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Yanick Rice-Lamb

Editor, publisher and professor Yanick Rice Lamb was born on September 27, 1957 in Akron, Ohio to William R. Rice and Carmelie Jordan. Lamb graduated from Buchtel High School in Akron in 1976. She went on to receive her B.A. degree in journalism from Ohio State University in 1980.

Upon graduation, Lamb was hired as a copy editor at the Toledo Blade, where she was promoted to reporter in 1982. Lamb then worked for the Journal-Constitution in Atlanta, Georgia, as a copy editor until 1984, when she was hired as a layout editor for the New York Times. While employed at the New York Times, Lamb worked in various capacities, including deputy home and living editor, assistant editor of the Connecticut Weekly, and metropolitan copy editor. Then, in 1992, she became a senior editor for Child Magazine, serving two years. She was then hired as an editor-at-large at Essence Magazine in 1994. From 1995 until 2000, Lamb served as editor-in-chief, editorial director, and vice president at Black Entertainment Television. At BET, she was responsible for editorial management of BET Weekend, for which she was founding editor, as well as BET Publishing Group’s Heart & Soul. Lamb worked at Vanguarde Media, Incorporated, as editor-in-chief from 2000 to 2001. She was then hired as a journalism lecturer at Howard University in 2001, and was later promoted to associate professor. After receiving her M.B.A. degree from Howard University in 2005, she became the associate publisher and editorial director of Heart & Soul, where she served until 2011. In 2010, Lamb co-founded Fully-Connected.com, a website that connects people from Atlanta to Accra through interactive journalism and social networking. She also co-founded FierceforBlackWomen.com in 2013. Lamb continued to teach at Howard University, serving as chair of the Department of Media, Journalism and Film since 2013.

Lamb has co-authored three books: 1996’s The Spirit of African Design, 2004’s Born to Win: The Authorized Biography of Althea Gibson, and 2005’s Rise and Fly: Tall Tales and Mostly True Rules of Bid Whist. She has also received numerous awards, including the Folio: Editorial Excellence Award and the McDonald's Black History Maker of Today Award in Journalism. Lamb was also honored at the NABJ Salute to Excellence Awards; and she has served twice as president of the New York Association of Black Journalists. In addition, the Association of Health Care Journalists selected Lamb as a Health Performance Fellow in 2010; and, in 2013, she became the John A. Hartford/MetLife Foundation Journalism in Aging & Health Fellow.

Yanick Rice Lamb was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 23, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.275

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/23/2013

Last Name

Rice-Lamb

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

Buchtel High School

The Ohio State University

Howard University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Yanick

Birth City, State, Country

Akron

HM ID

RIC18

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

Lamu, Kenya

Favorite Quote

Dream big

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

9/27/1957

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Shrimp

Short Description

Magazine editor Yanick Rice-Lamb (1957 - ) , founding editor of BET Weekend, is the co-author of three books: The Spirit of African Design, Born to Win: The Authorized Biography of Althea Gibson, and Rise and Fly: Tall Tales and Mostly True Rules of Bid Whist.

Employment

Toledo Blade

Journal-Constitution

New York Times

Child Magazine

Essence Magazine

BET

Vanguarde Media, Inc.

Howard University

Heart and Soul Magazine

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Yanick Rice-Lamb narrates her photographs

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Slating of Yanick Rice-Lamb's interview

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Yanick Rice-Lamb lists her favorites

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about her mother's family background and life in Haiti pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about her mother's family background and life in Haiti pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Yanick Rice-Lamb describes her father's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Yanick Rice-Lamb describes how her parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about her father's educational background and teaching career

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Yanick Rice-Lamb describes her parents' personalities

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Yanick Rice-Lamb describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about growing up in a Haitian household in a diverse neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about her family's religious background

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Yanick Rice-Lamb briefly talks about going to Catholic schools

Tape: 2 Story: 14 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about her family's living near the Akron Zoo in Akron, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 15 - Yanick Rice-Lamb describes her childhood interests, favorite subjects and teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 16 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about how her interest in writing was influenced by the comic strip Brenda Starr and others

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about some black journalists that served as role models in the 1970s

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about her high school achievements and experiences

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Yanick Rice-Lamb describes her experiences at Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about her mentors at Ohio State University and newspapers she worked for as a student

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Yanick Rice-Lamb describes her first internship and expectations for black students at Ohio State University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Yanick Rice-Lamb recounts her experiences as an intern at the 'Reader's Digest' and 'The Times Union'

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about her experiences as a general assignment reporter at 'The Toledo Blade'

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Yanick Rice-Lamb recounts her first day as a reporter for 'The Toledo Blade'

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about 'The Toledo Blade' staff and her mentors in Toledo, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about being hired at 'The Atlanta Journal Constitution'

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about her experiences in Atlanta, Georgia during her time at 'The Atlanta Journal Constitution' in the early 1980s

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about her experiences at 'The New York Times' and her professional mentors

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about transitioning from newspaper journalism to magazine journalism

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Yanick Rice-Lamb describes her most memorable project at 'The New York Times'

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about the mentors she had while working at 'The New York Times,' as well as difficult situations she faced at the paper

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Yanick Rice-Lamb discusses her work with 'Child' magazine and the differences between publishing a newspaper and a magazine

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Yanick Rice-Lamb describes memorable stories she worked on at 'Child' magazine

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about her transition from 'Child' magazine to 'Essence,' and on to 'BET Weekend' in the mid-1990s

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about developing the 'BET Weekend' magazine and her philosophy for magazine production

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about criticism Black Entertainment Television has faced over its programming content

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Yanick Rice-Lamb describes innovative television and print content BET has tried to produce

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about her transition from 'BET Weekend' to teaching at Howard University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about her work with 'Heart and Soul' magazine

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about memorable stories from 'BET Weekend' and 'Heart and Soul' magazines

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Yanick Rice-Lamb mentions milestones of her career from 1998 to 2011, including writing her first book

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about writing Born to Win, a biography of Althea Gibson, with Fran Gray

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks Althea Gibson's life and career

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about writing and promoting her book Rise and Fly

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about her Aunt Rose, a relative who influenced her and whom Rice-Lamb wrote about

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about working on her coffee table book, The Spirit of African Design

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about articles she has written on teaching media and the history of newspaper supplements

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about her coverage of the 2012 Supreme Court ruling on the Affordable Care Act

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about her professional association memberships

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about her personal philosophy on teaching and journalism

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Yanick Rice-Lamb reflects upon her career and legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about her family and how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

9$9

DATitle
Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about developing the 'BET Weekend' magazine and her philosophy for magazine production
Yanick Rice-Lamb talks about articles she has written on teaching media and the history of newspaper supplements
Transcript
Well, tell us about BET's [Black Entertainment Television] magazine. (Unclear)--$$That was fun. That was probably one of my most enjoyable jobs. I, I like starting things, and I had always wanted to start a magazine since I was in college, so it gave me the opportunity to start a magazine with someone else's money (laughter). But I figured whoever did the prototype, if they liked it, that, that person would get the job, so I wasn't gonna let go of the prototype, you know, developed it--you know, the different ideas I had-- Bob Johnson in, in particular, and I've worked with Debra Lee. They were particularly interested in my Style background at the 'New York Times' and some of the things I did there, and just kind of the diversity of doing news and Style and Entertainment and bringing that together. So I kind of help develop the concept for the magazine, and it was--it took off; it was a hit. Readers really loved it. The papers liked carrying it. We traveled around the different newspapers to negotiate them picking up the newspaper and inserting it in their magazine. We had to pay--I mean their newspaper--we had to pay for that of course, but just like building something from the ground up, coming up with a concept, hiring a staff, finding the writers, setting up, you know, photo shoots, and thinking about paper and--you know, just all the different things that go into it. And it was kind of a way of pulling in everything I had done, you know, from the copy editing, reporting, from the design and layout, and all of that in, in one place, and then reacting to news or thinking long term about how we were gonna do things too so. And we--our circulation grew in three years from eight--800,000 to 1.3 million, so we were the second largest publication behind 'Ebony.'$$What, what's your philosophy in, in terms of layout of a magazine, you know, in terms of what, what, what should the--should be the--what, what the cover should be like and what the--$$One, one of the things--because we were working with the newspaper initially, they were kind of content with doing something on news print. But we felt that--you know, thinking about how African Americans do things, we like top shelf this and that. We wanted to have magazine quality publication, so we wanted to make sure that we went after some of the people who were popular or pioneering at the time, whether it was Toni Morrison or Dr. Ben Carson, or whether it was Denzel Washington or you know, an Olympian at the time. So we wanted to be topical, we wanted to try to be as fresh as--you know, first if possible with the information. We wanted to use some of the best photographers, the best writers, have a really nice design for the time--you know, make it interesting, telling people something they didn't already know. And that was my criteria when people pitched stories to me. It's like I read a lot of things. I keep up with things. Tell me something I don't already know. You know, tell me a new angle on this, a new twist on this. So we wanted to--we wanted to give the audience something they hadn't been getting so. And I think that's why people were receptive to it, because they were seeing stories that they weren't seeing in other places, that they weren't seeing in their newspapers so. Some people said it was a breath of fresh air when they picked up their newspaper and they pulled out 'BET Weekend.'$Okay, now the, the book 'Teaching Converged Media through News Coverage of the 2--2--2008 Presidential Election.' Now this is--I think it's the first election that was won where--$$Obama [President Barack Obama].$$--where the media was used in the campaign, social media.$$Yes.$$Yeah.$$This--so this was a--this was a journal article that we did. We had one of the largest news teams covering the election, with students. 'Cause we had almost the entire department. We--there were students who were excused from their classes for the 2008 election, and, and then again for the inauguration. And we had them at precincts all over the region also--all over Washington, D.C., all over northern Virginia, all over Maryland, the out--the surrounding counties of, of Maryland, and so they were there. We had 'em in shifts all day long, from the--from when the polls opened til the time that they closed. So they were doing that, and they were, you know, monitoring like the traffic and how often people are voting, any problems, special stories, taking pictures, shooting video, all of that. So they, they did a really wonderful job with that, so we kind of documented some of that in that article--$$Now (unclear)--$$--then we did it again for the inauguration.$$Was this like a priority for the School of Communications at Howard [Howard University, Washington, D.C.] to make sure that we document the history of this first inauguration of (unclear)--$$It was--$$--(Simultaneous)--$$--it was a priority. I mean, it was--the, the university was very engaged, I mean political science obviously. It was a--it was a major story, and one of the things that we--we encourage our students to get off campus. And being here right here in Washington, it was--you know, we couldn't pass up the opportunity to have them, you know, cover history, and they were excited about doing it. And then we had a lot of professionals, and some of our adjuncts had come in too, so we commandeered all of the computer labs on this floor, and we had, you know, just a big operation all day long. And, and so the student who wrote the lead story declaring him the winner, she was actually--she had it online actually ahead of some major news organizations too. But they, they were everywhere. They were at, like I said, all over the precincts, at the White House, on U Street. And, and also, the ones who went home to vote, they were sending back stories and pictures from there. So we had one, when he gave his victory speech--his acceptance speech, we had a student there who sent a picture of--through her cell phone, and we put it online immediately. And she was sending information from there. We had students who were where Biden [Vice President Joe Biden] went to vote in, in Delaware, so they were all over the country and as `well as a big team here. So it was a lot of work, but it was a lot of fun, and the students got a lot out of it. Then we did it again for when he ran for re-election.$$--(Simultaneous)--$$And we've done it for a lot of--a lot of different elections, not just those, for local elections as well.$$Okay, okay, students have credentials and stuff when they go out?$$Yeah, they had credentials and, and they've, they've covered things. They've gone out of the country. They've gone to Haiti. They've gone to--they've done, you know, the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. So wherever it's a story--anniversary of the sit-in movements in Greensboro, North Carolina. Some of them go abroad and do different things, so wherever there's a--you know, and the hurricanes that were on the East Coast, they were doing--some of them went up to New York and New Jersey to do stories there.$$Okay, this is an art--article too I guess, 'Supplementing the news, an Industry Based De--Description of Magazine Supplements.'$$Yes, that's a journal article. I was always--when I started doing 'BET [Black Entertainment Television] Weekend,' people kept telling me about 'Tuesday,' which was basically doing what we were doing except much earlier. And so I was always fascinated by that history, so I was looking--and then as a result of 'BET Weekend,' a number of other supplements started. People started local ones as well as national ones, so I was looking--I was interested in looking at the history of that. So that's what that article was.$$And what, what are the other memorable ones other than 'Tuesday.'$$There was one called 'Suburban Styles' that was--I think Annette was doing as a partnership. And there was--I'm trying to remember the names of all of them. Oh, the 'Atlanta Daily World' started one of the first ones that they were doing--they were circulating. They owned a number of--they owned a number of other smaller papers, and they were in partnership with a num--they had a distribution arrangement with a number of papers in the South where they were printing their papers for them and distributing them. So they had kind of a sepia tone insert that they were putting in some of the newspapers there. So that was kind of the first one that I discovered, and--so that's, that's one that stood out too.

Rita Frances Dove

Former Poet Laureate of the United States Rita Dove was born in Akron, Ohio, in 1952. A 1970 Presidential Scholar, she received her B.A. degree summa cum laude from Miami University of Ohio and her M.F.A. degree from the University of Iowa. She also held a Fulbright scholarship at the Universität Tübingen in Germany.

