray [Frank Gray, Jr.], brought us in for a hearing, right, we put forth the notion merger was an option now because the governor had suggested it, but not the way he wanted to have it, right. So, we went into court with everybody. Now, I got my--my boss is the former chancellor of the University of Tennessee Nashville, right, and, and what he told me was that he was gonna be a man and he was gonna follow what the board wanted which was the two-school concept, right, and I told him, "That's fine. You be a man, but just as long as you can respect that I'm also be a man and I'm do what I think is in the best interest of Tennessee State." So we went into court with this and now merger was on the table as a end result of the adjudication in the case [Geier v. University of Tennessee, 1979]. So then the question had to be answered as to what's fair in terms of should you keep two schools with split board of governance, or would it be better to have one board of governance which covered Nashville which would not--cut down on the argument--argumentative circumstances that you would have. It would make for a clear development of the institution and okay. So but it still depended on the leadership to say where they were, all right. And so they tried hard to--after the governor put that thing out there to bring it back to the two-school concept, and so every meeting that I went to was framed in a way of the two-school. What's the programs you want? What's UTN gonna get, and fighting that, right. So, ultimately the judge, based on the input and the consideration of governance, the history of Tennessee State University, the, the relatively new history of UTN, the unfairness of the projections for the future, he ruled that there should just be one school, it should be Tennessee State and UTN should become a part of Tennessee State.

Shirley Ann Jackson

Renowned physicist and university president Shirley Ann Jackson was born on August 5, 1946, in Washington, D.C., to George Hiter Jackson and Beatrice Cosby Jackson. When Jackson was a child, her mother would read her the biography of Benjamin Banneker, an African American scientist and mathematician who helped build Washington, D.C., and her father encouraged her interest in science by assisting her with projects for school. The Space Race of the late-1950s would also have an impact on Jackson as a child, spurring her interest in scientific investigation.

Jackson attended Roosevelt High School in Washington, D.C., where she took accelerated math and science classes. Jackson graduated as valedictorian in 1964 and encouraged by the assistant principal for boys at her high school, she applied to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Jackson was among the first African American students to attend MIT, and in her undergraduate class she was one of only two women.

In 1973, Jackson graduated from MIT with her Ph.D. degree in theoretical elementary particle physics, the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in physics in MIT’s history. Jackson worked on her thesis, entitled The Study of a Multiperipheral Model with Continued Cross-Channel Unitarity, under the direction of James Young, the first African American tenured full professor in the physics department at MIT. In 1975, the thesis was published in Annals of Physics.

After receiving her degree, Jackson was hired as a research associate in theoretical physics at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, or Fermilab. While at Fermilab, Jackson studied medium to large subatomic particles, specifically hadrons, a subatomic particle with a strong nuclear force. Throughout the 1970s, Jackson would work in this area on Landau theories of charge density waves in one- and two-dimensions, as well as Tang-Mills gauge theories and neutrino reactions.

In 1974, after two years with the Fermilab, Jackson served as visiting science associate at the European Organization for Nuclear Research in Switzerland, and worked on theories of strongly interacting elementary particles. In 1975, Jackson returned to Fermilab, and was simultaneously elected to the MIT Corporation’s Board of Trustees. In 1976, Jackson began working on the technical staff for Bell Telephone laboratories in theoretical physics. Her research focused on the electronic properties of ceramic materials in hopes that they could act as superconductors of electric currents. While at Bell laboratories, Jackson met her future husband, physicist Morris A. Washington. That same year, she was appointed professor of physics at Rutgers University. In 1980, Jackson became the president of the National Society of Black Physicists and in 1985, she began serving as a member of the New Jersey Commission on Science and Technology.

In 1991, Jackson served as a professor at Rutgers while working for AT&T Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey. In 1995, Jackson was appointed by President Clinton to the chair of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In 1997, Jackson led the formation of the International Nuclear Regulators Association. In 1998, Jackson was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame; the following year, she became the eighteenth president of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Jackson remains an advocate for women and minorities in the sciences and, since 2001, has brought needed attention to the "Quiet Crisis" of America’s predicted inability to innovate in the face of a looming scientific workforce shortage.

Shirley Ann Jackson was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on September 22, 2006 .

Accession Number

A2006.102

Sex

Female

Interview Date

9/22/2006 |and| 11/4/2006

Last Name

Jackson

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Ann

Organizations
Schools

Charles E. Young Elementary School

Park View Elementary School

Barnard Elementary School

McFarland Junior High School

Theodore Roosevelt Senior High School

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Shirley

Birth City, State, Country

Washington

HM ID

JAC20

Favorite Season

Fall

Sponsor

Toya Horn Howard

State

District of Columbia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere

Favorite Quote

Aim For The Stars, So That At Least You Can Reach The Treetops.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

8/5/1946

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Albany

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

University president and physicist Shirley Ann Jackson (1946 - ) became the first woman to receive her Ph.D. in physics from MIT in 1973. She chaired the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for four years and was named president of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1999.

Employment

Martin Marietta Corporation

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

Bell Laboratories

Rutgers University

Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Shirley Ann Jackson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Shirley Ann Jackson shares her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about her father's upbringing and involvement in the D-Day landing

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about her mother's upbringing and family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Shirley Ann Jackson describes her fifth birthday party and talks about her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Shirley Ann Jackson tells a story about protecting her sister during an encounter with a rude school bus driver

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about her family's move to the northwest section of Washington, D.C. and having to be bused to the black school.

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Shirley Ann Jackson describes her family's house in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Shirley Ann Jackson describes the chores and meals in her childhood household

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about a cousin who came to live with the family

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Shirley Ann Jackson tells a story about her mother walking to work at a home for mentally handicapped children

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Shirley Ann Jackson describes her parents' personalities and roles

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Shirley Ann Jackson recalls she and her siblings' childhood activities

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Shirley Ann Jackson remembers her childhood fascination with libraries

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about how the Brown vs. Board of Education ruling caused her to move to an integrated school

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about starting the honors program at Barnard School in the seventh grade

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about the groups she was involved with as a teen

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Shirley Ann Jackson discusses the racial composition of the segregated and integrated schools including Barnard Elementary School

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Shirley Ann Jackson describes particular students and teachers from her childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Shirley Ann Jackson discusses her interest in math and her bee collection

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about her experience with segregation during family road trips

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Shirley Ann Jackson discusses how race influenced her life and the emerging Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Shirley Ann Jackson remembers the boys' assistant principal encouraging her to attend Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about how the Brown vs. Board of Education decision and Sputnik launch inspired possibilities for many

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about her scholarships to attend Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Shirley Ann Jackson describes her feeling of isolation at Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about pledging the Delta Sigma Theta sorority while at MIT

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about volunteering in the pediatric unit of the Boston City Hospital

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Shirley Ann Jackson describes her relationship with her MIT professors

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Shirley Ann Jackson recalls an encounter with an MIT materials science professor who dissuaded her away from majoring in physics

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about her love of physics and making gold iron alloys in the laboratory

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about her summer job at Martin Marietta Corporation, part 1

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about her summer job at Martin Marietta Corporation, part 2

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about not wanting to return to MIT's campus

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Shirley Ann Jackson recalls certain professors and her decision to major in physics at MIT

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about the lack of activism at Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about her presidency of Delta Sigma Theta Iota Chapter

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about applying to graduate school and her speaking at MIT's memorial service for Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about the political climate of the time and the Orangeburg Massacre

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about the formation of a task force for educational opportunity at Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Shirley Ann Jackson reflects on the racism and segregation that she experienced in her life up through college

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Shirley Ann Jackson shares talks about Delta Sigma Theta Sorority

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about her Boston area community service

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Shirley Ann Jackson describes the comfort of her childhood Washington, D.C. neighborhood

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Shirley Ann Jackson details her experiences of open racial hostility in Boston

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about working in a metallurgy and materials science lab the summer after her freshman year

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about her summer job at the Martin-Marietta Corporation

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Shirley Ann Jackson describes her summer work after her junior year in a materials science and engineering lab

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Shirley Ann Jackson explains her interest in materials science

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Shirley Ann Jackson explains how the death of Martin Luther King Jr. influenced her decision to remain at Massachusetts Institute of Technology for graduate school

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Shirley Ann Jackson explains the difference between nuclear physics and particle physics

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Shirley Ann Jackson describes the structure of the Ph.D. physics program at Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Shirley Ann Jackson describes her Ph.D. thesis on the high energy physics of colliding particles

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about Project Epsilon and Project Interphase

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about her academic courses, contacts, and activities during graduate school

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about her post doctoral work including two years at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Shirley Ann Jackson discusses Fermi Lab in the context of other national laboratories

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about working on Hadrons at Fermi Lab

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about her work at Bell Laboratories

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Shirley Ann Jackson describes her early work at Bell Labs and her decision to stay there

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Shirley Ann Jackson describes her work in the solid state and quantum physics department at Bell Labs

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Shirley Ann Jackson explains the applications of her work and the importance of scientists in society

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Shirley Ann Jackson describes how she started a family while working at Bell Labs

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about her role on the board of New Jersey Resources

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about her involvement in higher education initiatives and the New Jersey Commission on Science and Technology

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about her position on the Board of Public Service Enterprise Group and chairing the Nuclear Oversight Committee

