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Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter

Pastor, educator and author Millicent Hunter was born on September 3, 1950. She graduated from Overbrook High School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1968. Hunter went on to earn her bachelor’s degree, two master's degrees, an Ed.D. degree, and a D.Min. degree from United Theological Seminary.

In 1992, Hunter started The Baptist Worship Center in her home in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania with five members. In 1997, after she rented facilities for a number of years, The Baptist Worship Center congregation purchased its first church in Philadelphia. Hunter then acquired a shopping center in Philadelphia in 2000 for the permanent location for The Baptist Worship Center. She has become senior pastor of the church and the ministry has grown to a congregation of more than 4,000 members. Hunter also established the Worship Center Worldwide Fellowship of Churches in 1998 with seventy-one churches in the United States and South Africa. In 2005, she was elevated to serve as a bishop of the United Pentecostal Churches of Christ International. Hunter also has a twice weekly television broadcast called Your Season Is Coming, and hosts the weekly Moments of Inspiration radio show in Philadelphia.

Hunter is the founder of the National Association of Clergy Women, the Excell Christian Academy, and the Worship Center Bible Training Institute in the United States and South Africa. She is also the chief executive officer of the Excell Community Development Corporation. Hunter has served as a city commissioner in Philadelphia and is also a member of the Board of Directors of the Philadelphia Baptist Association. In addition, she was a former dean of the Sanctuary Bible Institute and an adjunct faculty member at a number of colleges and universities, including the United Theological Seminary. She also taught in the Eastern School of Christian Ministry and the Urban Clergy Leadership Institute of Eastern Baptist Theological Seminary.

Hunter has authored eight books and is president of Hunter House Publishers. Her first book, entitled Don’t Die In The Winter…Your Season Is Coming, became a bestseller and was produced into an eight-week television series. Her other books include Crashing Satan's Party: Destroying the Works of the Adversary in Your Life; Pot Liquor for the Soul; Strong Medicine: Prescriptions for Successful Living; Destined To Win: Prescriptions for Successful Living In Every Area of Your Life; and How to Survive a Hurt Attack. Hunter has also published numerous articles addressing issues that impact African American life.

She has received numerous awards for her involvement in religious and civic affairs. Hunter was featured in Gospel Today magazine as one of America’s top 10 global pacesetting pastors, and in Charisma and Ebony magazines as a leading pastor for world evangelism. Hunter was also included in a Smithsonian Institute pictorial study of African American life in the twenty-first century.

She is married to Dr. Marino Hunter and has two children, Jason and Melissa.

Rev. Dr. Millicent Hunter was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 12, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.196

Sex

Female

Interview Date

6/12/2014

Last Name

Hunter

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Occupation
Schools

Overbrook High School

United Theological Seminary

Nova Southeastern University

University of Pennsylvania

Cheyney University of Pennsylvania

Edward Heston School

First Name

Millicent

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

HUN09

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Thailand

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Pennsylvania

Birth Date

9/3/1950

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Philadelphia

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Pastor and author Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter (1950 - ) was the founder and senior pastor of the Baptist Worship Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She also served as the presiding bishop of the Worship Center Worldwide Fellowship of Churches.

Employment

The Baptist Worship Center

Worship Center Worldwide Fellowship of Churches

United Pentecostal Churches of Christ International

Excell Community Development Corporation

United Theological Seminary

Sanctuary Bible Institute

Eastern School of Christian Ministry

Eastern Baptist Theological Seminary

Hunter House Publishers

Favorite Color

None

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter talks about her parents' move to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter describes her mother's upbringing and education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter talks about the origin of her father's name

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter describes her paternal family's Native American heritage

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter talks about her parents' relationship

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter describes her father's service in the U.S. Navy

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter describes her father's career

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter describes her likeness to her parents

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter lists her siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Reverend. Dr. Millicent Hunter talks about the demographics of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter describes her neighborhood in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter remembers her elementary school experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter describes her early experiences of religion

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter remembers the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter talks about her upbringing, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter describes her experiences of academic tracking

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter recalls running for class office at Overbrook High School

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter describes her teenage years

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter recalls her decision to attend Cheyney State College in Cheyney, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter remembers the Black Power movement

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter remembers Cheyney State College in Cheyney, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter describes her career in the Radnor Township School District, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter describes her career in the Radnor Township School District, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter remembers her graduate school experiences

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter recalls participating in church sponsored oratorical contests

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter remembers her calling to the ministry

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter describes the challenges faced by female Baptist ministers

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter describes her first book, 'Don't Die in the Winter'

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter recalls earning her doctorate in education

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter remembers founding the Baptist Worship Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter recalls balancing motherhood and her ministry

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter describes the growth of the Baptist Worship Center

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter describes her development as a minister

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter recalls finding a new location for the Baptist Worship Center

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter describes the ministry of the Baptist Worship Center

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter recalls her consecration as a Baptist bishop

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter talks about the Worship Center Worldwide Fellowship of Churches

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter recalls her decision to attend the United Theological Seminary in Dayton, Ohio

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter describes her studies at the United Theological Seminary

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter reflects upon her life and legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter describes her hopes for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter talks about her plans for the Baptist Worship Center

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter describes her family

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter talks about Hunter House Publishing

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

6$2

DATitle
Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter describes her career in the Radnor Township School District, pt. 2
Reverend Dr. Millicent Hunter recalls finding a new location for the Baptist Worship Center
Transcript
So, that was a fortunate turn of--well, you know this is the age--$$Yeah (simultaneous).$$--(simultaneous) when these things are happening--$$Yeah.$$--where black folks are stepping into a lot of places for the first time.$$Yeah.$$And so, were there any black students at Radnor?$$Yes. There were some; and there were many times I was very angry because I saw what I, because I was right in the middle of everything. You know, I was at the teachers' meetings, all of the things were done that I had no control over, and I watched it and it was so disturbing. I watched the bright African American children who were not being challenged right away pushed into the--put on Ritalin and put in the classes for children with behavioral problems; and I would see the Caucasian students with the same challenges, but it was always, "Well, they're gifted," and I saw them create classes. One time, I got into a lot of trouble because, for the first time, I recommended a young black girl to get testing for the gifted program and the principal came to me and said, "No way." That was shocking. It was like I was in 1950s Mississippi. She said, "There's no way. We will not have a colored child in the gifted program." Well, I almost lost my job because I went to the mother and I said to her, "This is how. This is what you do. Start making some noise with the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People]." When that girl was tested, the principal sat in the room when the girl was being tested. I'll never forget that she wanted that child to fail. So, what I would do after that, I would go to all the black students' homes and I would give the parents the textbooks for the coming year; and I would say, "This is what you do in the summer, so when Johnny comes to school in September, he has the textbook. He knows what's gonna be covered, you have a problem with some exams and tests, come to me. I'll slide you anything you need," and that's what I did. And so glad I did, because then it broke open the gifted program in Radnor Township [Radnor Township School District]. That was something else.$$So, the principal was balking at allowing the student to e- to take the test?$$To even take the test, because she thought that parents would think the program was polluted because if we have a black student in the gifted program, that probably brings down everything. But then the white teacher who took me under her wing, she said, "This is how you deal with the principal." I remember one time she said, "Take a box of pansies, some flowers, go in and talk to her and ask her how her husband's doing because he's ill and suck up to her like this." I did everything she told me to do and it worked like a charm; and I had a good career, a great career in Radnor [Pennsylvania], because after I got what I needed, I retired at forty-one [years old], and they told me I was crazy to retire, but I was done (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) So, so you taught then from '72 [1972] to--$$To--oh, gosh, eight- in the '80s [1980s].$$Ninety- okay--$$In the '80s [1980s].$$--in the '80s [1980s]?$$Yeah.$$So, okay.$$I think it was the '80s [1980s], yeah. Oh--hm.$$Another twenty--$$It was, well, I took a sabbatical for--you know, I had my children for, I took a sabbatical for--I never took a sabbatical 'til I realized that I had missed three o- three sabbaticals or something, so I kind of took them all at one time and they couldn't deny me that. So, I had in twenty plus years because I'd worked consecutively.$You were telling us off camera about how you spotted this place--$$Yeah.$$--that we're in right now and--as you were shopping, I think? Yeah (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Yeah. While I was on my way to little Sunday afternoon activity at the mall with my children [Jason Thompson and Melissa Thompson], and we passed this place and there was a sale sign and the Lord said, look over, and I looked over, and yeah, well, so what, you know. And the Lord said, no. Look, look at that. And tell your sister [Iva Hall Fitch] who's in real estate to call and enquire about this property; and I'm thinking for what? This great big huge place? And I had a wonderful congregation of about two, about three hundred people [in the Baptist Worship Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania]; and we filled the church where I was, about five minutes from here in Frankford [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania]. And, she called and enquired and so what, you know, million dollars, (makes sound) please; and I met the Jewish man who was an owner and the building was for sale, but we didn't have millions of dollars for it. He says, "Well, you know I think I'm supposed to have a church in here." I don't know if he said that because there were no other takers. He said, "I'll consider leasing it to you." I said, "Well, I don't think so," because, leasing it to us for what? And the Lord just said move the congregation there. I went to my people, same as I did when I was in Southwest Philly [Southwest Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania], because when I said to them we're forced out of the place we're in now [Sanctuary Church of the Open Door, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania], we have to, and we- there's a church in Frankford that's been offered to me. My congregation said, "We love you. We think you're nice, but we're not going up there. It's too far. We don't know that neighborhood. There are no black people there." I said, "Well then, it will probably just be me and my two kids, but we're going," and we came up here and most of them stayed in Southwest Philly. They stayed. Little did I know there were a whole lot of African American people up here. I'd never been to this area of the city, wasn't familiar with it; didn't know how to get here--I had to have someone bring me when I first came up. And there were people just waiting for this church to come, and the churches up here, but God had them waiting and when I acquired one thing just happened, one thing after another and the Jewish man that owned the property, he just did all kinds of things for u- help us get in here, it was a supermarket and a drugstore. We came in and renovated in three months, and the rest is history. And, we have two services every Sunday and about three thousand people, and it's been a stable, thriving congregation of some of the most wonderful people I could ever hope to have as congregants. Yeah.$$So, some have been with you from the very beginning (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) From day one.$$Right.$$From day one, yeah. Yeah. I knew them as college students; and they are, many of them are in the leadership of the church to this day, yeah.$$So, as college students were they you know looking for bible study or (unclear)?$$Yeah, because the church where I was situated, it was on the campus of the University of Pennsylvania [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania]. So, a lot of the African American students walked down the street to come to church on Sundays. You know, and some of them just--when they would see me on television or hear about my book ['Don't Die in the Winter: Your Season is Coming,' Millicent Hunter], they would say, "Oh, I know her. I'm going up there," and many of them came and stayed and remained here.$$Okay, okay.

Donald Bogle

Film historian and author Donald Bogle was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. From a prominent family, Bogle was raised in the suburbs of Philadelphia. His father, John D. Bogle, was a longtime executive with the Philadelphia Tribune, and his mother, Roslyn Woods Bogle, was an area activist whose friends included well known African Americans like Alain Locke and Sterling Brown. In 1966, Bogle received his B.A. degree in literature from Lincoln University.

Upon graduation, Bogle pursued graduate studies at Indiana University and Columbia University. He also at this time served as a story editor for legendary director, Otto Preminger. From 1969 to 1973, he worked for Ebony magazine as a reporter and assistant editor. In 1973, Bogle published his first book, Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies, and Bucks: An Interpretive History of Blacks in American Films in 1973, which won the Theatre Library Association Award as the best film book of the year. Bogle then went on to complete several other literary works, including Brown Sugar: Eighty Years of America's Black Female Superstars (1980); Blacks in American Film and Television: an Encyclopedia (1988); Dorothy Dandridge: A Biography (1997); Primetime Blues: African Americans on Network Television (2001); Bright Boulevards, Bold Dreams: The Story of Black Hollywood (2005); and Heat Wave: The Life and Career of Ethel Waters (2011).

Bogle adapted his book, Brown Sugar: Eighty Years of America’s Black Female Superstars, into a four-part documentary series for Public Broadcasting Service. His work has also yielded an award-winning movie based upon Dorothy Dandridge’s life, Introducing Dorothy Dandridge, starring Halle Berry. He has appeared as a commentator for numerous television documentaries and has been interviewed on several television programs, including The Tavis Smiley Show, The Today Show, Good Morning America, The Charlie Rose Show, Oprah, Nightline and Entertainment Tonight. He has also written articles that have appeared in Film Comment, Spin, Essence, Elan, University Review, and Freedomways. In addition, Bogle has taught at Rutgers University, Lincoln University, the University of Pennsylvania and the Tisch School of the Arts at New York University.

Donald Bogle was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 7, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.117

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/7/2014

Last Name

Bogle

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Lincoln University

Indiana University

Columbia University

First Name

Donald

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

BOG01

State

Pennsylvania

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

7/13/1944

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Short Description

Film historian and author Donald Bogle (1944 - ) was a leading film historian and author of seven books, including Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies, and Bucks: An Interpretive History of Blacks in American Films; Brown Sugar: Eighty Years of America's Black Female Superstars; Blacks in American Film and Television: an Encyclopedia; Dorothy Dandridge: A Biography; Primetime Blues: African Americans on Network Television; Bright Boulevards, Bold Dreams: The Story of Black Hollywood; and Heat Wave: The Life and Career of Ethel Waters.

Employment

Ebony Magazine

Rutgers University

Lincoln University

University of Pennsylvania

Tisch School of the Arts, New York University

June Baldwin

Television executive June M. Baldwin graduated from Stanford University with her B.A. degree in psychology. She went on to receive her J.D. degree from Harvard Law School in 1975.

Following graduation, Baldwin served as clerk for the jurist Luther Swygert on the 7th Circuit Court of Appeals in Chicago, Illinois. She then moved to Los Angeles and was hired as an executive for NBC, where she was responsible for, among other things, the day-to-day business transactions for The Tonight Show and Carson Productions, the television and motion picture production company founded by the late talk show host, Johnny Carson. At NBC, Baldwin became one of the first African Americans to enter the executive ranks of the entertainment industry. She then worked for Norman Lear, Quincy Jones and Aaron Spelling, where she held the position of head of business affairs at their independent production companies.

Baldwin went on to be hired as vice president of business affairs at United Paramount Network. She also worked in a similar capacity at Columbia TriStar Television from 2000 until 2001. In 2004, Baldwin was hired as director of business and legal affairs at KCET, the nation’s largest independent public television station. Then, in 2010, she was promoted to vice president and general counsel of KCET. Baldwin has negotiated a variety of production deals, and has worked on such critically acclaimed productions as Auschwitz: Inside the Nazi State, A Place of Our Own, Los Ninos En Su Casa, Wired Science, and SoCal Connected.  In addition, for seven years she managed business and legal affairs for the PBS late-night talk show Tavis Smiley, and the primetime series Tavis Smiley Reports.

Baldwin has served on numerous boards, including the Hollywood Women's Political Committee, the Hollywood Policy Center, the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, the California Women's Law Center, Planned Parenthood, the Archer School for Girls, Women in Film, Women in Film Foundation, Artists For A New South Africa, The Coalition for At-Risk Youth, NBC Credit Union, the Minority Health Institute, and the Black Entertainment and Sports Lawyers Association.