Rita Dove served as Poet Laureate of the United States and Consultant to the Library of Congress from 1993 to 1995 and Poet Laureate of the Commonwealth of Virginia from 2004 to 2006. She has received numerous literary and academic honors, among them the 1987 Pulitzer Prize in Poetry and, more recently, the 2003 Emily Couric Leadership Award, the 2001 Duke Ellington Lifetime Achievement Award, the 1997 Sara Lee Frontrunner Award, the 1997 Barnes & Noble Writers for Writers Award, the 1996 Heinz Award in the Arts and Humanities and the 1996 National Humanities Medal. In 2006 she received the coveted Common Wealth Award of Distinguished Service (together with Anderson Cooper, John Glenn, Mike Nichols and Queen Noor of Jordan).

Dove has published the poetry collections The Yellow House on the Corner (1980), Museum (1983), Thomas and Beulah (1986), Grace Notes (1989), Selected Poems (1993), Mother Love (1995), On the Bus with Rosa Parks (1999), American Smooth (2004), a book of short stories, Fifth Sunday (1985), the novel Through the Ivory Gate (1992), essays under the title The Poet's World (1995), and the play The Darker Face of the Earth, which had its world premiere in 1996 at the Oregon Shakespeare Festival and was subsequently produced at the Kennedy Center in Washington, D.C., the Royal National Theatre in London and other theatres. Seven for Luck, a song cycle for soprano and orchestra with music by John Williams, was premiered by the Boston Symphony Orchestra at Tanglewood in 1998. For “America’s Millennium,” the White House’s 1999/2000 New Year’s celebration, Dove contributed — in a live reading at the Lincoln Memorial, accompanied by John Williams’ music — a poem to Steven Spielberg’s documentary The Unfinished Journey. She is the editor of Best American Poetry 2000, and from January 2000 to January 2002 she wrote a weekly column, “Poet’s Choice”, for The Washington Post.

Dove is Commonwealth Professor of English at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, where she lives with her husband, the writer Fred Viebahn. They have a grown daughter, Aviva Dove-Viebahn.

Accession Number

A2007.324

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/6/2007

Last Name

Dove

Maker Category
Middle Name

Frances

Organizations
Schools

Schumacher Academy Elementary School

Grace Elementary School

Simon Perkins Junior High School

Buchtel High School

Miami University

Iowa Writers' Workshop

Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Rita

Birth City, State, Country

Akron

HM ID

DOV01

Favorite Season

October

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

So It Goes.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

8/28/1952

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Potato Chips

Short Description

Fiction writer, english professor, and poet Rita Frances Dove (1952 - ) won the 1987 Pulitzer Prize in Poetry; served as Poet Laureate of the United States and Consultant to the Library of Congress from 1993 to 1995; and served as Poet Laureate of the Commonwealth of Virginia from 2004 to 2006. Aside from winning numerous other awards, Rita Dove was also Commonwealth Professor of English at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville.

Employment

Arizona State University

University of Virginia

Favorite Color

Turquoise

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Rita Frances Dove's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Rita Frances Dove lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Rita Frances Dove describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Rita Frances Dove talks about the importance of oral history

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Rita Frances Dove describes her maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Rita Frances Dove talks about her mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Rita Frances Dove describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Rita Frances Dove describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Rita Frances Dove describes her father

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Rita Frances Dove describes her father's U.S. military service

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Rita Frances Dove talks about her father's career

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Rita Frances Dove describes the inspiration for her poetry

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Rita Frances Dove reads an excerpt from 'Thomas and Beulah'

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Rita Frances Dove reflects upon her writings about her family

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Rita Frances Dove describes her mother's personality

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Rita Frances Dove describes her father's personality, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Rita Frances Dove describes her father's personality, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Rita Frances Dove lists her siblings

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Rita Frances Dove remember her family's first house

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Rita Frances Dove recalls moving to an all-white neighborhood in Akron, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Rita Frances Dove remembers celebrating the holidays with her family

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Rita Frances Dove describes her chores

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Rita Frances Dove remembers her family's vacations

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Rita Frances Dove remembers her childhood activities

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Rita Frances Dove recalls her father's taste in music

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Rita Frances Dove describes her interest in music

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Rita Frances Dove remembers the community of Akron, Ohio

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Rita Frances Dove describes her early awareness of race

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Rita Frances Dove recalls her teachers at Schumacher Elementary School in Akron, Ohio

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Rita Frances Dove remembers the March on Washington

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Rita Frances Dove recalls her teachers at Simon Perkins Junior High School in Akron, Ohio

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Rita Frances Dove recalls her early aspirations

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Rita Frances Dove recalls her ninth grade English teacher

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Rita Frances Dove remembers Wesley Temple A.M.E. Zion Church in Akron, Ohio

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Rita Frances Dove recalls John R. Buchtel High School in Akron, Ohio, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Rita Frances Dove recalls John R. Buchtel High School in Akron, Ohio, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Rita Frances Dove describes her decision to attend Miami University in Oxford, Ohio

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Rita Frances Dove recalls serving as co-chair of the majorette squad

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Rita Frances Dove reflects upon her generation's history

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Rita Frances Dove describes her studies at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Rita Frances Dove remembers her decision to become a poet

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Rita Frances Dove describes her early poetry

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Rita Frances Dove reflects upon the Black Arts Movement

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Rita Frances Dove recalls reading Toni Morrison's 'The Bluest Eye'

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Rita Frances Dove remembers her Fulbright Fellowship

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Rita Frances Dove recalls meeting her husband

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Rita Frances Dove talks about her experiences in Germany

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Rita Frances Dove remembers the Iowa Writer's Workshop

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Rita Frances Dove describes her peers at the Iowa Writer's Workshop

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Rita Frances Dove remembers writing in Oberlin, Ohio

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Rita Frances Dove talks about 'The Yellow House on the Corner'

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Rita Frances Dove talks about her influences as a poet

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Rita Frances Dove remembers living in Germany

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Rita Frances Dove describes the community of Phoenix, Arizona

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Rita Frances Dove recalls winning the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Rita Frances Dove recalls her recruitment to University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Rita Frances Dove describes 'Grace Notes'

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Rita Frances Dove describes her prose writing

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Rita Frances Dove talks about her writing process

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Rita Frances Dove recalls being named the poet laureate of the United States

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Rita Frances Dove describes her duties as poet laureate

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Rita Frances Dove remembers resigning as poet laureate

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$6

DAStory

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DATitle
Rita Frances Dove reads an excerpt from 'Thomas and Beulah'
Rita Frances Dove reflects upon the Black Arts Movement
Transcript
Would you mind reading a little bit from it ['Thomas and Beulah,' Rita Dove]?$$Oh, I'll be happy to read something.$$So I've chosen a couple of things, but you may choose--$$Oh, well--$$--what you like (simultaneous).$$--let's see. Let me, I'm gonna s- let me start with that very first poem called "The Event" [Rita Dove] because it, it not only deals with that very moment I was just talking about, the moment where my [maternal] grandfather's [Thomas Hord] best friend dies in the river, but it also deals with the process of rediscovering that moment, you know, in one's soul and also coming up with some factual explanations. "The Event": "Ever since they'd left the Tennessee ridge / with nothing to boast of / but good looks and a mandolin, / The two Negroes leaning / on the rail of a riverboat / were inseparable: Lem plucked / to Thomas' silver falsetto. / But the night was hot and they were drunk. / The spat where the wheel / churned mud and moonlight, / they called to the tarantulas / down among the bananas / to come out and dance. / You're so fine and mighty; let's see / what you can do, said Thomas, pointing / to a tree-capped island. / Lem stripped, spoke easy: Them's chestnuts, / I believe. Dove / quick as a gasp. Thomas, dry / on deck, saw the green crown shake / as the island slipped / under, dissolved / in the thickening stream. / At his feet / a stinking circle of rags, / the half-shell mandolin. / Where the wheel turned, the water / gently shirred." So I started by trying to recreate the moment as I had heard it from my grandmother [Georgianna Jackson Hord], and tried to slip into the sensibility of my grandfather and then in so doing, it kind of coming out on the other end realizing that he would look at all that's left of his friend, his mandolin, his clothes and he'd almost pick up and take on the burden of his life. Hence, he gets, he starts to play the mandolin. So part of that is, is, is that really what happened? I don't know, I don't know if he picked up the mandolin that way or not, but it became a kind of a psychological truth. And after writing the poem and deciding I had to believe my grandmother's story whether it had this factual underpinning for me or not. After deciding to believe in it, I, and, and starting to write the poem, I realized that there was in fact factual underpinning. That there was, there are mangrove--that the coast line of the Mississippi changes all the time because of the mangroves. He probably swam over there, got tangled in the mangrove roots and was pulled down, and that was the sinking island. But I couldn't go at it from the top and decide I'm gonna hack away at this and get the facts. I had to trust and go in there.$(Simultaneous) Did you have a sense that the Black Arts Movement po- poets were using poetry more as a tool? Or--you know, it seems as if it was a liberation tool, it was a--$$It absolutely was a tool. I mean it wa- but it was also, I mean it was also an aesthetic statement and, and I think that it was absolutely necessary at that time, because first you have to say, "See me; look at me. I am here." Do not gloss around me. Then you can say, "Okay, now see me in my entirety." But first you gotta get someone to see you. And what the Black Arts Movement did for me and a whole generation, and generations of writers and for themselves too, is to say, is to insist that we were not invisible. And that--and also, that also required to tell the mainstream, "You have to hear my music, to hear my voice. This is what--," and then, and then to lay out over emphasizing, of course, but that's in the nature of any movement that starts out is to say that, that, you know, "We can, we can use language this way. We can use aunt, ain't. We can use, you know, B. We can do all of this stuff and--," but, of course, what happens when you get anything like that is that the media takes only the most the, the, I wanna say the grossest and the discern- least differentiated sense of that and they, they go for the big stereotypical moments. So if you're black, you're angry, and it's power to the people, and it's (makes sounds). You know, and there is no room for doubt, you know, or self-reflection or sadness that, that sadness of you know, unless it's sadness with anger, you know, but sa-. And if you take all those emotions well you only have a shell of a human being. So that's the first, again it's the front line and then after that come--it, it made it possible for people like me, when I was starting to actually write poems that dealt with roses, you know. But also being able to hear and understand all the tensions that are behind that poem. So, it was a tool and it was an incredible tool. I mean it was, t- Afros, people were in Afro, god, or color. My mother [Elvira Hord Dove] told me that when she was a child she remembered her mother [Georgianna Jackson Hord] making her a coat, making her dress out of a lining of a coat. And the lining of the coat was blue with white stripped, and it was all they had, and so she made her this really beautiful dress that she loved. She took, wore it to school and her teacher read--chose to read 'Little Black Sambo' ['The Story of Little Black Sambo,' Helen Bannerman] to the class that day. And read, and in this version of 'Little Black Sambo,' he had a little blue and white stripped thing, and how utterly crushed she was and embarrassed she was. And she and, and she would often say, and my grandmother would say too, you know, if I like something red, "Don't wear that red. You don't need a red dress, you know, that's just, you know, nigger red. You don't want people to say--," and they were trying to protect us from hurt. But I never wore bright colors. A whole generation didn't wear bright colors until the Black Arts Movement said, dashiki (laughter) we were out there, you know. Oh, what, what a joy. So, yeah. But I was writing my poems, the poems that I could write, terrified that if I would ever try to publish those poems that I was gonna fall into this, be accused of being white or being an Oreo, all these things. And thinking that I wasn't strong enough because I was so shy to stand up to that.

James Ingram

R&B vocalist James Ingram was born on February 16, 1952, in Akron, Ohio to Alistine and Henry Ingram. Ingram was interested in music at an early age and became a self-taught musician, inspired by his musical idol, jazz organist Jimmy Smith. In the 1970s, Ingram began performing in the Akron band Revelation Funk under leader John Birkett and alongside Bernard Lawson, Sr. The group opened for the Ohio Players and performed with a variety of other Akron funk bands, including Axis and the Silky Vincent Group.

In 1973, when Ingram was seventeen years old, the group traveled to Los Angeles, California, hoping to find further opportunities to perform. Although the group met with some success, recording the track “Time is on Our Side” for the soundtrack to the film Dolemite, the band was unable to sustain itself, and the group returned to Ohio. Ingram stayed behind, playing music around Los Angeles and eventually performing backup vocals and playing keyboards for Ray Charles. Ingram’s career as a musician began to take off, and in the mid-1970s, he began working as soul artist Leon Haywood’s musical director.

In the late 1970s, Ingram had a reputation for his work as a studio session vocalist in Los Angeles, and soon grabbed the ear of legendary ex-Motown songwriter Lamont Dozier. Dozier offered Ingram the opportunity to contribute vocals and material for some of his releases, and Ingram’s “Love’s Calling” gained some airplay. Another musical legend, composer and musical director, Quincy Jones, heard a demo of Ingram performing a track entitled “Just Once,” and quickly offered the singer the opportunity to perform on his 1980 album The Dude. “Just Once,” re-recorded with Quincy Jones, became Ingram’s first massive hit, winning Ingram Grammy Awards for Best Male Pop Vocal and Best R&B Vocal, as well as a nomination for Best New Artist.

