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Col. Lawrence Washington

Military officer Col. Lawrence Washington was born on October 20, 1935 in Washington, D.C. to Charlotte and Isaac Washington. He attended Union Academy and graduated from Pine Forge Academy. Washington received his B.S. degree in nursing in 1968 from the University of Maryland. He went on to receive his M.S. degree in nursing in 1972 from The Catholic University, in Washington, D.C.

Washington served as an enlisted medical aidman with the rank of private at Walter Reed General Hospital, from 1954 to 1956. He was sworn in as 2nd lieutenant reserve officer, Army Nurse Corp at Fort Meade in 1962, and then worked in psychiatric mental health nursing from 1966 to 1967, In June 1967, he was sworn into the Regular Army becoming the first male nurse, black or white, commissioned in the Regular Army. Washington also served as a consultant clinical nurse specialist psych/mental health at Howard University Hospital Nursing Department in 1972, and assistant professor of the University of Maryland, Walter Reed Army Institute of Nursing from 1972 to 1977. Washington was the first African American male nurse to receive his military science certification in 1978 from the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, and worked as health services command nursing methods analyst on the Manpower Survey Team at Fort Sam Houston. Washington served as chief of the Department of Nursing, U.S. Army Medical Activity, in Berlin, Germany from 1981 to 1983. He was the first African American male Army Nurse Corps officer to be promoted to the rank of colonel at William Beaumont Army Medical Center, in El Paso, Texas and was named assistant chief of the Department of Nursing at Beaumont from 1983 to 1987. He also served as relief supervisor and nursing services consultant, at R.E. Thomason General Hospital in El Paso. Washington retired from military service in 1987.

Washington has served as a clinical instructor and skills supervisor in psychiatric nursing for the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio School of Nursing; an assistant professor and adjunct faculty member for clinical pediatric nursing at Columbia Union College; an assistant professor at Howard University College of Pharmacy, Nursing, and Allied Health Sciences. He served as a commonwealth assistant professor at George Mason University College of Nursing and Health Science where he became the program coordinator of the Saudi-U.S. University Project. He also provided clinical supervision in health assessment, community-based health promotion, disease prevention, and was a member of the University’s Americans with Disabilities Act accommodations committee. He served as an assistant professor at Louisiana State University; instructor at University Of Texas at El Paso and El Paso Community College.

Washington’s awards and recognitions include: the United States Legion of Merit, Three Meritorious Service Medals, Good Conduct Medal, National Defense Service Medal, Army of Occupation Medal, Army Service Ribbon, Overseas Service Ribbon, Order of Military Medical Merit, and an Expert Field Medical Badge, and letters of appreciation.

Col. Lawrence Washington was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 7, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.109

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/7/2018

Last Name

Washington

Maker Category
Occupation
Organizations
First Name

Lawrence

Birth City, State, Country

Washington, D.C.

HM ID

WAS08

Favorite Season

Fall

Favorite Vacation Destination

Silver Spring, Maryland

Favorite Quote

Wisdom Is A Principal Thing; Therefore, Get Wisdom But With All Thy Getting Get Understanding; Structure Is The Basis Of Function; A Thing Is Made A Certain Way To Operate A Certain Way; No Act Without A Fact

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

10/20/1935

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

San Antonio

Favorite Food

Healthy Foods

Short Description

Military officer Col. Lawrence Washington (1935- ) served as chief of the Department of Nursing U.S. Army Medical Activity, in Berlin, Germany from 1981 to 1983. Promoted to Colonel at William Beaumount Army Medical Center, in El Paso, Texas in 1983, he was named assistant chief, Department of Nursing from 1983 to 1987.

Favorite Color

Indigo

David Richards

Military officer David Richards was born on March 19, 1929 in Sedalia, Missouri to Christina Diggs Richards and David Richards. He attended Lincoln School and C.C. Hubbard High School in Sedalia. Richards then studied at the College of Mortuary Science in St. Louis, Missouri, graduating in 1951. Years later, Richards received his B.A. degree in business administration from Park College in Parkville, Missouri in 1975. Three years later, he earned his M.A. degree in human resources from Pepperdine University.