June M. Baldwin was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 18, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.310

Sex

Female

Interview Date

12/20/2013

Last Name

Baldwin

Maker Category
Marital Status

Single

Middle Name

Michelle

Schools

St. Madeline Sophie

Ancilla Domini Academy

Shipley School For Girls

Stanford University

Harvard Law School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

June

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

BAL04

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere

Favorite Quote

Everything In Its Time

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

10/4/1950

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Vegetables

Short Description

Television executive June Baldwin (1950 - ) became one of the first African Americans to enter the executive ranks of the entertainment industry when she worked for NBC.

Employment

KCET

Columbia Tri Star TV

United Paramount Network

Spelling Television

Quincy Jones/David Salzman Entertainment

NBC

Favorite Color

Blue, Greens

Timing Pairs
0,0:5476,133:6064,141:6820,153:13605,184:15345,198:17820,208:18124,213:18808,223:19644,235:20252,246:20632,252:21696,266:22304,275:22836,284:23140,289:38964,416:39332,421:39884,429:40620,440:41080,446:41540,458:49811,539:50523,551:54617,619:58358,654:59320,669:59690,677:62730,715:63490,730:65300,735:69150,812:69430,817:69990,826:73490,934:74190,947:75520,982:76640,1012:77410,1025:78670,1047:82730,1059:83185,1069:83575,1076:88902,1151:89286,1158:90118,1178:91270,1205:94004,1215:94872,1249:95926,1271:103425,1385:103899,1393:104689,1404:105005,1409:106032,1430:106348,1435:106743,1441:107296,1449:109113,1486:109587,1494:114549,1528:115713,1543:128328,1775:130264,1801:131672,1820:132112,1825:138308,1899:142137,1955:143532,1978:143997,1984:147523,2027:148282,2043:149386,2065:150076,2081:153244,2147:153678,2156:153988,2162:155834,2172:157044,2184:159464,2208:163361,2245:164025,2256:164523,2264:164855,2269:165270,2275:173040,2312:173502,2324:175504,2360:175812,2365:176120,2370:176505,2376:176890,2382:179970,2395:180410,2400:186382,2456:186994,2468:190532,2512:191140,2522:191520,2528:193260,2536:193900,2546:194300,2552:194860,2561:195180,2566:200996,2632:202004,2648:204002,2669:204206,2674:204461,2680:204818,2689:205124,2697:205379,2703:205583,2708:207317,2775:215410,2822:220563,2888:223960,2917$0,0:5152,111:5888,130:6532,139:6992,145:7820,160:12492,183:14156,202:19044,276:19980,284:28924,464:40605,602:44368,641:46290,695:46848,705:47654,729:48832,759:50568,800:52676,874:53172,885:53730,895:54598,918:54846,923:58810,938:59290,945:61050,986:65012,1006:65740,1015:67142,1053:67646,1062:68006,1068:68870,1082:70958,1179:72758,1226:73334,1240:74342,1307:75062,1324:75494,1331:78302,1395:78878,1404:79886,1426:80318,1434:80966,1445:81470,1453:81830,1459:88126,1526:88470,1531:91566,1589:105392,1764:105784,1769:107156,1785:107842,1794:108332,1800:112530,1848:113234,1860:113586,1865:113938,1870:114554,1877:115082,1884:117546,1919:118074,1929:128986,2046:132770,2075:133640,2086:135293,2111:135815,2118:138427,2131:140389,2150:140825,2155:146234,2202:147296,2225:148299,2253:150069,2306:151249,2341:159058,2484:159594,2489:160532,2498:163810,2526:164290,2535:165686,2545:173813,2636:174643,2652:175058,2658:175556,2665:176220,2674:180619,2758:181864,2807:186400,2828:187318,2838:193835,2913:198247,2973:203654,3040:204694,3055:206566,3078:207294,3102:207710,3107:217324,3226:220882,3255:235454,3567:236882,3586:237806,3599:239066,3618:239402,3623:240662,3652:249765,3732:250105,3737:256920,3796:259608,3815:261576,3854:270443,4012:270687,4017:273124,4034:274068,4061:276664,4138:281888,4203:282192,4208:282724,4217:286738,4276:292432,4398:295552,4456:309223,4618:315471,4676:315763,4681:318330,4732
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of June Baldwin's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - June Baldwin lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - June Baldwin describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - June Baldwin talks about her mother's education and profession

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - June Baldwin describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - June Baldwin talks about her father's young adult years

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - June Baldwin describes her parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - June Baldwin talks about her parents' civic activities

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - June Baldwin describes her early household

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - June Baldwin describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - June Baldwin describes the sights and sounds of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - June Baldwin remembers the Germantown neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - June Baldwin talks about her early education

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - June Baldwin recalls her decision to attend the Shipley School for Girls in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - June Baldwin describes her early interest in acting

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - June Baldwin remembers race relations at the Shipley School for Girls

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - June Baldwin describes her religious experiences at the Shipley School for Girls

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - June Baldwin talks about the prominent figures who inspired her

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - June Baldwin recalls developing her racial identity during the late 1960s

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - June Baldwin remembers her teachers and guidance counselor at the Shipley School for Girls

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - June Baldwin reflects upon her time at the Shipley School for Girls in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - June Baldwin talks about creating a scholarship at the Shipley School for Girls

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - June Baldwin recalls attending the March on Washington

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - June Baldwin remembers studying psychology at Stanford University in Stanford, California

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - June Baldwin talks about Eldridge Cleaver and Timothy Leary

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - June Baldwin recalls visiting the Black Panther Party in Algeria

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - June Baldwin talks about the Black Power movement at Stanford University

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - June Baldwin recalls her decision to attend Harvard Law School in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - June Baldwin remembers her classmates and experiences at Harvard Law School

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - June Baldwin remembers her challenges at Harvard Law School

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - June Baldwin recalls clerking for Judge Luther M. Swygert

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - June Baldwin talks about her early legal career

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - June Baldwin describes her experiences at Morrison and Foerster LLP

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - June Baldwin recalls working for Silverberg, Rosen, Leon and Behr

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - June Baldwin talks about joining Women In Film

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - June Baldwin recalls her entry into the entertainment industry

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - June Baldwin describes her initial experiences at NBC

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - June Baldwin recalls working on 'The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson'

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - June Baldwin remembers the black television executives in the 1980s

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - June Baldwin talks about Michael Jackson's award at the NAACP Image Awards

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - June Baldwin recalls her proudest moments as a television business affairs executive

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - June Baldwin remembers working at Norman Lear's company, Act III Productions

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - June Baldwin talks about working for Quincy Jones Productions, Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - June Baldwin recalls working with Aaron Spelling Productions

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - June Baldwin remembers her music publishing venture with George Butler

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - June Baldwin recalls working at United Paramount Network

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - June Baldwin describes her work at Columbia TriStar Television

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - June Baldwin describes her position at KCET in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - June Baldwin talks about the merger of KCET and Link TV

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - June Baldwin describes the growth and changes at KCETLink

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - June Baldwin talks about her board memberships, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - June Baldwin talks about her board memberships, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - June Baldwin shares her plans for the future

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - June Baldwin reflects upon her career

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - June Baldwin reflects upon her legacy in the entertainment industry

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - June Baldwin talks about her dating life

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - June Baldwin describes her family

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - June Baldwin talks about her international travels

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - June Baldwin describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - June Baldwin narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

1$6

DATitle
June Baldwin reflects upon her time at the Shipley School for Girls in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania
June Baldwin recalls visiting the Black Panther Party in Algeria
Transcript
Well, tell us the Shipley [Shipley School for Girls; The Shipley School, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania] story.$$So obviously Shipley was a seminal event in my life. And for all of the, the challenges, I developed some wonderful friendships with a few girls there who are lifelong friends, like sisters. And they saw me; they--it didn't matter to them that I came from a different background or that I was black. And so they were my rocks, and we're still very, very close today. Also in 2003, Shipley gave me the distinguished alumna award, which was a huge shock to me because I had not had much contact at all with the school since I left. And I had an opportunity to tell my story, which I had never done. But I wanted them to know that I loved and appreciated the education that I got and that I saw it as a very positive thing. It was very difficult for my mother [Audrey McLaughlin Harris] to decide to send to me to Shipley. That was not something that we did in the black culture. You don't send your daughter off during her adolescent years to be part of a social experiment. And I'd never really realized how much that had weighed on my mother because, of course, that shaped the rest of my life. So they gave me the award, which was very lovely, and they honored and acknowledged my mother. And the school official said, "I don't think I would have had the courage to send my child away like that." And so I was very happy because although it's been my journey it was also my mother's. So fast forward, I ran into a Shipley classmate at Stanford [Stanford University, Stanford, California] whom I hadn't even been friends with at Stanford. Again, when I left Shipley I sort of didn't wanna have anything to do with Shipley. Fast forward, I run into this classmate, and she's a, a writer for The New York Times and she said, "I ha- it's great to see you. I have an idea and I'm wondering if you'd be interested." And the idea was to create a school sca- a class scholarship for an underprivileged girl of color. And she wondered if I thought that was a good idea, and if I would work with her on it. And I said oh, I think that's a great idea. So last May we went to our forty-fifth reunion, and we proposed this to the class, and that is what we're going to do. And sh- they have said that it was because of knowing me, and it was a time when their lives changed that that inspired her to want to do this scholarship. And so it just was so overwhelming for me to come out of the blue after all these years. Because I think when you make personal sacrifices--I mean I did it willingly and gratefully. I appreciated the opportunity. But at some point when you look at where race relations are today, and you say was it worth it--you know, was it worth it? And so this validates that. It was worth it. I mean, I decided it was worth it, but this is a, a, a really gratifying validation.$Now who was in the Panther [Black Panther Party] entourage, I guess, in Algeria besides Eldridge Cleaver?$$The names of the other people I don't know. I don't remember. What--I was very excited to be there. Eldridge Cleaver was extremely nice to me, very respectful. As I said he wanted to--me to stay on because I spoke French and be a translator. And I think as a result of my Shipley [Shipley School for Girls; The Shipley School, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania] experience and my own sense of identity, I had the big Afro, very much wanting to claim my identity, and wanting to have a quote, unquote revolutionary experience. I was a big supporter of the Panthers. You know, they were doing wonderful work; they were feeding children; they were educating children; they were providing healthcare services. I mean, they were being portrayed as terrorists, but they were doing many wonderful things. And they were just really seeking social justice for a lot of oppression that was going on. And so I wrote my mother [Audrey McLaughlin Harris]. I also was still interested in being the actor, so I had tried out for 'Hair' ['Hair: The American Tribal Love-Rock Musical']. There was a--in Marseille [France]. And I was finished with school [Stanford University, Stanford, California], and so I was a quarter ahead of myself because I had gone a year straight through. And I didn't wanna graduate early, so I wanted to stay in Europe for another three months. And I thought I'll try out for this play. Maybe I'll get this role. And then I went to Algeria and was asked to be the translator and it--and at first really wanted to do that. And so I said to him, "Well, you'll have to write my mother." And so he did, and my mother still has the letter in pale blue stationary with the Black Panther insignia that jumps out at you. And he wrote her a very nice letter asking permission for me to stay on for a couple of months and be a translator. And by day three, there used to be--everyone would be upstairs in a room and listening, talking, and the--there were concentric circles and I was in the second circle. And someone got up and went down to do kitchen duty, and I--who was in the first circle--and so I moved up to be in the first circle. And then the person came back, and I wasn't aware the person was going to come back, and so I said, "Oh, I'm sorry I took your seat." And he said, "Oh no, sister, you didn't take my seat; it's the people's seat." And in that moment I realized, hm, everything is communal here, and there weren't--there weren't any women. I wasn't seeing any women. And all of a sudden I realized, hm, I might become communal property (laughter) if I didn't affiliate or associate with someone. And of course that wasn't what I was wanting. You know, I was wanting to have this political experience. And so I decided that I didn't wanna stay, and so I did not. Meanwhile, I would have come--had I gone back--I would have still gone back to France and then come back. In the meantime, my mother got the letter, and she and my brother [William James] were quite horrified. And they admired the Panthers. It's not that they, they didn't, but they didn't want their daughter there in Algeria with--$$Now this is--$$--Eldridge Cleaver.$$I mean 'Soul on Ice' [Eldridge Cleaver] had been published in 1960 [1968]--well, I know I read it in '67 [1967], so it was already out. And he was--he made some remarks about women that weren't really very--$$Misogynistic.$$--encouraging.$$Yes, yes, but that's what I'm saying. That's what was so fascinating, because he was not like that at all with me. He was just this amazing gentleman and intelligent and just lovely, lovely. Now I was only there three days, but that was my experience. And when my mother decided--my brother was, "You tell her to get on a plane and come home." And my mother was like, "No, no, I'm just going to use the truth and, and add something." And so she told me she was going to have to have surgery, and she really would like me to be there for the surgery and so would I mind coming home. I still hadn't heard about the play. And she said, "And if you get in the play, then I'll send you back;" so I went home. And she was having surgery, but it wasn't, you know, as serious as I had thought (laughter), and they just wanted to get me home so. And then I did not get into the play so I did not go back.$$Now did you--did you happen to talk to Timothy Leary?$$No, I did not.$$Or see him even?$$I got a glimpse, but no.$$And was he (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) They, they had him in a room. You know, we were staying at a hotel, and we would come over and be there during the days and the evenings.

Steve Baskerville

Broadcast meteorologist Steve Baskerville was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1950. He attended the School of Communications and Theater at Temple University and graduated from there in 1972 with his B.S. degree in communications. Later, in 2006, Baskerville earned a certificate in broadcast meteorology from Mississippi State University. He received his American Meteorological Society (AMS) Seal of Approval in 2007.

In 1972, Baskerville began his broadcasting career and was hired by the Philadelphia School District Office of Curriculum where he hosted a children’s show on public radio. He then joined KYW-TV, the NBC affiliate in Philadelphia, from 1977 to 1984. While there, Baskerville worked as a weatherman, co-hosted a morning talk show with Maurice “Maury” Povich, and hosted a daily children’s program which was honored by Action for Children’s Television. In 1984, Baskerville was hired by CBS as a broadcast meteorologist on their “Morning News” segment, making him the first African American network weatherman. Then, in 1987, he became the weatherman for WBBM-Channel 2 in Chicago, Illinois.

Baskerville’s interest in children’s programming led him to host a two-hour special, “Dealing with Dope.” He also co-hosted a children’s issues program for WCBS-TV titled, “What If.”
In addition, Baskerville has displayed his diverse skills by hosting projects such as “Thanks to Teachers,” a salute to area educators; “Taste of the Taste,” a half-hour live broadcast from the Taste of Chicago; the “All-City Jamboree,” a high school talent competition; and “Beautiful Babies,” a public service campaign.

Baskerville has been honored for excellence throughout his career. In 1999, he won an Emmy Award for the news feature series, “Best of Chicago”; and, in 2001, he was honored by the Illinois Broadcasters Association for “Best Weather Segment.” Baskerville served as host for CBS 2 Chicago’s Emmy-Award winning program, “Sunday! With Steve Baskerville!” He received local Emmy Awards for his work on CBS 2’s 2004 broadcast of the LaSalle Bank of Chicago Marathon, and his coverage of the deadly tornado in Utica, Illinois in 2004. In addition, he received an Emmy Award in 2005 for the news feature, “Steve’s Getaway Guide.” In 2006, Baskerville earned several more local Emmy Awards including the “Outstanding Achievement for Individual Excellence.”

Baskerville and his wife live in Glenview, Illinois. They have two children: Aaron Baskerville and Sheena Baskerville.