Ingram signed to Quincy Jones’s Qwest Records and recorded his own solo material with production work from Jones, and, in 1982, released his first solo single, “One Hundred Ways.” The song reached #14 on the U.S. charts. After co-writing Michael Jackson’s hit “P.Y.T.,” Ingram released his debut album It’s Your Night in 1983, selling 850,000 copies and working with such musical artists as Ray Charles, Michael McDonald, Patti Austin, Anita Baker, Nancy Wilson and Kenny Rogers. Ingram joined another large group of popular artists in performing on the 1985 record “We are the World,” the same year as he was awarded a Grammy Award for his Michael McDonald duet “Yah Mo B There.”

In 1986, Ingram’s second album Never Felt So Good was released alongside the singles “Always” and “Never Felt So Good.” He joined singer Linda Ronstadt for 1987’s gold-selling hit “Somewhere Out There,” and released his third album, entitled It’s Real, on Warner Brothers in 1989. The album featured the hit title track, written by legendary songwriter Thom Bell.

In 1990, Ingram appeared on Quincy Jones’ R&B mega-ballad “The Secret Garden,” and one year later released his own greatest hits disc entitled The Power of Music. In 1993, Ingram released his fourth LP, Always You and continued writing and performing individual singles throughout the 1990s. In 1999, Ingram released Forever More: The Best of James Ingram, and in 2006, participated in Celebrity Duets, a reality television program.

Ingram continues to perform annually on the “Colors of Christmas” Tour and regularly tours throughout southeast Asia, where he is one of the most popular U.S. artists to this day.

Ingram passed away on January 29, 2019.

Accession Number

A2007.272

Sex

Male

Interview Date

9/25/2007

Last Name

Ingram

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Robinson Community Learning Center

East High School

First Name

James

Birth City, State, Country

Akron

HM ID

ING03

Favorite Season

Holiday Season

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

Home

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

2/16/1952

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Salmon

Death Date

1/29/2019

Short Description

Musician, songwriter, and R & B singer James Ingram (1952 - ) was a multiple Grammy Award winner. Some of Ingram's hit songs included "Just Once," "Yah Mo B There;" he also co-wrote Michael Jackson's "P.Y.T."

Employment

Sharp and the G Clefts

Revelation Funk

Different Bag

Ford Motor Company

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of James Ingram's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - James Ingram lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - James Ingram describes his parents' family backgrounds

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - James Ingram describes his religious upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - James Ingram describes his early interest in music

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - James Ingram describes his siblings' musical interests

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - James Ingram describes his parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - James Ingram describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - James Ingram remembers celebrating the holidays with his family

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - James Ingram describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - James Ingram describes his early education

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - James Ingram describes his musical interests at East High School in Akron, Ohio

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - James Ingram talks about his early bands

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - James Ingram remembers his music lessons

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - James Ingram talks about his older brother's musical talent

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - James Ingram describes his involvement in his church choir

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - James Ingram describes his decision to pursue music as a career

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - James Ingram talks about his band, Revelation Funk

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - James Ingram describes his family's civil rights involvement

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - James Ingram explains the meaning behind 'Yah Mo B There'

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - James Ingram describes his spirituality

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - James Ingram recalls performing in Revelation Funk

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - James Ingram talks about his wife

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - James Ingram recalls touring Japan with A Different Bag

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - James Ingram remembers his bandmates

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - James Ingram describes his collaboration with Ray Charles

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - James Ingram remembers meeting Quincy Jones

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - James Ingram remembers winning a Grammy Award for 'Just Once'

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - James Ingram remembers working with Dick Clark

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - James Ingram recalls recording 'Just Once' with Quincy Jones

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - James Ingram describes his tour with Quincy Jones and Patti Austin

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - James Ingram remembers winning his first Grammy Award

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - James Ingram describes Quincy Jones' influence on his career

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - James Ingram talks about his experiences of fame

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - James Ingram talks about his children

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - James Ingram describes his collaboration on Quincy Jones' album, 'The Dude'

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - James Ingram remembers touring with Patti LaBelle

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - James Ingram recalls writing 'P.Y.T. (Pretty Young Thing)'

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - James Ingram remembers working with Michael Jackson

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - James Ingram talks about his vocal training

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - James Ingram describes his songwriting process

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - James Ingram reflects upon his musical influences

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - James Ingram remembers recording 'We Are the World'

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - James Ingram describes his collaborations with Harry Belafonte

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - James Ingram recalls recording 'How Do You Keep the Music Playing'

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - James Ingram reflects upon his international success

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - James Ingram talks about his tours abroad

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - James Ingram remembers writing 'The Day I Fall in Love'

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - James Ingram talks about his Academy Award nominations

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - James Ingram recalls singing the theme song for 'An American Tail'

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - James Ingram remembers performing with Linda Ronstadt and Natalie Cole

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - James Ingram reflects upon his musical influences

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - James Ingram describes his collaboration with Keith Diamond

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - James Ingram recalls collaborating with Kenny Rogers and Kim Carnes

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - James Ingram remembers his third album, 'It's Real'

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - James Ingram reflects upon the success of his mentors

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - James Ingram remembers his manager, Dick Scott

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - James Ingram remembers Gerald Levert and Eddie Levert

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - James Ingram describes his collaboration on 'The Secret Garden'

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - James Ingram talks about his album 'The Greatest Hits'

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - James Ingram describes his talk show appearances

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - James Ingram reflects upon his personal success

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - James Ingram reflects upon his career success

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - James Ingram describes his collaborations with Debbie Allen

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - James Ingram talks about his album, 'Stand (In the Light)'

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - James Ingram describes his philanthropic work

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - James Ingram reflects upon his musical influences

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - James Ingram reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - James Ingram reflects upon his music

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - James Ingram describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - James Ingram shares a message to future generations

DASession

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DATape

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DAStory

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DATitle
James Ingram describes his decision to pursue music as a career
James Ingram describes his collaboration with Ray Charles
Transcript
When did you decide, I'm going to be a professional musician?$$A professional musician? When we had, as the band, we had, when we developed later on before I left Akron, Ohio. I graduated in 1970 [from East High School; East Community Learning Center, Akron, Ohio], but I left Ohio in '73 [1973] to come to California with my band, Revelation Funk. Well I joined another band because the other band, they were working and they had families in Akron, Ohio and they were not leaving to go on the road. So we started traveling to New York [New York] and different places and I was making like maybe $150 a week when we split up our money and we were working Monday through Saturday playing four hours, right? Okay, now in between that I got a job at Ford Motors [Ford Motor Company], where my father [Henry Ingram, Sr.] was working at, at the time, he got me a job and I made basically the same money and I was in there eight hours for five days a week so that was like forty hours and make the same money. And so while I'm doing this work, I'm thinking about music and everything and I'm saying wait a minute, hold on, I worked twenty-four hours and made the same money. What is this, 'cause I didn't know exactly about no music business and that I could make a living at it right cause Akron, Ohio was a small city and there was nothing around for me to see. Like if you're in Detroit [Michigan] and Motown [Motown Records] was there, you would have ambitions probably of you know how you could do that, right? It dawned on me, said, "I'm leaving. I'm gonna go on the road. I'm gonna get with a band." We were on the road so we formed a band. And I worked for maybe about six months. And when the people at, that was working at Ford, some of those brothers I knew, when you worked, put your ninety days in right, they was buying like Cadillac cars and a Deuce and a Quarter [Buick Electra] and all that. And so they asked me what was I doing with my money? I said, "I'm buying equipment." "Equipment?" "Yeah, I'm buying speakers and clavinet and another electric piano and all that stuff (unclear)." Say, "Man, for what?" I said, "I'm going on the road." "Aw man, the benefits we have. You going--man you ain't going nowhere." And one day they were coming in and I was leaving out. I said, "I'll see y'all later." But I left in a way that the general foreman there, that--because my work ethics were impeccable because when you went into the department you worked on the jobs. You could pick what job you want to. I could just put things like you're stamping out metal and just--you know what I'm saying? I took the hardest job in there which is on the pan line where the pans came out and you had to lift these things with somebody else on the other side right, cause I figure if I'm going to be there for eight hours, I want to do something that's gonna help me stay in shape. So I went that route until I got out of there.$At what point did you meet Ray Charles?$$That had to be in 19--1976, somewhere around there.$$And tell me about that encounter. How did you meet?$$I met him because my brother Henry Ingram [Henry Ingram, Jr.], my oldest brother was living in Los Angeles, California. And he had a friend that we knew from Chicago [Illinois] that came through our hometown in Akron, Ohio, extremely talented. His name was Larry Woods. And so Larry Woods came to our apartment with my brother and he was telling me, I need to turn you on to Joe Webster 'cause you know, he knew I could write. You know by this time I was writing songs and doing things and stuff. He said I need to turn you on to Joe Webster. Joe Webster was Mabel John's [HistoryMaker Reverend Dr. Mable John] son who was one of the background singers in Ray Charles' studio and he was signed to Ray Charles' label [Tangerine Records]. So Joe and I we met and we hit it off and we started writing songs together. So then I started coming to the studio and singing backgrounds with him you know. I could at least sing backgrounds you know and playing some of the instruments. But one of the tracks I had a click track and I played the drums and I played the bass and I played the keyboards. So the engineer told Ray, you got to see this dude, he can--you know what I'm saying, he's real talented and stuff. So Ray heard me and that's how I got the chance to play organ on 'I Can See Clearly' ['I Can See Clearly Now'] and 'Anonymous Love.'$$What did he say when he heard you for the first time, Ray Charles?$$He said, "Son, you talented." I said I don't know, I'm just here Ray. And, but Ray liked my personality and sometimes he would just like, he would have the engineer call for me just to be around even when I wasn't working because he--Ray was giving me a lot of information not only about the music industry but about you know, about techniques. I saw Ray Charles, which I don't know most engineers could do this. Back then they weren't cutting with click tracks, click tracks you know the drummer would listen to it and it would keep the tempo steady all the way through the song. So naturally the song would speed up a little bit you know just through naturally playing right? Ray had a track like that where he took--I saw him, supposed to be blind right, and of course he was right? The engineer wasn't even there. It was him. I was in the studio with him. And he took the horn parts and flew them over to a half inch tape right, and sent them back to the back of the track even though the track was going faster, an eighth note at a time on different tracks and he put them together. Ray Charles did that. He'd walk all over there. He'd walk out there to the mic [microphone] by himself and all that. Ray Charles not hand- he was not handicapped. He was not handicapped.$$He had a sense, he could see with his mind.$$Right. Right, I don't even know how to explain it but--$$And what did you learn from him?$$He was deaf on drummers. Your timing had to be impeccable, right. And it wasn't like I was a great drummer, but my time was impeccable. So what happened was he heard about, from the engineers, that I fixed a track that the track had sped up right. And so I had to learn where the track was, where it sped up and kept--until I got it and then I got it. So Ray had a track that needed fixed and so they called me to fix that track. So I was in there with Ray and I found out exactly where the tape, it was kind of speeding up, where the musician kind of sped up and it was kind of slowing down and I finally caught it and I had the groove right. Once we got finished, Ray said, "You know what, you did a good job, but I'm going to scrap this." He said, "We're going to cut this all over." So they had a bossa nova, a thing that had these little beats, right? And this was pre-drum machines and all that stuff in terms of the (unclear) and all that stuff. So he said we're going to cut it over. Ray went out there to the drum machine and put the keyboards down, right? And then he gave me the beat to play and I played the beat. Then Ray hummed all of the turnarounds for me to play. "(Scatting) No (scatting)," right, and we'd move on to the next one when I--until--you know what I'm saying? And he punched me in all the turnarounds. So I'm playing drums along with the track and you hear these--feels like I'm going to--you know what I'm saying, because that was the magic of recording.

Steven A. Minter

University executive-in-residence and former foundation executive Steven A. Minter was born in Akron, Ohio on October 23, 1938. He is the son of Lawrence and Dorothy Minter. Graduating from Ohio’s Kinsman High School in 1956, Minter earned his B.A. degree in education from Baldwin-Wallace College in Berea, Ohio in 1960. In 1963, he earned his M.Ed. degree from Case Western Reserve University. He also holds honorary doctorate degrees from Case Western Reserve University, Baldwin-Wallace College, Kent State University, Oberlin College, Lake Erie College and Findlay College.

Minter served as president and executive director of the Cleveland Foundation from 1984 until his retirement in July 2003. Outside the foundation world, Minter spent over 15 years in governmental positions. In 1980, when the U.S. Department of Education was first formed, he served as its first under secretary. From 1970 to 1975, he was the commissioner of public welfare for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. He had a career as a caseworker at the Cuyahoga County Welfare Department in 1960 in Cleveland, Ohio and became its director in 1969.

Minter served on the boards of numerous national and regional organizations, including the College of Wooster, Community Foundations of America, American Public Welfare Association and the National Community AIDS Partnership. He co-chaired Greater Cleveland’s Vision Council and served on the boards of the Greater Cleveland Roundtable, Northeast Ohio Council on Higher Education, the Union Club and Rockefeller Philanthropy Advisors. He is a director of KeyCorp and the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company. He is also a former board member of Dominion Resources, Rubbermaid and Ohio Bell Telephone Company.

Minter is the recipient of numerous awards and honors, including the 2003 Distinguished Grantmaker Award presented by the Council on Foundations and the 1991 Ohio Governor’s Award for Excellence in Education.

Minter and his wife, Dolly, live in Shaker Heights, Ohio. They have three married daughters, two grandsons and one granddaughter.

Accession Number

A2005.007

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/11/2005

Last Name

Minter

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

A.