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Shirley Ann Jackson discusses her experience on corporate boards

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about balancing service on corporate boards, teaching at Rutgers University, and working at Bell Labs

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about her work on the board of New Jersey Resources and Public Service Enterprise Group

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Shirley Ann Jackson discusses her appointment to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Shirley Ann Jackson provides background on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Tape: 11 Story: 6 - Shirley Ann Jackson discusses the issues handled by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission during her chairmanship

Tape: 12 Story: 1 - Shirley Ann Jackson clarifies the work and contributions of scientists and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Tape: 12 Story: 2 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about creating the International Nuclear Regulators Association

Tape: 12 Story: 3 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about instituting the use of probabilistic risk assessment at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Tape: 12 Story: 4 - Shirley Ann Jackson describes the highlights of her tenure as chair of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Tape: 12 Story: 5 - Shirley Ann Jackson describes the process of her appointment to chair the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Tape: 13 Story: 1 - Shirley Ann Jackson continues to talk about her work at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Tape: 13 Story: 2 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about her strategic plan for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Tape: 13 Story: 3 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about leaving the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to serve as president of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Tape: 13 Story: 4 - Shirley Ann Jackson shares the history of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Tape: 13 Story: 5 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about the plan Rensselaer Plan, part 1

Tape: 13 Story: 6 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about the Rensselaer Plan, part 2

Tape: 14 Story: 1 - Shirley Ann Jackson details Rensselaer Plan's ideas for development of biotechnology and nanotechnology

Tape: 14 Story: 2 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about the Rensselaer Plan and how it addresses what she calls the "quiet crisis."

Tape: 14 Story: 3 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about the world energy crisis and energy security

Tape: 14 Story: 4 - Shirley Ann Jackson talks about the need to build scientific talent from within the United States

Tape: 14 Story: 5 - Shirley Ann Jackson responds to questions about her legacy and her being a change agent

DASession

2$2

DATape

8$13

DAStory

5$1

DATitle
Shirley Ann Jackson describes her Ph.D. thesis on the high energy physics of colliding particles
Shirley Ann Jackson continues to talk about her work at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Transcript
Now, who is advising you, you know, or mentoring you at this point?$$Well, when we went into grad school, there was a graduate advisor for the given class of entering graduate students. And I think the professor's name was Ken Johnson, but, you know, you're really causing me to dig deep into my memory. And then after one passed the exam I described, then one became a doctoral candidate. And then one would go around to find a Ph.D. advisor.$$So who was your Ph.D.--?$$His name was James Young.$$And he was--?$$Yes, he was an African American.$$African American.$$And I worked with him, but I also worked with another professor by the name of Roman Jakeef (ph.) on a separate Physics problem.$$And what was that problem?$$It really had to do with solutions to what were called Beta-Salpeter equations. These were one of, kind of a theoretical construct for studying two body problems where two things collide and come out under certain circumstances, you wanna understand the quantum physics. And the beta saltpeter equation also allowed you to try to go beyond a simple two-body problem to being able to in certain cases, look at the properties of three bodies. And it turns out that once you get beyond the two-body problem, it's very complicated. And so the interesting thing about my Ph.D. thesis was that what I was studying, you know, the title of my thesis was 'The Study of a Multi-Peripheral Model With Continued Cross Channel Unitarity.' That means nothing to you, but what it really was, was a way of understanding what happens when two particles collide at high energy. And then a bunch of stuff comes out. And you wanna try to describe that physics. But what ends up happening in the fact, is when the bunch of stuff comes out, meaning, many particles, you can actually detect and measure the properties of one or two of these particles. And so let's imagine you could measure the properties of one, and then there was a bunch of other stuff that you didn't measure the individual characteristics of. But you could do some statistical averaging over those properties. Anyway, with this issue, with this approach of continued cross channel unitarily, which you don't need to know much about except to say that it allowed you to turn a problem that had to do with two particles colliding, a bunch of things coming out where you looked at one and statistically averaged over the other, you could turn it into a three-body problem, okay, where it was three particles in, three particles out and the continued cross channel unitarily where you had multiple stuff in the middle, allowed you to figure out this one body inclusive interaction, which was the two in, one out, the rest statistically averaged over. And the statistical averaging is a process that is embedded in all the terminology of the title of the thesis, okay. And so then it turns out that I actually was able to use some of the things I had learned working on the Beta-Salpeter equation problem to actually do and figure out analytically how to approach this particular problem, and multi-peripheral just had to do with multiple collisions that occurred in a certain way with small forces or small momentum transfers. So that was my thesis. And so the two things played off of each other and actually, Roman Jakeef helped me get my first job at Fermi Lab, Fermi National Accelerator Lab [Illinois].$$Now, at this point in the Ph.D. program, you're the only black female, right?$$Yes.$$And are you aware, like are there other black female Ph.D. candidates around the country?$$You mean in physics?$$Physics, I'm sorry, in physics.$$None that I really knew of at that point. There was another woman at Howard [University, Washington, D.C.] that apparently was working in biophysics and we were, you know, more or less contemporaneous, but that was it. That's why I'm the first black woman to get a Ph.D. from MIT [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts] because there weren't many African American women working on PhD's there, period, and there weren't others in the hard physics in the country. But there was a woman who was working in biophysics.$$Were you aware of that at the time?$$No, no, I wasn't.$$You were not, ah huh.$$Aware of, now, was I aware of what?$$Your singular position, the singularity of your position?$$Well, yes and no. I mean I was not out, you know, gathering data. There was no way for me to know. I mean I was at MIT. I was focusing on what I was doing. And so there was no way to know, and people weren't doing all this statistical data base and let's gather all this detailed knowledge the way they do today. So, and, and so I, you know, but I anecdotally knew there couldn't be very many others because I never met any.$I was voted out of committee. The other appointment was just left. And then it went to the full Senate. And after a discussion with Senator Joe Biden, there was unanimous consent.$$So how did that day feel?$$(Laughter) Well, that was not the day, I mean it was exciting that day, you know, to get one's--and that's my commission appointment [pointing], signed by [William] "Bill" Clinton. And it was exciting. It was a big deal, a big honor. But what really affected me was the first day I went to the NRC [Nuclear Regulatory Commission], you know, when I went up and there's this big, these buildings. And I said, gee, this is the agency that I head. So that for me was, and the meaning of it, and--because I'd been doing all this research and study and understanding what the NRC was all about and left my family in New Jersey and so this was a big deal. And I was nervous because it was a big responsibility. But I was excited because it was a big opportunity.$$So you commuted back and forth the--?$$I did.$$Okay.$$I stayed in Washington [D.C.] during the week, and on the weekends if I had meetings and things I had to do. And then otherwise, I would come back on the weekends. So my husband [Morris A. Washington] did everything.$$So you didn't really involved then in Washington, Washington, all the drama, the, you know, that--$$What drama?$$Well, I mean you didn't come, that going back--$$I mean I would go to agency, the different functions. I'd go to embassy receptions and parties and so I did things. And that's when I might stay in on the weekends sometimes. And then I would stay if there was some kind of a crisis or issue with the nuclear, something in the nuclear arena. And then I traveled a lot and I was gone for sometimes weeks at a time. So, but I, but the NRC is actually in Rockville, Maryland. And so it's actually outside the "beltway", quote, unquote. And because it's an independent regulatory agency, it, it really is interesting, it's an interesting creature because it creates regulation. It has the force of law. It adjudicates when it goes through licensing procedures. So it's like a court. And then it, it actually has an executive function because of its regulatory programs. So it has all three of these things embedded in one agency. And so it's kind of exciting. And the commission meetings, I loved chairing the commission meetings because they would be public meetings. And so one had a whole array of people coming to testify and one would be questioning them, and then having the commissioners question them, trying to pull it all together at the end. But I, I loved it. I just really loved it. And it was an interesting mixture again, because of my background in high-energy physics, then the nuclear physics, the nuclear science and engineering, I understood. And it was helpful to know that, to understand the physics, to understand what kinds of questions and how to get to the heart of the issue. But the marriage of that with regulation and public policy and so on, I thought was important. And I think I really learned how to operate in the international arena even more than when I used to travel abroad for physics meetings. And so it was a, you know, a fun time.

Samuel DuBois Cook

Retired Dillard University president and the first African American professor at Duke University, Samuel DuBois Cook, was born on November 21, 1928, in Griffin, Georgia. Cook’s parents were Mary Beatrice Daniel Cook and the Reverend M.E. Cook, a Baptist minister who instilled a passion for education in all of his children; this upbringing had a deep impact on Cook. Cook was given his middle name in honor of former Morehouse College president Dr. Charles DuBois Hubert. Cook attended Griffin Vocational High School and graduated from there in 1944; he went on to earn an A.B. degree in history from Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia, where he met and was mentored by Dr. Benjamin Mays. Cook then attended Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio, where he earned his M.A. degree in political science and his Ph.D. in 1954.