Upon graduating from high school, Richards joined the United States Army in 1946. He was stationed at Camp Stoneman in California, and deployed overseas to the Pacific Theater. Richards became a member of the U.S. Army band, and rose to head of the reed section. After completing U.S. Army service in 1948, Richards worked briefly as an apprentice mortician, and returned to the Army in 1954. He completed airborne training at Fort Benning, Georgia and attended rigger school at Fort Lee, Virginia. He served ten years in the 612th Quartermaster Aerial Supply Company, and then transferred to the Artic Test Center in Fort Greenly, Alaska, where he tested airdrop equipment. Then, Richards was sent to the U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center in Massachusetts, where he helped develop expendable parachutes for the Vietnam War. In 1968, Richards became the Army’s first African American warrant officer, and remained the sole African American in that rank until his retirement in 1983. After his Army career, Richards worked at the Savannah-Chatham Metropolitan Police Department in staffing, and later as a crime prevention analyst. He continued teaching as an adjunct professor at Saint Leo University until 2000.

As the first African American warrant officer, Richards was inducted into the Parachute Rigger Warrant Officer’s Hall of Fame upon his retirement in 1983. Richards was also inducted into the Distinguished Order of Saint Martin within the Quartermaster Corps in the United States Army. He was a three time recipient of the Omega Man of the Year Award and the Superior Service Award. Georgia Legislative Black Caucus, Inc. also honored Richards with the Salute to Veterans Award.

Richards was a member of St. Philip A.M.E. Church in Savannah, Georgia. He also served as an advisor to the director of the West Board Street YMCA, as president for the Mental Health Association of the Coastal Empire, as vice chair of human services for Chatham County and as chairperson of the superintendent advisory council for the Chatham County Board of Education. Richards was a board member for the Frank Callen Boys and Girls Club, JHS of Savannah, the Meditation Center Board, the Martin Luther King Day Observance Committee and the Ralph Mark Gilbert Civil Rights Museum.

Richards and his wife, Swannie Moore Richards have three children: David Richards III, Yvette Richards, and Bonnye Richards Anthony.

Richards passed away on February 5, 2019.

David Richards was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on February 9, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.044

Sex

Male

Interview Date

02/10/2017

Last Name

Richards

Maker Category
Schools

Pepperdine University

Park University

C.C. Hubbard High School

Lincoln School

First Name

David

Birth City, State, Country

Sedalia

HM ID

RIC20

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Missouri

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

Success Awaits At Labor's Gates.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Georgia

Birth Date

3/19/1929

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Savannah

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Death Date

2/5/2019

Short Description

Military officer David Richards, Jr. (1929 - 2019) conducted over 11,000 parachute operations on behalf of the U.S. Army, and was inducted into the Parachute Rigger Warrant Officer’s Hall of Fame.

Employment

US Army

Saint Leo University

Savannah Tribune

Savannah-Chatham Metropolitan Police Department

Favorite Color

Purple

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of David Richards' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - David Richards lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - David Richards describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - David Richards describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - David Richards talks about how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - David Richards describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - David Richards remembers his community in Sedalia, Missouri

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - David Richards describes his parents' occupations

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - David Richards remembers the Lincoln School in Sedalia, Missouri

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - David Richards remembers the Great Depression

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - David Richards recalls his childhood activities

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - David Richards remembers the faculty of the Lincoln School in Sedalia, Missouri

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - David Richards remembers his activities at C.C. Hubbard High School in Sedalia, Missouri

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - David Richards recalls the Taylor Chapel Methodist Church in Sedalia, Missouri

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - David Richards remembers his prom

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - David Richards describes his family vacations

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - David Richards remembers the businesses in Sedalia, Missouri

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - David Richards recalls joining the U.S. Army

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - David Richards recalls the aftermath of World War II in the western Pacific

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - David Richards remembers joining a U.S. Army band, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - David Richards remembers joining a U.S. Army band, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - David Richards talks about his military promotions

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - David Richards recalls his training as a mortician

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - David Richards remembers his decision to return to the U.S. Army

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - David Richards remembers his paratrooper training

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - David Richards recalls attending parachute rigger school

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - David Richards remembers conducting parachute field tests

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - David Richards describes his work at the Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - David Richards remembers being denied a promotion

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - David Richards remembers his promotion to warrant officer

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - David Richards describes his duties as a warrant officer

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - David Richards remembers meeting his wife

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - David Richards talks about the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - David Richards remembers his retirement from the U.S. military

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - David Richards recalls his career at the Savannah-Chatham Metropolitan Police Department

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - David Richards describes his college education

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - David Richards remembers his career as a professor

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - David Richards describes his organizational activities, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - David Richards describes his organizational activities, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - David Richards shares a message to future generations