Organizations
Schools

Kinsman High School

Baldwin Wallace University

Case Western Reserve University

First Name

Steven

Birth City, State, Country

Akron

HM ID

MIN03

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts

Favorite Quote

Take the long-term view.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Ohio

Birth Date

10/23/1938

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Cleveland

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Foundation executive Steven A. Minter (1938 - ) served as president and executive director of the Cleveland Foundation, the nation’s first community foundation and the second largest in the nation.

Employment

Cuyahoga County Welfare Department

Commonwealth of Massachusetts

The Cleveland Foundation

U.S. Department of Education

Cleveland State University

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Steven A. Minters' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Steven A. Minter lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Steven A. Minter talks about his family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Steven A. Minter recounts a story about his grandfather, Samuel Minter, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Steven A. Minter recounts a story about his grandfather, Samuel Minter, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Steven A. Minter talks about his maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Steven A. Minter talks about his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Steven A. Minter describes growing up in Northeast, Ohio

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Steven A. Minter describes his parents' personalities

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Steven A. Minter describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Steven A. Minter describes discriminatory experiencing while traveling with the Kinsman High School band

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Steven A. Minter describes navigating all-white school environments and his high school mentors

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Steven A. Minter comments on his early exposure to racism

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Steven A. Minter talks about playing baseball at Kinsman High School in Kinsman, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Steven A. Minter describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Steven A. Minter describes holiday celebrations and the church

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Steven A. Minter talks about his teachers at Kinsman High School

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Steven A. Minter describes his decision to attend Baldwin Wallace University

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Steven A. Minter describes his college extracurricular activities

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Steven A. Minter talks about his interracial marriage

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Steven A. Minter describes the employment discrimination he experienced

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Steven A. Minter talks about his career at the Cuyahoga County Welfare Department

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Steven A. Minter describes how he became the Massachusetts Commissioner of Public Welfare

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Steven A. Minter talks about political relationships

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Steven A. Minter describes his role as Massachusetts Commissioner of Public Welfare

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Steven A. Minter talks about his philanthropic and public service jobs

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Steven A. Minter talks about his daughters

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Steven A. Minter describes The Cleveland Foundation, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Steven A. Minter describes The Cleveland Foundation, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Steven A. Minter talks about two of The Cleveland Foundation's African American donors, Dr. Kenneth Clement and HistoryMaker Judge Lillian Burke

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Steven A. Minter describes Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller and Bill Gates's roles in American philanthropy

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Steven A. Minter discusses his role at the Levin College of Urban Affairs and he and his wife's role in philanthropy

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Steven A. Minter describes his greatest accomplishments

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Steven A. Minter describes the state of education in Ohio

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

3$1

DATitle
Steven A. Minter talks about his philanthropic and public service jobs
Steven A. Minter talks about two of The Cleveland Foundation's African American donors, Dr. Kenneth Clement and HistoryMaker Judge Lillian Burke
Transcript
I'd kind of made up my mind in fifteen years in the public welfare post was enough, from starting in Cuyahoga County [Ohio] in Massachusetts. And, would have gone on and done something else probably with Governor [Francis Williams] Sargent but he was defeated by Mike [Michael] Dukakis. And, Governor Dukakis offered me the opportunity to stay on as Commissioner of Public Welfare, but I, I wanted to move into something else. And, so, there came a day in December when I had to sort of decide what I--was I going to California to be with [Governor Edmund Gerald] Jerry Brown [Jr.] and his cabinet or New York would be [Governor] Hugh Carey and his cabinet or the Social Security Administration to be deputy commissioner. And, my wife [Dolores "Dolly" Minter] said, "Steve, you didn't really ask me about going to Massachusetts, and we went and it was a good thing. It was a great thing. And, I'm not, I don't care where you go after Massachusetts but I'd like you to really seriously consider staying in one place for twelve years for the continuity of our children," which we said was important. Well, you don't go to Sacramento [California] and Albany [New York] particularly and think you're gonna be in a high profile job and stay in that job for twelve years. You could do it in Washington [D.C.] or Baltimore [Maryland]. But, I decided to put some other cities back on the board. And, therefore, I put Cleveland [Ohio] back on the board because we had lived here, we had family here, I knew this community backwards and forwards. And, I made some telephone calls and within a very short period of time--make a long story short--I was offered a position as a program officer at the--at The Cleveland Foundation [Cleveland, Ohio] in social services. And, one great president of the foundation, Homer Wadsworth who was an icon in the field of philanthropy said, "Hey, we want you to continue to play the national role in things that you've done." And, it's from The Cleveland Foundation I was able to be the president of the American Public Welfare Association [APWA]. President [James Earl "Jimmy"] Carter [Jr.] asked me to join his administration as soon as he was elected. We had just come back and I said, "No, I really don't wanna do that." But, I did serve on the National Commission for the International Year of the Child and I did do some other things with the Carter administration. And, towards the end of the administration, the United States Department of Education was created as a new department. And, so--he selected a wonderful federal judge, Shirley Hufstedler who had President Carter been reelected probably would have been the first woman appointed to the [United States] Supreme Court. Selected her, she was a federal judge, to be the Secretary [of Education] and they were then looking for, you know, some balance, and somebody who had some big systems experience. And, through Marian Wright Edelman and Vernon Jordan and a number of other persons, my name was suggested. And, I'd been at the foundation for a few years and it seemed like a nice time to take a sabbatical and I said, "Okay, if I can have a leave of absence, I'll go up and get the department [United States Department of Education] established and stay through the first and second budgets but, then I'm coming back to Cleveland." And, I actually commuted that year and lived in the home with Marian Wright Edelman and Peter [Edelman] and their three terrific sons. So, it was a great experience for me to be the first Under Secretary of Education. And, it helped fill out those experiences because, you know, education as far as I am concerned is probably the most important influence outside the family that makes a difference for most of us in terms of what our life opportunities and chances are gonna be. And, so, I served until January 20 [1981] when Mr. Reagan [President Ronald Reagan] was sworn in and the hostages came home from--from Iran on that day. And, I returned to The Cleveland Foundation and where I was associate director and program officer then later became the president for almost twenty years.$Mr. Minter, we had started to talk about the role of blacks in the history of philanthropy. And, you suggested in some of your comments that there are some, some ordinary folks, not necessarily the robber barons that I alluded to earlier who have also played an important role in shaping The Cleveland Foundation's [Cleveland, Ohio] history. Can you tell me a little bit about that?$$Yes, well, I mean, I think what--the first African American to serve on the distribution committee of The Cleveland Foundation and really sort of call attention to the importance of this organization was Doctor Kenneth Clement who a lot of persons will remember not only as being a very distinguished physician but an important advisor to Carl B. Stokes and his running for mayor of the City of Cleveland [Ohio], a successful bid to be mayor of the City of Cleveland. And, a fund was established early on to honor his, his parents. And, I can give you several more examples but I'll use one story to illustrate. When [HM] Judge Lillian Burke who was the first African American to serve as a judge in the State of Ohio, state judge, was retiring and friends wanted to raise a purse of money. And, what she wanna do with it. And, she was concerned about where she could put it that was responsible and be good stewardship and so forth. And, her friend Tommie [P.] Patty, retired executive director of the Phillis Wheatley Association [Cleveland, Ohio] suggested The Cleveland Foundation. They came to see me and I told her, you know, ten--it took ten thousand dollars to establish a fund. She wrote a check for ten thousand dollars and then challenged her friends at her retirement affair to match it and put it into this fund, which she did. And, she said, "What I want the income for the fund to be used for is to support two organizations." One, to provide scholarships for children associated with the music school settlement. Particularly the Harv--the Harvard-East Branch of the [Cleveland] Music School Settlement [Cleveland, Ohio]. And, to work with [HM] June [Sallee] Antoine. She was out there. And, the second to provide a scholarship for African American student at the Cleveland-Marshall School of Law [Cleveland-Marshall College of Law, Cleveland, Ohio]. And, that exists to this day. And, so, it was an important thing for her to do. But, as a great importance, she was willing to go out and talk about what she had done, and in terms that other people might've been reticent. She explained how much money, exactly what she did, so that she could break it down. And, I'll never forget two wonderful luncheons that she had at her home inviting woman friends of hers to come in who she wanted them to understand this is what you should do. This is how you should go about doing it. This is what you should think about. Not only that, but her high school graduating class in Pennsylvania--I forgot the exact town--she encouraged her friends who she played bridge with all the time, to establish a fund with the Pittsburgh Foundation [Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania]. She encouraged her church to establish an endowment fund. And, she's been recognized as really, you know, one of our great donors, recipient of the [Frederick Harris] Goff [Philanthropic Service] Award for her philanthropy. But, made it, made the foundation and philanthropy and said, hey, look, this can be accessible to a lot of different persons. So, she's a real heroine in my mind.

Sterling Tucker

Politician, activist and governmental appointee Sterling Tucker was born in Akron, Ohio on December 21, 1923. He attended the city’s public schools, graduating from West High School in 1942. From there, he enrolled in the University of Akron, earning his A.B. in 1946 in sociology, and his M.A. in psychology in 1950.

Following the completion of his master’s degree, Tucker moved to Washington, D.C., and in 1956, he became the head of the Washington chapter of the Urban League. He remained in that position until 1974, when he was elected to the Washington, D.C. City Council. While working for the Urban League, Tucker organized Solidarity Day, held on June 19, 1969, as a massive protest in the nation’s capitol. The event, led by Reverend Ralph Abernathy and Coretta Scott King, was held during the Poor People’s Campaign, and brought 50,000 demonstrators to the streets of Washington before the police disrupted the event. After four years of serving on the city council, Tucker made a run for the office of mayor, but lost to Marion Barry.

Following his defeat in the mayoral campaign, Tucker was named assistant secretary of the Department of Housing and Urban Development, and he remained there until 1981. That year, he opened Sterling Tucker Associates, a management consulting firm, where he continues to serve as president today. Tucker also spent the years of 1988 to 1990 as the drug czar of the Washington, D.C. government, where he worked to develop strategies for combating drug usage.

Accession Number

A2004.116

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/2/2004

Last Name

Tucker

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

West High School

Samuel A. Lane School

University of Akron

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Evenings

First Name

Sterling

Birth City, State, Country

Akron

HM ID

TUC04

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Any

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

No

Favorite Season

Summer

Speaker Bureau Notes

Preferred Audience: Any

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

Most Things Are Possible.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

12/21/1923

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Soul Food

Short Description

Nonprofit executive and city council member Sterling Tucker (1923 - ) is the president of Sterling Tucker Associates, a consulting firm, and has served as the head of the Washington, D.C. chapter of the National Urban League, city council member, and assistant secretary of the Department of Housing and Urban Development.

Employment

Washington Urban League

Council of the District of Columbia

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development

Sterling Tucker & Associates

District of Columbia

Firestone Tire and Rubber Company

Akron Urban League

Canton Urban League

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:1920,27:5009,48:5730,56:6348,63:10262,106:11601,128:12631,140:14073,184:32112,427:32488,432:38790,487:39270,494:42230,524:51656,713:52268,724:52676,731:52948,736:61362,855:62222,869:69716,985:70268,995:72812,1007:78780,1151:79185,1173:97086,1390:97478,1395:105095,1517:106369,1560:120750,1765:121240,1773:121800,1782:124600,1857:128660,1956:133953,2101:147308,2359:157522,2594:163758,2686:175060,2815$0,0:398,2:2510,75:9198,249:10606,270:25569,442:32626,538:33484,551:55106,924:65140,1074:70540,1164:71170,1175:80586,1364:94941,1550:114428,1801:116444,1832:124428,1958:131246,2022:132886,2058:142398,2355:142808,2361:143136,2366:152210,2538
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Sterling Tucker's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Sterling Tucker lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Sterling Tucker describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Sterling Tucker talks about his maternal ancestry and maternal grandfather Columbus Vinson

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Sterling Tucker remembers his mother's personality and role in the family

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Sterling Tucker explains his family's move to Akron, Ohio from Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Sterling Tucker recalls stories about his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Sterling Tucker describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Sterling Tucker talks about his parents' meeting in Georgia

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Sterling Tucker describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood in Akron, Ohio

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Sterling Tucker remembers a fight with neighborhood bully Posey Foster

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Sterling Tucker talks about his childhood love of church and the reason for his reluctance to become a member

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Sterling Tucker lists his schools and favorite subjects

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Sterling Tucker remembers his favorite teacher at Samuel A. Lane School in Akron, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Sterling Tucker describes his experience with integration at West High School in Akron, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Sterling Tucker describes the strong bond among his extended family in Akron, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Sterling Tucker remembers being a sports reporter at West High School in Akron, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Sterling Tucker remembers his dreams as a teenager

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Sterling Tucker remembers his passion for African American history and African American publications as a teenager

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Sterling Tucker recalls his involvement with student councils in Akron, Ohio at West High School and University of Akron

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Sterling Tucker talks about his early work with the Urban League youth forum in Akron, Ohio and his opposition to its director George Thompson

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Sterling Tucker reflects on a time when he offended a woman while advocating for African Americans to have lofty aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Sterling Tucker remembers being served by, and fired from, the restaurant where he worked in Akron, Ohio after threatening a discrimination lawsuit

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Sterling Tucker remembers encountering discrimination during various speeches