Cook started his professional career as a teacher after a short stint in the U.S. Army; he taught political science at Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, in 1955. Cook then moved to Atlanta University where he began teaching in 1956, and became politically active. Cook worked on black voter registration and served as youth director of the NAACP of Georgia. During his career, Cook taught at other colleges and universities including the University of Illinois, University of California – Los Angeles, and Duke University, where he became the University’s first African American professor. Cook was also the first African American to hold a regular faculty appointment at a predominantly white university in the South. In 1974, Cook was chosen as president of Dillard University; he filled this role for twenty-two years, retiring in 1997. Cook was credited with beginning the modernization of Dillard University’s infrastructure.

In 1993, Dillard University honored Cook by naming the school’s new fine arts and communication center after him. That same year, Cook was elected by Duke University’s Board of Trustee as a Trustee Emeritus. Duke University again honored Cook with the establishment of the Samuel DuBois Cook Society 1997; the society aims to celebrate and support African American students at the university through programming and scholarships. In 2006, Duke University established a postdoctoral fellowship in Cook’s name to support social scientists that study issues related to race, ethnicity, and gender. In 2015, Duke dedicated the Samuel DuBois Cook Center on Social Equity in his honor. Though retired, Cook remained a visiting scholar and lecturer at universities around the United States.

Cook passed away on May 30, 2017 at the age of 88.

Accession Number

A2005.139

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/20/2005 |and| 12/8/2005

Last Name

Cook

Maker Category
Middle Name

DuBois

Schools

Griffin Vocational High School

The Ohio State University

Cabin Creek School

Spring Hill School

Morehouse College

First Name

Samuel

Birth City, State, Country

Griffin

HM ID

COO08

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Georgia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cruises

Favorite Quote

Aim High, Reach For The Stars, Burn The Midnight Oil, And Give Life Your Best Shot.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

11/21/1928

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Atlanta

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Death Date

5/30/2017

Short Description

Political science professor and university president Samuel DuBois Cook (1928 - 2017 ) was the president of Dillard University, and the first African American professor at Duke University.

Employment

Southern University

Atlanta University

Dillard University

Duke University

Favorite Color

Black, Brown, White

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Samuel DuBois Cook's interview, session 1

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Samuel DuBois Cook lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Samuel DuBois Cook describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Samuel DuBois Cook describes his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Samuel DuBois Cook describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Samuel DuBois Cook describes his father's commitment to education

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Samuel DuBois Cook remembers the strict Baptist ban on dancing

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Samuel DuBois Cook remembers the strict Christianity of Griffin, Georgia

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Samuel DuBois Cook describes his immediate family

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Samuel DuBois Cook describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Samuel DuBois Cook recalls an early experience with racism, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Samuel DuBois Cook recalls an early experience with racism, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Samuel DuBois Cook recalls his father's warning not to work for whites

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Samuel DuBois Cook remembers his education as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Samuel DuBois Cook remembers the notable figures of Cabin Creek School in Griffin, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Samuel DuBois Cook remembers the closure of Cabin Creek School

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Samuel DuBois Cook recalls a financial barrier at Spring Hill School in Griffin, Georgia

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Samuel DuBois Cook remembers his influential teacher, George Mosby [ph.]

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Samuel DuBois Cook remembers attending Griffin Vocational High School

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Samuel DuBois Cook recalls the students at his high school who attended college

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Samuel DuBois Cook remembers deciding to attend Morehouse College

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Samuel DuBois Cook recalls meeting Dr. Benjamin E. Mays

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Samuel DuBois Cook recounts memories of Dr. Benjamin E. Mays

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Samuel DuBois Cook recalls seeing Dr. Benjamin E. Mays at The Ohio State University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Samuel DuBois Cook recalls being elected student body president of Atlanta's Morehouse College

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Samuel DuBois Cook describes his classmates Bob Johnson and HistoryMaker Lerone Bennett

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Samuel DuBois Cook recalls his classmate Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Samuel DuBois Cook describes his academics at Atlanta's Morehouse College

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Samuel DuBois Cook recalls his time at Columbus' The Ohio State University

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Samuel DuBois Cook remembers the Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka decision

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Samuel DuBois Cook describes his political science dissertation

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Samuel DuBois Cook describes black academics' experience of racial discrimination in the 1950s

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Samuel DuBois Cook recalls great thinkers at Baton Rouge's Southern University, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Samuel DuBois Cook recalls great thinkers at Baton Rouge's Southern University, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Samuel DuBois Cook recalls his political involvement in Atlanta, Georgia in the 1950s

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Samuel DuBois Cook recalls Atlanta's civil rights activists

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Samuel DuBois Cook recalls his relationship with Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Samuel DuBois Cook describes the spontaneity of the Civil Rights Movement, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Samuel DuBois Cook remembers the spontaneity of the Civil Rights Movement, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Samuel DuBois Cook recalls teaching American government when the Civil Rights Act of 1964 passed

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Samuel DuBois Cook explains the necessity of legal action in the fight for civil rights

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Samuel DuBois Cook talks about Dixiecrats in the Democratic Party

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Slating of Samuel DuBois Cook's interview, session 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Samuel DuBois Cook describes civil rights activism on Atlanta's college campuses

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Samuel DuBois Cook remembers notable figures of the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Samuel DuBois Cook explains racism's relationship to religion

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Samuel DuBois Cook describes W.E.B. Dubois' legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Samuel DuBois Cook describes his academic focus

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Samuel DuBois Cook remembers becoming a professor at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Samuel DuBois Cook recalls being welcomed at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Samuel DuBois Cook reflects upon his stance on the Vietnam War

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Samuel DuBois Cook describes the classes he taught at Duke University

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Samuel DuBois Cook reflects on Lyndon Baines Johnson's presidency

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Samuel DuBois Cook recalls Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s assassination, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Samuel DuBois Cook recalls Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s assassination, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Samuel DuBois Cook recalls being honored by Duke University

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Samuel DuBois Cook remembers becoming president of New Orleans' Dillard University

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Samuel DuBois Cook remembers emulating Dr. Benjamin E. Mays as Dillard University president, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Samuel DuBois Cook remembers emulating Dr. Benjamin E. Mays as Dillard University president, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Samuel DuBois Cook describes aspects of his Dillard University presidency

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Samuel DuBois Cook describes the highlights of his Dillard University presidency

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Samuel DuBois Cook remembers his most outstanding students

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Samuel DuBois Cook describes his activities after retirement

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Samuel DuBois Cook describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community today

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Samuel DuBois Cook reflects on his life

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Samuel DuBois Cook describes his legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Samuel DuBois Cook describes his wife and children

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Samuel DuBois Cook describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Samuel DuBois Cook reflects on his successes and perseverance

DASession

1$2

DATape

3$7

DAStory

7$7

DATitle
Samuel DuBois Cook recalls meeting Dr. Benjamin E. Mays
Samuel DuBois Cook remembers becoming president of New Orleans' Dillard University
Transcript
So (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) And after having Dr. [Benjamin] Mays, you know, I was going to Morehouse [College, Atlanta, Georgia].$$Describe meeting Dr. Mays. How did you meet him and what were the circumstances?$$Now, that I can answer. On the tobacco farm. And it would have a Morehouse faculty and so forth there as supervisors and they would come up. Every summer, Dr. [B.R.] Brazeal who at that time was dean, whose daughter [Aurelia E. Brazeal] is now an ambassador to Ethiopia and so forth. (Unclear) B.R. Brazeal, distinguished economist who got a Ph.D. from Columbia University [New York, New York]. He would always come up in the summer and make a tour of all the tobacco farms that I mentioned and some that I didn't mention to see if everything was all right, and you know he was the kind of diplomat in residence temporarily. Dr. Mays would also come up to visit, so he came up to--I was at Hartman Brothers [sic. Hartman Tobacco Company] in Hazardville, Connecticut and Dr. Mays came up to visit the--his students and so forth and watch, and Dr. Mays was a great competitor, he jumped out there and was picking tobacco and so forth, but to Dr. Mays--I said and he spoke to us and I remember to this day the kind of suit and he became, not only my mentor, and when I came back to Atlanta University [Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia] to teach, but a good friend. I, I came, I was very close to him. In fact, I guess the biggest honor in my life and the most difficult task I've ever been assigned was he asked me to deliver the eulogy when he died and so forth. And when he wrote his book, 'Born to Rebel: [An Autobiography,' Benjamin E. Mays] he asked me to write the introduction and so forth. So he became just my idol, and that's why I said I think about him you know quite often. And, but I remember the suit Dr. Mays had on when, when I met him and he was going down into tobacco farm with that fine suit and so forth. But that's how I met Dr. Mays on the tobacco farm, and there's a famous pediatrician here, a Morehouse grad, Dr. Otis W. Smith. You might have interviewed him along with Dr. Clinton W. Warner [sic. HistoryMaker Clinton Warner]. And one summer, Dr. Smith and I were asked to stay on the tobacco farm two extra weeks--after all the other guys had gone, some two hundred or more had left, and we stayed there and took care of the farm, closed everything down. We were just glad for the opportunity, stay there and made some extra money and so forth. Now, he's a wealthy physician, millionaire, and he retired and, and so forth. But that's story amazing and about how I met Dr. Mays (unclear).$$Okay.$$And we became very (unclear) very good friends and when I came to Atlanta University to teach in 1956, he was in Hughes Hall, his office was down that way, mine was over here and Dr. Clements [Dr. Rufus E. Clement] was over there so, and we developed this, you know, and I saw him all the time.$Well, getting back to--now in 1974 now what happened, is this when you went to Dillard [University, New Orleans, Louisiana]?$$Yeah, 1974 is when I made the most difficult decision in my life to leave Duke [University, Durham, North Carolina] because I had planned to retire there. We had a wonderful home and we had wonderful friends and all of that, but I had to--and when Duke, not Duke, when Dillard inquired about my interests, I said, "No." I wasn't interested. They called me back in two or three months and I said, "I'm not interested. I'm committed to teaching," which is true. You know I always felt that teaching is so much more divine, and Morris R. Cohen said, than administration. I wasn't interested in being anyone's administrator (unclear). So what I didn't know was that my saying no to them accentuated their interest in, in me. They said we want someone who is not seeking the position and doesn't want it and so forth. So that is when on for some eight months and so forth before I considered even talking to them about it, and then seeing the thing and all that. Then finally talked to me about it at Duke and I was impressed, but then I went on that campus, beautiful campus and the you know the sadness now of [Hurricane] Katrina and how it destroyed, devastated the campus and I'm told, I haven't seen it. But one morning, you know they had a great architecture and beautiful greening campus. I went on that campus--and a beautiful day really--and I got a flashback of Dr. [Benjamin] Mays, Benjamin Elijah Mays, my great mentor at Morehouse [College, Atlanta, Georgia], I saw him on that campus at Morehouse, dashing from his office, from his home to his office it hurt, and I said to me, "You know, I said if I can do one-tenth for the students at Dillard that Dr. Mays did for us at Morehouse then I know that my living will not be in vain," and that changed my mind on it. When I got back to Atlanta [Georgia], I told Dr. Mays, I said, "Dr. Mays, you tricked me." He said, "What happened? You talking differently now than you talked back then." I said, "You tricked me," I said, "That flashback." And it's true. When I saw that flashback of Dr. Mays walking on the Morehouse campus, that's when I said, "Yes, sir," you know, "if you elect me president, I'll accept."