Steve Baskerville was interviewed by The HistoryMakers August 24, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.238

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/24/2013

Last Name

Baskerville

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Stephen

Schools

Temple University

Mississippi State University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Herman

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

BAS04

Favorite Season

Winter

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere

Favorite Quote

It Is Better To Have And Not Need Than To Need And Not Have.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

5/12/1950

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pizza

Short Description

Television personality and weatherman Steve Baskerville (1950 - ) was hired by CBS in 1984, making him the first African American network weatherman. In 1987, he joined WBBM-Channel 2 in Chicago, Illinois where he earned several local Emmy Awards.

Employment

CBS News

KYW TV Philadelphia

Favorite Color

Brown

Timing Pairs
0,0:3552,71:13666,272:14096,278:34480,484:36950,515:37330,520:45425,620:46322,636:51478,680:57126,741:57855,756:58179,761:60366,801:63768,874:65550,904:66117,912:68709,963:80222,1053:83678,1106:88336,1165:88628,1170:90015,1196:90380,1202:96550,1273:96965,1279:98044,1299:108570,1417:108990,1423:114198,1526:114786,1534:115962,1556:116382,1567:124142,1653:129014,1757:132090,1770:132678,1777:148028,1995:148977,2014:150291,2034:165960,2209:167328,2241:168088,2259:171204,2317:171508,2322:171888,2328:172572,2341:173256,2354:186980,2499:187548,2508:190520,2529:196181,2615:197758,2649:198090,2654:204612,2750:205728,2763:228266,3037:228840,3046:240400,3143:241618,3160:250496,3296:251192,3305:257543,3459:271190,3567$0,0:9517,150:10229,162:25240,274:32669,416:33054,422:34748,460:40369,564:40754,570:50992,664:77050,932:80570,966:81675,982:82270,990:84480,1030:85075,1038:88710,1069:89622,1081:93938,1128:112816,1339:113590,1351:114192,1359:117546,1414:121580,1464:126140,1547:145892,1737:146272,1743:146804,1752:147868,1773:149996,1821:150300,1826:159804,1888:160266,1897:160926,1908:164180,1967:175558,2113:183531,2155:183959,2160:187529,2176:187924,2182:206740,2424:207230,2433:208700,2462:209470,2479:213154,2519:216882,2572:219690,2618:223668,2716:224292,2793:232606,2866:239775,2948:240244,2957:240512,2962:244200,2976:244432,2981:245070,2993:267304,3256:268008,3266:268360,3271:287733,3495:291164,3554:291456,3587:291967,3598:304320,3746:319020,3857
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Steve Baskerville's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Steve Baskerville lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Steve Baskerville describes his mother, Mary Baskerville

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Steve Baskerville talks about experiencing racism

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Steve Baskerville talks about his mother's career as a teacher

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Steve Baskerville describes his father

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Steve Baskerville describes his maternal grandmother and being raised by a widowed mother

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Steve Baskerville describes his paternal family background

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Steve Baskerville shares his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Steve Baskerville talks about encountering President Herbert Hoover

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Steve Baskerville talks about the talented alumni of Overbrook High School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Steve Baskerville describes his family life as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Steve Baskerville talks about growing up in West Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Steve Baskerville talks about celebrating holidays as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Steve Baskerville describes his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Steve Baskerville describes the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up in West Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Steve Baskerville remembers his family vacations as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Steve Baskerville shares his memories of elementary school

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Steve Baskerville remembers entering a smile contest

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Steve Baskerville talks about encountering gangs while attending Shoemaker Junior High School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Steve Baskerville describes Overbrook High School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Steve Baskerville talks about being a good student and his plans for college

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Steve Baskerville describes his activities at Overbrook High School

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Steve Baskerville describes attending church as a child

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Steve Baskerville describes his social life at Overbrook High School

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Steve Baskerville talks about his aspiration to be a lawyer

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Steve Baskerville describes the political climate of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania during the 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Steve Baskerville recalls the tumult of the 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Steve Baskerville describes harassment by the police in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Steve Baskerville talks about his father's military service in WWII

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Steve Baskerville talks about his decision to attend Temple University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Steve Baskerville talks about attending Temple University during the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Steve Baskerville describes his decision to major in Theater and Communications at Temple University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Steve Baskerville talks about his first job working on a children's educational radio show

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Steve Baskerville talks about his work in children's television programming

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Steve Baskerville talks about working on "Evening Magazine" and "AM-PM" in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Steve Baskerville talks about how he became a weatherman

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Steve Baskerville describes his audition for the CBS Morning News

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Steve Baskerville talks about African Americans in the Philadelphia broadcasting market in the late 1970s

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Steve Baskerville talks about meeting celebrities who appeared on "The Mike Douglas Show"

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Steve Baskerville describes being recognized in public and working in large broadcasting markets

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Steve Baskerville talks about taking a job at a morning newscast in New York City, New York

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Steve Baskerville recalls being encouraged to take a broadcasting job in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Steve Baskerville contrasts national versus local broadcasts

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Steve Baskerville remembers the celebrities who appeared on the CBS Morning Show

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Steve Baskerville talks about his decision to take a job as weatherman for WBBM-Channel 2 in Chicago, Illinois.

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Steve Baskerville talks about his wife and children

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Steve Baskerville talks about reporting on Chicago Mayor Harold Washington's death

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Steve Baskerville describes working at WBBM-Channel 2 in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Steve Baskerville describes the Chicago broadcasting market

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Steve Baskerville talks about the importance of peer acceptance and having an authentic personality in the broadcasting business

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Steve Baskerville talks about working with Bill Kurtis and Walter Jacobson

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Steve Baskerville talks about the major weather stories he covered in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Steve Baskerville talks about "The Mike Douglas" show

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Steve Baskerville talks about his strategy for dealing with changing management at WBBM

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Steve Baskerville talks about hosting "Sunday with Steve Baskerville"

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Steve Baskerville describes the non-weather programming that he hosted

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Steve Baskerville describes his ideal television program

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Steve Baskerville talks about being a people person

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Steve Baskerville talks about meeting interesting people

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Steve Baskerville talks about winning nine Emmy Awards

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Steve Baskerville talks about earning a certificate in broadcast meteorology from Mississippi State University

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Steve Baskerville talks about global warming

Tape: 7 Story: 11 - Steve Baskerville talks about the controversies faced by HistoryMakers Harry Porterfield and Dorothy Tucker as black journalists in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 7 Story: 12 - Steve Baskerville talks about HistoryMaker Jim Tilmon

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Steve Baskerville describes the wage gap between African American female broadcasters and male broadcasters

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Steve Baskerville talks about his heroes

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Steve Baskerville shares his career advice

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Steve Baskerville talks about his son's career

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Steve Baskerville talks about his future plans

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Steve Baskerville describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Steve Baskerville reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Steve Baskerville narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

6$5

DAStory

9$3

DATitle
Steve Baskerville talks about the major weather stories he covered in Chicago, Illinois
Steve Baskerville talks about how he became a weatherman
Transcript
Now, tell me a little bit about, you're doing the weather, what is the technology in terms of weather reporting at this time?$$Well, it's very--(simultaneous)--$$I mean your first year (unclear) (simultaneous)--$$I mean we've got all sorts of real help. You know, when I first started we were putting magnets on the board and clouds of suns and everything was pretty much broad, you know, like a broad area of rain will be here and then broad area moves here. And now things are so localized and the computer has done everything to make it so different, you know. You, you're not--and the speed of--the speed and the accuracy of the projections that you make, those are--I can look at, I can go to work now and look at a 48-hour computer model and what this particular model is saying the next two days are gonna be like. And it'd almost be on the money in terms of the hour that--it'll show me that Tuesday night at 11:00, this area is gonna move right into Northeastern Illinois, and more often than not, the next 24 hours, you can be in the 90's percent for accurate. I mean it's--the guesswork is practically gone. They're so sophisticated now.$$What was your biggest weather story the first year you were in Chicago [Illinois]?$$Well, I, and maybe it wasn't the first year, but I was the first reporter on the scene with the Plainfield [Illinois] tornadoes. I happened to have been in Oak Lawn [Illinois] doing something else, doing a story--it was a very, very hot day. And we were talking about people who have strange jobs on hot days, and these were guys that worked in refrigerators all day with coats on, like meat lockers, trying to protect the meat or whatever, and it was like a hundred degrees outside. And then I got word something happened in, around Joliet. Can you get there? And we got in the car, and we went out to a field, and it was commotion , and I, you know, 10 or 11 people out talking to each other in a frantic way. What happened? Tornado, and it went that way. And the person pointed, and when he pointed, it was almost textbook. Tornadoes tend to move on diagonal lines. And it was from like North--it was moving from like Northwest to--Southwest to Northeast, Southwest to Northeast. And we just followed the destruction. It started getting worse and worse. We saw some trees down, and we followed the line and then saw some rooftops gone, saw buildings just leveled. So it was those Plainfield tornadoes and the toughest part of it was what the National Guard had to do that night, and they were, not afraid, but they were troubled. One of 'em said to me, you know, I gotta go out there now in that field and look around, and I don't know what I'm gonna find there. But it was the aftermath of that tornado that was probably the biggest--I've gone to two tornado scenes, not during the midst of the tornado, but here and in Utica [Illinois], there was some big tornadoes, more recent than Plainfield. But those were the big--and I've had a couple all night, gotta stay, be in the station, blizzard episodes. I'd much rather have a blizzard than the severe weather. Severe is quicker, happens and ends quicker, but much more frightening because of the possibility.$$You know, that Plainfield tornado, do you remember what year that was?$$Nineteen ninety [1990], I believe.$$There were a lot of casualties--(simultaneous)--$$Yes.$$Over a hundred people?$$Yes, 'cause it wasn't just Plainfield. It was Crest Hill [Illinois] and maybe parts of Joliet [Illinois]. But I'm, but it was, it was pretty devastating.$Eventually, the boss running, the GM [General Manager] running that station comes down to me and he says, you know, I wish there was a way to get you involved in more of the day. This is working so well. Weather. And I said, what? The weather. Why didn't I think of it earlier? You'd make a great weatherman. I said--$$What was your initial thought when he said that?$$You've got to be kidding. I mean I had never thought of it. Maury [Povich] was an anchor of the 5:00 o'clock newscast, and he liked the relationship we had. And he thought that I could blend into a newscast easily from what he saw earlier. The Dean of Science at Drexel University in Philadelphia [Pennsylvania] was an old-time weather broadcaster, now Dean of Science at Drexel. He says, you know, I like that guy. Why don't you pay me to teach him. I'll teach him the weather. So the station sends me off to Francis Davis, Dr. Francis Davis, and several times a week, one-on-one, special course, special arrangement, I learned the weather like sitting there with notes and pad, pen, teaching me personally, meteorology. Now--$$What did this education involve? I mean how do you teach a weatherman (laughter)?$$Well, I mean it wasn't, it was an informal arrangement for sure. But the goal was, see, there's a--we can't as TV meteorologists ever do as much as the weather service is doing. I mean there are people on staff 24 hours a day, breaking up the day. I mean there's broadcast meteorology and then there's meteorology. I eventually went on and took courses, coursework at Mississippi State [University] where you get credentialed to have a seal 'cause are tests that you have to take and, but in those days, it was very loose. I mean the entry into the world of weather was pretty loose, and there were--I got, one of the most popular weathermen in Philadelphia at the time was a D.J. who made the transition from being a D.J., straight into doing television weather, enormously popular. I mean untouchable, popular for most of the years that I was in Philadelphia. So, so the, the thing about, half of--even to this day, I mean now we can go on the air with credentials and study from the day, from whatever the weather of the day is, but the map isn't the star of that segment. You are. So it's as much personality driven as it is information, especially in this day and age because people have so--we are fighting all sorts of sources for--by the time I'm seen on the air, people have, if they wanted, gotten the information, six ways from Sunday, from their phone, from their iPad, from all sorts of alerts and descriptions of the weather. And, you know, and, but the same for news as well. I think news is changing that way too, but we're really getting off on a tangent, so much so that I'm not sure where--but that was my entrance into steady television work.$$Now, you didn't have like radar weather or did you?$$Yeah, well, the thing that was most special about this arrangement with the Francis Davis who was this instructor of mine, he monitored me every day. I mean I was, it was like riding a bike, you took the training wheels off, and sent me off, and I'm wobbling. And I go on the air with all of the basics. I knew what fronts and highs and lows were and what they did and where they came from. I mean I could put a forecast together. I had to also master the phrasing, and I had to also make sense. And he'd call me after a show. That was great what you just said, that was exactly what's gonna happen or he'd call and say, that was crazy. Where'd you get that? Or that's the most ridiculous thing I ever--and it was wonderful to have someone in your corner like that. So I did, and I thought if I'm lucky, I'll keep this job for the rest of the month.$$What year was this?$$Nineteen seventy, like seven [1977] or so, 1978.

Guion Bluford

NASA astronaut, aerospace engineer, military officer, and senior engineering executive, Guion S. Bluford Jr. was born on November 22, 1942 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was the eldest of three sons of Guion Bluford, Sr., a mechanical engineer, and Lolita Bluford, a special education teacher. Bluford graduated from Overbrook Senior High School in 1960 and went on to graduate from Pennsylvania State University in 1964 with his B.S. degree in aerospace engineering. He was also a distinguished graduate of the U.S. Air Force ROTC program and received his commission as an Air Force second lieutenant. Bluford graduated from the Air Force Institute of Technology with his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in aerospace engineering in 1974 and 1978, respectively. In 1987, Bluford received his M.B.A. degree in management from the University of Houston at Clear Lake.

After receiving his Air Force pilot wings, Bluford was assigned to the 557th Tactical Fighter Squadron at Cam Ranh Bay, Vietnam. As an F4C fighter pilot, he flew 144 combat missions in Southeast Asia. From 1967 to 1972, he was a T-38 instructor pilot at Sheppard Air Force Base in Texas where he trained future U.S. Air Force and West German fighter pilots. Upon graduating from the Air Force Institute of Technology in 1974, Bluford was assigned to the U.S. Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory as Deputy for Advanced Concepts in the Aeromechanics Division and then as Branch Chief of the Aerodynamics and Airframe Branch. In 1978, Bluford was selected for the astronaut program and was officially designated a NASA astronaut one year later. In 1983, he became the first African American to fly in space and the first to receive the U.S. Air Force Command Pilot Astronaut Wings. Bluford was also the first African American to return to space a second, third, and fourth time when he flew on STS-61A in 1985, STS-39 in 1991, and STS-53 in 1992. He has logged more than 688 hours in space.

In 1993, he retired from NASA and the United States Air Force to become the Vice President/General Manager of the Engineering Services Division of NYMA Inc. He led the research support effort in aeropropulsion, satellite systems, microgravity and advanced materials. In 1997, he became the Vice President of the Aerospace Sector of the Federal Data Corporation and led the company’s NASA business. Finally, in 2000, Bluford became the Vice President of Microgravity R&D and Operation for Northrop Grumman Corporation and led the industry team in the development of two experiment facilities currently on the International Space Station. Today, Bluford is the President of the Aerospace Technology Group in Cleveland, Ohio.