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Sterling Tucker recalls his decision to attend University of Akron in Akron, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Sterling Tucker talks about working full-time at Firestone Tire and Rubber Company while studying at University of Akron in Akron, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Sterling Tucker talks his involvement in student life at University of Akron in Akron, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Sterling Tucker remembers studying sociology under Harmon O. DeGraff at University of Akron in Akron, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Sterling Tucker explains why he was not drafted to the U.S. military during World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Sterling Tucker describes learning to strategize while organizing for civil rights, pt.1

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Sterling Tucker describes learning to strategize while organizing for civil rights, pt.2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Sterling Tucker remembers being hired by the Washington Urban League, pt.1

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Sterling Tucker remembers being hired by the Washington Urban League, pt.2

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Sterling Tucker recalls developing the National Urban League New Thrust program

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Sterling Tucker talks about his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Sterling Tucker describes the Urban League's role in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Sterling Tucker recalls housing discrimination through restrictive covenants in the 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Sterling Tucker remembers Washington D.C. becoming the first major city with a predominately black population in the 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Sterling Tucker describes the Urban League's 1964 March to the Ballot Box campaign, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Sterling Tucker describes the Urban League's 1964 March to the Ballot Box campaign, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Sterling Tucker remembers the significance of 'We Shall Overcome' and the March on Washington in 1963

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Sterling Tucker recalls conflict between the organizations during the planning of the March on Washington in 1963

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Sterling Tucker recalls how his position in the Urban League put him in proximity of the federal administration

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Sterling Tucker talks about President Dwight David Eisenhower's role in the implementation of the Civil Rights Act

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Sterling Tucker describes establishing the Peace Corp

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Sterling Tucker talks about the 1964 War on Poverty

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Sterling Tucker remembers President Lyndon Baines Johnson, President John Fitzgerald Kennedy and Robert F. Kennedy's orientation toward racial issues

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Sterling Tucker talks about President John Fitzgerald Kennedy and Robert F. Kennedy's naivete

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Sterling Tucker recalls President Richard Milhous Nixon and Whitney Young

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Sterling Tucker talks about bringing Whitney Young's remains to the United States from Nigeria

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Sterling Tucker remembers his appointment to Washington, D.C. city council in 1974 and his collaborators in the city's home rule movement

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Sterling Tucker talks about the Washing D.C. City Council members' transition from activists to legislators

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Sterling Tucker remembers losing the Washington, D.C. mayoral election to HistoryMaker The Honorable Marion Barry in 1978

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Sterling Tucker remembers his time at the Department of Housing and Urban Development and the resignation of HistoryMaker The Honorable Andrew Young

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Sterling Tucker talks about his management consulting firm, Sterling Tucker Associates

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Sterling Tucker recalls consulting for IBM on their policy in South Africa

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Sterling Tucker describes his consulting work for Indiana Black Expo

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Sterling Tucker talks about his work with diabetes organizations

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Sterling Tucker describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Sterling Tucker explains how he became drug czar in Washington, D.C. during the late 1980s

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Sterling Tucker remembers his tenure as drug czar in Washington, D.C. during the time of HistoryMaker The Honorable Marion Barry's arrest

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Sterling Tucker talks about his stance on education issues

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Sterling Tucker talks about his parents thoughts on his success

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Sterling Tucker reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Sterling Tucker reflects upon his life

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Sterling Tucker describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Sterling Tucker narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Sterling Tucker narrates his photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$6

DAStory

3$2

DATitle
Sterling Tucker recalls developing the National Urban League New Thrust program
Sterling Tucker remembers losing the Washington, D.C. mayoral election to HistoryMaker The Honorable Marion Barry in 1978
Transcript
So I had the reputation of being innovative and getting things done, and so I didn't--I'd learned that, I know, by learning, by reading, by doing, by being a problem solver. Here's a problem and I, and I started working that way. I developed a concept in the Urban League movement, a strategy throughout the Urban League. And the whole concept was this. And Whitney Young [Jr.] was smart enough to see that we had tried to move forward. Was it--the Urban League had been playing an honest broker role between the white community and the black community--really kind of being criticized for it because--it was NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] who said, "You are leaders, but you're not making much progress." And we tried to move the black community, white community forward, and bring the black community along and making modest progress, but not what was needed. And I said to the Urban League, what we need to do is to step out of the way of being the broker, and bring the white community together, and we need to get around some of these issues. So, the black--I said, we're buffeting the white community from the anger of the black community. They need to sense some of this. They need to know how challenging these times are. They need to feel the depth of these problems. And we can negotiate that relationship, but don't try to protect them from those feelings, you see, because we're taking the blows, you know, for it, you know. Let's get out of the way. Let them fight. We can moderate the fight and referee it, and kind of orchestrate it, but let's, don't be taking the blows here in effect. So, they brought up that "New Thrust" concept, and I designed ways to do that. And, well, we had some, we had several national board meetings. We brought leadership to the Urban League together in New York for several days. I designed, developed this paper, the "New Thrust," about fifty pages, and walked them through the whole thing--walked them through the concepts and the areas of things, how we might do things, and how to implement that concept. Yeah, which was very new to them, but they kind of liked it during that period because we were being called Uncle Toms and everything, you know. And so, we raised a lot of money for it, and I took a leave of absence to run the "New Thrust" in the National Urban League--took a leave of absence from Washington [Urban League, Washington, D.C.].$$This is called the "New Thrust?"$$Called the "New Thrust."$$Okay.$$And we got lots of media, national media out of it, and Whitney got a lots of mileage out of it and things, and we had federal administration interest in what we were doing and so forth. And so, I did that for several years for the National Urban League, and then Whitney died--was drowned.$I decided that I was going to run for mayor [of Washington, D.C.]. Walter Washington had been--$$This is 1978, right?$$This is 1978.$$Right.$$Walter Washington had been the appointed mayor for six years, and he'd been the elected mayor, and it was going to be for four years, so ten years as mayor. And he'd done a lot for the city; he'd done a lot for the city. And, but I'd felt that Walter Washington--his administration was tired, and should be retired. And, and he and I were--had been good friends, even before either of us got into elected government. We were--he was on our board of the Urban League, was chairman of the board of the Urban League at one point. So, he and I were good personal friends. But one night, we got together. I went to his office after work, and I explained to him that I was going to run for mayor. I told him the polls show that he probably could not win and that, and that I was going to run. And he's--he thanked me for letting me know. And so, then we--it was hard running against him because he was such a decent guy and we were very good friends, you know. But I'm thinking in terms of the government--moving it forward at this point. And so, there were four or five candidates, but only three major ones--Walter Washington, [HistoryMaker] Marion Barry, and me. And so, and since the Washington Post supported Marion Barry, they thought that he might take more risks that I would take, although they thought I'd be a good mayor. And I was kind of happy that they weren't supporting me because I going to win the election without the endorsement of the Washington Post, so nobody could say that the Washington Post got me elected. And the--as it turned out, I lost the election by half a percentage point. And, but on that night, the--about the time that people were leaving, somebody who worked in the White House [Washington, D.C.] said to me as he was leaving, "You'll get a call from the president tomorrow." I had no idea what about. And, and so, I did get a call to come over and see the--that morning, next morning--to see the president in the afternoon. I went to see President [James Earl "Jimmy"] Carter [Jr.]. And he said, "[HistoryMaker] Sterling [Tucker], you were our candidate for mayor." He said, "We were all pulling for you, and we wanted you to be the mayor"--said, "but you never know what happens in politics, so we've been holding a spot in HUD [U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development]. Everybody said you'd be just right for it, just in case."

The Honorable Dorothy Jackson

Dorothy Ola Jackson stands as a respected pillar of the Ohio political landscape. Just prior to her birth, her family uprooted itself from dustbowl-ravaged Oklahoma to settle in Akron, Ohio. Born in Akron, on November 9, 1933, Dorothy was the youngest of seven children. She attended Akron's Robinson Elementary School and East High, where she graduated in 1951.

After high school, Jackson worked in a local grocery store and attended night classes at the Actual Business College. Forced to quit her job and drop out of classes when her mother became ill, Dorothy spent the subsequent four years caring for her mother, who died in 1952, and brother, who died in 1956. Following the sudden death of her father in 1957 from a fatal heart attack, Dorothy took a position as a secretary for the Goodwill Industries. While working with the Goodwill, Jackson learned sign language and worked to assist disabled workers. It was during this time that Jackson developed a deep sense of dedication to issues that concerned the disabled. She quickly rose through the ranks from secretary to assistant public relations director.

After twelve years with Goodwill, Jackson left to begin her sixteen-year career with the Akron Metropolitan Housing Authority as the social and tenant services administrator. By working to bring programs of fun and education to the residents, and providing a high level of personalized tenant care Jackson transformed the agency. She understood that providing housing was only the first step, providing a sense of community was the next. In 1984, Jackson was nominated for deputy mayor for the City of Akron.

In her role as deputy mayor, Jackson has been a tireless social activist. She has given her voice and support to issues that concern the poor and disabled. She is the recipient of many awards and honors including the Women in History Week Woman of the Year, the United Way Distinguished Service Award and the Bert A. Polsky Humanitarian Award.

Accession Number

A2002.147

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/1/2002

Last Name

Jackson

Maker Category
Middle Name

O.

Organizations
Schools

East High School

Hammel Actual Business College

Akron University

Gallaudet University

Kent State University

Robinson Community Learning Center

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Depends on Schedule

First Name

Dorothy

Birth City, State, Country

Akron

HM ID

JAC04

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - Negotiable

Favorite Season

Fall

Sponsor

Knight Foundation

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

Vienna, Austria

Favorite Quote

They that wait upon the Lord shall renew their strength; they shall mount up with wings as the eagles; they shall run and not be weary; they shall walk and not faint.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Ohio

Birth Date

11/9/1933

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Akron

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Dessert

Short Description

Civic activist and city government official The Honorable Dorothy Jackson (1933 - ) was the Deputy Mayor of Akron, Ohio. After twelve years with Goodwill Industries, Jackson left to begin her sixteen-year career with the Akron Metropolitan Housing Authority, as the social and tenant services administrator. In her role as deputy mayor, Jackson was a tireless social activist.

Employment

Goodwille Industries

Akron Metropolitan Housing Authority

City of Akron, Ohio

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dorothy Jackson interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dorothy Jackson's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dorothy Jackson discusses her parents' backgrounds

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dorothy Jackson describes her early family life

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dorothy Jackson remembers her family members

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dorothy Jackson shares memories from her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dorothy Jackson remembers her school years

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dorothy Jackson recalls her high school years

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dorothy Jackson discusses her early career aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dorothy Jackson remembers her mother's death

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dorothy Jackson remembers trials early in her career

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dorothy Jackson describes her training for those with special needs

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dorothy Jackson discusses her career as a sign language interpreter

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dorothy Jackson discusses her volunteer efforts

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dorothy Jackson discusses her appointment to political office

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dorothy Jackson reveals her plans for the future

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dorothy Jackson shares her hopes for the black community

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dorothy Jackson considers her legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dorothy Jackson describes how she'd like to be remembered

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dorothy Jackson signs an inspirational message

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson and her third grade class at Robinson Elementary School, Akron, Ohio, early 1940s

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson's sister, Lucille

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson's daughter and sister, August 1957

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson's daughter, sister and sister's friend, December 1957

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson returns from roller-skating

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson and her brother

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson and her sister in the driveway of their home, Akron, Ohio

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson on senior day at East High School, Akron, Ohio, early 1950s

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson at her daughter's wedding, April 1995

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson with Olympian Wilma Rudolph, Akron, Ohio

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson with First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, 1992

Tape: 4 Story: 14 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson's mother, Akron, Ohio, 1950s

Tape: 4 Story: 15 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson's father, William Jackson, Sr.

Tape: 4 Story: 16 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson interprets for Reverend Jesse Jackson during his 1984 presidential campaign

Tape: 4 Story: 17 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson and her deaf choir attend chapel services

Tape: 4 Story: 18 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson chaperones a Goodwill Industries field trip to Washington, D.C., ca. 1956

Tape: 4 Story: 19 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson interprets for President William 'Bill' Clinton at an Akron, Ohio rally, part 1

Tape: 4 Story: 20 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson interprets for President William 'Bill' Clinton at an Akron, Ohio rally, part 2

Tape: 4 Story: 21 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum with contest winners, her daughter, granddaughter, and Congressman Tom Sawyer, Washington, D.C., 1999

Tape: 4 Story: 22 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson with fellow cabinet members of City Council, Akron, Ohio, late 1980s

Tape: 4 Story: 23 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson volunteers with children from Stewart Afrocentric School, Akron, Ohio, 2000

Tape: 4 Story: 24 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson plants the first tree in Dorothy O. Jackson Park, named in her honor, Kiryat Ekron, Israel

Tape: 4 Story: 25 - Photo - President William 'Bill' Clinton, First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton and Vice President Al Gore at the presidential inauguration, January 21, 1993

Tape: 4 Story: 26 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson at sixteen and her granddaughter

Tape: 4 Story: 27 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson at an awards dinner with her daughter and granddaughter

Tape: 4 Story: 28 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson's mother, Dueallie Jackson

Tape: 4 Story: 29 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson's father, William Jackson, Sr.