King V. Cheek, Jr.

Author and lifelong educator King Virgil Cheek was born on May 26, 1937, in Weldon, North Carolina. His father was a Baptist minister and his mother was the first black female insurance broker in North Carolina. He attended Washington Street Elementary School and became a child evangelist at twelve years old while attending Lincoln Junior High. Cheek received his high school diploma from Dudley High School in Greensboro in 1955, where he was a member of the debate team.

Recruited by his mentor, Dr. Benjamin Mayes, he attended Bates College in Lewiston, Maine, and earned his bachelor of arts degree in economics in 1959. He went on to earn his master’s degree from the University of Chicago in 1967. Cheek earned his law degree from the University of Chicago in 1969. He was active in the civil rights movement, participating in the March on Washington and passed up a number of lucrative offers to practice law and chose instead to teach at a Black college in the South.

At the age of twenty-seven, Cheek became a college dean and vice president at Shaw University, a post he held until 1969, when he was appointed president. Cheek served as president at Shaw University until 1971. That year, Cheek was named president of Morgan State University in Baltimore, Maryland, where he remained until 1974. From 1974 through 1976, he was he vice president of he Union for Experimenting Colleges and Universities; Cheek served as president of the organization from 1976-1978. His focus then shifted to leadership development; along with a colleague they developed the Center for Leadership and Career Development in Washington, D.C., in 1978. From 1985 until 1996, Cheek served in a number of posts at New York Institute of Technology including social sciences professor, dean of graduate studies and vice president of academic affairs.

From 2001 until 2003, Cheek served as the chancellor of New York College of Health Professionals. He is the author of numerous books, chapters and articles including The Quadrasoul four novels that explore four dimensions of the human spirit. He is also the recipient of innumerable awards and honors. Cheek is currently in the process of launching a new non-traditional medical school in Switzerland, the United Kingdom, China and South Africa. The “College of Integrated Medicine” will combine traditional western medicine with a holistic approach. The schools are scheduled to open in September 2005.

Accession Number

A2004.075

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/14/2004

Last Name

Cheek

Maker Category
Middle Name

Virgil

Organizations
Schools

Washington Street Elementary School

Dudley High School

Bates College

University of Chicago

Lincoln Junior High School

First Name

King

Birth City, State, Country

Weldon

HM ID

CHE02

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere for Writing

Favorite Quote

Whatever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

North Carolina

Birth Date

5/26/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Durham

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Broccoli

Short Description

University president King V. Cheek, Jr. (1937 - ) was the president of both Shaw University and Morgan State University. He is the author of numerous books, chapters and articles including, "The Quadrasoul," four novels that explore four dimensions of the human spirit.

Employment

Shaw University

Morgan State University

Union for Experimenting Colleges and Universities

New York Institute of Technology

New York College of Health Professions

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of King Cheek interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - King Cheek's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - King Cheek talks about his mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - King Cheek talks about his father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - King Cheek recalls his ancestors

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - King Cheek discusses family life during his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - King Cheek remembers sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - King Cheek recalls elementary school experiences

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - King Cheek remembers an elementary school love interest

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - King Cheek discusses his childhood aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - King Cheek talks about obtaining his first job

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - King Cheek remembers high school experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - King Cheek explains his path to Bates College and experiences there

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - King Cheek recalls his decision to attend University of Chicago

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - King Cheek tells of romantic relationships during graduate school

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - King Cheek discribes his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - King Cheek expresses his views on the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - King Cheek discusses his role as president of Shaw University

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - King Cheek talks about the differences in his experiences at Shaw University and Morgan University

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - King Cheek details his role in the Union for Experimenting Colleges and Universities consortium

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - King Cheek explains the importance of the New York Institute of Technology

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - King Cheek shares his thoughts on the current state of equality in corporate America

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - King Cheek reflects on his professional career

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - King Cheek discusses plans for a non-traditional medical college

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - King Cheek talks about his relationship with his brother

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - How King Cheek would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

2$4

DATitle
King Cheek talks about obtaining his first job
King Cheek details his role in the Union for Experimenting Colleges and Universities consortium
Transcript
Let's talk a little bit about junior high school. What was the name of your junior high school?$$It was Lincoln Junior High School [Greensboro, North Carolina].$$And what were your experiences like at Lincoln?$$Well, it--they were fun. I was, I was an adolescent. And for reasons that astound me today, I was a very silly one. I laughed a lot; don't know why, but the only arena of misconduct, I think, was, was my inclination to simply laugh at everything, which mystifies me even today when I look back on those years. But they were years of, of a real development for me because several things happened during that time. For one thing, I, I developed a real obsession with, with hard work. I would stay up all night some time to do an assignment, to take it to a level of, of real perfection; don't know why, except I just go obsessed with, with the, the expression from the Bible that, you know, quoted to you, "whatever thy hand findeth to do, do it with they might." And it was also during that period I think that I developed a lot of self awareness. It was also at that time that I went to work.$$You went to work at nine years old?$$I went to work at nine years old--.$$Tell us why?$$--in terms of my own, you know, experiences. Well, my father [King Virgil Cheek, Sr.] would chide--I was really eight. And my father confronted me one evening and told me that I couldn't go to a football game. And the reason I couldn't go was that he had learned that I and the other kids were not using the money to buy tickets. We had what we called a, a spring and fall ticket. We'd spring over the fence and fall on the ground, and we'd keep the money. And the cops would chase us until they got tired, and, and it got back to my parents. And the football game at [North Carolina] A&T [Agricultural and Technical] State University--A&T College in Greensboro, North Carolina was a Saturday event always in Greensboro. And so he was gonna punish me, and we had an argument about the meaning of right and wrong. And my position was that I was doing nothing wrong because nobody was being hurt. And my father proceeded to give me a lesson about doing good for goodness' sake, you know; that right and wrong was something inherent in the act itself. Well, I was too young to understand all that craziness. All I knew was, I wasn't hurting anybody, and since nobody was getting harmed, and since harm was not the end result, it was fine. But my father, who was an authority figure, said to me, so long as you live in this house, you don't pay rent, you eat the food I buy, you're gonna follow the rules I set. So I looked at him, and I said, "Well, suppose I paid you rent and bought my own food and clothes." And he looked at me and laughed because he thought that was crazy. So he said, "Well, you do what you want." And I said, "Shake." He shook my hand and looked at me like I was nuts. And that was the last time I took a dime from them. I went to work. I organized kids in the neighborhood and cleaned yards, and I had my own little corporation. And I earned my own money. And, and since I had already learned how to work, it was very easy to do. But I took a formal job when I was in the seventh grade, working at a theater, and the National Theater in Greensboro, North Carolina. And I went to work every evening after school from 6:00 [P.M.] to 9:30 [P.M.]. And, and to a large extent, it was more than work that, that defined my life because that was my first real incursion into a, into a peer, multicultural environment, and, because I went to work in a theater that was not integrated. Blacks or Negroes as we were called at that time, sat in balconies and whites sat on the first floor. But most of my work brought me in contact with a white world. And, and that's when my interest in, in multiculturalism began. And that's when I--because I already had a knack for studying people, I began to study that particular culture in more detail. And in my own way, when I say, more detail, using my own lesson plans in terms of understanding these, those folk, as I called them.$And, and after you left Morgan [State University, Baltimore, Maryland], tell me a little bit about your next job with Union for Experimenting [Colleges and Universities, UECU]--?$$College and Universities. Well, earlier when I was at Shaw University [Raleigh, North Carolina], I was part of a founding movement that originated and created what was known as the University Without Walls movement, the creation of a consortium of about forty-some college--forty-two colleges to be exact in the early '60s [1960s]. And I became a, a part of, of that group. And when I went to Morgan, of course, I, I took that relationship also with me. And the, the Union for Experimenting Colleges had also organized an indepen--had also organized and incorporated a university, the Union Graduate School [Cincinnati, Ohio], and the University Without Walls program at the baccalaureate level. The Union Graduate School was a Ph.D. program, non-traditional, principally oriented around attracting adult professionals who could continue their graduate education without having to interrupt their work careers, but who would use their experience or backgrounds as the foundation for the advancement of their own learning. And it was also a revolution in values. It was, in the sense that it did not conform to the traditional requirements of schooling. These were people who had more responsibility for their own learning, and it was a self-directed learning kind of environment. So I made a decision at the time when I was President of Morgan, and members of the board of trustees and the president then, who was a close friend of mine, really convinced me of the necessity for an increased black presence in that movement. There were a lot of black people who could do what I was doing at Morgan, but we needed to have a leadership presence and other dimensions of higher education. And, and at that particular time, I was one of the few who were involved in that, and I decided to make that shift and take on a leadership role in that area, and so I did it. But the other reason was that after a particular point, my presidency at Morgan--and that's a long story. I really left Morgan because I decided that the governor of the state [of Maryland] and I were on two opposite ends of the pole with regard to our value system. And, and I was asked to live a lie which I refused to do. And, so--.$$How so? What were you asked to do?$$I was asked to--the governor [Marvin Mandel] wanted to do something which they knew that I would oppose, and they simply cut a deal with me. And the deal was that they would do something for Morgan if I kept my big mouth shut. And so, what they wanted--.$$What did the governor want? Can you share that with us?$$Sure, sure. They were going to--I had a proposal into the state to convert Morgan to a university. And, and it was in the process. And so one day the executive director of the state board of education, higher education, invited me to lunch and explained to me that they, the governor had planned to make the, make the University of Baltimore [Maryland], which was then a private college, a public college. And so I asked him why did they have a need for another public college? And, you know, had they done a study, and they already were saying that no money was available to even give us what we needed, and I was advised, of course, that this was really a political decision and that he was really meeting with me because of all of the presidents, you know, in Baltimore, that I was the one most likely to open my big mouth and oppose it. So they wanted me to know that if I kept quiet, that the agenda that I had before the state of making Morgan a university would sail through, but the only thing I had to do was keep quiet. And, and one day, you know, I woke up to the insanity of all that, and again, I had to make a choice between my own value system. But in this particular case, I simply decided that--because I knew that if I didn't do what they wanted, that Morgan would not become a university, and it was in Morgan's interest to become a university. So I decided to say goodbye to them, and I left town.$$Do you ever regret that decision?$$No, I don't regret that decision because I had to make a choice between my own integrity and the politics of a situation, and I chose my integrity because I learned as a kid that if you ever give up your integrity, that's a part of your soul you can never regain. And I had to make that choice.