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - David Richards reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - David Richards describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - David Richards recalls serving as parade marshal for the Veteran's Council

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - David Richards remembers his students

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - David Richards narrates his photographs

David James

Army Air Corps officer and attorney Lt. David F. James was born on November 17, 1923 in St. Louis, Missouri. In 1941, after graduating from Lane Tech High School in Chicago, James attended Loyola University. During his freshman year in 1942, James entered the U.S. Army Air Corps Aviation Cadet Training Program in Tuskegee, Alabama. Upon arrival at Tuskegee Air Field, James was assigned to the 332nd Fighter Group where he trained to fly single seat fighter planes.

From 1944 to 1945, James flew combat missions with the 332nd Fighter Group over Germany as well as other countries in Eastern Europe during World War II. In 1946, James completed his tour of duty with the Army Air Force and re-enrolled at Loyola University. Later, in 1949, James graduated from Loyola University with his B.A. degree. James was hired by business machine manufacturer Burroughs Corporation in 1950 and became the company’s first African American salesman. In 1956, James found a job with the University of Chicago before he was appointed as a deputy director with the State of Illinois in 1961. While there, part of his responsibilities involved working on the “War on Poverty.” James then graduated from DePaul University College of Law with his J.D. degree in 1963. James was hired by the American Bar Association (ABA) in 1967 and became the first African American attorney to be hired by that organization. He worked at the ABA until 1984.

In 1967, James became the first African American homeowner in Winnetka, Illinois. Soon after moving to Winnetka, James became involved in groups that were forming on the North Shore to promote better race relations and open housing. In 1967, James and his wife, Mary, established Together We Influence Growth (TWIG) Day Camp that brings together children from South Side neighborhoods and children from the North Shore. In 1972, James helped found the North Shore Interfaith Housing Council (now the Interfaith Housing Center of the Northern Suburbs), which is organized to fight housing discrimination. In the late 1980s, James was appointed as an administrative law judge for the U.S. Department of Labor. In 1990, James went into private practice as an attorney and remained there until 2000. In 2009, James, along with more than one hundred other Tuskegee Airmen, attended the Inauguration Ceremony of President Barack Obama.

Army Air Corps Officer Lt. David F. James was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 21, 2013.

James passed away on July 23, 2016.

Accession Number

A2013.201

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/21/2013

Last Name

James

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

F.

Organizations
Schools

De Paul University School of Law

Loyola University Chicago

Lane Technical College Prep High School

McCosh Elementary School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

David

Birth City, State, Country

St. Louis

HM ID

JAM06

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Missouri

Favorite Vacation Destination

Fon Du Lac, Wisconsin

Favorite Quote

Don't look back. Someone might be gaining on you.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Birth Date

11/17/1923

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Tempura Fried Calamari

Death Date

7/23/2016

Short Description

Military officer and lawyer David James (1923 - 2016 ) served as a Tuskegee Airman with the 332nd Fighter Group. In 1967, James was employed as the first African American attorney at the American Bar Association.

Employment

Alterman Drug Store

Burroughs

University of Chicago

State of Illinois

American Bar Association (ABA)

Department of Labor

Delete

Favorite Color

Light Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:2610,27:2906,32:3424,40:7272,146:7864,160:12822,250:58738,636:86654,845:97180,941:158841,1470:159444,1480:169796,1627:170160,1632:173709,1679:178360,1712$0,0:183354,1614:183789,1620:257120,2251
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of David James' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - David James lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - David James talks about his mother's education and career as a teacher in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - David James talks about his mother's personality and his maternal grandfather's business in St. Louis

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - David James talks about his maternal family's migration from New Orleans, Louisiana to St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - David James talks about his mother's upbringing in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - David James talks about his maternal grandmother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - David James talks about his maternal grandparents marrying in St. Louis, and his grandmother's death

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - David James discusses his maternal family's Creole heritage

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - David James talks about his mother's personality and her sheltered upbringing

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - David James talks about his father's personality and his goals and ambitions

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - David James talks about his siblings' education and his own likeness to his parents

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - David James talks about his father's Native American heritage

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - David James describes his earliest childhood memories in St. Louis, Missouri