Tape: 4 Story: 30 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson's baby picture, 1930s

Tape: 4 Story: 31 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson with President William 'Bill' Clinton at a town meeting on race, Akron, Ohio, December 1997

Tape: 4 Story: 32 - Photo - Dorothy Jackson with Bishop Desmond Tutu at an event at Walsh Jesuit High School, Akron, Ohio

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

1$2

DATitle
Dorothy Jackson discusses her career as a sign language interpreter
Dorothy Jackson signs an inspirational message
Transcript
You were on your way to Gallaudet College [Gallaudet University, Washington, D.C.], you know, on a special scholarship to learn sign language, right?$$Yes. And I had--before I learned that I was going, I actually learned--my boss said to me, "Can you go away for a month?" And I said, "No." Couldn't go away for a month. I made twenty-five dollars a week. And I paid a dollar a day for the babysitter. So, no way I could go--take off for a month. And one day in the cafeteria a girl said to me, "Congratulations." I said, "For what?" And she grabbed her mouth. And I went to my boss and said, "Why is she congratulating me?" And she said, "Well it's never mind now." I said, "Why?" She said, "Well we got you a scholarship for Gallaudet. But you said you couldn't go away." Oh I said, "Oh I can go." So I went to my babysitter. And I said to her--well I went to my sister first that I lived with. My sister, Lucille [Jackson]. And I said, "I have a chance to go to Gallaudet to learn sign language. Will you keep [daughter] Rene [Lynn Jackson-Aniere] for me? And will you pick her up from the babysitter?" And she said, "Yes." And I went to the babysitter. And I said, "I have a chance to go to Gallaudet to learn sign language. Lucille will pick up Rene. And will you keep her for me? And I won't be able to pay you. But one day I will. One day I'll be able to pay. I can't--I won't be able to pay now." And she said, "Oh yes." She would. So at that point I went to the church. And I said, "I have a chance to go to Gallaudet and learn sign language. And I want you to pray for me. Because I know, I can learn. But if they give me the test, I can't pass the test." And so they didn't give me the test until two weeks after I was there. And I could see Professor Phillips standing over me shaking his head saying, "I don't believe you. According to this test, you are not to be able to learn sign language. And I'm watching you do it everyday." And before I left, I said to all the deaf, "I'm going to go to Gallaudet. And I'm gonna to learn to talk for you." And my boss would hear me. And she'd say , "Stop telling them that. You're not going to learn. This is a language. You don't know how to speak the language. You're going for an orientation." And I'd go see the next deaf. And I'd say, "I'm going to Gallaudet. I'm gonna learn to talk for you." And she would get so upset. She would continue to call me in her office. "You must stop telling them that. You're not going to learn to talk. You're just going for an orientation." But I knew I was going to learn to talk for them. And when I came home, I knew seven hundred words. And I started interpreting the day I came home. I've interpreted for [U.S.] President [William] Clinton. And one of those pictures is in there with me and [U.S. President] Jimmy Carter. That I met to talk about the needs of the handicapped. I think I really put interpreting on the front burner in Akron [Ohio]. And I taught the first beginners' sign language class at Akron U [University of Akron, Akron, Ohio]. I taught classes at the Y [YMCA, Young Mens Christian Association]. I've interpreted for many, many people. I interpreted for the Gospel Meet Symphony. I coordinate still that program. I've founded the deaf ministry at our church. At the--several other churches, not only our church. And I've taught hundreds of people. And I still speak and teach fluent sign language. In fact, I've had the deaf say to me when I sing, "I feel like I can hear when I watch you interpret." So it to me is a gift that the Lord has given to me.$$There's a certain rhythm you have to have--,$$(Simultaneously) Oh yeah.$$To really make it flow.$$And to make it beautiful. And I believe in that very, very strong--I try to keep up with the speaker as they speak. So I've interpreted for Lou Rawls and for Ruby [Dee] and Ossie Davis. You're gonna be doing them. Give them my love. I love them dearly. They spoke here for me when I was chairing the Life Membership for NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People]. And I count them as my friends. I had the privilege of being invited to their anniversary. And I went to New York [New York] for that. So I've interpreted for many, many people. And taught many classes.$(Signs message simultaneously) Thank you for coming to Akron [Ohio]. We hope that you feel the wonderful spirit that's here. And, and thank you for telling our story. I know all the people that you'll meet while you're here. I saw the names. And I know them all. And I know they all have a story to tell. And I hope that it will inspire young people to know that especially--young African Americans to know that yes you can be anything that you want to be if you try to be you can. And just put your hand in the hand of God and let him lead you. And he will do that.

Sylvester Small

Dr. Sylvester Small, Superintendent of the Akron, Ohio Public Schools, was born on February 26, 1947 in Akron, Ohio, the third of six brothers. Both of his parents migrated from segregated Clarksdale, Mississippi to Akron. They instilled in him the value of every life experience as an educational experience. Graduating from Hower Vocational High School in 1965, Small worked a variety of jobs to raise money to attend college and stay out of the Vietnam War. Inspired by the dedicated teachers he encountered as a student, Small intended to become a schoolteacher. In 1966 he enrolled in the University of Akron and by 1971 he was teaching in the Akron Public Schools. Sylvester Small continued his postgraduate education at the University of Akron, earning his Masters in 1976 and his Ed. D. in 1984.

For the past 32 years, Sylvester Small has served as a substitute teacher, teacher, board administrator, assistant principal and principal at both the elementary and secondary levels. He also took on the roles of urban demonstration project teacher, social studies curriculum specialist, coordinator of student services, and assistant superintendent of for curriculum and instruction. When Akron sought a new Superintendent of Schools in 2001 Small, with the support of the community was elevated to the role of Superintendent of the Akron Public Schools.

Superintendent Small, assisted by 4,000 administrators, teachers, counselors, librarians, and other personnel, was accountable for the administration and distribution of $334,814,771 during 2001/2002. His vision for the Akron Public Schools is a world - class, student - focused, community - based learning system. On October 15, 2001 Small guided the city and school board to the table to sign a Contract With The Community, pledging to accomplish a broad range of goals.

An active participant in community and professional organizations, Small is a member of the NAACP, Leadership Akron, the Coming Together Project, the Akron Alliance of Black School Educators and the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity. He is the recipient of many awards including the Harold K. Stubbs Humanitarian Award for Distinguished Service in Education and the Outstanding Professional Person of the Year Award from the National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Club. Small retired from his superintendent position on July 31, 2007. A lifelong resident of Akron, Dr. Sylvester Small lives there with his wife, Elaine.

Accession Number

A2002.134

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/1/2002

Last Name

Small

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Organizations
Schools

Hower Vocational High School

University of Akron

Thornton Junior High School

First Name

Sylvester

Birth City, State, Country

Akron

HM ID

SMA01

Favorite Season

Summer

Sponsor

Knight Foundation

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

2/26/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Miami

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Collard Greens

Short Description

School superintendent Sylvester Small (1947 - ) worked in the Akron, Ohio, school system for over thirty years while also staying very involved in the community. Small was the winner of the Harold K. Stubbs Humanitarian Award for Distinguished Service in Education.

Employment

Akron Public Schools

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:4405,38:12262,210:17766,250:21735,317:24975,407:41580,705:42260,716:45184,784:48448,870:52288,903:53454,915:54620,930:55680,941:59450,977:66397,1067:67167,1078:68014,1101:69631,1208:70170,1217:77177,1330:81951,1435:82259,1440:92011,1574:96628,1694:97195,1704:97924,1715:98653,1725:99301,1734:111828,1905:112144,1911:113013,1916:113329,1936:117753,2044:123538,2101:130864,2240:131308,2335:132048,2342:137215,2465:138673,2511:149760,2594:163110,2789:180874,3024:188250,3123:188810,3162:192380,3231:195250,3291:197490,3352:197980,3361:205366,3456:215294,3634:216662,3651:217742,3682:218102,3734:226790,3861$0,0:6770,165:10342,245:13256,280:14102,291:14948,301:20212,391:24724,459:31036,469:31492,477:32024,485:37116,610:39548,654:42968,717:43500,725:53402,848:53906,856:54266,863:54626,869:56642,918:60126,934:61205,957:63446,1013:67264,1074:68177,1096:79544,1288:90180,1404:108854,1797:109202,1806:110942,1836:111551,1872:112073,2076:145858,2492:147766,2527:148296,2533:148932,2540:155478,2642:156204,2655:157172,2664:157920,2684
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Sylvester Small's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Sylvester Small lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Sylvester Small describes his parents' background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Sylvester Small describes his and his father's experiences in Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Sylvester Small talks about his family

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Sylvester Small talks about his maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Sylvester Small describes the sights, sounds, and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Sylvester Small talks about his education

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Sylvester Small describes two teachers who influenced him

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Sylvester Small talks about his childhood interests

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Sylvester Small talks about his experience at Hower Vocational High School

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Sylvester Small talks about his decision to attend college

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Sylvester Small describes his extracurricular interests at Hower Vocational High School

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Sylvester Small describes enrolling at the University of Akron in order to avoid the draft

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Sylvester Small describes his experience working full time while attending the University of Akron, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Sylvester Small describe his experience working at a country western bar in Akron, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Sylvester Small describes his experience at the University of Akron, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Sylvester Small describes his experience student teaching

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Sylvester Small describes his experiences as a substitute teacher

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Sylvester Small shares his thoughts on disciplining students

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Sylvester Small describes his experience as a teacher

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Sylvester Small lists the positions he has held in Akron Public Schools

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Sylvester Small talks about becoming the principal at Buchtel High School

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Sylvester Small describes becoming the first black superintendent of Akron Public Schools, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Sylvester Small describes becoming the first black superintendent of Akron Public Schools, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Sylvester Small talks about his superintendence of the Akron Public Schools

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Sylvester Small describes the challenges facing African American students at school

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Sylvester Small reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Sylvester Small talks about his family

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Sylvester Small talks about his plans for the future

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

6$3

DATitle
Sylvester Small describes his experiences as a substitute teacher
Sylvester Small talks about his superintendence of the Akron Public Schools
Transcript
And, so that's the kind of experience that you know--when I was determined I was going to be a teacher, and when I got out, the system said, "Well we don't have any openings in your area." And they did hire a white female to teach social studies at that same building I was at, and the principal was--I mean, he was upset about it. And--so, and Goodyear [Tire and Rubber Company] offered me a job at that time, a job at a supervisor in a factory. And I said, "No. I know what I'm gonna do, I gonna work with kids, I'm gonna dedicate my life to serving children." And I said, "I'm not gonna take this job." So I signed up to be a substitute teacher; and my first year in the system, in 1970, I was a substitute teacher in the system. So don't let anybody tell anybody you can't start at the bottom and go to the top 'cause here I stand at the top of the system as superintendent. And started out thirty some years ago as a substitute teacher. And so I substituted; and first month, not a call; second month, not a call; third month, not a call. So I go to a basketball game and the principal from the building said, "Where have you been?" 'Cause he used to go to basketball games. He said, "Where have you been?" I said, "Well I've been at home waiting for a call to substitute." And he said, "Well, we had all these people coming at our building that handle the kids, can't handle the class." So he told--he said, "Well come down and see me Monday." Well it was a teacher that actually did that. So I went down to the building and basically there was a guy that was in very--crude kind of guy, he called--he came and said, "What're doing?" and I said--so he called while I was there, he called the personnel director downtown on the phone and he literally cussed him out; and then he cussed me out said, "Now get your so-and-so downtown," and, you know. Next thing--the next day I got a call, from that day on I got a calls; and the thing about it I would never turn down an assignment. I would go and substitute place where people refused to go; and so after about a few months of that, they said, "You do so well and work so well with kids and people and, and get along, we're gonna offer you a job, but you have to go back to school and get certified in elementary." And I was a secondary certified person--high school certified. So I said, this is a test; they want me to say no I'm not gonna do it. So I said, "No problem." They told me that in April, by September I was certified. That summer I went back, took those hours, took something like eighteen hours, got certified. They put me in junior high school--never stepped foot into an elementary school until I went back to elementary school in 1990 as a principal there. But I never taught in elementary school.$$They told you had to be certified for elementary and--$$(Nods head) Um-hm. That's where they were going to be put me.$$--they never (unclear)?$$Never placed me there.$$That's interesting, you know.$$But I loved--substituting taught me a lot. How to work with all kinds of kids, how to make sure that--how to make sure that you're in charge; that the kids not in charge, that there aren't any bad kids--there are some kids that are misdirected, and that you had to be in charge that the kids cannot be in charge. That you have to been disciplined, and that you cannot fear kids. You've got to let them know that, "Hey, certain things don't go here." And everywhere I've gone, people will tell you there's been discipline wherever I go. And there's been love, love and discipline. Kids kinda feel I care about them. And there's a special relation between me and the kids. I've never had a problem getting along with kids. And I have a lot of patience with kids, sometimes I don't have enough patience with adults, 'cause I think adults should know better.$What are the biggest problems confronted in Akron's [Ohio] school system right now--that you're working on, trying to (unclear) (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Well it's the academic achievement, it's closing the achievement gap between African Americans and non-minorities; it's resources, financial resources. We're an urban district and we're having a decline in enrollments, decline in resources, the problems that you have with students, retaining good people, a lack of African Americans in the profession. A lot of them are my age and older, and they're retiring and there're not people to take their place. It's a myriad--and it's a political system, a very political atmosphere with community schools and charter schools. So I, going in I shared my philosophy with everybody. My philosophy is that my goal is to turn the Akron Public Schools into a world class, student focused, community based learning system. 'Cause education is more than just the school system. It's the whole community; that everybody has to participate in education; that the kids are important, we have to focus on them and their needs. So my goal is to do that. And I have to make a lot of ugly decisions that gonna affect a lot of people, but I have to put the kids first; I've always put them first.$$Give me an example of an ugly decision you might have made?$$Well I just moved sixteen principals and about fourteen assistant principals; and what I'm saying to people is that I made a commitment to make a difference and in order to make a difference, I need everybody at the top of their game. And we're gonna move you, and aligned you where you gonna do a good job, but if you don't do a good job, then it's plan of assistance, then it's time for you to go someplace else. I've signed a contract with the community saying I'm gonna do certain things, if I don't do these things, you know, you need to get rid of me. I told the community: "Hold me accountable, I'm not afraid of the challenge." If I don't do what I promised them what I'm gonna do, and we've got a contract that I signed, the president of the board of education signed, the mayor signed and president of city council, that's saying I'm gonna do these things, and if I don't do them, you can get rid of me. 'Cause my father [Walter Small] told me: "You gotta be committed to make a difference. Don't' be afraid to make the commitment."$$I think there're over sixty schools in the (unclear) (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Sixty school (unclear), right; and about thirty thousand students.$$Okay, all right. The population of Akron [Ohio] is roughly?$$Probably about 220, thirty [230] thousand people.$$Okay, okay.