H. Patrick Swygert

Born on March 17, 1943, in Philadelphia, to Gustina and Leroy Huzzy, H. Patrick Swygert spent his youth and much of his adult life in his hometown. After high school, Swygert enrolled at Howard University, where he earned his B.A. degree in history in 1965. Swygert remained at Howard for law school, earning his J.D. degree with honors in 1968. Swygert served as an administrative assistant to Representative Charles Rangel before returning to his hometown. In 1972, Swygert received an assistant professorship at Temple University Law School, and later served as acting dean. Swygert then worked as counsel to the U.S. Civil Service Commission for two years prior to returning to Temple University, where he served as special counsel to the university president. Swygert then was hired on as a member of the faculty at Temple University's School of Law. During his career as a professor, Swygert worked abroad several times as a visiting lecturer; he taught law in Israel, Ghana, Egypt, Greece, and Italy, and also collaborated with the Hungarian Ministry of Higher Education.

In 1990, Swygert became president of the State University of New York at Albany and in 1995, Swygert returned to his alma mater, Howard University, to become its president.

Swygert was named Washingtonian of the Year by the Washingtonian for his leadership of the Howard University-Fannie Mae LeDroit Park Community Revitalization Project; an initiative that created forty new homes for the university's use. Swygert was also an adept fundraiser for Howard University during his tenure.

In addition to his academic duties, Swygert served as a director of Fannie Mae and the United Technologies Corporation; he also served on the boards of several agencies concerned with community development and minority higher education. President Bill Clinton appointed Swygert as chairman of one of six new branches of Business-LINC (Learning, Information, Networking and Collaboration). Swygert and his wife raised two children.

Accession Number

A2003.115

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/2/2003

Last Name

Swygert

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Patrick

Organizations
First Name

Haywood

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

SWY01

Favorite Season

None

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

3/17/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

University president H. Patrick Swygert (1943 - ) was the president of Howard University for thirteen years. Swygert was formerly president of SUNY-Albany and has taught law at Temple University.

Employment

United States House of Representatives

Temple Law School

United States Civil Service Commission

Temple University

University at Albany, State University of New York

Howard University

Favorite Color

None

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of H. Patrick Swygert interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - H. Patrick Swygert gives his mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - H. Patrick Swygert gives his father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - H. Patrick Swygert tells how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - H. Patrick Swygert talks about his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - H. Patrick Swygert recalls an early memory of his eldest sister

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - H. Patrick Swygert describes his childhood home

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - H. Patrick Swygert remembers the vibrant music scene in Philadelphia during his youth

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - H. Patrick Swygert describes his personality as a youth

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - H. Patrick Swygert explains how his parents influenced him

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - H. Patrick Swygert talks about his experiences in elementary school and middle school

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - H. Patrick Swygert explains how he was encouraged to excel scholastically

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - H. Patrick Swygert talks about being elected president of his middle school class

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - H. Patrick Swygert discusses the presence of music in his youth

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - H. Patrick Swygert talks about his multicultural upbringing

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - H. Patrick Swygert describes his aspirations following high school

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - H. Patrick Swygert remembers meeting Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - H. Patrick Swygert explains his decision to attend Howard University

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - H. Patrick Swygert describes his early opinions of Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - H. Patrick Swygert describes dealing with his father's death

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - H. Patrick Swygert expresses interest in reclaiming his youth

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - H. Patrick Swygert discusses his influential colleagues and professors at Howard University, Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - H. Patrick Swygert describes the social climate of Howard University in the early 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - H. Patrick Swygert talks about influential professors and colleagues at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - H. Patrick Swygert explains his decision to go to Howard University School of Law

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - H. Patrick Swygert talks about his research of Marcus Garvey

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - H. Patrick Swygert discusses his first year at Howard University School of Law

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - H. Patrick Swygert remembers his professors at Howard University School of Law

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - H. Patrick Swygert describes his involvement with the Ford Foundation

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - H. Patrick Swygert speaks about his summer jobs during college

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - H. Patrick Swygert discusses his experience as a law clerk to Chief Judge William Henry Hastie

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - H. Patrick Swygert talks about working at the Debevoise, Plimpton, Lyons, and Gates law firm

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - H. Patrick Swygert tells of his relationship with U.S. Congressman Charles Rangel

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - H. Patrick Swygert mentions some politicians he met in New York, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - H. Patrick Swygert summarizes his professional career

Samuel Myers

University president, education advisor and economics professor Samuel Myers was born April 18, 1919, in Baltimore, Maryland to David and Edith Myers, Jamaican immigrants. He attended the city's segregated schools, graduating from Frederick Douglass High School in 1936. He enrolled in Morgan State College, but later took a semester off in order to earn money by working on a ship. In order to address the severe poverty that he witnessed on his travels, upon his return to Morgan State, Myers decided to major in the social sciences and graduated with his A.B. degree in 1940. He then earned an M.A. from Boston University in 1942 before being drafted to serve in the U.S. Army during World War II, rising to the rank of captain. After the war, he attended Harvard University, studying under John D. Black and John Kenneth Galbraith, and earned his Ph.D. degree in economics in 1949.

Myers began his career as an economist with the Bureau of Labor Statistics at the U.S. Department of Labor in 1950. He then spent thirteen years at Morgan State College as a professor and chairman of the Social Sciences Department, where Earl Graves, Sr., the future founder of Black Enterprise, was one of his students. Myers then joined the U.S. State Department as an adviser on inter-American affairs from 1963 to 1967. As president of Bowie State University from 1967 to 1977, Myers successfully diffused a nationally-publicized 1968 student boycott, expanded the curriculum and increased student enrollment. In 1977, Myers was chosen to lead the National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education, where he helped persuade President Jimmy Carter to issue Executive Order 12232 in support of historically black colleges and lobbied Congress to pass Title III of the Higher Education Act.

From 1998, Myers served as chairman of Minority Access, an organization that seeks to recruit, retain and graduate minority students from predominantly white institutions. His numerous honors and awards include the Commandeur de L'Ordre National de Cote d Ivoire and the National Economic Association’s Samuel Z. Westerfield Award. Myers lives in Bethesda, Maryland, with his wife, Marion, and has three adult children, Yvette, Tama and Samuel.