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - David James talks about his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - David James talks about the high achievers in his neighborhood of West Woodlawn in Chicago, Illinois, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - David James talks about the high achievers in his neighborhood of West Woodlawn in Chicago, Illinois, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - David James talks about the smells of growing up in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - David James describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - David James talks about his family's mealtimes together and attending Holy Cross Catholic Church in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - David James describes his experience in elementary school, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - David James describes his experience in elementary school, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - David James describes his decision to attend Lane Technical College Prep High School in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - David James describes his experience in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - David James describes his commute to high school and his extracurricular activities in school

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - David James talks about his high school friend, Jim Onitas, and his decision to attend Loyola University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - David James talks about becoming interested in aviation while he was in high school

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - David James talks about the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, during World War II

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - David James talks about African Americans training for and serving in World War II, in the aftermath of the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - David James talks about being drafted into World War II

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - David James talks about his trip from Chicago, Illinois to Tuskegee Airfield in Alabama, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - David James talks about his trip from Chicago, Illinois to Tuskegee Airfield in Alabama, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - David James describes his experience at basic training at Tuskegee Airfield in Alabama

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - David James talks about his pilot training with Alfred "Chief" Anderson

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - David James talks about Alfred "Chief" Anderson, and First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt's visit to Tuskegee Airfield

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - David James talks about his first solo flight and reflects upon flight training school

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - David James talks about relying on instrumentation in flying planes

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - David James talks about Albert Stewart, the first African American admitted to the U.S. Navy's Officer Training Program

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - David James talks about race relations stationed at Tuskegee Airfield in Alabama

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - David James talks about becoming a commissioned officer in the U.S. Army and serving in Europe with the 15th Air Force

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - David James talks about the fighter planes he flew during his assignment in Europe with the 15th Air Force

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - David James talks about the engineering of the fighter planes flown during World War II

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - David James talks about the end of World War II in 1945, and the end of his tour in 1946

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - David James talks about returning to Loyola University, graduating in 1946, and the Great Migration during the 1940s

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - David James talks about meeting his wife in 1946

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - David James talks about his wife and their involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - David James talks about being hired as the first African American salesperson at Burroughs Corporation

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - David James talks about working at the University College at the University of Chicago

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - David James talks about his role as the Minority Representative of the State of Illinois

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - David James talks about the Civil Rights Movement and Dr. Martin Luther King's visit to Chicago in 1964, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - David James talks about the Civil Rights Movement and Dr. Martin Luther King's visit to Chicago in 1964, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - David James talks about becoming the first African American attorney to work at the American Bar Association and to purchase a home in Winnetka, Illinois

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - David James talks about his decision to move to Winnetka, Illinois

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - David James talks about his children transitioning into their new schools in Winnetka, Illinois

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - David James talks about his and his wife's involvement in community activities in the North Shore area of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - David James talks about his service as an administrative law judge for the Department of Labor, and his private law practice

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - David James talks about attending President Obama's inauguration with the Tuskegee Airmen, the "Dodo Club" and his high school alumni meetings

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - David James talks about his children's education and their careers

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - David James talks about his grandchildren

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - David James reflects upon his legacy, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - David James reflects upon his legacy, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - David James talks about his high school history teacher, Dr. Walner

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - David James describes his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$7