Bluford has been awarded the Department of Defense Superior Service and Meritorious Service Medals; the Air Force Legion of Merit and Meritorious Service Medal; the NASA Distinguished Service and Exceptional Service Medals; the Pennsylvania Distinguished Service Medal; the 1991 Black Engineer of the Year Award and fourteen honorary doctorate degrees. He was inducted into the International Space Hall of Fame in 1997 and the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame in 2010

Guion Stewart Bluford, Jr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 9, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.165

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/9/2013

Last Name

Bluford

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Stewart

Schools

Air Force Institute of Technology

University of Houston

Pennsylvania State University

Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Any

First Name

Guion

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

BLU01

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Any

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - $4000-$7500

Favorite Season

Summer

Speaker Bureau Notes

For commencement speeches in which an honorary doctorate degree is confirmed, no honorarium is charged,

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

Do what you love and love what you do.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Ohio

Birth Date

11/22/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Cleveland

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Steak, Lobster

Short Description

Astronaut and military officer Guion Bluford (1942 - ) , flew 144 combat missions in Southeast Asia as an F4C fighter pilot and served as a Branch Chief in the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. He became the first African American astronaut to fly in space on STS-8 (1983, shuttle Challenger), and the first African American to return to space a 2nd, 3rd, and 4th time on STS-61-A (1985, shuttle Challenger), STS-39 (1991, shuttle Discovery) and STS-53 (1992, shuttle Discovery). Bluford retired from NASA and the Air Force in 1993 to become a senior aerospace industry executive.

Employment

Aerospace Technology Group

Northrop Grumman Information Technology

Federal Data Corporation

NYMA Inc.

Johnson Space Center

Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory

3630th Flying Training Wing

12th Tactical Fighter Wing

Favorite Color

Beige

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Guion Bluford's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Guion Bluford lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Guion Bluford describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Guion Bluford talks about his mother's education and her career as a teacher

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Guion Bluford talks about growing up in a non-segregated environment in Philadelphia, and talks about his mother's career, personality and interests

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Guion Bluford describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Guion Bluford describes his father's education, and how his parents met at Alcorn A&M College in the 1930s

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Guion Bluford describes his father's employment as an engineer, and his family's early life in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Guion Bluford describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Guion Bluford talks about his brothers, and about growing up in Philadelphia

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Guion Bluford describes the demographics of West Philadelphia during his childhood years and describes his interests as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Guion Bluford talks about his childhood interest in airplanes as well as joining the Boy Scouts

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Guion Bluford describes his experience at the YMCA and what influenced his childhood interest in becoming an aerospace engineer

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Guion Bluford describes his experience in elementary school and junior high school in Philadelphia

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Guion Bluford describes his experience in high school in Philadelphia

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Guion Bluford talks about his role models in engineering and his interest in pursuing a career in aeronautical engineering

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Guion Bluford talks about his teachers in school, his decision to attend Pennsylvania State University and his encounter with a college counselor

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Guion Bluford talks about his father's struggle with epilepsy, his mother career as a school teacher, and his grandfather's influence on his life

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Guion Bluford talks about his interest in solving puzzles and his decision to attend Pennsylvania State University for his undergraduate studies

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Guion Bluford talks about his graduating class at Overbrook High School in Philadelphia

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Guion Bluford describes his experience as an undergraduate student at Pennsylvania State University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Guion Bluford describes his family's involvement in the Christian Science church

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Guion Bluford describes his fear of heights and hospitals

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Guion Bluford describes his social experience at Pennsylvania State University in the 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Guion Bluford talks about his decision to enroll in the Air Force Advanced ROTC Course and join the U.S. Air Force as an engineer

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Guion Bluford talks about how he met his wife, Linda Tull

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Guion Bluford talks about his decision to become a pilot in the U.S. Air Force

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Guion Bluford describes his senior year at Penn State University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Guion Bluford talks about graduating from Penn State University

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Guion Bluford talks about Professor Leslie Greenhill and Professor Barnes McCormick, who were his mentors at Penn State University

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Guion Bluford talks about his early married life and the few months following his graduation from Penn State University

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Guion Bluford talks about his initial experience on Williams Air Force Base

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Guion Bluford describes his pilot training experience on Williams Air Force Base in 1965

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Guion Bluford talks about Air Force pilot Chappie James and his first assignment out of pilot training in 1966

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Guion Bluford talks about the low percentage of black pilots in the U.S. Air Force

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Guion Bluford describes his service as a U.S. Air Force fighter pilot in Vietnam, from 1966 to 1967 - part one

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Guion Bluford describes his service as a U.S. Air Force fighter pilot in Vietnam, from 1966 to 1967 - part two

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Guion Bluford talks about his fighter plane being shot at while he was in Vietnam

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Guion Bluford shares his perspective on the Vietnam War

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Guion Bluford talks about his decision to become an instructor pilot and his experience at Sheppard Air Force Base

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Guion Bluford talks about his decision to pursue graduate school

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Guion Bluford talks about Robert Lawrence

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Guion Bluford describes his experience in the master's degree program at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Guion Bluford describes his decision to pursue a Ph.D. degree in aerospace engineering

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Guion Bluford describes his experience as a doctoral student in aerospace engineering

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Guion Bluford discusses his doctoral dissertation on determining a numerical solution to describe the flow around a delta wing at hypersonic speeds

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Guion Bluford describes his decision to apply for the NASA astronaut program in 1977

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Guion Bluford describes his selection to the NASA astronaut program in 1978

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$2

DAStory

2$5

DATitle
Guion Bluford describes his service as a U.S. Air Force fighter pilot in Vietnam, from 1966 to 1967 - part one
Guion Bluford describes his experience at the YMCA and what influenced his childhood interest in becoming an aerospace engineer
Transcript
So, I got--$$So after--(simultaneous)--$$--I graduated from pilot training [at Williams Air Force Base, Mesa, Arizona], F-4Cs, frontline, Moc II, fighter bomber, Vietnam, Southeast Asia. That was my assignment.$$You were a bomber pilot?$$Fighter pilot. This is fighter pilot--(simultaneous)--$$Fighter pilot, okay.$$This is fighter pilot.$$All right, and you were flying the, what was the plane that you--$$F-4C Phantom.$$F-4C, okay.$$F-4C Phantom, brand new fighter airplane. It used to be a [U.S.] Navy airplane. Then the [U.S.] Air Force liked it and made it an Air Force airplane, "C" version. So after pilot training, I went to, left the wife [Linda Tull] and kids in Phoenix, went to Reno, Nevada to stay there for a space for three weeks of survival school. And then from there, I went down to Davis-Monthan [Air Force Base] in Tucson [Arizona], wife and kids, we all went down to Tucson for two or three months for radar school. And then we went to MacDill Air Force Base in Tampa, Florida, and I flew the machine, learned to fly it, take off, land, refuel, drop bombs, all that sort of stuff, about six months flying, six months. In October of '65 [1965] I sent the wife, and took the wife and kids to Philadelphia [Pennsylvania], got them situated and in October of sixty--not '65 [1965], October of '66' [1966], excuse me, October of '66 [1966], I went to Vietnam. My orders were to go to Ubon Air Base, 433rd Tactical Fighter Squadron. And if I had gotten there, I would have flown for [Daniel] Chappie James [Jr; fighter pilot in the U.S. Air Force, who in 1975 became the first black American to reach the rank of four-star general] and Robin Olds [fighter pilot and general officer in the U.S. Air Force], two fighter pilots who ran the wing up there. And this would have been primarily, I would have flown Air cap over North Vietnam, primarily, you know, shooting down MiGs, defending thuds [fighter bomber], F-105s, that sort of thing.$$You said, "if" you had gotten there?$$Yeah, I didn't get there. I'll tell you why.$$Okay.$$But that's where I was assigned. So, once I got the wife and kids up in Philadelphia, matter of fact, I left and they were still living with my parents [Harriett Lolita Brice Blueford and Guion Bluford, Sr.] 'cause they had--we didn't have enough time to get an apartment for 'em, and then I left. I was gone for nine months. I went from there to, I flew from there to Travis Air Force Base in California. I hopped a transport with, full of military guys going to Vietnam. The airplane flew from California to Hawaii. We got off the airplane in Hawaii just long enough to stretch our legs, and then we flew from there to Clark Air Force Base in the Philippines, great big Air Force base in the Philippines. I got to Clark Air Force Base in the Philippines, got off the airplane and they said, have you gone through jungle survival training? And I said, no. So they slowed me up about a week or so, and I took a jungle survival course at Clark, which was exciting, you know, learn how to eat, how to live in the jungle, took classes, did escape and evasion, how to escape and evade in the jungle, POW [prisoner of war] training, all that sort of stuff. While I was there, they changed my orders. They flipped me from there to 12th Tact Fighter Wing, Cam Ranh Bay [Vietnam]. 12th Tact Fighter Wing had deployed all, the whole wing deployed to Cam Ranh Bay. And the, the members of the wing were all finishing up their assignment, and they were coming back. They needed people to replace 'em. And so instead of going to Ubon, Thailand, I went to Cam Ranh Bay and South Vietnam, Twelfth Tact Fighter Wing, a wing of maybe four squadrons and F-4C Phantoms. So we must have had eighty fighters, great, great big fighter base. It was also a transport base, lots of military transports go in there. We had a hospital there, a major hospital facility there, and the [U.S.] Navy had a port there. So it was a great, big--it was a major base. So I flew nine months in Vietnam, and I flew out of Cam Ranh Bay, 144 missions total, dropped bombs all over Southeast Asia, South Vietnam, North Vietnam, Laos. I had sixty-five missions over North Vietnam. Primarily, they were air cover. When I did fly that way, we would take off out of Cam Ranh Bay and fly North. We would refuel just, just below the DMZ [The Korean Demilitarized Zone] between North and South Vietnam, and go up and fly six hour mission, air cap, come back, refuel coming back and then come home, good six-hour mission, did long missions. So lots of triple A. I still remember being shot at by a 85 millimeter. I still remember my last mission where I got deployed, scrambled off the alert path. We had two or three fighters that sat on the alert pad. And as, and they would assign you to the alert pad, which would mean you live in trailers out near the runway, and they would scramble fighters in, if they had an emergency some place. I still remember being scrambled and dropping bombs on active, triple A site in the DMZ between the North and South Vietnam. I still remember seeing all those tracers and all that sort of stuff, still remember flying, coming home one day and having a wing, a bullet hole in the wing. The best missions flying out of Cam Ranh Bay were ground support and supporting the ground guys. You'd fly in--see the [U.S.] Army guys all ready to take a piece of real estate, and you drop bombs on 'em, you drop 500-pound slicks as well high drag bombs, fired rockets. We had, the airplane didn't have a internal gun. So if we had to stray, we had to carry a gun pod which worked some of the time and which didn't work some of the time. It was nine months of doing that.$I was also very involved with the YMCA [Young Men's Christian Association]. In the summertime, my mother [Harriet Lolita Brice Bluford] would give me some money. I would hop the bus and L [subway] and go to the Central Y [YMCA], downtown Philadelphia [Pennsylvania]. And, and that was a major event, you know, in the summertime. I learned how to swim at the Y. I worked out, and they had calisthenics and gym activity, played basketball. I learned to play checkers and chess and ping pong, and I got good enough at checkers--at ping pong and chess that when I was in high school, I was on the Chess Team and on the Ping Pong Team. So it had that. The YMCA was also a major factor in my life because I learned how to make model airplanes, part of being at the Y. We'd get on, I'd get up and go to the Y every day. It would be a full-day activity. But part of it was, I made model airplanes and ships and so forth and so on. So my model building developed at the Y, and that led to my strong interest in airplanes and my desire to eventually, to be an aerospace engineer. Plus, the fact that I liked math, I really like--I'm a math guy. So a combination of all of that just drove me towards being what I wanted to be, an aerospace engineer. And then you copy--you put on top of that the fact that I had a father [Guion Bluford, Sr.] who was a mechanical engineer. Not only was he a mechanical engineer, but he loved what he did. He loved what he did.$$Yeah, I read that he would come, he would leave the house excited every morning.$$Oh, he was, he, he enjoyed--he never brought the, he never brought his work home, but I knew he loved what he did. And that was, that was a very motivating factor for me because that's why I sort of said, "Do what you love, and love what you do," you know, so. So I grew up in that world.

Albert Crenshaw

Physiologist Albert G. Crenshaw was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on March 20, 1952. His father was a construction worker and his mother a domestic worker. Crenshaw did not take to science right away; rather, he attended Chowan Junior College on a basketball scholarship and received his A.A. degree from there in 1973. He then enrolled at West Virginia University and earned his B.A. degree in biology in 1977. Crenshaw went on to earn his Ph.D. degree in physiology and anatomy in 1994 from the University of Umeå. He was the first African American in Sweden to earn a doctoral degree in the medical sciences. Crenshaw’s Ph.D. thesis was entitled, Intramuscular Pressure Techniques for Studying Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness.

In 1978, Crenshaw moved to San Diego, California and accepted a position as a research technician at the University of California, San Diego in an orthopedic research lab. While there, Crenshaw had the opportunity to study abroad in Gothenburg, Sweden for eight months in a laboratory exchange program. In 1989, he relocated with the lab to the NASA Ames Research Center at Moffett Field outside of San Francisco. Following his tenure at NASA, Crenshaw was invited and accepted a position as a Ph.D. student at the University of Umea and graduated in 1994. From 1995 to 1996, Crenshaw served concurrently as a research assistant in the East Hospital department of orthopaedics at the University of Gothenburg and as a research assistant in the department of anatomy at the University of Umea. He was then appointed as an assistant professor of physiology at the Swedish National Institute for Working Life in the Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. In 2000, he became an associate professor at the Centre for Musculoskeletal Research at the University of Gavle in Umea, Sweden.

Throughout his career, Crenshaw has contributed over fifty scientific articles to journals such as European Journal of Applied Physiology, Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, Journal of Applied Physiology, and Journal of Orthopaedic Research. NASA awarded him the Certificate of Recognition during tenure as laboratory manager. Crenshaw resides in Umea, Sweden with his wife and two children.

Albert G. Crenshaw was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 21, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.002

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/21/2013

Last Name

Crenshaw

Maker Category
Middle Name

Guy

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

West Virginia University

University of Umea

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Albert

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

CRE02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

California

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Sweden

Birth Date

3/20/1952

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Umea

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Salmon

Short Description

Physiologist Albert Crenshaw (1952 - ) , associate professor at the Centre for Musculoskeletal Research at the University of Gävle in Umeå, Sweden, was the first African American in Sweden to earn a doctoral degree the medical sciences.