Samuel Myers was interviewed by TheHistoryMakers on September 16, 2003.

Accession Number

A2003.228

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/16/2003

Last Name

Myers

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Organizations
Schools

Booker T. Washington Elementary School

Benjamin Bannekar Junior High School

Frederick Douglass High School

Morgan State University

Boston University

Harvard University

First Name

Samuel

Birth City, State, Country

Baltimore

HM ID

MYE01

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Maryland

Favorite Vacation Destination

Florida

Favorite Quote

Set Goals And Succeed.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

4/18/1919

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Gumbo (New Orleans)

Short Description

University president, economics professor, and education advisor Samuel Myers (1919 - ) is the former president of Bowie State University. He served as president of the National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education, where he helped ensure the passage of Title III of the Higher Education Act of 1965.

Employment

United States Bureau of Labor Statistics

Morgan State University

United States Department of State

Bowie State University

National Association for Opportunity in Higher Education

Minority Access Inc.

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:6740,94:12315,207:13420,223:20550,258:37230,373:37815,379:38283,384:48640,514:49858,533:60540,659:107842,1169:113071,1273:117553,1354:136458,1518:137122,1528:167500,1889:179306,1933:180442,1943:224780,2267:225290,2274:229030,2332:240890,2475:256870,2713:259580,2719$0,0:3060,49:3420,54:18435,342:22635,425:24135,456:25410,477:29085,554:30360,577:30660,582:38010,616:53060,813:63622,978:64126,985:64966,1040:75062,1146:76948,1170:154390,2229
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Samuel Myers' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Samuel Myers lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Samuel Myers talks about his Jamaican family heritage

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Samuel Myers describes why his parents migrated to the United States

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Samuel Myers describes his family's participation in the West Indian community in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Samuel Myers talks about growing up in Baltimore, Maryland and his teachers at Frederick Douglass High School

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Samuel Myers describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Samuel Myers describes his school experience in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Samuel Myers describes his favorite subjects in school and talks about passing a French exam at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Samuel Myers talks about his siblings and his activities at Frederick Douglass High School in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Samuel Myers talks about the Great Depression and his family's political affiliation in the 1930s

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Samuel Myers describes his decision to attend Morgan State University in Baltimore, Maryland and how he was able to afford it

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Samuel Myers describes his trip to India in 1937, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Samuel Myers describes his trip to India during in 1937, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Samuel Myers talks about his experience at Morgan State University in Baltimore, Maryland

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Samuel Myers describes deciding to attend Boston University in Boston, Massachusetts and, later, Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Samuel Myers talks about being drafted for World War II and attending Officer's Candidate School [OCS]

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Samuel Myers describes his experience with racial discrimination in the U.S. Army during World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Samuel Myers talks about meeting his wife while in New Orleans, Louisiana with the U.S. Army

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Samuel Myers recalls his duties in the Pacific in the U.S. Army during World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Samuel Myers reflects on his decision to leave the U.S. Army

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Samuel Myers describes studying under John D. Black and John Kenneth Galbraith at Harvard University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Samuel Myers describes economist John Kenneth Galbraith

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Samuel Myers talks about Gottfried Haberler and Joseph A. Schumpeter at Harvard University

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Samuel Myers talks about teaching at Morgan State University and HistoryMaker Earl G. Graves, Sr.

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Samuel Myers talks about leaving Morgan State University for the U.S. State Department

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Samuel Myers explains the history of Bowie State University in Bowie, Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Samuel Myers describes the changes he made as President of Bowie State University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Samuel Myers talks about the 1968 student protests at Bowie State University in Bowie, Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Samuel Myers recalls joining the student protesters at Bowie State University and the changing demographics of the university

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Samuel Myers describes the National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education (NAFEO), pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Samuel Myers describes the National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education (NAFEO), pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Samuel Myers describes becoming chairman of Minority Access, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Samuel Myers describes the initiatives of Minority Access, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Samuel Myers describes his hopes for the African American community and reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Samuel Myers considers what he would have done differently in his life and describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$2

DAStory

8$4

DATitle
Samuel Myers talks about Gottfried Haberler and Joseph A. Schumpeter at Harvard University
Samuel Myers describes his decision to attend Morgan State University in Baltimore, Maryland and how he was able to afford it
Transcript
So the work was--more was--you didn't find it very difficult. I mean you--$$Well, no. Well, well no Harvard [University, Cambridge, Massachusetts] was very difficult. But the--and I frequently mention to people that the difficulty for me and again I went through, I think I--with all A's. So, so I was able to move through. So I had no academic adversities. But, but there were people who were considered to be some of the greats in our society, one man named [Gottfried] Haberler in international trade was preaching a lot of things that only now people are coming around to. An even greater person was [Joseph] Schumpeter, who advanced some theories about economic development that now are considered to be out on the cutting edge. But they--$$How, how do you spell his name? I'm sorry.$$S-C-H-U-M-P-E-T-E-R.$$Okay.$$S-C-H-U-M-P-E-T-E-R.$$Okay.$$Joseph A. Schumpeter. He, he had a theory of economic development and a matter of how things become of obsolete and how you keep going and so I'm saying that I was saying great, great people. But, but for me, they--one was from Austria and, and indeed perhaps they were top world class people who came here in order to avoid [Adolph] Hitler. But the point is I understand that Harvard had a whole boatload of the best minds in the world coming because of the persecution in Europe. But it was extremely difficult to understand him for me in terms of the language and the like. Now in time it mattered not, but and--but it required trying to break through, what were they saying, what were they--and it required digging and digging and doing even more extensive reading that I could understand, than just getting it from the lectures. But I went back and it worked out, it worked out well. At the end, I was scheduled, had finished all of my work in 1949. Finished all of the requirements for the degree and had finished the dissertation. And when the fellowships for which Dr. Black, John D. Black, had recommended me, all of the came through at once. Got one from the [U.S.] Department of Agriculture, got one from the Rosenwald Fund, and a third one from the Rockefeller Foundation. And all of them came through. And so I did what I think many people not even thought of doing, in that I delayed really getting the degree in order to take advan--and then to go back and really dig into the kinds of study to understand all that I'd done. So I spent an additional year. And then I--Dr. Black wanted me, recommended and I was accepted, to become an economist at the Bureau of Labor Statistics. So I--after the semester ended, I left. But then--$$So you were, you were there a couple of years you said?$$No, I stay, stayed there only half a year--$So when you were on the verge of graduating from high school [at Frederick Douglass High School, Baltimore, Maryland], did you know that you were going to college or where you were going? Did you know?$$Yes.$$Okay.$$My brother was brighter than I and he was a brilliant student himself, even though I was a good student. And he had gone to college before me. So he had paved the way. So there was a very--it was just the expectation that I would go to college. And again, because he paved the way and people assumed that I was a good student, there were scholarships that were available to pay the way to go to college. So that--there was no question about whether. I mean it was just a matter of when I would go. And I looked forward to that. And as I've also indicated, I was the renegade in the whole class because there were--we had to pay our way to go to Morgan [State University, Baltimore, Maryland], even though I told you I was able to get scholarships. But Coppin State College [later, University, Baltimore, Maryland] which was the, or perhaps it was the normal school at that time, was free. Not only was it free, but the person could be assured that once they finished, they would step into a teaching position and so to have a job ahead. In liberal arts college, you come out and you have to begin searching and so on. But in spite of that, I knew I was going to college and I have never regretted that.$$Okay. So, so you didn't go to Coppin [State University, Baltimore, Maryland], but you went to--$$Morgan.$$Morgan State [University, Baltimore, Maryland].$$Yes.$$And you all had to pay, you had to pay some sort of tuition?$$That's correct, yes. But I was able to get scholarships. Plus I indicated to you that I was--my father [David Elcanah Myers] provided--was able to arrange for us to get employment and so we were able to work on the ship during the summer. And that, that opened, opened just, just whole new avenues for us. We--I was number one in my freshman class at Morgan. And I had the--received again at that time, parents aspired for their youngsters to be physicians. So I just knew I was gonna be in pre-med. Excelled in, I got the prize as the leading student in chemistry.

Charlene Drew Jarvis

Charlene Drew Jarvis was born in Washington, D.C., on July 31, 1941. The second of four children, her mother was an economist and her father, Dr. Charles Drew, was the noted blood bank pioneer. After graduating from Roosevelt High School in 1958, Jarvis earned her B.A. from Oberlin College in 1962. She went on to Howard University to earn her M.S. in 1964, and in 1971 she earned her Ph.D. from the University of Maryland.

Jarvis began her career in 1965 as a pre-doctoral fellow at the National Institute of Mental Health, and after earning her Ph.D. she remained there as a research scientist until 1978. The following year, Jarvis was elected to the City Council of the District of Columbia, where she served for twenty-one years. While there, she chaired the Committee on Economic Development during a citywide financial crisis. She introduced legislation that brought in the new Convention Center and the MCI Center, current home of the Washington Wizards and Washington Capitals. In 1996, Jarvis was named president of Southeastern University in Washington, D.C., the first woman to hold the position. She gave up her seat on the City Council in 2000 to devote her energies solely to the university. Under her leadership, Southeastern has strengthened its curriculum and partnered with a number of local organizations, such as the Greater Washington Society of Certified Public Accountants, to support professional development of the students.