Gloria Rookard

Gloria Mae Rookard, a native of Akron, Ohio, was born on January 3, 1932 to Maurine and Claude Shuler. The second of nine children, Rookard helped care for her siblings and grew up to become a nurse who cared deeply for patients and those in need. She has been active in seeking equal access to health care for all Americans.

Rookard (then Shuler) married Howard Rookard in 1952. That same year, she became a registered nurse and began working at Akron General Hospital, where she eventually was promoted to head nurse. Rookard acted as the clinic coordinator for the Migrand Health Clinic from 1968 to 1969, when she became the manager of ancillary services for a local organization called Visiting Nurse. In 1971, she was invited to help found the National Black Nurses' Association. Serving as the first membership chairwoman, she caused the organization to grow significantly. Having pursued business classes at the University of Akron, she also served as a treasurer. She began working for Headstart as a clinic coordinator in 1974. Earning a P.N.A. from Cincinnati University, she became a certified pediatric nurse practitioner. In 1982, she founded Universal Nursing Services, Inc. and still serves as their president and C.E.O.

Rookard has served as president of the Ohio Pediatric Nurses' Association and managing editor and invited founder of the Contemporary Nurses' Educational Foundation. She has also served as board member for the American Diabetic Society, the Fallsview Psychiatric Hospital and Goals for Greater Akron. President Carter designated her as a Presidential Appointee on the American Family. The NAACP and Wesley Temple A.M.E. church have also benefited from her membership. She and her husband have five children-Howard, Douglas, David, Derrick and Deanna.

Accession Number

A2002.132

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/2/2002

Last Name

Rookard

Maker Category
Organizations
Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Any

First Name

Gloria

Birth City, State, Country

Akron

HM ID

ROO01

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Only if travel is required - Negotiable

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

New York, New York

Favorite Quote

Would Some Power The Gift To Give Us, To See Ourselves As Others See Us.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Ohio

Birth Date

1/3/1932

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Akron

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Greens, Fried Chicken, Potato Salad

Short Description

Nurse and chief executive officer Gloria Rookard (1932 - ) served as co-founder and treasurer of the National Black Nurses Association. She later founded Universal Nursing Services.

Employment

Akron General Medical Center

Migrand Health Clinic

Delete

Universal Nursing Services, Inc.

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:2914,33:3760,44:4982,126:10434,246:12126,267:20230,440:28870,570:39490,734:40750,757:45984,771:46256,776:46868,789:50609,847:55981,945:56376,951:56692,956:63501,1012:64250,1020:64892,1027:69830,1039:70636,1055:71814,1087:73364,1123:86580,1303:104120,1588:119084,1849:119372,1854:120164,1878:121604,1906:124484,1959:124844,1966:138965,2169:144140,2256:148280,2364:149246,2395:149729,2403:150212,2411:150488,2423:150902,2430:168234,2614:168546,2619:192280,2957:193828,2981:212630,3145$0,0:2622,34:3192,40:3762,46:18910,225:24385,337:27760,431:34720,497:60320,813:66935,879:70757,947:92182,1206:92647,1212:93391,1222:94321,1233:107083,1462:133772,1795:138340,1859:162772,2040:163150,2049:163852,2070:167774,2127:168422,2141:172824,2196:179796,2346:180294,2353:181290,2382:184278,2443:197924,2552:204681,2631:216160,2762
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Gloria Rookard's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Gloria Rookard lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Gloria Rookard describe her parents, Maurine and Claude Shuler

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Gloria Rookard describes her maternal and paternal family history during slavery and Reconstruction

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Gloria Rookard talks about the discrimination she faced when she applied to nursing school

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Gloria Rookard describes her father's and mother's siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Gloria Rookard describes the sights, sounds, and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Gloria Rookard describes herself as a child at Robinson Elementary School in Akron, Ohio

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Gloria Rookard talks about attending nursing school at People's Hospital in Akron, Ohio, in 1950 to 1952

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Gloria Rookard talks about her mentors growing up, including her neighbor, Ruth Johnson

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Gloria Rookard describes her siblings and her siblings' children

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Gloria Rookard talks about being one of the first four black students at nursing school at People's Hospital in Akron, Ohio in 1950

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Gloria Rookard talks about meeting her husband, Howard Rookard, in 1952

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Gloria Rookard talks about dating her husband, Howard Rookard, as a nursing student at People's Hospital in Akron, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Gloria Rookard describes eloping with her husband, Howard Rookard, in 1952

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Gloria Rookard describes the intense training she received at nursing school at People's Hospital in Akron, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Gloria Rookard describes women's expected occupations growing up in the 1940s and 1950s

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Gloria Rookard talks about working in different nursing departments at Akron General Hospital in Ohio from 1952 to 1968

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Gloria Rookard describes her entrance into public health nursing working with migrant workers in Ohio in 1968

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Gloria Rookard remembers her handling of a public health concern in Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Gloria Rookard describes women's public health concerns while working at Migrant Health in 1968

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Gloria Rookard talks about treating the children of the migrant workers in Ohio during 1968 and 1969

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Gloria Rookard talks about working for Planned Parenthood and then the Head Start Program in 1974

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Gloria Rookard talks about working with her former roommate at People's Hospital in Akron, Ohio, Betty Jo Davidson, at Akron's public health department

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Gloria Rookard talks about being a working mother

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Gloria Rookard describes working at Visiting Nurse Service from 1969 to 1974 and then Head Start from 1974 to 1979

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Gloria Rookard talks about founding the Universal Nursing Service in 1982

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Gloria Rookard describes her work as president of Universal Nursing Service

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Gloria Rookard talks about the health concerns affecting the black community

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Gloria Rookard talks about the rewards of and future plans for Universal Nursing Service

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$2

DAStory

9$7

DATitle
Gloria Rookard talks about attending nursing school at People's Hospital in Akron, Ohio, in 1950 to 1952
Gloria Rookard remembers her handling of a public health concern in Ohio
Transcript
So anyhow, he was like my mentor because he called [Akron] City Hospital [now Summa Akron City Hospital, Ohio] and got me the application. And that's when I got turned the first time. The second time--what, and after I got turned down, then he called Akron General which is not Akron General [Medical Center, Akron, Ohio]. It was People's [Hospital, Akron, Ohio] at the time and they accepted me, you know [1950-1952]. But to do all of that, the Urban League here had been very proactive, and once I had passed the exam and had the--everything going, you know, that looked like I was going to be accepted. Then they evidently interceded and talked to the director of nursing over at Akron General [Hospital, Ohio]. And she told them that their, their situation was that they had two rooms and a bath in between, so there and there were four students to the two rooms, so two apiece and the bath. And what they were looking for was either three more students of color or seven more so that we would have a support system because her orientation was that students who had a support system did better than students who would be solo. And she didn't want me there as a solo. So what happened, they did more testing, I understand, in Akron [Ohio], and apparently, didn't find anybody else that they considered worthy to go. But what happened then in Aug-, the end of August, school was going to start in September, they found this one other person who became my roommate, Jean Felton. Her--she's Felton now but she was Jean Nichols (ph.) at the time--was living with a, in a foster situation. Brilliant woman, and she and I became roommates, and that how I got--so what she, what the director did there, she found one room that had the two beds but a private bath. And that's where she put us up until the following year when they found two more students. And then the four of us became roommates which was almost a disaster (laughter) 'cause we had such a great time, you know. All became lifelong friends.$$Okay. And these were all black students (unclear) (simultaneous)?$$Yes, uh-hum. And they never invited us to--belong to the alumni over there until years later. They wouldn't allow us to belong but that was okay, you know, because by that time, I think we were all grounded. And we all had our own self-worth and image, you know, how you do that. And, but it was kind of strange because some of the things that they accused me of was number one, I was supposedly arrogant and insolent, and I didn't even know what the words meant, you know. And there was a couple of the, the white nurses that really rankled at my being there. And it was, it was sort of hellish at one point. But the evaluations that I kept receiving were always outstanding, so they could never find a real reason, you know. And they always mixed the two of us up. They called me Miss Nichols and Jean, Miss Shuler. And it was kind of funny because we were, were direct opposites. Jean's tall and really nice and brilliant and quiet. And I'm short yellow and and mouthy (laughter) and, and it was kind of a real kind of disparity, you know, so-$We had--well, there's story after story after story, you know. The one thing that intrigued me most was the, the venereal disease problem. I thought I knew textbook-wise what we were dealing with, right? But I mean it had never been demonstrated to me, just, you know, just how loose people could be with their morals, you know. And because they--their, their system and their standards were totally different than we had been taught. So anyway, this one Monday morning, I walked in and then outside of the door, there were eight guys waiting on me. And I thought, well now, what do I owe the privilege of having all you young guys out here standing up waiting on the nurse? Well, "Can we come in?" "Yeah, you can come on in, come on in." "We ran train on Mary Jane and the third man in got burnt."$$The third man?$$(Laughter) First off, (gesture) right over my head it went. I had no idea what they were talking about. So I said, "You have to explain this to me." "(Laughter) That's a dumb nurse." (Laughter) So, the, this one guy said, "Don't laugh at her. Let's tell her what's, what's going on," and he did, you know. And I thought, oh, my word, ooh, you know. Never heard of it, I had never heard the expression before in my entire life. I was dumbfounded. So anyway, I didn't have any penicillin to give them, so I called the health department in Canton [Ohio], which was the closest major town, and told the public health director there that, you know, we had a problem. And I wanted to send these guys in for treatment, or whatever he did--they deemed was necessary. He told me, "Don't send them there." Okay. "Now let me ask you a question: do you want these eight guys all though Starke County [Ohio] spreading their third man in," (laughter) "to the rest of the population?" And he said, "Ms. Shuler," no, "Mrs. Rookard," he said, "don't send them here." Okay. So I got on the phone and I called Columbus [Ohio], and I told them what the dilemma was. Well, they got on the phone and they called him and told him that they were to be treated. So they got into the vehicle and they all went down and were treated, you know. That was one fight. Another fight that I had was this one girl who was--$$Oh, did they find Mary Jane, too (laughter)?$$Well, they, they never told me who Mary Jane was. And I really didn't want to know, but, you know, public health wise, I needed to know. They said they'd take care of it because evidently Mary Jane was a teenager and she was with her parents, and they didn't want her parents to know what Mary Jane's weekend activity was. So evidently they took care of it 'cause I asked her one day and she, she looked at me (makes sound) like that, and kept right on walking. See, so, okay.

Janet Purnell

Educator and minority advocate Janet Purnell was born in Akron, Ohio on August 30, 1936 and has been a life-long resident. She studied education at the University of Akron, where she earned both her B.S. (1959) and her M.S. (1971).

For twenty-two years, Purnell worked for the Akron Public Schools as both an elementary school teacher and principal. In 1967, she led alumni in successfully lobbying for the establishment of an anti-segregation policy on the University of Akron campus. In 1982, she became the Executive Director of the Akron Metropolitan Housing Authority. In this role, she oversaw the public housing for 20,000 residents and served as a lobbyist on behalf of the 40 largest housing authorities. She later entered the private sector, acting as the CEO of Navic & Associates, where she served as a local and national consultant on establishing diversity in the workplace. In 1990, she returned to her alma mater to sit on the president's cabinet, overseeing all minority initiatives on campus. This position led to her subsequent role as the first Executive Director of Minority Development at the University. Purnell was responsible for securing funding to support minority initiatives and distributing annual scholarship funds to minority students. In honor of Purnell's appointment to chair the University of Akron's Board of Trustees, the Zeta Theta Omega Sorority established the Janet B. Purnell Project Self-Sufficiency Endowment, which annually awards a scholarship to a single mother.

Since 1985, she has provided leadership to historic preservation efforts in Akron. She designed and implemented the Dr. Shirla R. McClain Gallery of Akron's Black History and Culture program and spearheaded the establishment of the Gallery's endowment fund and curriculum guides. She has been a member of the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority for over forty years; has acted a Trustee for the Akron Urban League and Akron Musical Association; serves as the Secretary of the Akron Chapter of the NAACP; is the Vice-Chairman of the Akron Black Women's Leadership Caucus and Chair of the Mt. Olive Baptist Church Trustee Ministry. In 2001, Purnell was honored as one of 100 outstanding women of Summit County. She is the mother of two sons.