DAStory

1$3

DATitle
David James talks about Alfred "Chief" Anderson, and First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt's visit to Tuskegee Airfield
David James talks about his and his wife's involvement in community activities in the North Shore area of Chicago, Illinois
Transcript
Okay. Mr. James, you were just talking about [Alfred] "Chief" Anderson before our break. I asked you what you thought about him, you know, as a person and an instructor of, whatever he was.$$He was partly responsible for the fact that the Tuskegee Airmen--. He was a guy--there was a--Tuskegee had a civil, civilian aide program. And he taught there. And a very distinguished white lady visited Tuskegee. Her name was Eleanor Roosevelt.$$President [Franklin D.] Roosevelt's wife, right?$$Yes.$$Thank you.$$And she had heard the legend that African Americans weren't intelligent enough to fly. And she heard about this experiment that Tuskegee. No, wait a minute. The general was telling me that. She asked somebody, "Why aren't there African American pilots?" "Oh, no, they can't. They're too dumb. They're not, they don't have any intelligence to fly." But she had read about this civilian air program at Tuskegee. She was a contributor. "This doesn't make sense." So, being Eleanor, she arranged to go to Tuskegee Air and see what this program was all about. And though--she asked Chief Anderson, "Would you take me up?" (laughter) And she did, and he did. And the rest, of course, is history. You know, she told Franklin, you know, (laughter) of all the tricks these guys are trying to tell me--of all the myths I had to--I just--you know--(laughter). And it became (unclear).$$Well, thanks for telling me that story and confirming it, because sometimes people think those are just legends.$$No, this is a fact. That's Eleanor.$$And I think during the pause you also said that Chief Anderson trained more pilots--$$Right.$$At Tuskegee.$$Than any other person, yeah, responsible for it.$And your wife [Mary Gallaway], both of you apparently became very active, maybe in part because she was radicalized before, in North Shore community activities. One in particular was TWIG, "Together We Influence Growth." And I'll talk about another one in a little bit. But what was that about, TWIG? Was it a day camp or?$$It was a day camp. But more than that, my kids were--having been dropped among all of this privilege, wondered about, "What about my kid? What about my friends back on Indiana Avenue? What about them? You know, they don't have, you know, this." And so, we invited--we got together a group of kids through the public school system in Winnetka [Illinois], using their facilities. Eventually, I began a summer camp where we invited children from the south side to a day camp--an eight week day camp where they--and it has its own history. But it has survived.$$It still exists today?$$Oh, we have a--we had a problem getting suburban campers initially when we started out. This year we had 125 campers, probably 75 white, and the rest of them from the city. Unfortunately, it's become--fortunately--we used to draw from the various public housing projects. And now, the base is in the Jackson Park Highlands. (laughter) It's become a middle class thing, just about.$$And I think you were talking about Dr. [Martin Luther] King before, speaking at the Village Green. Was that Winnetka's? Where was the Village Green when he spoke?$$Oh yeah, in Winnetka, right.$$It was back in the mid-60s [1960s]?$$Uh huh.$$Okay. And there was another organization that you helped found, the North Shore Inter-Faith Housing Council. What was that?$$Well, the whole purpose was to attract, open up, the communities on the North Shore to people of color. And it's still going. And I got into all kinds of activities that--making housing opportunities available to people who would not otherwise have that opportunity.$$And that's in the North Shore?$$It's based in Winnetka.$$Right.$$Right.$$But in terms of sort of trying to help African American or other folks of diverse backgrounds--you're talking about the North Shore--$$Right.$$--and integration?$$Right. Opening up the communities and making them welcoming.$$Excellent.

Col. Will Gunn

U.S. Air Force Colonel Will A. Gunn was born in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida in 1959. Gunn graduated with military honors with his B.S. degree in management from the United States Air Force Academy in 1980. He went on to attend Harvard Law School where he was elected president of the Harvard Law School Legal Aid Bureau and graduated cum laude with his J.D. degree in 1986. Gunn also earned his LL.M. degree in environmental law from the George Washington University School of Law. His military education included graduating from the Air Command and Staff College in 1993; the Air War College in 1999; and, Industrial College of the Armed Forces with his M.S. degree in national resource strategy in 2002.

In 1990, Gunn was appointed as a White House Fellow and Associate Director of Cabinet Affairs under President George H.W. Bush. In 2003, Gunn was named the first ever Chief Defense Counsel in the Department of Defense Office of Military Commissions. In that position, he supervised all defense activities for detainees at Guantanamo Bay prison camp selected for trial before military commissions. This was the first proceedings of this to be conducted by the United States in over sixty years. Gunn retired from the military in 2005 after more than twenty years of service and was named president and CEO of the Boys & Girls Clubs of Greater Washington where he led one of the largest affiliates of Boys & Girls Clubs of America.

In 2008, he founded the Gunn Law Firm to provide local representation to military members and veterans in a range of administrative matters. Returning to government in 2009, Gunn was appointed General Counsel in the Department of Veteran’s Affairs. He has published articles in the Ohio Northern Law Review and the Air Force Law Review.Gunn served as chairman of the American Bar Association’s Commission on Youth at Risk. In addition, he served on the boards of Christian Service Charities and the Air Force Academy Way of Life Alumni Group.

Gunn has also received numerous awards and honors including the Harvard Legal Aid Bureau’s Outstanding Alumni Award, the Human Rights Award from the Southern Center for Human Rights, and the American Bar Association’s Outstanding Career Military Lawyer Award. In 2002, he was elected to the National Bar Association’s Military Law Section Hall of Fame. Gunn’s military honors include the Meritorious Service Medal with four oak leaf clusters and the Air Force Commendation Medal with one oak leaf cluster.