Employment

University of California, San Diego

Veterans Administration Hospital

University of Gothenburg

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center

University of Umea

National Institute of Occupational Health

University of Gavle

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
0,0:1080,13:15550,238:16300,250:20340,289:20965,295:21465,300:29570,344:30834,369:37393,414:37778,420:38317,429:38625,434:39010,454:45335,557:45833,564:49240,616:59266,780:60925,795:61500,801:65248,832:66454,864:75894,1073:86406,1297:91120,1326:91380,1331:91965,1346:92420,1354:111055,1502:111955,1517:112630,1530:112930,1536:126870,1752:127150,1757:127500,1763:128760,1794:134710,1914:134990,1919:136600,1947:137580,1967:143372,2007:144848,2055:145176,2082:155180,2188$0,0:4135,107:4460,113:6735,170:7255,199:7515,204:8295,216:9400,253:12420,262:13060,274:14980,310:15556,320:17860,366:18244,374:21195,385:22240,393:22845,405:24990,454:25595,467:25815,472:28569,495:29199,506:30396,535:31971,587:32790,603:35805,628:36218,637:36572,644:37044,657:37516,666:38047,679:38460,687:38932,698:39286,706:39581,713:40053,722:41115,737:41351,747:42059,762:42649,775:45186,811:45422,816:45953,833:47251,877:47841,888:48195,895:50260,958:51086,980:54685,1072:56219,1116:56691,1126:57340,1140:58166,1164:58520,1171:59228,1196:67578,1241:67888,1249:68446,1264:69500,1289:69748,1294:71856,1337:74894,1425:75204,1431:76506,1465:77498,1490:77746,1495:78552,1512:78924,1520:84080,1539:84500,1547:84920,1556:85200,1561:85480,1566:86460,1572:87090,1583:88420,1614:88700,1619:89050,1625:91599,1635:92355,1649:92607,1654:93300,1667:93552,1672:94812,1704:95316,1714:95820,1724:96387,1735:96702,1741:97647,1760:98718,1784:99789,1806:100734,1828:101364,1840:101616,1845:102435,1860:105950,1867:106280,1875:106500,1880:106775,1886:107490,1903:107820,1910:108260,1922:108480,1927:109085,1947:109415,1955:109965,1967:113172,2018:113820,2031:114198,2039:114630,2050:115440,2071:115656,2076:115872,2081:116574,2098:117006,2107:118248,2147:118464,2152:123740,2211:124140,2218:124460,2223:125260,2235:126220,2244:126780,2252:127500,2263:128460,2277:129180,2296:130060,2311:130540,2320:131420,2332:137918,2419:138658,2438:139028,2444:139324,2449:139990,2459:140730,2468:141396,2478:142358,2494:143394,2512:148392,2547:149294,2565:152950,2609
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Albert Crenshaw's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Albert Crenshaw lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Albert Crenshaw describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Albert Crenshaw talks about his mother's growing up in Charlottesville, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Albert Crenshaw talks about his mother's education and employment at the University of Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Albert Crenshaw reflects upon his decision to pursue a Ph.D. degree and not a medical degree

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Albert Crenshaw talks about his mother's brief life in Philadelphia, and the break-up of his parents' marriage

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Albert Crenshaw describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Albert Crenshaw talks about his father

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Albert Crenshaw talks about how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Albert Crenshaw talks about his parents' marriage and his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Albert Crenshaw describes his earliest childhood memory, of his grandmother's death

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Albert Crenshaw talks about growing up near Charlottesville, Virginia, and the African American community around him

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Albert Crenshaw talks about attending Union Run Baptist Church in Charlottesville, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Albert Crenshaw describes the sights, smells and sounds of growing up in Charlottesville, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Albert Crenshaw talks about attending school in Charlottesville, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Albert Crenshaw talks about his childhood interest in nature and sports

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Albert Crenshaw talks about his mother's employment after the family moved back to Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Albert Crenshaw talks about his fascination with insects, especially spiders

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Albert Crenshaw talks about the lack of a distinct education in science while in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Albert Crenshaw talks about attending the integrated Albemarle High School in Charlottesville, Virginia, and playing basketball there

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Albert Crenshaw talks about attending Chowan Junior College in North Carolina, where he played on the basketball team

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Albert Crenshaw talks about the mentoring that he received in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Albert Crenshaw talks about his older brother dropping out of school and his mother's emphasis on education

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Albert Crenshaw talks about playing basketball in high school, and his mother's influence on his decision to go to college

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Albert Crenshaw talks about attending Chowan Junior College, becoming a father, and developing an interest in biology

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Albert Crenshaw describes his decision to attend West Virginia University and his academic performance there

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Albert Crenshaw talks about the Black Student Union at West Virginia University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Albert Crenshaw talks about looking for employment in California after graduating from West Virginia University in 1977

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Albert Crenshaw describes his work at the University of California in developing a method for measuring the fluid pressure between muscle fibers

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Albert Crenshaw talks about his mentor, Alan Hargens, at the University of California

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Albert Crenshaw describes his work with the cardio-thoracic surgery research group at the Veterans Administration Hospital in San Diego, California

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Albert Crenshaw talks about the applications for his method of measuring the fluid pressure between muscle fibers as well as his research in Sweden

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Albert Crenshaw talks about his experience in Sweden of working on nerve regeneration

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Albert Crenshaw describes his experience with learning to speak Swedish as well as meeting his wife there

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Albert Crenshaw describes his research on the orthopedic condition known as compartment syndrome

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Albert Crenshaw talks about his return to Sweden in 1990

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Albert Crenshaw describes his work on helping NASA astronauts design exercises to prevent muscle degeneration in space - part one

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Albert Crenshaw describes his work on helping NASA astronauts design exercises to prevent muscle degeneration in space - part two

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Albert Crenshaw shares his reasons for returning to Sweden in 1990, his decision to pursue a Ph.D. degree there, and why he stayed

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Albert Crenshaw describes his doctoral dissertation, entitled 'Intramuscular Pressure Techniques for Studying Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness'

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Albert Crenshaw describes his life in Sweden - part one

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Albert Crenshaw describes his life in Sweden - part two

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Albert Crenshaw talks about his family's visit to Sweden

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Albert Crenshaw talks about his post-doctoral research on muscle morphology

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Albert Crenshaw describes a typical day in his life as an academic scientist

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Albert Crenshaw describes the demographics of the student population at Umea University

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Albert Crenshaw describes his research on occupational muscular-skeletal disorders - part one

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Albert Crenshaw describes his research on occupational muscular-skeletal disorders - part two

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Albert Crenshaw discusses the importance of being able to communicate science to a general audience

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Albert Crenshaw discusses the experimental design and methodology for his current research on occupational muscular-skeletal disorders

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Albert Crenshaw describes the application of near infrared spectroscopy and electromyography in measuring muscle oxygenation and brain oxygenation

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Albert Crenshaw talks about a few of his current research interests

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Albert Crenshaw reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Albert Crenshaw reflects upon his career

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Albert Crenshaw discusses his mentoring responsibilities at Umea University in Sweden

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Albert Crenshaw talks about his interest in writing poetry

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Albert Crenshaw reflects upon being separated from the African American community while living in Sweden

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Albert Crenshaw describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community today

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Albert Crenshaw talks about his family

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Albert Crenshaw talks about how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

2$2

DATitle
Albert Crenshaw talks about growing up near Charlottesville, Virginia, and the African American community around him
Albert Crenshaw describes his research on the orthopedic condition known as compartment syndrome
Transcript
Now, can you describe the house you grew up in, and the neighborhood? Did it have a special name or, you know, and what was the demographics of Charlottesville [Virginia]?$$Yeah, yeah. Charlottesville is not a big town, as it is. It's primarily a University of Virginia town. We lived about five miles outside of Charlottesville. We lived east of Charlottesville, going toward Richmond [Virginia]. You would drive down the main road, and you would take a left on a dirt road, and you'd go up a hill, quite a ways up a hill. Maybe it would take you a couple minutes to get up to the top of the hill. Going up that hill, on the left side was my mother's [Reva Louise Sampson Crenshaw] house. If you continued up that hill, Uncle James lived up there. That hill was called North Hill. I don't know why. But anybody in that area, if you throw out the name North Hill, they know exactly what you're talking about, okay. So, there was actually one road--two roads--going up to North Hill, off of the main road. You could take a left, or you could continue down and take another left. You could go up on the other side. So, we had friends over here--or relatives--and then acquaintances over here. And on this side, we could walk across the hill like this. We were like on a hill. So, it's called North Hill. But it's near a little, another suburb of Charlottesville called Shadwell, S-H-A-D-W-E-L-L, yeah.$$Okay, alright. And, you know, so I know your uncle's an African American, so is your immediate family. Was that, like, an African American--$$Yeah.$$--enclave?$$Yeah, yeah, yeah. Yeah, yeah, all me, yeah.$$Okay.$$Yeah. And I don't know who's related to who, but everybody called everybody cousins. So, I mean, we have treated each other like family, actually. And my mother was, I mean for a large part of the time she was alone, because she didn't, she hadn't met her new boyfriend for some years. And so she, she had people help her out with taking care of us. So we had, you know, Aunt Nancy and Aunt Ellen and people like that all around us all the time, yeah. But even though--I don't know if they were related or not, but it didn't matter. Yeah, yeah.$Okay, so in '84 [1984], you came back [to the United States, from Sweden]. Then you'd been working on the nerve regeneration?$$I had worked on the nerve regeneration in Sweden--$$Right.$$And then I came back to San Diego [California]. And I continued with the research on pressure, and we actually worked on something called compartment syndrome. We did a lot of work on that. But they're intricately related. Compartment syndrome and intramuscular pressure are very much related. It's an orthopedic condition that you get. You know what it is?$$No.$$Okay. When you get too much swelling in the lower leg--here. And in order to detect that, if the swelling goes up to a certain point, you have to have a surgical procedure, you have to. Otherwise, you could end up losing your, your, your, the use of your foot.$$Now, this swelling in the lower leg--$$Uh huh.$$--you hear older people complain of this all the time. Their ankle's swelling up, you know--$$Uh huh.$$Does that have to do with diabetes exclusively, or is some other--$$That swelling you're talking about has to. But the swelling I'm talking about has nothing to do with that. It's in the actual muscle. It's not in the joint. You're talking about swelling in the joint. This is in the muscle. If you--you can have this kind of swelling in the muscle if you have trauma. If you have a--take a baseball bat and you hit yourself on this leg. You break some blood vessels, and it starts swelling like this. And this compartment gets really, really tight. And when it does, it will kill other vessels in there. And then those vessels will spill over, and they will get more pressure and more pressure. And so that's why it becomes a syndrome, because it feeds itself, okay. So, what you need to do, be able to do, is to put something in there to measure how much pressure is in here. That is what those little tubes and things that I have been working with--to be able to measure the pressure. Once you have measured the pressure, if it's above a certain point, you have to go in and do what they call a fascia, a surgical procedure. You have to cut the balloon from around the muscle so that muscle can go "aaah", okay. So, when I went back to San Diego, I started working on these methods again, and worked, doing a lot of work, on compartment syndrome, trying to understand it better. And we had a model of creating it, in a dog model, and then we could take different kinds of measuring devices and see which one was the best, okay. So, we were trying to figure out how to best measure it, yeah.$$Okay, okay, alright.

Tyrone T. Dancy

U.S. Army soldier Tyrone T. Dancy was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Dancy was drafted into the U.S. Army in 1969 and went on to serve in the Vietnam War with the 199th light infantry brigade. Following a brief tour of duty, Dancy returned to the United States and continued his education. He graduated from Pierce Junior College with his A.A. degree in arts and humanities and then enrolled at LaSalle University where he received his B.A. degree in sociology and psychology in 2005, and his M.A. degree in communications in 2007.

In April of 1977, Dancy began his career with the State Labor Department of Pennsylvania as a disabled veteran’s outreach program specialist. Throughout his twenty-five year career, he has provided employment assistance and guidance to thousands of veterans. In 1990, Dancy worked as a local veteran’s employment representative. He then served as a veteran’s program function supervisor for twelve years before retiring on November 22, 2002. Dancy also served for a short time as the chairperson of the Pennsylvania International Association of Personnel in Employment Security (IAPES) Veterans Committee as well as the vice chairperson of the IAPES National Veterans Committee.

Throughout the early 1990s, Dancy wrote a bi-weekly column entitled, “On Point” for the Philadelphia Leader. This led him to write and self-publish the book, Serving Under Adverse Conditions, which discloses the struggles of Vietnam veterans. Dancy went on to co-produce, “Letters from the Attic,” a play about African American war veterans. Dancy also serves as host and producer of the Veterans Hour Radio Program on WDAS-AM 1480 in Philadelphia.

Dancy has been honored by numerous civic organizations for his work on behalf of veterans. He received the Dean K. Phillips Award from the National Veterans Training Institute as well as an award from the National Office of Vietnam Veterans of America for his leadership in the passage of legislation for a Veterans Bill of Rights in the State of Pennsylvania. Dancy was presented with a Senatorial Citation in 1994 from Senator Allyson Y. Schwartz of Pennsylvania for his leadership on veterans issues. Dancy’s military honors include the Bronze Star for Heroism with the “V” for Valor, the Purple Heart for wounds sustained in combat, the Vietnam Campaign Medal, the Army Commendation, the Meritorious Service Medal, the Army Good Conduct Medal, the National Defense Medal, the Vietnam Service Medal, and the Combat Infantry Badge.

Tyrone T. Dancy was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on 03/25/2013.

Accession Number

A2013.096

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/25/2013

Last Name

Dancy

Maker Category
Middle Name

T.

Schools

Pierce Junior College

La Salle University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Tyrone

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

DAN07

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

Keep praying until it comes about.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Pennsylvania

Birth Date

11/14/1947

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Philadelphia

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Meatloaf

Short Description

Author, (ret.) U.S. combat veteran, and deacon Tyrone T. Dancy (1947 - ) , author of Serving Under Adverse Conditions, is a combat Vietnam veteran who was awarded the Vietnam Campaign Medal, the Bronze Star for Heroism with the “V” for Valor, and the Purple Heart for wounds sustained in combat.

Employment

United States Army

Pennsylvania State Department of Labor

Leader

Favorite Color

Navy Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:8884,102:9636,112:12550,150:12926,155:13302,160:14336,173:14712,178:23240,239:23544,244:34798,360:36532,384:38572,416:39082,422:40918,442:41734,453:50426,513:52782,561:53542,572:54606,590:55670,606:58767,630:59376,638:61534,660:62629,676:63067,683:65038,721:65476,728:75249,790:87280,914:103365,1116:112488,1242:113510,1260:116357,1314:116649,1319:117233,1329:122740,1369:133130,1531:156488,1920:171765,2069:177470,2166:177820,2172:185458,2257:189598,2326:198810,2365:200180,2385$0,0:81904,649:123528,922:139273,1069:139728,1075:149358,1120:160600,1175:166947,1261:192762,1484:199115,1520:221550,1649:222460,1660:227192,1688:233391,1728:234945,1746:235611,1753:236055,1758:267146,1959:274960,1990:339360,2551
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Tyrone Dancy's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Tyrone Dancy lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Tyrone Dancy describes his mother's family background pt.1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Tyrone Dancy describes his mother's family background pt.2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Tyrone Dancy describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Tyrone Dancy talks about his father's career in the U.S. Navy

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Tyrone Dancy describes how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Tyrone Dancy discusses his relationship with his father, which parent he takes after, and his four siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Tyrone Dancy describes his relationship with his siblings and his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Tyrone Dancy lists his siblings' birth dates

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Tyrone Dancy describes his growing up in Pennsylvania pt.1

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Tyrone Dancy describes his growing up in Pennsylvania pt.2

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Tyrone Dancy remembers the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Tyrone Dancy talks about his experience in elementary and junior high school

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Tyrone Dancy talks about working in a grocery store and his junior high school shop class

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Tyrone Dancy recalls being a sharp dresser and an average student in junior high school

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Tyrone Dancy describes his experience in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Tyrone Dancy describes his high school experiences and his part-time job working at a shoe store

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Tyrone Dancy describes the church of his youth and the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Tyrone Dancy talks about vocational school and being drafted into the U.S. Army

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Tyrone Dancy describes his basic training at Fort Bragg and his advanced training at Fort McClellan

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Tyrone Dancy talks about his military duty in Vietnam in 1969

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Tyrone Dancy talks about his assignment to the 199th Infantry Brigade and training in Vietnam

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Tyrone Dancy describes his first mission in My Lai, Vietnam

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Tyrone Dancy describes his experience in combat during the Vietnam War and being injured by a rocket attack

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Tyrone Dancy describes his injuries from the rocket attack pt.1