Accession Number

A2002.131

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/2/2002

Last Name

Purnell

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widow

Schools

University of Akron

North High School

First Name

Janet

Birth City, State, Country

Akron

HM ID

PUR01

Favorite Season

Winter

State

Ohio

Favorite Vacation Destination

Houston, Texas

Favorite Quote

Do Not Go Where The Path May Lead. Go, Instead, Where There Is No Path And Leave A Trail.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Ohio

Birth Date

8/30/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Akron

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Broccoli

Death Date

11/30/2008

Short Description

Academic administrator, elementary school principal, and elementary school teacher Janet Purnell (1936 - 2008 ) was the first executive director of minority development at the University of Akron. She also taught in Akron Public Schools for twenty-two years before becoming executive director of Akron Metropolitan Housing Authority and CEO of Navic & Associates.

Employment

Akron Public Schools

Akron Metropolitan Housing Authority

University of Akron

University of Akron Shirla R. McClain Gallery

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:2345,26:2925,35:18058,199:22486,272:23306,284:24126,294:31940,343:32948,348:34532,375:35252,386:40580,498:41300,511:45620,592:45980,598:47132,614:54132,671:57524,746:58164,770:59572,805:62708,930:63220,940:70166,1010:70462,1015:70980,1023:89952,1334:90360,1341:94224,1371:94559,1377:95229,1390:95765,1401:97708,1432:101862,1519:128760,1857:129390,1868:129810,1876:147150,2133:147633,2144:148323,2158:151704,2223:151980,2228:170790,2435$0,0:14770,180:29853,389:33658,422:34810,444:35314,453:35890,463:36898,485:38050,496:38554,505:51810,743:64235,996:65442,1010:65939,1019:68800,1027$0,0:15827,335:16411,345:18236,390:19915,421:31858,562:45757,781:49115,855:74788,1205:79652,1281:82616,1322:98139,1565:98691,1573:101244,1629:104970,1706:111431,1765:111998,1777:112880,1799:119243,1957:121448,1998:132042,2163:138980,2265$0,0:17160,160:18210,182:20610,224:21435,237:23085,291:27585,380:28335,391:29010,403:29535,411:30510,425:38151,467:38662,476:40122,503:43188,565:43626,572:49222,657:49494,673:49766,678:51670,714:52010,720:52962,735:53234,740:53574,746:53846,751:58130,825:59422,852:69985,972:70695,984:70979,989:74103,1044:74529,1051:78079,1111:79286,1129:80422,1147:81274,1165:82481,1185:83404,1199:92132,1279:96164,1348:98084,1385:100580,1441:100836,1446:101412,1456:102884,1486:104356,1522:104612,1527:104932,1533:105316,1540:113232,1627:113628,1634:120360,1768:120624,1773:121482,1787:127658,1845:128154,1856:129642,1898:138370,1996
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Janet Purnell's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Janet Purnell lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Janet Purnell describes her parents' family backgrounds

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Janet Purnell talks about her maternal great-grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Janet Purnell talks about the traditional family stories that were passed on to her

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Janet Purnell describes why her parents moved to Akron, Ohio

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Janet Purnell describes the sights, smells, and sounds of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Janet Purnell describes the role of Mt. Zion Baptist Church during her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Janet Purnell describes her mother's involvement with the Republican Party

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Janet Purnell describes her upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Janet Purnell describes her childhood interests and activities

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Janet Purnell talks about her favorite childhood holidays

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Janet Purnell describes her mother's strict personality

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Janet Purnell describes her parents' civic involvement

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Janet Purnell describes her experiences in school

Tape: 1 Story: 16 - Janet Purnell describes her parents' educational backgrounds

Tape: 1 Story: 17 - Janet Purnell describes the first black teachers in the Akron Public School system

Tape: 1 Story: 18 - Janet Purnell talks about her experiences attending Jennings Junior High School in Akron, Ohio

Tape: 1 Story: 19 - Janet Purnell talks about her parents' involvement with Freemasonry

Tape: 1 Story: 20 - Janet Purnell talks about her parents' care for others

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Janet Purnell talks about her parents' civic involvement

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Janet Purnell describes her childhood chores

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Janet Purnell talks about growing up in Akron Metropolitan Housing

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Janet Purnell describes her experiences attending North High School in Akron, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Janet Purnell describes her social life as an African American student at North Senior High School in Akron, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Janet Purnell talks about the teachers that influenced her at North High School in Akron, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Janet Purnell describes why she enrolled at the University of Akron in Akron, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Janet Purnell talks about attending the University of Akron in Akron, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Janet Purnell describes volunteering with the Akron Urban League as a youth

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Janet Purnell talks about police checkpoints in Akron, Ohio in the 1960s

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Janet Purnell talks about social unrest in Akron, Ohio during the 1960s and 1970s

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Janet Purnell describes her early teaching career

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Janet Purnell describes the dynamic between teachers and parents during her early teaching career

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Janet Purnell talks about developing partnerships with parents in the classroom

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Janet Purnell describes the "integrated learning experience" she helped develop in the 1950s

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Janet Purnell talks about helping her students develop a sense of cultural identity and self-sufficiency

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Janet Purnell describes why she ended her career as an elementary school teacher

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Janet Purnell talks about trying to integrate "private" parks with the National Urban League in Akron, Ohio

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Janet Purnell talks about developing programs and services to encourage voter registration

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Janet Purnell talks about being active in Republican politics

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Janet Purnell comments on being a Republican in an era of declining black Republican involvement

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Janet Purnell describes her Republican ideology

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Janet Purnell talks about arranging an interview between her students and Alex Haley, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Janet Purnell talks about arranging an interview between her students and Alex Haley, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Janet Purnell describes addressing discipline in schools during her time as a school principal

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Janet Purnell shares a story of a teacher disciplining a student without context

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Janet Purnell describes how a partnership with Akron Children's Hospital transformed the way she and her teachers approached students

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Janet Purnell talks about being the Vice Chairman of the Summit County Republican Party

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Janet Purnell talks about being hired as the Executive Director of the Akron Metropolitan Housing Authority

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Janet Purnell describes the challenges she faced as Executive Director of the Akron Metropolitan Housing Authority

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Janet Purnell talks about developing a formal pest control system for the Akron Metropolitan Housing Authority

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Janet Purnell describes the challenges she faced when hiring staff for the Akron Metropolitan Housing Authority

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Janet Purnell compares public housing developments in large cities

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Janet Purnell talks about the services offered to tenants during her time as Executive Director of the Akron Metropolitan Housing Authority

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Janet Purnell talks about gang violence in Akron Metropolitan Housing Authority

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Janet Purnell talks about retiring as Executive Director of Akron Metropolitan Housing Authority

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Janet Purnell talks about serving as interim Director of Minority Affairs and Executive Director of Minority Development for the University of Akron

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Janet Purnell talks about serving as Regional Coordinator of Leadership Development Training for Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority

Tape: 4 Story: 14 - Janet Purnell talks about curriculum design

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Janet Purnell talks about working with every day people to acquire historical materials

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Janet Purnell comments on what it takes to contribute to history

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Janet Purnell describes the effects the Dr. Shirla R. McClain Gallery of Akron's Black History and Culture has had on the public

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Janet Purnell talks about her plans for the future

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Janet Purnell talks about how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Janet Purnell narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1$1$1

DATape

4$4$1$3

DAStory

5$6$13$2

DATitle
Janet Purnell describes the challenges she faced as Executive Director of the Akron Metropolitan Housing Authority
Janet Purnell talks about developing a formal pest control system for the Akron Metropolitan Housing Authority
Janet Purnell describes her mother's strict personality
Janet Purnell describes the "integrated learning experience" she helped develop in the 1950s
Transcript
Okay. Now, tell us about that. I mean, what was that like? Because I think the previous administration was Democratic or whatever, and you came in. And what kind of issues did you have to face?$$Well, not only the issue of blackness, but the issue of being a female. Because not only on a local level was it interesting to be received in that setting. I would run into situations because I... It called for a lot of traveling on a national basis to affiliate with the Council of National... large public housing authorities, etc., etc. And generally, I would travel with at least one other administrator. Like, it might be legal counsel or the vice president of finance. And there would be two of us who would come into a setting. And someone would say, "I'd like you to meet the new Executive Director of AMHA [Akron Metropolitan Housing Authority]." And say, if you and I were together, the person would immediately reach for your hand. (Laughter). This happened to us all the time that no one ever guessed that it could possibly be the tall black woman. No one ever guessed. And so, that happened throughout the whole six and a half years. When I first arrived even on the national scene at a conference, someone made the joke... made the comment, "Why would a little schoolteacher think that she could succeed in public housing?" Now six and a half years later by the time I was retiring, then they were angry because I was leaving because I'd become one of the leading lobbying voices before the Congress. Then they were upset, and I said, "Well, this little old schoolteacher is moving out now. Remember you thought this wasn't going to work." So, on all fronts--on the front of sexuality, on the front of race--from many perspectives there was the challenge. Because it is an autonomous political sub-division, and that was the climate in which I came in that could not be changed suddenly. And so, the fact that I had the ability to make multi-million dollar decisions day to day, and to really have the authority to run the Housing Authority, notwithstanding that the board was, you know, a governing board. As long as I was producing... as long as I was attracting the millions of dollars that were needed to run it, and producing the proper profits and enhancing the image of just what that housing authority was, then the board was pleased. And so, we were able to have a successful administration.$Okay. What kind of changes did you feel compelled to make in the administration of public housing here in the City of Akron? I mean what had it come to since you, since the days that you lived in public housing as a child? And what did you have to change to try to make it better?$$Well, one of the first things I had to do was to establish a system for our... a formal system for pest control. We had a very informal system for that. And that was major, in that we had something like 9,000 units of housing in six cities and two townships. And so, we did develop a full-scale program of that. One of the things--$$I'm sorry. The scope of what you were doing was not just in Akron [Ohio] then. It was in other cities?$$Right.$$Okay.$$Right. They were all in the county. But it was six cities and two townships.$$So it was Canton--$$Most of the others were smaller.$$Smaller.$$Were smaller than Canton [Ohio]. They were some of the smaller townships and villages, but it still made up nearly 10,000 units of housing.$Okay. So, you were a pretty happy child then, I suppose? I guess what you're describing is pretty--$$Yes. We felt our parents [Millard Walter and Nannette Victoria Johnson] were too strict, because we had a life where folks did care where you went and who was supervising. And like I said, in terms of the time curfew, in terms of things we wanted, you had to wait longer. But really, that was by virtue of the fact that there were six kids. And so, for your name to come up in the hat for a Schwinn bicycle, you had to be patient. They got you a Schwinn bicycle. You got a new one when you got it, but it had to be in the context of paying the family bills and everybody sharing the resources. And so, we came to learn that if we would prevail in terms of being patient, that our parents really extended themselves to a reasonable extent to see that we had the major things that we wanted in life that were important to us.$$Did any of you all ever rebel against your parents, in terms of the rules and--$$Oh, yes. We were very normal. (Laughter). I was probably one of the best children, because my mother [Nannette Victoria Johnson] could anticipate, before I even got into doing something that was out of order--she could sort of read my eyes and she would predict that I had in mind doing something. So, that cancelled it out. But no, we were normal children who had to be spanked and who had to be grounded. I even got as far as college days, and dating my husband. And no one in my family had ever gone to a drive-in movie. And we came home after 1 o'clock in the morning, and my mother would not believe there was such a thing as a movie theater open after that time. And so, she grounded me for thirty days. But my eldest brother got me bailed out, because he had a talk with her. We had a young adult club that met on Sundays at the Urban League. And he talked with her and explained that if she took me out of circulation, I might be with her forever. And I didn't what conversation had transpired; I just know that she called me upstairs and said, "Get dressed and go to your meeting." (Laughter). And she subsequently told me about this conversation, and reflecting on as much as she loved me... having me forever... (Laughter).$Okay, alright. So, what other things did you do, I guess, and were involved in (unclear)--?$$Well, we had the first bussing for integrated learning experience when I was yet in the classroom. I taught fourth grade. And a colleague of mine, Dr. Patricia Stewart, taught fourth grade. She taught at a predominantly white elementary school, and I taught at a predominantly black elementary school. We secured permission to transport my class to spend the afternoon with her class once a month, and we alternated months they would come to us. And we would have a social studies experience. We'd also have a time when they teamed up with specific buddies that they would look toward every month... find out what their hobbies were. They would take something... If Joe was interested in kites, then I might take a kite or something that I had found related to kiting on my next visit, to exchange. So, we had the social studies experience. They would have sack lunch together so that they could interact informally. And at the end of the school year, we had an international buffet luncheon that was more like a picnic, in which we had them bring dishes that related to whatever nationalities were reflected in the group. Some folk got to know what potato pie was for the first time. And by first, in terms of other dishes reflecting other cultures. And what we found was not only was it an excellent experience and they learned to work extremely well together--they fashioned such close bonds that at the end of that first summer when it was time to say good-bye, they were hugging and in tears, as though they had a summer camp experience and had been inseparable for many, many months instead of coming together once a month. And many of them to this day have relationships that have continued to go on into adulthood. But we were able to do that. The public schools provided public transportation for us to--$$Approximately when was this?$$This would have been in the late 1950's.