Colonel Will A. Gunn was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 21, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.158

Sex

Male

Interview Date

7/26/2013

7/26/2013 |and| 9/27/2019

Last Name

Gunn

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

A.

Schools

Industrial College of the Armed Forces

George Washington University

Harvard Law School

Air Force Institute of Technology

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Will

Birth City, State, Country

Birmingham

HM ID

GUN02

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Beaches

Favorite Quote

Just Do It and I Can Do All Things Through Christ Who Strengthens Me

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

12/14/1958

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Military officer and defense lawyer Col. Will Gunn (1958 - ) is the first ever Chief Defense Counsel for the Department of Defense Office of Military Commissions.

Employment

United States Department of Veterans Affairs

Gunn Law Firm

Boys and Girls Clubs of Greater Washington

Office of Military Communications, U.S. Department of Defense

United States Air Force

Pope Air Force Base, United States Air Force

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
0,0:3535,47:4850,54:5760,67:9127,124:10310,149:10765,155:15770,236:16225,242:20775,316:22868,351:40830,519:41220,525:42156,538:44496,577:44886,584:45276,592:45744,599:49644,643:50112,651:56100,692:56440,698:56984,709:60370,743:60882,752:62098,771:62674,782:63506,809:63762,814:64914,838:65234,844:65746,855:66322,866:66706,873:67602,891:67922,897:70960,918:71325,924:71690,930:72055,939:73004,960:74980,987:75540,996:75860,1001:77860,1071:82740,1136:84260,1162:84660,1168:86420,1198:86740,1203:88100,1231:91460,1239:92090,1248:92720,1257:93980,1275:94970,1285:96500,1307:97850,1333:98210,1338:98930,1348:102080,1385:106300,1392:109704,1437:110164,1443:110716,1451:111544,1461:112096,1468:112648,1475:115860,1499:116685,1511:117885,1532:120360,1573:121935,1613:122610,1622:123660,1644:125385,1671:125835,1678:127860,1706:128535,1717:128835,1728:134107,1763:134545,1770:135056,1779:138779,1840:139436,1852:142940,1920:144765,1960:145714,1978:146882,1997:148342,2030:157300,2094:161170,2175$0,0:8966,131:9396,137:38060,501:39820,540:43420,616:56138,757:57178,774:57802,780:78292,1024:86660,1107:94260,1246:97140,1293:97540,1299:98580,1314:99540,1330:100020,1343:109001,1432:122618,1643:142326,1908:166612,2240:170512,2306:170824,2311:177134,2366:188722,2486:198116,2642:200195,2682:221930,3014:231355,3090:271800,3590:272265,3596:273939,3616:279320,3657
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Will Gunn's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Will Gunn lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Will Gunn describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Will Gunn talks about the significance of Lowndes County as the Black Belt of Alabama and for the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Will Gunn talks about his maternal grandparents' jobs

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Will Gunn talks about his mother's growing up in Birmingham, Alabama and her career in social services

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Will Gunn talks about his family's move to Fort Lauderdale, Florida, in 1962

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Will Gunn describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Will Gunn talks about his father's growing up in Opelika, Alabama, his education at Miles College, and his profession as a teacher

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Will Gunn describes how his parents met, married and moved the family to Fort Lauderdale

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Will Gunn describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Will Gunn describes his family's road trip the summer of 1967, and his inspiration to become a lawyer

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Will Gunn talks about his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Will Gunn describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Will Gunn talks about his childhood home and neighborhood in Fort Lauderdale, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Will Gunn describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Fort Lauderdale, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Will Gunn talks about going to Dania Beach, Florida as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Will Gunn describes his experience in elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Will Gunn talks about his family's involvement in Greater New Mount Olive Baptist Church in Fort Lauderdale, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Will Gunn talks about why he aspired to become a lawyer

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Will Gunn talks about his interests as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Will Gunn recalls the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Will Gunn describes his experience in middle school in Davie, Florida

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Will Gunn talks about his height and his interest in basketball

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Will Gunn describes his experience playing basketball in high school, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Will Gunn describes his experience playing basketball in high school, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Will Gunn describes his academic performance and extracurricular activities in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Will Gunn recalls following the Watergate hearings on TV and his desire to become a lawyer

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Will Gunn talks about his mentors in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Will Gunn talks about his interest in applying to the ROTC programs in college

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Will Gunn talks about his decision to attend the Air Force Academy, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Will Gunn talks about his decision to attend the Air Force Academy, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Will Gunn talks about being accepted into the U.S. Air Force Academy