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Tyrone Dancy describes his injuries from the rocket attack pt.2

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Tyrone Dancy discusses his transfer from the battlefield to the hospital

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Tyrone Dancy describes recovering from injuries from the Vietnam battlefield pt.1

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Tyrone Dancy describes recovering from injuries from the Vietnam battlefield pt.2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Tyrone Dancy discusses his assignment to clerical duty following injuries he sustained in Vietnam

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Tyrone Dancy talks about being medically discharged from the U.S. Army

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Tyrone Dancy discusses the medals he received for his service in the Vietnam War

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Tyrone Dancy talks about friends who died in Vietnam and transitioning into civilian life

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

3$6

DATitle
Tyrone Dancy describes his growing up in Pennsylvania pt.2
Tyrone Dancy talks about his assignment to the 199th Infantry Brigade and training in Vietnam
Transcript
All right. Well, continue (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous)--So it was a--that's when I learned about really an intense and increased gang activity. They were shooting and then there was the element of drugs which I didn't learn about in West Philadelphia; I was neither a participant, a user, nor a transferor of such things. Once again I'm on a peripheral level of that and by me living there, it was assumed by those guys in other areas that I was part of what they considered the Valley; you're part of the Valley. The Valley consisted--they consid--the definition would be you have three high rise buildings in this large complex structure, and in the middle would be mostly where the gang wars would take place, almost like a coliseum and a Roman--a Roman coliseum where you would battle and duel and that sort of thing. No, I was not caught up in that, I was a spectator, seeing it happen.$$How did you stay out of that?$$One, by not participating. But now, you would say "Well how come you wasn't drawed in it or compelled?" All I can say it was a blessing (laughter); it was never compelled for me to participate by no one. No one sit back and say "You--when we fight, we wanna see you out there." It wasn't that sorta thing because I was not part of a gang. Well they didn't know my name, I was just living in that type of environment that I did not participate in. But, I was subject for injury because I was in that type of environment.$$Yeah, I know a lot of people (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous)--So I, I would get (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous)--compelled to join anyway.$$Yeah, I would get challenged as far as early in the morning getting ready to go to school, [Thomas] Fitzsimons [Junior High School], 26th and Cumberland; gangs would stop me, but I was fortunate or blessed enough to get out of that because they neither took me as a target so they neither--they did not do harm to me, they just questioned me as far as where I was from, and so that's how it went.$$Okay. Do you think it's because you didn't get there until you were sixteen [years old] that they really didn't recruit you? You think you were too old or--$$No, I never gave it thought and I don't know why, you know, how that developed. But I didn't--I think the key thing--I didn't hang out, I didn't loiter, I didn't do that type of things; I avoided it. It didn't appeal to me.$Okay, so your base was at Long Binh [Vietnam], right? And that's L-O-N-G and B-I-N-H?$$(NODDING HIS HEAD YES).$$And so what was Long--it was hot, now we know that--$$Right.$$--but how many soldiers were there?$$That was a processing center; that was your introduction to get you assigned to a unit processing; administration, getting adapted to the environment, and then actually the assignment to your unit; then you would be flown out with the other individuals that's assigned to either near where you're going or assigned to the unit you're going to. And of course my being the 199th Infantry Brigade--Long Binh.$$So you're assigned the 199th Infantry Brigade and--okay, so do you remember who your leaders were?$$No.$$Okay. Well, continue; you know this story now better than I can ever enhance (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous)--So, we're being flown into Long Binh and night falls; we're coming in--I believe the early evening, and we began to receive fire, or weapontry fire from the ground towards the plane we're on and the pilots say we cannot land, we're under attack, we have to circle until the incoming fire is subdued, and we're gonna circle and stay above ground as long as we can, as long as we have fuel. So that had us circle, and circle until that fire was contained--the gunfire at the plane. So we finally landed in the Long Binh area and we got out and got assembled and assigned to our units, and then we had a meal, whatever the meal was; I was not very hungry so I didn't eat. And so the next day we began training to get ourselves acclimated to the hot conditions in which we were in. So we began running, we began practicing fire, we began dealing with land mines--how to dismantle, disable a land mine, how to detect land mines, how to use effectively hand grenades, and once again running, learning to breathe properly, then going through training about who we're dealing with, what's guerrilla warfare, being enlisted to join possibly other units that would be a squad such as a three-man team, how to act as a listening post, to go out where the enemy is but don't be detected, and how to move without being detected, and all those guerrilla war factors. And finally, after the training, comes the day of my first mission.$$How long was the training?$$Well, let's see, it--two weeks.$$Okay.$$Through all that getting in the culture of Vietnam, two weeks.$$Okay. We're gonna pause (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous)--It coulda been, it coulda--yeah, within two weeks I--it coulda been as close as the second week.

Lt. Gen. Ronald S. Coleman

U.S. Marine Corps Lt. Gen. Ronald S. Coleman was born on August 27, 1948. Coleman graduated from Cheney University in 1973. He was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in 1974. Coleman’s military education includes the Basic School, the Amphibious Warfare School, the Command and Staff College, and the Industrial College of the Armed Forces.

Coleman enlisted in the U.S. Navy in April of 1968, and was discharged upon his return from Vietnam in 1970. He was commissioned into the U.S. Marine Corps as a second lieutenant in December of 1974. In 1982, Coleman was transferred to Marine Corps headquarters in the officer assignment branch and served as administrative assistant to the director of the personnel management division. In June of 1991, Coleman reported to the Marine Corps headquarters and served as the logistics project officer in the installations and logistics branch. In 1996, he reported to the Pentagon where he served as the deputy division chief in the Logistic Readiness Center. Coleman also served as an instructor at the Amphibious Warfare School and the U.S. Marine Corps Command and Staff College.

In 1999, Coleman deployed to the Balkan Region and served with Joint Task Force Shining Hope. Coleman was deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom as Commanding General of the Marine Air and Ground Task Force in 2003. He deployed again in 2004 as the Commanding General of the Combined Joint Task Force Haiti in support of Operation Secure Democracy. On September 29, 2006, Coleman was assigned as the deputy commandant for manpower and reserve affairs and appointed to the rank of Lieutenant General.

Coleman’s military honors and decoration include the Defense Superior Service Medal, the Legion of Merit, the French Legion of Honor, and the Meritorious Service Medal. The Navy Sea Service Deployment Ribbon with five service stars, the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal, Coleman also wears the Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Identification Badge and the Office of the Secretary of Defense Identification Badge. He is married and has five daughters.

U.S. Marine Corps Lt. Gen Ronald S. Coleman was interviewed by The History Makers on February 16, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.050

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/16/2013

Last Name

Coleman

Maker Category
Middle Name

S.

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Darby-Colwyn Senior High School

The Basic School

Cheyney University of Pennsylvania

Expeditionary Warfare School

Marine Corps Command and Staff College

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Ronald

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

COL22

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Home

Favorite Quote

Treat everyone with dignity and respect. Do justly, love mercy, walk humbly with thy God.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

8/27/1948

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Spaghetti, Meatballs

Short Description

Lieutenant general Lt. Gen. Ronald S. Coleman (1948 - ) advanced in rank to Lieutenant General on October 27, 2006 and became the second African American in the Marine Corps to reach the 3-star rank.

Employment

United States Navy

United States Marine Corps

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Ronald S. Coleman's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Ronald S. Coleman lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Ronald S. Coleman describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Ronald S. Coleman talks about his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Ronald S. Coleman describes his father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Ronald S. Coleman describes his father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Ronald S. Coleman discusses his father

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Ronald S. Coleman talks about how his parents met and the tension between his mother and father's families

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Ronald S. Coleman discusses his parents' personalities and his relationship with his father

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Ronald S. Coleman talks about his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Ronald S. Coleman talks about his family

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Ronald S. Coleman discusses his family's success despite their hardships and his maternal grandmother's positive influence

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Ronald S. Coleman describes his relationship with his maternal grandmother and paternal grandparents

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Ronald S. Coleman describes growing up in Darby, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Ronald S. Coleman describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Ronald S. Coleman discusses the importance of sports in his young life

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Ronald S. Coleman comments on his primary and secondary education, and Pennsylvania basketball

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Ronald S. Coleman talks about his favorite subjects and teachers in school

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Ronald S. Coleman talks about his junior high school, watching television and playing little league baseball

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Ronald S. Coleman talks about playing sports after school and his summer jobs

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Ronald S. Coleman talks about playing sports in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Ronald S. Coleman talks about his high school coaches, student council and his academic performance

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Ronald S. Coleman talks about his high school's championship games and playing high school football

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Ronald S. Coleman discusses the poor counseling he received in high school and his college plans

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Ronald S. Coleman talks about attending church with his family as a youth and Northeastern University

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Ronald S. Coleman explains why he joined the U.S. Navy Reserve

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Ronald S. Coleman talks about joining the U.S. Navy Reserve

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Ronald S. Coleman talks about his basic training in the U.S. Navy and the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Ronald S. Coleman discusses his tour of duty in Vietnam

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Ronald S. Coleman recalls the public criticism of the Vietnam War, as well as his return to the U.S.

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Ronald S. Coleman talks about the return of the black soldiers to Darby, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Ronald S. Coleman discusses the black community's response to Vietnam veterans and his reluctance to remain in the service

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Ronald S. Coleman uses his family as an example to explain the black community's response to Vietnam veterans

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Ronald S. Coleman talks about Vietnam and returning to school in the states

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Ronald S. Coleman talks about teaching and his decision to join the U.S. Marine Corps

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Ronald S. Coleman talks about the U.S. Marine Corps' Officers Candidate School

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Ronald S. Coleman talks about the most difficult part of Officer Candidate School

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Ronald S. Coleman talks about the racist treatment of blacks in the military

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Ronald S. Coleman talks about his first assignment at Camp Lejeune and his completion of Officer Candidate School

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Ronald S. Coleman discusses attending Amphibious Warfare School

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Ronald S. Coleman discusses working for the Officer Assignment Branch

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Ronald S. Coleman remembers the bombing of the U.S. Marine Corps headquarters in Beirut and the invasion of Grenada

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Ronald S. Coleman talks about attending U.S. Marine Corps Command Staff College

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Ronald S. Coleman discusses his tour of duty in Okinawa, Japan and the Gulf War

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Ronald S. Coleman talks about his unit's role in the Gulf War and his assignment at Camp Lejeune

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Ronald S. Coleman describes his attendance at the Industrial College of the Armed Forces

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Ronald S. Coleman discusses his work at the Pentagon and assignment in Albania

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Ronald S. Coleman describes the military's assistance to refugees in Albania

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Ronald S. Coleman talks about his promotion to brigadier general and the death of his parents

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Ronald S. Coleman discusses his wife's colon cancer

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Ronald S. Coleman talks about the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks at the Pentagon and the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Ronald S. Coleman discusses his deployments to Kuwait and Haiti

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Ronald S. Coleman details his assignment in Haiti, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Ronald S. Coleman details his assignment in Haiti, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Ronald S. Coleman talks about becoming a three star general

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Ronald S. Coleman comments on the historical significance of being a three star general

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Ronald S. Coleman describes his role as deputy commandant of Manpower and Reserve Affairs

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Ronald S. Coleman discusses his retirement from the U.S. Marine Corps

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Ronald S. Coleman talks about his family, reflects upon his legacy and shares his regrets

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Ronald S. Coleman describes his hopes and concerns for the African-American community and how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$6

DAStory

8$3

DATitle
Ronald S. Coleman explains why he joined the U.S. Navy Reserve
Ronald S. Coleman discusses his work at the Pentagon and assignment in Albania
Transcript
Were you playing ball then?$$Oh yeah, played basketball. That's the only thing I played, played basketball for them, and I was a good basketball player on that team. I was one of the stars on the team, as a starter.$$You played guard?$$Guard. Yes.$$Okay.$$That part of it was good but when basketball season was over, it just, you know it didn't work out, so I dropped out and then that's when I got my--I dropped out and I worked as a--I worked at a cemetery digging ditches and cutting grass and all that sort of stuff. I mean I'd make good money but it was--$$Now why did you--I mean I--it's just like now, if you're in school and they want you to come back and all that, I mean why did you feel so unfulfilled?$$It just--I don't--I expected to be really, really motivated, and it just wasn't--well, part of it was there were probably--I don't know how many students but not a lot--there was a handful of black students. And it wasn't a racial thing I didn't go back, I just wasn't being--I think I was wasting the--even though I wasn't paying because I had the student loans and I worked. It just didn't feel like I was getting anything out of it. And in order--I would have had to go at least three years to a junior college to get an Associate's Degree. So I said "Na"--and I didn't--but again now, my father's still an alcoholic, my mother's working hard, I had no direction, no guidance so I moved back home, I worked at a cemetery for a while, and then I worked as an exterminator. So my job was to go around spraying for bugs.$$Those sound like t0o dreary (laughter) (simultaneous)--$$Oh yeah. Oh really (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous)--cemetery and sprayin' for bugs, I mean that's a--$$--I mean you're standing there and you're hitting the button and the thing's going down. Like I said, I had no guidance, I had no direct--I just, I didn't know, I had no clue what I was gonna do with the rest of my life. So a group of us went up and somebody said "Hey, you know, let's join the Reserves, you know? We'll join the Navy Reserves and, you know, we won't go anywhere; if we do go, it won't be"--so uhh, probably about five of us, maybe six, drove up to the recruiting office and said "Hey, we wanna enlist in the Navy--in the Navy Reserve." Because then you know you're gonna do a year before you go anywhere. So when they said "Step forward and raise your right hand," only three of us did. And I'm up front, and then when it's all over, I turn around and (laughter) it's like five of 'em that said "Naw, I'm not steppin' forward." But I had no clue. So Laney Womack, Blair Trent, who was a cousin, stepped up with me, and the other five guys were still standing there.$Okay. So in '96 [1996], you were Deputy Division Chief of the Logistics Readiness Center, right? Is that true?$$Inaudible response--$$'96 [1996].$$'96 [1996], yes. But that was, that was--oh, in the Pentagon; I'm sorry, yeah. Yes, I'm sorry; I'm sorry. Yeah, I left--when I left school, I went to the Pentagon and did, and did two years at the Pentagon; Logistics Readiness Center. Now that's where every ship that's underway, every airplane that's underway on the Logis--non-combat, we know about--has to, has to go through--that's probably one of the, one of the more interesting tours you could have. So everything that happens in the United States Department of Defense logistics-wise, someone in there would know what was going on and, and give guidance or recommendations.$$Okay. So you made full colonel there too?$$I made full--I got promoted to full colonel there and that was the one we spoke about that my mother [Barbara Gretchen Hill Coleman] was gonna make but didn't make it so I got promoted there in '97 [1997].$$Okay. So your mom passed that year?$$Yes.$$Okay. Now in--but then you were stationed at yeah, Camp Lejeune, right?$$Right, I went, I went down in--after that, I went down to Camp Lejeune, got to Camp Lejeune in '98 [1998], and I was the the G4; so that means I was--that meant I was in charge of all logistics for the division; another, very challenging, challenging job. And while I was there, that was the, the next big deployment; that's when we went to Albania; this was Milosevic and, and the whole, the whole bit going on over there. So we were attached to a joint task for Shining Hope, which was to assist the refugees in in Albania. And that was an Air Force led unit but with Marines in it.$$Emm. So that was a, really a--$$Aww, that was, that was big. I mean we went from--they went from nothing to building a camp up in Albania because you know--remember the people are leaving Macedonia with nothing so we're putting up camps and built camps so they could live in and you'd actually watch them pulling their wagons with all their belongings, a family with all their belongings pulling them in and we, we got them health and comfort and the whole bit so that was, that was a very reassuring one and, and one you felt, you felt good about. And, the thing I--the stand-out in that, I had, I had this--a Monday afternoon, I had just done some working out and came back to the office and they said, "You need to go up to see the Chief of Staff" so I went up to see the Chief of Staff and he said, "Hey Ron, you know we have that task force over in Albania; you're gonna go join it. You're gonna go this week and I don't know how long you're gonna be there." So I, so I go home and my wife says, "How was your day?" and I said, "Well"--or I said, "How was your day?" And she said "Good." She said "How was yours?" And I said "Well, let's go get some ice cream." Well, that was key word. If you, you know, if you said ice cream then, then you're going somewhere. So she just looks at me and then--so we go out and get ice cream and she said, "Where're you going?" and I said, "Well, I'm going to Germany and then down to Albania." "How long you gonna be gone?" I said, "I don't have a, I don't have a clue." So then we go home and tell the kids and the--but the thing that's so good about it is that my youngest is now in third grade and so I tell her I'm gonna go away and you know she's crying why and the whole bit. So I tell her, so the next day--and I tell her we're going to help the poor people--they can't, they can't you know, they need help. So the next day I'm leaving and she comes up and she gives me a ten-dollar bill and she says "Give this to the poor people to help them.--$$Emm.$$--Can you imagine that? I mean that's, that's, that's big; that's big.