Active in both education and the community, Jarvis has received numerous honors. She is the recipient of the 2002 Brotherhood-Sisterhood Award from the National Conference of Community and Justice, the Ibero Chamber of Commerce Community Service Award, and numerous honorary degrees. Jarvis serves on the Executive Committee of the Federal City Council and is a past chairperson of the District of Columbia Chamber of Commerce. She is also active with the American Association of University Women and serves on the board of the National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities. Jarvis has also been listed in numerous editions of Who's Who, including Who's Who in the World and Who's Who Among African Americans. She has two sons and two grandsons.

Accession Number

A2003.131

Sex

Female

Interview Date

6/13/2003

Last Name

Jarvis

Maker Category
Middle Name

Drew

Organizations
Schools

Theodore Roosevelt Senior High School

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Any

First Name

Charlene

Birth City, State, Country

Washington

HM ID

JAR03

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

All

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - $1,000 - $5,000

Favorite Season

Spring

Speaker Bureau Notes

Honorarium Specifics: $2000-5000

Preferred Audience: All

State

District of Columbia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Annapolis, Maryland

Favorite Quote

Let's Just Get It Done.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

7/31/1941

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Sausage

Short Description

University president Charlene Drew Jarvis (1941 - ) was the president of Southeastern University and was a member of Washington, D.C. City Council for twenty-one years.

Employment

National Institute of Mental Health (NIH)

Council of the District of Columbia

Southeastern University

Favorite Color

Bright Colors

Timing Pairs
0,0:3978,66:4594,74:6970,110:8378,126:8994,134:14482,176:17294,213:18054,229:20258,251:20790,260:21322,269:22462,286:22918,293:23222,298:33250,360:33735,366:38100,408:40331,429:41301,441:53578,571:53886,576:55195,599:66052,756:73670,802:74210,813:74750,823:79018,879:80922,902:83982,967:85206,989:85614,999:86090,1007:88266,1043:98802,1200:99418,1205:103530,1249:108028,1281:116332,1361:116680,1366:119290,1410:119899,1417:126666,1506:128470,1516:129023,1525:129813,1538:132499,1587:134395,1621:135264,1633:137950,1692:146362,1764:146634,1769:148334,1790:150170,1820:150442,1825:152278,1862:156766,1968:169428,2100:170598,2118:175356,2185:180750,2216:182156,2233:184598,2261:186300,2291:187632,2314:195960,2403$0,0:18722,261:21645,306:34965,435:37290,458:37815,466:39090,487:40065,503:44040,563:55965,685:67900,847:68566,857:71230,902:75966,1009:78038,1055:78630,1064:83894,1083:84982,1112:85494,1121:87130,1127:89920,1170:96850,1298:97750,1309:98290,1316:98650,1321:104868,1358:113220,1458:117972,1483:120060,1514:122700,1535:126270,1589:127040,1602:133100,1704:133865,1714:158267,2054:161178,2104:161817,2114:174592,2279:179417,2343:182540,2392
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Charlene Drew Jarvis' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Charlene Drew Jarvis lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Charlene Drew Jarvis describes her family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Charlene Drew Jarvis talks about her grandmother, Nora Burrell

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Charlene Drew Jarvis describes her father, Dr. Charles Drew

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Charlene Drew Jarvis talks about her father, Charles Drew's medical career

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Charlene Drew Jarvis talks about the controversy over the Blood for Britain project

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Charlene Drew Jarvis describes Dr. Charles Drew's dedication to his medical students

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Charlene Drew Jarvis talks about her father's death in 1950

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Charlene Drew Jarvis shares memories of her father, Dr. Charles Drew

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Charlene Drew Jarvis describes her mother, Lenore Robbins Drew

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Charlene Drew Jarvis talks about how her father's death impacted her mother

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Charlene Drew Jarvis talks about her mother's education

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Charlene Drew Jarvis describes the sights, sounds, and smells of Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Charlene Drew Jarvis remembers the impact of Brown v. Board of Education in 1954

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Charlene Drew Jarvis remembers the day that her father, Dr. Charles Drew, died

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Charlene Drew Jarvis describes her childhood memories, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Charlene Drew Jarvis describes her childhood memories, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Charlene Drew Jarvis describes attending Mott Elementary School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Charlene Drew Jarvis remembers her favorite teachers

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Charlene Drew Jarvis describes attending Benjamin Banneker Middle School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Charlene Drew Jarvis describes attending Theodore Roosevelt High School in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Charlene Drew Jarvis talks about attending Oberlin College in Oberlin, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Charlene Drew Jarvis describes getting married in college

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Charlene Drew Jarvis recalls earning her Ph.D at the University of Maryland

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Charlene Drew Jarvis describes her career in neuropsychology

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Charlene Drew Jarvis remembers learning about Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Charlene Drew Jarvis recalls why she became politically active

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Charlene Drew Jarvis describes running for a position on the Washington, D.C. City Council

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Charlene Drew Jarvis talks about Washington, D.C. Mayor Marion Barry

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Charlene Drew Jarvis describes contentious issues in the Washington, D.C. City Council

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Charlene Drew Jarvis recalls her accomplishments while serving on Washington, D.C.'s City Council

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Charlene Drew Jarvis talks about becoming the president of Southeastern University

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Charlene Drew Jarvis describes managing her busy career

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Charlene Drew Jarvis describes her hopes and concerns for the black community

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Charlene Drew Jarvis reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Charlene Drew Jarvis describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Charlene Drew Jarvis narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$4

DAStory

6$3

DATitle
Charlene Drew Jarvis talks about her father, Charles Drew's medical career
Charlene Drew Jarvis recalls why she became politically active
Transcript
He [her father, Dr. Charles Drew] went on to McGill University to medical school in [Montreal] Canada and was successful as a medical school student. And I recently was given information by someone who was doing research at the Julius Rosenwald Fund that his last two years in medical school were supported by that fund. That would have been 1932 and 1933. Years later, in 1948, when the Julius Rosenwald Fund was essentially closing its doors, he wrote a letter to them and said that the value of a benefactor, and I'm paraphrasing, is not to be underestimated. And that because of the support that they had given, given him in medical, he was committing himself to the care of the sick and dying, and to try to bring joy and not pain to the lives of people that he touched, and to also teach, to expand the knowledge base of those who would come behind him. And he had an opportunity to do that after he went to New York to the Columbia, Columbia Presbyterian Hospital and earned a Doctor of Science degree, which is essentially a PhD, from Columbia Presbyterian--from Columbia--having done his research at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital in New York, where he did his thesis on banked blood. That thesis was the origin of the identification that we now have with Dr. Drew, that he discovered a way of preserving blood in the form of plasma, which saved many thousands of lives, and particularly in the Second World War. Because of the work which he did, he was asked to head the Blood for Britain project. That was after he had left Columbia Presbyterian Hospital and Columbia University and had come to Howard University, where he took on the role of the head of the Department of Surgery. In 1941 he was asked to head the Blood for Britain project to make sure that plasma was getting to the battlefield to make sure lives were being saved. And of course, whole red blood requires refrigeration and it deteriorates; and of course, it goes without saying that there's no refrigeration on the battlefield, at least there was not then. There was also no need to type blood, so it was not necessary for the donor and the donee to have a compatible blood type in order for a transfusion to occur. Plasma, therefore, was a really important lifesaving substance, and it came as the result of the research which my father did of course with mentors at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital in New York.$And in ten years, there was almost no rebuilding of our neighborhood commercial corridors. And I was very concerned and felt somewhat guilty that I was in this ivory tower environment while our, our city had not been rebuilt. And I thought, well, at the very least, what I could do is be involved in the politics of the city and help to elect people who cared about that and would begin really to focus on that rebuilding. So I got interested in the 1978 mayor's race. It was a very interesting and tight race. And the eventual winner by a very, very slight margin was Marion Barry. Because I had gotten very interested in the substantive matters of government, the production of housing, the economic revival of the city, and because I had been able to articulate and speak on behalf of the candidate, and because during that election also, Arrington Dixon, who was the chair, rather who was the head of the ward, Ward 4, went on to be chairman, there was a vacancy created. And there were a number of people who came to me and asked me if I would consider running for public office, and I said no. I've spent 10 years training, and now I have spent another ten years at NIH [National Institute of Health], and no. But I really thought about it. And I really thought, well, do I waste my scientific skills just because I don't do what I originally intended to do in terms of the visual system. And I decided again no, that science is a discipline that addresses in a very systematic way the solution to problems. And I was interested in addressing in a very systematic way the solutions to these problems, so I thought I could really transfer the skills that I developed. So I decided to do something that was very risky, and to run for public office, having never run for public office before, and, and in a field of about fifteen candidates, in a community in which, you know, I was certain to be castigated for wanting to jump to the top, if you will, without having gone through the discipline of a local grassroots politics. It was an interesting and tough race. I had the support of Arrington Dixon and his wife, who then became mayor of the District of Columbia, Sharon Pratt, and won the seat, and in a year was named to what was a powerful committee, the chair of the Committee on Economic Development. And so I had a chance to do exactly what it was that I intended.