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Will Gunn describes his experience at the U.S. Air Force Academy

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Will Gunn talks about his mentors at the U.S. Air Force Academy

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Will Gunn talks about playing Flicker Ball at the U.S. Air Force Academy

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Will Gunn talks about his decision to become an Air Force Judge Advocate General (JAG)

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Will Gunn talks about various career paths after training at the U.S. Air Force Academy training

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Will Gunn talks about his instructors, General Malham Wakin and Captain Curtis Martin at the U.S. Air Force Academy

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Will Gunn talks about academics at the U.S. Air Force Academy

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Will Gunn talks about playing basketball at the U.S. Air Force Academy and becoming class president

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Will Gunn talks about the U.S Air Force Academy's football and basketball teams

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Will Gunn talks about getting into Harvard Law School on the Funded Legal Education Program (FLEP) program

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Will Gunn talks about his graduation from the U.S. Air Force Academy

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Will Gunn talks about his first assignment in the Minority Affairs Office at the U.S. Air Force Academy

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Will Gunn talks about his assignment at Hanscom Air Force Base and getting into Harvard Law School

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Will Gunn talks about meeting his wife at Hanscom Air Force Base and getting married in 1982

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Will Gunn talks about his first impression of Harvard Law School

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Will Gunn talks about the people who inspired him to apply to Harvard Law School

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Will Gunn describes his experience and academics at Harvard Law School

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Will Gunn talks about the teachers who influenced him at Harvard Law School

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Will Gunn talks about his mentors at Harvard Law School and his involvement in public service, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Will Gunn talks about his mentors at Harvard Law School and his involvement in public service, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Will Gunn talks about his philosophy on public service

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Will Gunn talks about his involvement with the Black Law Students Association (BLSA) and the Harvard Legal Aid Bureau

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Will Gunn talks about his philosophy in practicing law

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Will Gunn reflects upon the history of race and law in the U.S. Armed Services

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Will Gunn describes his experience in the JAG Corps at Mather Air Force Base

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Will Gunn talks about his responsibilities as Area Defense Counselor and as a Circuit Defense Counsel

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Will Gunn talks about being selected as a White House Fellow in 1990

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Will Gunn talks about his experience as a White House Fellow

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Will Gunn talks about Clarence Thomas' controversial confirmation hearings as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$6