Kenneth C. Frazier

Pharmaceutical executive, lawyer, and corporate general counsel Kenneth C. Frazier was born on December 17, 1954 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to janitor and former sharecropper Otis Tindley Frazier and homemaker Clara Elizabeth Frazier. The second of three children, Frazier grew up in the deeply impoverished neighborhood of North Philadelphia. Frazier’s parents strongly encouraged education and hard work, ensuring that each of their children knew what it took to succeed. In 1966, when Frazier was twelve, his mother passed away, leaving Otis Frazier to raise three children alone. Frazier graduated from Northeast High School in Philadelphia before attending Pennsylvania State University. Upon completing his B.A. degree in 1975 with highest honors, Frazier enrolled at Harvard Law School, receiving his J.D. degree in 1978.

For the next fourteen years, Frazier worked as a lawyer and, eventually, partner at the Philadelphia law firm of Drinker, Biddle, & Reath. There he represented many corporate clients, including AlliedSignal and Merck & Co., Inc. However, the case which brought Frazier the most praise during this time was the pro bono work he contributed to freeing the innocent Willie “Bo” Cochran after twenty-one years on death row. Frazier accepted a position at Merck & Co., Inc in 1992. Frazier has served in various capacities at Merck, including general counsel, secretary, and vice president. During his tenure as general counsel, Frazier achieved great success in leading the company through more than 5,000 lawsuits regarding the alleged harmful effects of Vioxx.

In 2007, Frazier accepted the role of president of Merck & Co., Inc, and was given the additional roles of CEO and chairman in 2011, making him the first African American to serve as CEO of a major pharmaceutical company. Frazier has served on the boards of several organizations, such as Exxon Mobil, Penn State University, and Cornerstone Christian Academy, a private charter school serving at-risk youth in Philadelphia, which he also co-founded. Due to his professional success and his position on the board of trustees, Frazier was selected to lead the investigation of the allegations against former Penn State assistant football coach Jerry Sandusky and university officials. Frazier has received numerous awards, including the 2001 Penn State Alumni Fellow Award, the Association of Corporate Counsel’s 2004 Excellence in Corporate Practice Award, and the Equal Justice Initiative’s 2009 Equal Justice Champion award.

Frazier lives in Pennsylvania with his wife, Andréa, and their son, James. Their daughter, Lauren, is an engineer.

Frazier was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 2, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.124

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/2/2012

Last Name

Frazier

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

C.

Schools

M Hall Stanton Elementary School

Northeast High School

Pennsylvania State University

Harvard Law School

First Name

Kenneth

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

FRA09

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Bermuda

Favorite Quote

You Can Be Anything You Want To Be.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New Jersey

Birth Date

12/17/1954

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Whitehouse Station

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pizza

Short Description

Pharmaceutical executive, lawyer, and corporate general counsel Kenneth C. Frazier (1954 - ) was the first African American to serve as CEO of a major pharmaceutical company and was known for his success in corporate law.

Employment

Merck & Co.

Astra Merck Group

Drinker Biddle & Reath

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:693,8:945,13:1575,29:1827,34:2079,39:3087,62:3339,67:3969,108:4473,117:4725,122:5544,163:5922,170:6363,178:6615,183:7119,195:7686,205:7938,210:8505,221:8757,226:9387,236:10017,248:10899,263:11277,270:11970,283:12222,288:12978,306:13293,312:13986,324:14616,337:15183,348:15435,353:19810,367:20330,377:21175,396:22345,418:22605,423:23125,433:23385,438:23840,446:25530,484:25920,491:26570,503:27480,518:30015,590:30535,606:31120,616:31380,621:32680,651:33200,660:33525,666:33980,675:37380,681:38069,699:38440,707:38811,717:39129,740:39447,747:41264,760:41588,765:42236,778:42722,786:43451,812:45233,855:45638,861:46448,873:48149,907:48716,915:49850,948:50579,979:51065,987:52523,1033:59252,1096:62191,1122:62419,1127:62932,1138:64450,1145:64996,1155:65386,1161:65698,1166:66244,1175:67180,1190:70680,1238:71460,1252:73890,1278:75058,1303:75569,1312:76226,1322:76956,1336:78343,1364:79292,1380:82010,1403:83816,1415:84254,1426:84546,1431:85714,1451:86298,1465:86736,1472:87904,1507:89437,1540:89875,1547:90167,1552:90459,1557:94160,1598:95000,1610:102118,1665:102454,1673:103014,1685:105529,1704:106376,1717:107300,1730:107993,1742:109533,1801:109841,1806:112536,1869:116386,1941:117464,1965:118311,1979:122792,1992:125522,2039:125912,2049:127004,2071:127316,2076:127628,2081:129656,2127:133174,2147:134050,2166:134488,2173:135437,2207:135948,2217:138941,2289:139890,2318:140182,2323:146724,2397:147816,2416:148284,2423:148908,2435:151862,2453:152555,2464:152863,2469:154634,2493:155250,2503:155635,2509:155943,2514:156251,2519:156867,2531:157175,2536:157714,2546:159793,2579:163829,2599:165323,2622:166236,2636:166817,2645:167149,2650:171288,2695:172494,2723:174370,2768:175174,2788:175442,2793:177595,2810:179359,2851:179863,2895:180115,2900:180367,2905:181249,2928:181501,2933:181816,2940:182194,2948:183643,2978:188284,3039:188552,3044:189222,3056:189959,3070:190227,3075:190495,3080:190763,3085:191299,3097:191634,3103:194944,3125:195264,3131:195968,3145:196288,3151:196736,3160:197312,3174:197824,3189:198592,3203:199488,3219:199744,3224:200448,3243:201024,3254:201600,3269:202304,3288:202816,3297:203968,3331:208008,3353:208374,3360:208984,3385:209289,3391:210310,3400$0,0:4016,34:4448,41:5168,53:5456,58:9992,254:10640,264:15880,342:18760,400:21730,496:22450,506:22810,511:23530,527:27746,574:28130,581:28770,597:29090,603:30242,627:32354,685:32802,693:33890,731:34722,748:35298,761:35618,768:35874,773:40630,821:40870,826:41410,834:41890,844:43390,881:44230,900:46510,977:47770,1008:48010,1013:48370,1020:48610,1025:48910,1031:49270,1041:50290,1065:50590,1071:54672,1084:55416,1094:55974,1101:56718,1112:59400,1122:60030,1133:60380,1144:61970,1149:63620,1169:64500,1178:66404,1190:66700,1195:67292,1206:67736,1214:68476,1225:71310,1263:71630,1268:71950,1273:73592,1282:74184,1292:74702,1302:74998,1307:75516,1316:77144,1353:78328,1373:78624,1378:79734,1400:82856,1421:84205,1443:84986,1457:85625,1468:87420,1474:87931,1482:91581,1549:92311,1565:93479,1593:94355,1608:95961,1642:97202,1666:101026,1685:104113,1754:104743,1770:104995,1775:105373,1783:111312,1847:112376,1865:114732,1910:115872,1944:119590,1958:120328,1972:120656,1977:120984,1982:121886,1994:122542,2007:122870,2012:123280,2019:123772,2027:125084,2075:125658,2083:126150,2091:131698,2151:133480,2189:133876,2196:134998,2216:143248,2419:143710,2428:149782,2553:155988,2580:157414,2614:158282,2636:159212,2656:160948,2701:161382,2717:162126,2731:162498,2738:163118,2747:165970,2819:166218,2824:167644,2853:168202,2863:168512,2869:173055,2889:173355,2894:173955,2903:174480,2911:176880,2957:177480,2968:178005,2976:178455,2983:179355,2996:179955,3006:180480,3015:181005,3023:181380,3029:181755,3040:182280,3049:182655,3055:188920,3228:189272,3233:189624,3238:190944,3261:191824,3273:193144,3294:193584,3300:194200,3314:194640,3320:199040,3398:200184,3413:200536,3418:204646,3430:205222,3439:206734,3473:207094,3481:207382,3486:207742,3496:208534,3512:209542,3542:210118,3552:210406,3557:211198,3570:211558,3576:212134,3585:212566,3592:213286,3606:215014,3639:217840,3647:218360,3656:218880,3669:219595,3684:219920,3690:220180,3695:221805,3729:223235,3764:225315,3799:225835,3808:228750,3824:228974,3830:229870,3851:230318,3860:230598,3867:231326,3886:231774,3896:235210,3926:235930,3937:236650,3988:241284,4031:242390,4048:243022,4058:243417,4064:243812,4070:246702,4084:250482,4142:257416,4220:258256,4236:259012,4246:259684,4255:260272,4264:261196,4277:261868,4286:262792,4299:263296,4307:263632,4312:265480,4341:265900,4376:271024,4469:276001,4527:277072,4549:279340,4594:279718,4601:279970,4606:281950,4623:284125,4672:284725,4682:285100,4688:285550,4695:286600,4717:291092,4778:291524,4786:292028,4796:292532,4804:292820,4809:293540,4822:294044,4830:294548,4839:295484,4857:296132,4867:296492,4873:298364,4910:299804,4931:305410,4946:305785,4952:306310,4960:306610,4965:307510,4976:308035,4984:308710,4994:309385,5004:311260,5038:311560,5043:312235,5053:312610,5059:313510,5073:314710,5092:315085,5098:315685,5114:318740,5129
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Kenneth C. Frazier's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Kenneth C. Frazier lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Kenneth C. Frazier describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Kenneth C. Frazier describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Kenneth C. Frazier lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Kenneth C. Frazier describes his household growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Kenneth C. Frazier describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers an influential teacher

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Kenneth C. Frazier describes the Julia R. Masterman Laboratory and Demonstration School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers his mother's death

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Kenneth C. Frazier recalls the role of his maternal aunts after his mother's death

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his early understanding of race

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers North East High School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his influences at Nort East High School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Kenneth C. Frazier recalls his admission to Pennsylvania State University in University Park, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers entering college at sixteen years old

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Kenneth C. Frazier recalls his decision to study political science and history

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Kenneth C. Frazier describes the racial discrimination at Pennsylvania State University

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers his graduation from Pennsylvania State University

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his social life at the Harvard Law School

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Kenneth C. Frazier recalls his accomplishments at the Harvard Law School

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers his club football team at the Harvard Law School

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about the school busing crisis in Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers his mentors at the Harvard Law School

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers his first legal case

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers the case of Cochran v. Herring

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about African Americans in the law profession

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers being one of two black partners at Drinker Biddle and Reath LLP

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his role as general counsel for a joint pharmaceutical venture

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Kenneth C. Frazier recalls his promotion to vice president of public affairs at Merck and Co., Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers his promotion to general counsel of Merck and Co., Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about the recall of Vioxx by Merck & Co., Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Kenneth C. Frazier explains his strategy as general counsel of Merck and Co., Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his perserverance during the Vioxx trial

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers becoming the CEO of Merck and Co., Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his accomplishments at Merck and Co., Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Kenneth C. Frazier remembers being named CEO of Merck and Co., Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his performance as the CEO of Merck and Co., Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his role as the CEO of Merck and Co., Inc.

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his family

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Kenneth C. Frazier describes his involvement at Pennsylvania State University

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Kenneth C. Frazier talks about his interest in education

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Kenneth C. Frazier reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Kenneth C. Frazier describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Kenneth C. Frazier describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Kenneth C. Frazier shares a message to future generations

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Kenneth C. Frazier narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$4