Freeman Hrabowski

Paving the way for African Americans of the future, Freeman Hrabowski III was born in Birmingham, Alabama, on August 13, 1950. After graduating from high school at the age of sixteen, Hrabowski went on to attend the Hampton Institute and spent a year studying at the American University in Cairo, Egypt. After earning his B.A. in mathematics in 1970, Hrabowski attended the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, earning an M.A. in 1971 and a Ph.D. in higher education administration in 1975.

Growing up in racially divisive Birmingham, Hrabowski was involved at an early age in the civil rights movement. He participated in Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s children's crusade and was arrested. He also knew one of the young girls killed in the Birmingham church bombing of 1963. Hrabowski also noted that many of his classmates did not excel the way he did with mathematics, and by the time he entered the University of Illinois he was the only black student in his classes. Curious and inspired, Hrabowski established a tutoring center for African Americans in high school and college math and science courses.

After earning his Ph.D., Hrabowski remained at the University of Illinois for a year as an assistant professor and the assistant dean of student services. From there, he was hired by Alabama A&M University as the associate dean of graduate studies and an associate professor of statistics. In 1977, Hrabowski took a position at Coppin State College in Maryland as a professor of math and dean of arts and sciences. By 1981, he had been named vice president for academic affairs, where he remained another six years. Hrabowski went to the nearby University of Maryland, Baltimore County, in 1987 as vice provost, and he remains there today as president.

Under Hrabowski's leadership, the Meyerhoff Scholarship was established, originally to help African American males that already excelled in math and science do even better. Today, the program is open to all who excel in these areas, and Hrabowski has plans to increase the program and expand his school even more.

A true leader, Hrabowski is involved in a number of organizations, serving on the boards of groups such as the American Association of Colleges & Universities, the Baltimore Community Foundation and McCormick & Company. He has also co-written two books and numerous articles for journals. Hrabowski has received the Council on Chemical Research Diversity Award and the Outstanding Science Educator Award from Eli Lilly & Company, among many others. He and his wife, Jacqueline, have one son.

Accession Number

A2003.163

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/21/2003

Last Name

Hrabowski

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Organizations
Schools

Shields Elementary School

Ullman High School

Hampton University

University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign

Speakers Bureau

No

First Name

Freeman

Birth City, State, Country

Birmingham

HM ID

HRA01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hilton Head, South Carolina

Favorite Quote

Success Is Never Final.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Maryland

Birth Date

8/13/1950

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Baltimore

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Crab, Shrimp, Lobster

Short Description

University president Freeman Hrabowski (1950 - ) was the president of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, where he created scholarship and programs to encourage young African Americans to pursue math and science.

Employment

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

Alabama A&M State University

Coppin State University

University of Maryland, Baltimore County

Favorite Color

Black

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Freeman Hrabowski's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Freeman Hrabowski lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Freeman Hrabowski describes his maternal family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Freeman Hrabowski talks about his cousin, Ola Scroggins

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Freeman Hrabowski talks about his cousins, Ola Scroggins and Nick Aaron Ford

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Freeman Hrabowski talks about his mother, Maggie Geeter Hrabowski, who was a teacher

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Freeman Hrabowski talks about his father

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Freeman Hrabowski talks about his parents' jobs

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Freeman Hrabowski describes the two black neighborhoods in Birmingham, Alabama, Smithfield and Titusville

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Freeman Hrabowski talks about class and color divisions within the African American community

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Freeman Hrabowski describes his mother's resolve to become a teacher

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Freeman Hrabowski describes his childhood memories and his parents care for the elderly

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Freeman Hrabowski talks about his elementary school experience

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Freeman Hrabowski describes his childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Freeman Hrabowski talks about racism in Alabama as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Freeman Hrabowski describes his determination to participate in the Birmingham Children's Crusade in 1963, pt.1

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Freeman Hrabowski describes his determination to participate in the Birmingham Children's Crusade in 1963, pt.2

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Freeman Hrabowski describes his experience of integrated education in the North

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Freeman Hrabowski talks about the Hampton Institute in Hampton, Virginia and his teachers there

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Freeman Hrabowski talks about his study abroad experience in Egypt

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Freeman Hrabowski describes his experience in Egypt where he met Shirley Graham Du Bois

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Freeman Hrabowski talks about the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Freeman Hrabowski talks about the impact of his father's terminal illness

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Freeman Hrabowski talks about his doctoral studies

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Freeman Hrabowski talks about Samuel Massie and supporting African American students in the math and sciences

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Freeman Hrabowski describes his career in academic administration and his work at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC)

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Freeman Hrabowski talks about his two books and interacting with young black men

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Freeman Hrabowski talks about the Choice Program for at-risk kids at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Freeman Hrabowski talks about his books and what he discovered about success

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Freeman Hrabowski describes the problematic portrayal of African Americans in the media

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Freeman Hrabowski describes his desire to foster the growth of African American children

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Freeman Hrabowski describes his hopes and concerns for the black community

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Freeman Hrabowski describes his philosophy of education

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Freeman Hrabowski identifies his honors

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Freeman Hrabowski reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Freeman Hrabowski describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

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DATitle
Freeman Hrabowski describes his determination to participate in the Birmingham Children's Crusade in 1963, pt.2
Freeman Hrabowski describes his career in academic administration and his work at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC)
Transcript
I don't know, I don't know what pushed me to go, other than it just seemed I had no choice, I was supposed to go. I saw those other little children going, and I knew that all of my friends from the advantaged neighborhood with the exception of... there was one guy who's dad was a doctor. I saw him in the front, and I was so impressed that he had gone. He had just gotten in the Honor Society, and I was so impressed. I remember that; his name was James Stewart. And I saw him, then I said, "Mm." And it always helps to see somebody you know. You know, and I said, "I can do this." And so, they came in late that night and they... it was obvious they had been talking and crying themselves. They were worried about me, but they let me go. So, I immediately started going for the training that next day. And I went and stayed five days, a horrible five days. People were horrible. The adults worked to get the little kids who were there for the bad things--the stealing--and the rough kids to do things that were abusive in all possible ways. It was awful. I was very lucky to have... There was a guy who was in there for the bad reasons, but he knew my family, and that was really nice, and supported and helped me out. I'll never forget. He helped me, protected me, and I was working with him on his reading at night, the Bible. Isn't that something?$$It is.$$That's something. But to show you how life goes, within a matter of three months of our getting out, he got out, and he had been killed. That was during the time when they had the stabbings. You didn't have guns, you had switchblades.$$He was stabbed in the black community?$$Oh, yeah, switchblades. That was the thing. If you had a switchblade, you're really cool. And I did not have one. I was a fat little nerd. Now, don't miss my point. (Laughter). No, but I was saying the bad boys would have little switchblades, you know. But no, it was an experience. It taught me the power of the individual to make a difference, and to make choices. I tell children that story all the time--that even when you're twelve and thirteen, you can make choices. You know, and it taught me a lot about it. And it led to my developing my leadership skills. And when people ask me, "How'd you become who you are today?" I go all the way back to that experience in having a chance to look at how others were leading groups--very important.$After finishing grad school? I had experience in grad school of working in a program called Upward Bound, which also helped me to understand the impact of poverty on education and the challenge we faced with helping kids who had not been from educated homes to get what they get need. And I focused... again, I go back to what I talked about earlier--the reading skills, computing skills, thinking skills, and the values--focusing on hard work. And that's, that's driven what I've done throughout my career from working... teaching statistics... and being an Associate Dean at Alabama A&M University [Huntsville, Alabama] to talking in some... in several places about wanting to have a chance to experiment with education and poverty at the college level, and getting a chance to become a dean at twenty-six at Coppin State [Baltimore, Maryland]; and focusing on building the math and reading skills of students; and being supportive of returning women who were coming back with the right attitude; and coming to understand what it takes to remediate deficiencies--but the importance of focusing on the strengths of people, and understanding how much somebody who has children already brings to the table. And when she comes back to school, she's more motivated than the typical seventeen or eighteen-year-old, and how we need to be focusing on that population of people who had experiences--men or women who have had life experiences and who really know what they want now. They, they have the motivation, if you can give them the support, to do all kinds of things. And so we work with a lot of returning students, which was very helpful. And then finally coming... and I stayed there ten years as Dean, and then as Academic Vice President. And then I moved here [University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC)] seventeen years ago almost, 1987, sixteen years ago, and served as Vice Provost, responsible for the academic strengths of undergraduates, and then Executive Vice President. And for the past eleven years as President. And we've worked to develop this campus into what Newsweek and the Times of London have both called an academic powerhouse. It's a place that's moving towards a $100 million in research, without a medical school, focusing on bio-technology and photonics in computing areas, with a reputation for chess... national chess champions for--$$American championship?$$Yes, that's exactly right. Yes, with an African-American called the Terminator, who's been one of the best we've ever had.$$The Terminator?$$The Terminator. He plays just that way, he's powerful. He's ruthless. (Laughter). We have a reputation for recruiting and educating large numbers of very high achieving students in science, engineering, and policy areas--a strongly large core with major partnerships with the best campuses, not only in this country, but beyond, with lots of students to go on to institutions in other countries for example. And so, this has been by far the richest professional experience of my career.