DAStory

10$7

DATitle
Kenneth C. Frazier remembers his mother's death
Kenneth C. Frazier remembers being named CEO of Merck and Co., Inc.
Transcript
So then high school, name of your high school?$$Was Northeast High School [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania]--the academic high school in Philadelphia [Pennsylvania] is called Central High School, but Northeast High School had just started a program for scientifically gifted children who were interested in the space exploration effort and I really was very interested in space and science. And so I chose to go Northeast High School to this program within there that was again sort of a magnet program for scientifically strong children.$$Now are your parents encouraging you in this regard?$$Well there's an important fact that we've not covered in the academic thing which is that, when I was in the seventh grade, my mother [Clara Frazier] passed away. So at this point, I had only my father [Otis Frazier] who raised me.$$And your father is raising two other children in addition to you?$$Correct.$$So in seventh grade, that's you're what you're twelve?$$Something like that.$$Twelve, thirteen, something around that age?$$Uh-hm.$$That had to be devastating?$$It was, it was, I have to say the most pivotal moment in my life because my mother died of a blood clot that was secondary to a hysterectomy. So she went into the hospital to have a pro- a procedure that I wouldn't call routine, but it was also not something that where we thought she was sick and in jeopardy of her life. And I can still remember my father, we came downstairs to go to school and my father said, "There's something I need to tell you kids and it's that your mother died last night." And I sa- you, know, I can still remember it like was yesterday, how devastating that was.$$And you made it through the seventh grade even this, I mean academically well and in spite of (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Oh yes.$$And was that because of your father?$$Yes.$$Tell us a little bit, what your father did. How he kept you guys, how he moved you guys through this?$$Well let me just put it this way. My father was a wonderful man, but he was not very sentimental about his children. And he had very high standards and I remember, I didn't finish the story. We were all devastated when my mother died and I remember he said, "You guys, you kids go up to your room and you can cry a little bit, but when you come down, we're going to have to keep going in life." And we did cry a little bit, but we came down and we had breakfast. And my father said, "Life goes on." And my father was very distant man before then because I think like many families of that time, the mother was the nurturer, the one that raised us. My father, his job in the family was to work and earn money and to hand out the discipline when my mother encouraged him to do that. He taught us obviously how to throw a baseball and things like that. But, like unlike modern parenting where I think my children [Lauren Frazier and James Frazier] feel like they know me, I didn't feel like I knew my father. I knew my mother, my mother was the, was the nurturing parent. And then when she died suddenly my father had to step into that role, and I think that for him it was a great opportunity. Years later he would say, "I would not have even known my children had my wife died." But he, he became the mother and the father. He had no domestic skills but he learned to cook, he learned to do all the things that you needed to do to raise children.$Let's move on to the day that you become chairman of this company. You've been here what (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) CEO.$$CEO.$$First I became CEO and then chairman$$CEO and then chairman. But you've been at Merck [Merck and Co., Inc.] about what seventeen years when you become the CEO?$$Yes.$$Tell, tell me about that day. What was that when the announcement was made, and how you felt and what it meant, what's your thought?$$I felt overwhelmed by the announcement. I've never been a person to feel glad that I got somewhere. My wife [Andrea Wilkerson Frazier] always says, you don't enjoy anything because you're always on to the next thing. So when I became CEO, I was worried about whether or not I could run this company in a way that I would make a very satisfactory mark as CEO. I knew I felt really good when, I can't lie when the announcement came out and I looked at it and I realized I'm the CEO of Merck and my father [Otis Frazier] had a third grade education and was a janitor, I felt really good about that. My family felt really good about that. But I really am honest when I say that it's really not about me. This company Merck is no ordinary place. The work that we do here is incredibly important to mankind. And so, if you step into that CEO role. My office, I feel like I'm renting that office and that it's my obligation to leave this company better than I found it. And so, I think my overwhelming feeling was a feeling of huge, awesome responsibility. And if you knew the scientific enterprise of this company and the people who comprise it, the quality of the scientists and the physicians who make up the core of our research labs. In some ways, you're saying, I'm a mere mortal. How can I be the CEO of people that are that sort of otherworldly smart? And so, I also say, how can I do my job so that I can enable great science since I'm not a scientist. So it's not a kind of thing that you feel very--at least I don't feel very egotistical about it. I feel like I have to prove to the world that my tenure here put this company back on track to greatness.$$Well let's talk a little bit about the symbolic torch at, at Merck that gets passed from one CEO to the next CEO. You, you were telling me a little bit about that previously. Tell us about that on the record?$$Well I think--again I say this is not the ordinary company and one of the exemplars of that is that the modern day founder of Merck is a guy named George W. Merck and he had a saying that every Merck employee knows by heart. He said, "Medicine is for the people, not the profits," and the more we've remembered that the better the profits have been and then he went on to say that, "It's our obligation to ensure that our finest achievement," meaning the medicine and vaccines we created, "are made available to everybody." So everybody knows that and there is a Time magazine article from I believe it's 1951 [sic. 1952] where he made, a, a medical school commencement speech in which he uttered those words. He became a cover story of Time in 1951. And that Time magazine (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) The year you were born. No sorry, I'm wrong sorry.$$No, I was born in 1954, but it's, that, that Time magazine, the original magazine is preserved in a, in a glass case and that glass case is handed from one CEO to the next CEO and you're supposed to display it prominently in your office as a reminder that, that's what this company is about. It's about the people, not the profits. And although, we're under the same pressure any other publicly traded company is, I think it's my obligation all the time to remember that while I have to do the short term performance that drives the stock price. What I'm really here is to create long term medical value and societal value. If I do that, that would drive the economic value, which in term will drive the stock price.$$So when you say this is no ordinary place. Then for you, it's a very special place.$$It is, I mean you just look at any indicator of the number of Nobel Prize winners. The work that was done to commercialize penicillin. The work that was done to commercialize the corticosteroids. The work--something like thirteen of the seventeen vaccines that are required for American children are made by this company. So the, the nation trust its newborn to us. The work that we've done in past on HIV [human immunodeficiency virus], which I've talked about a few minutes ago. Work that we're doing on cardiovascular and infectious diseases. What this company has done single handily to expand life expectancy. The work that we've done in Africa where by donating products, we've almost eradicated a horrible series of diseases exemplified by river blindness. When you come to work in a company like that and you realize that the company exists to alleviate human suffering, if you just say that, the company's reason for existing is to apply cutting edge science to develop medically important products, vaccines, and medicines that alleviate human suffering and improve and extend human life. It is no ordinary place.

Roosevelt Calbert

Physicist and education administrator Dr. Roosevelt Calbert was born on November 13, 1931 in Philadelphia, Mississippi. After graduating from Cameron St. High School, Dr. Calbert attended Jackson State University, where he earned his B.S. degree in science. He went on to receive his M.A. degree in science for teaching from the University of Michigan.Then, he attended the University of Kansas to study plasma physics. He earned his M.S. degree in physics (1969) and his Ph.D. degree in physics (1971).

Early in his career, Dr. Calbert served as director of the Cooperative Academic Planning (CAP) Program at the Institute for Services to Education where he developed curriculum change in black colleges. In 1975, Dr. Calbert began his long career at the National Science Foundation (NSF), joining NSF's Directorate for Science and Engineering Education. Dr. Calbert held many positions over his twenty-four year career with NSF, including senior program analyst in the Office of Planning and Resources Management, agency representative for the White House Initiative of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), section head of Minority Programs and deputy director of the Division of Human Resource Development.

Dr. Calbert's role at NSF was based on his commitment to improving educational opportunities for minority students. He established several programs that are geared toward science, engineering, and mathematics education for underrepresented students. In 1992, he became a member of the Senior Executive Service. Calbert retired as NSF’s director of the Division of Human Resource Development in the Directorate for Education and Human Resources (EHR) in 1999. In addition to his work at NSF, Calbert has served on the faculty at both Alcorn State University and Alabama State University. He published more than fifty academic articles and presented at professional conferences.

Dr. Calbert received numerous accolades throughout his career, including the National Science Foundation Director's Equal Opportunity Achievement Award and the Senior Executive Service Performance Award. In 1986, he received a Presidential Citation Award from Jackson State University as an outstanding alumnus. In 2007, he was inducted into The National Black College Alumni Hall of Fame. In addition, he was awarded the Foundation’s Distinguished Service Award, the agency’s highest non-monetary honor. This award is given for exceptional leadership, program development or improvement, service in the public interest, or similar contributions that substantially benefit science or engineering, science or engineering education, NSF, or the general public.

Dr. Calbert lives in Reston, Virginia, with his wife Thelma. He has four children, eight grandchildren, and one great grandchild.

Calbert passed away on June 7, 2018.

Dr. Roosevelt Calbert was interviewed by The HistoryMakers<\em> on June 12, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.153

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/12/2012

Last Name

Calbert

Marital Status

Married

Schools

Jackson State University

University of Michigan

University of Kansas

Public Elementary School

Cameron Street High School

First Name

Roosevelt

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

CAL03

Favorite Season

Spring, Summer

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Massanutten, Virginia

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

11/13/1931

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Macaroni, Cheese

Death Date

6/7/2018

Short Description

Physicist and academic administrator Roosevelt Calbert (1931 - 2018) led a twenty-four year career at the National Science Foundation (NSF), where he established many minority science education programs.

Employment

National Science Foundation (NSF)

Institute for Services to Education

Alabama State University

Alcorn State University

Jim Hill High School

Clarksdale High School

Favorite Color

Royal Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:3520,75:5956,89:6236,95:6460,100:13389,199:21050,302:23140,313:23764,329:33140,429:36632,504:43616,612:60284,877:66070,919:77930,990:81556,1064:85964,1128:86784,1139:89688,1157:99615,1247:102845,1286:107862,1325:108232,1367:118516,1517:118832,1522:139080,1734:165895,1951:169210,2054:179789,2228:185931,2346:187923,2374:210051,2587:210486,2593:213792,2641:215445,2670:218930,2701:219634,2720:220514,2753:234773,2891:239279,3035:240280,3052:250816,3194:256313,3302:274860,3505:278913,3599:279411,3607:280075,3615:280490,3621:283550,3670$0,0:3056,9:6605,47:7697,59:14284,144:22583,264:23766,277:29317,465:57888,737:58416,744:58856,750:67180,893:78617,1031:79408,1043:95103,1178:96582,1198:112290,1559:132503,1810:156052,2037:157540,2060:158191,2068:158842,2076:171308,2235:174660,2331:182060,2471:200919,2689:202939,2783:215640,3013:224560,3079:225600,3095:225920,3100:226240,3105:240690,3389:247720,3458:250010,3490
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Roosevelt Calbert slates the interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Roosevelt Calbert shares his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Roosevelt Calbert talks about his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Roosevelt Calbert talks about his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Roosevelt Calbert talks about his parents

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Roosevelt Calbert talks about his family and childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Roosevelt Calbert talks about growing up in Canton, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Roosevelt Calbert describes the sights, sounds and smells of his growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Roosevelt Calbert talks about his interests in television and music whilegrowing up

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Roosevelt Calbert talks about his parents' disinterest in religion and education

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Roosevelt Calbert talks about his memories of his childhood schools

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Roosevelt Calbert talks about his high school experience

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Roosevelt Calbert talks about his preparation for college and his experience at Jackson State College

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Roosevelt Calbert talks about his experiences at Jackson State College

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Roosevelt Calbert talks about his photostatic memory

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Roosevelt Calbert talks about teaching and his experiences during the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Roosevelt Calbert talks about his wife and his experience teaching

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Roosevelt Calbert

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Roosevelt Calbert talks about an event during the Civil Rights Movement and his experience at the University of Kansas

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Roosevelt Calbert talks about the Ku Klux Klan

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Roosevelt Calbert talks about his dissertation and experience at the University of Kansas

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Roosevelt Calbert talks about his professional activities

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Roosevelt Calbert talks about his work to improve resources available to black colleges

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Roosevelt Calbert talks about science funding and career at the National Science Foundation

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Roosevelt Calbert talks about science programs at HBCUs

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Roosevelt Calbert talks about his career at the National Science Foundation

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Roosevelt Calbert reflects on his career and talks about his retirement

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Roosevelt Calbert talks about his work ethic as well as his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Roosevelt Calbert talks about his family and hopes for the future of science education

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Roosevelt Calbert describes his photos

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

2$4

DATitle
Roosevelt Calbert talks about his photostatic memory
Roosevelt Calbert talks about his wife and his experience teaching
Transcript
So you had really a photographic memory in terms of--$$I had a photostatic memory, and I could just remember things. I could just, the teacher would sit and look at me 'cause I could--he asked me a question once when I was a freshman. It was in the biology class. And the biology teacher asked me a question. Nobody knew the answer, and he finally called on me. And I still don't know why. I find myself reading out of the book in my mind. I was going from word to word out of the book. I didn't have the book. I had, you know, I had read it earlier. And he stood there with his mouth open (laughter), said, you know, what is going on? And I didn't know what a photostatic memory was. I found out later, of course, that's what was going on. So that happened. Now, I don't wanna jump ahead of you, but I just wanna tie the story together. When I went to graduate school, the same thing happened in taking physics. I'd take an exam and I could hear, get a question so clearly that he was, the teacher would sit and look at me and ask me how did I do that. Of course, he knew how I did it, but I mean he, it was a rhetorical question. And so that, my mind got me through, having that photostatic memory. When I got ready to get a, choose someone to be my advisor for my dissertation, I went to the department head. And I had a course under him, in a course in physics. And he'd give an open-book exam. He said, okay, everybody come in, and he would question you and we open book. I didn't use the open book. I could state back to him every formula that I had, and he stood there with his mouth open because he did not believe I was doing what I was doing. I didn't know what I was doing. I, all I know, I would study very hard. And the next thing I know, he said, yeah, you, (unclear), you know, I'll be your mentor. And that's how I got my PhD is, you know, by his, he was head of the department of physics. He realized the ability I had to do that.$$Now, that's something. That's quite an ability.$$Well, let me give you one other story. And I hope I relate it because I don't wanna forget it. When I took my comprehensive, my written comprehensive, I went into the class. And you have these ten people sitting around you, a board. One guy told me, whom I liked very well, and he liked me, he asked me a question about potential and kinetic energy. And he said how do you know you can convert, you had a conservation of energy, think of a formula where you have potential and tell me how you convert it to kinetic energy. And for the life of me, I had never done that problem before, but something told me what to do, and I need to do this. And, there I was, you'd have to see this. This board, going from side, the board, from side to side of the board. And all of my professors sitting around had their mouths open. They don't believe that I'm doing what I'm doing. And working the problems, when I got to the end, I started out with MGH [MGH = mass, gravity acceleration, and height], all at once the kinetic energy fell out at the end about three blackboards, the answer fell out. Well, at that time, I knew then I was gonna be able to go ahead and continue. So it was those kind of events--I was discussing with my wife now, at the time, I didn't realize what was going on fully.$$That's--$$I don't mean to cut you off, but--$$No, no, that's interesting.$$--I wanted to tie that in a little later on if I forget to mention it to you.$$So, now, did they--you graduated '54' [1954], right--$$Yes.$$--from Jackson State [College].$$Yes.$$And that was the year of Supreme Court decision, "Brown vs. Board [of Education]".$$Yes.$Okay, so when you graduated though, you taught high school first, right?$$Yes.$$You taught high school, oh, now, were you valedictorian of your class in, at Jackson State [University] as well?$$Yes.$$Okay, all right. And, now, I didn't ask you this. But did the school bring speakers to campus to speak to the students, to motivate them and that sort of thing? Did you have a series--$$Yes, yes, we, they would bring some of the top poets. I don't remember all their names at this point, but I remember that--$$Was it Langston Hughes--$$Yeah, Langston Hughes, and there were two or three others they would bring. I just don't remember off the top of my head. And some of the top singers. For example, Leontyne Price played for my eighth grade graduation. (Unclear) that was eighth grade. She was a senior. I met her again when I finished college and I'd been teaching, my first year teaching. I came back and my wife and I met up at a concert of hers. Now, Leontyne, the one thing I wanted to do was to hear her on the stage in an opera, and I never had that opportunity to do that. And I really hate that.$$Leontyne Price, Langston Hughes, other people did come to campus. As the top student, did you have any role when the--$$Oh, (unclear) now, I wish my wife would find that picture, at that time, Marion Anderson came to our campus. And my wife, they appointed several of the top women students to work with Ms. Anderson, you know, to help her, you know, press her dress. She wouldn't let them press it, but they had to do so. But you see that picture, my wife had a pose, you would think that she was Ms. Anderson (laughter), and (laughter) (unclear), but that's another story. But we had a chance to meet people like that on the black campuses. And that's something that was different, that if you had gone to a predominantly white school. I may have met some people. I'm not saying I wouldn't meet anyone, but the opportunity to meet people like that.$$Okay, yeah, I thought I'd ask because of that. Now, you mentioned you met your wife at Cameron Street School.$$Sixth grade.$$And I know you all didn't get married then so--$$No.$$--when was it that you all finally got married?$$Well, we finished Jackson State in 1954. We were married in 1955.$$Okay.$$And we've been married since then.$$Okay, now, were you in love with her all through grade school and all the way up through--$$Were we what?$$Were you in love with her all through grade school and all the way up through--$$I, we were good friends, but, no, we thought we were in love when we were about, I think about juniors in college or something. We (laughter), my other girlfriend I had during the rest of the time was her roommate. But that's another story (laughter). You don't wanna put that in your (laughter).$$No, no, you have to, when this interview's over, we don't have to--I don't wanna get you in trouble (laughter).$$(Laughter) No, no, we were, we became serious when we, I guess we were actually juniors in college when we became serious.$$Okay, so, all right 1955, you're teaching at Jim Hill High School. Now, where is that? Where is Jim Hill?$$That's Jackson, Mississippi.$$Jackson, okay. And you teach--$$I taught in Clarksdale in 1954, '55' [1955], Clarksdale, Mississippi.$$Oh, that's right. That's the first one, Clarksdale, Mississippi, okay.$$Yeah, and then I went to, I came to, went to Jim Hill in 1955, and I stayed there, I think about four years, something like that.