DAStory

5$7

DATitle
Will Gunn talks about his decision to become an Air Force Judge Advocate General (JAG)
Will Gunn talks about being selected as a White House Fellow in 1990
Transcript
Now I know in the, I've heard anyway there's a height limit in, in terms of being a pilot--$$Yes.$$--but uh, so even though you're in the [U.S.] Air Force would you, could you qualify to be a pilot at 6'7"?$$Yes. When I got to the Air Force Academy I was pilot-qualified. I had the, the thing that throws a lot of people off is the, is actually the eyesight and I had 20/20 vision and so I was pleased. I was happy to be pilot-qualified but flying was never a dream of mine. So I saw being at the Air Force Academy since they produce pilots, I saw being pilot-qualified as just a great a fringe benefit. The fact that, "Hey this is nice, nice to have." But it was interesting. For the first time in my life you know earlier I mentioned changing ambitions as I was coming up, which I don't think is all that uncommon. Well for the first time in my life I was around people at the Air Force Academy that I heard story after story of people saying things like, "Hey when I was like three or four years old and looked up and saw planes flying, I knew I wanted to fly planes." And there were so many people that I came into contact with that were at the Air Force Academy because of the desire that they had to fly and to be a pilot. That was never my passion. So as a senior at Academy because I was still pilot-qualified and just under the height, height requirements I had to take a course, pilot screening course, which led to being able to solo in a single engine Cessna. Well it was an interesting experience because I found myself getting air sick in, in the patterns as I was you know preparing to land and also during different maneuvers and such. And I really believe it was just my body telling me that, "Hey this is not your thing." And so I turned down the opportunity to go to pilot training because I was eventually able to get past the air sickness but it wasn't something that I was passionate about. On the other hand, I did have a couple of pre-law classes at the Air Force Academy. I did very, very well in those and thought that, "Hmm, maybe I want to be an Air Force JAG [Judge Advocate General]," and eventually that, that came to be.$$Okay.$Now in 1990 we have here that you became a White House Fellow?$$Yes.$$How did that come about?$$Well as a senior at the [U.S.] Air Force Academy I had, I had a friend, a young lady who came out for a visit, and she had with her this brochure about the White House Fellows program. And I took, I took a look at the brochure and it had biographies, short bios of the current class of White House Fellows and I saw it and said, "Wow! This is cut-out for me!" And, but ask I saw those bios and saw the things that the people had done at, at that stage in their career, I knew that I was far too junior for it. But I started to send off each year for the application and each application would have the bios of the current class and the, it became a goal of mine to become a White House Fellow. Finally in 1989 I suppose I appli-well actually 1988 I applied for the first time for the White House Fellows program and I made it after filling out the application I made it to the regionals. I had a regional interview in Los Angeles [California] and felt I'd just had a great day but I didn't make it to the national finals. I actually had a mentor, a guy by the name of Pat Sweeny, who is a black JAG [Judge Advocate General], who was a colonel military judge who presided over my, one of my first cases as, as a prosecutor, who talked to me about the program. Now I was already aware of it but he then a Fellow I believe in the, during the [President Ronald] Reagan Administration and early in the Reagan Administration. And so he became a person that I called upon for advice on the White Fellows program. Well that first year as I said when I went for the regional interviews I had a great day but part of the application asked for you to send in a draft or a memo, a policy memorandum proposing some type of policy to the President of the United States. And you know it wouldn't actually get to the president but they wanted to see how well you write, wrote and how, how well you reason. Well my policy proposal that year as, since I was serving as a defense counsel in particular. I said, well I want to write; I wrote about the, how the military should repeal this ban on gay service members because it didn't make sense to me that in all volunteer force we were getting rid of people because they were gay and when, if we came into a time of conflict, that person who's serving and all they'd have to say is "I'm sorry. I have to leave now. I'm gay." And (laughs) that just didn't, didn't strike me as, as making a whole lot of sense. And so I argued the case and so I sent that in as my policy proposal. After finding out that I was not selected, I got a letter from one of the interviewers and he told me that he was disappointed that I hadn't been selected and encouraged me that if I was interested I should reapply. But also told me that while he didn't agree with my policy proposal, he believed that that had distracted some of the other interviewers--$$[unclear]$$--while, during their deliberations, while no one would admit to it he firmly believed that there were some that were uncomfortable with that proposal and therefore they marked me down. Well the next year I, I suppose I was, I didn't keep the same policy proposal. I wrote on something different and that year I got, I got all the way through and I was named a White House Fellow there in the, in early June of, of 1990. And came to [Washington] D.C. [District of Columbia] a few weeks later for a series of interviews to figure out where I was going to be placed and the fellowship year begins right around, right after Labor Day and it was a phenomenal year.$$

Guion Bluford

NASA astronaut, aerospace engineer, military officer, and senior engineering executive, Guion S. Bluford Jr. was born on November 22, 1942 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was the eldest of three sons of Guion Bluford, Sr., a mechanical engineer, and Lolita Bluford, a special education teacher. Bluford graduated from Overbrook Senior High School in 1960 and went on to graduate from Pennsylvania State University in 1964 with his B.S. degree in aerospace engineering. He was also a distinguished graduate of the U.S. Air Force ROTC program and received his commission as an Air Force second lieutenant. Bluford graduated from the Air Force Institute of Technology with his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in aerospace engineering in 1974 and 1978, respectively. In 1987, Bluford received his M.B.A. degree in management from the University of Houston at Clear Lake.

After receiving his Air Force pilot wings, Bluford was assigned to the 557th Tactical Fighter Squadron at Cam Ranh Bay, Vietnam. As an F4C fighter pilot, he flew 144 combat missions in Southeast Asia. From 1967 to 1972, he was a T-38 instructor pilot at Sheppard Air Force Base in Texas where he trained future U.S. Air Force and West German fighter pilots. Upon graduating from the Air Force Institute of Technology in 1974, Bluford was assigned to the U.S. Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory as Deputy for Advanced Concepts in the Aeromechanics Division and then as Branch Chief of the Aerodynamics and Airframe Branch. In 1978, Bluford was selected for the astronaut program and was officially designated a NASA astronaut one year later. In 1983, he became the first African American to fly in space and the first to receive the U.S. Air Force Command Pilot Astronaut Wings. Bluford was also the first African American to return to space a second, third, and fourth time when he flew on STS-61A in 1985, STS-39 in 1991, and STS-53 in 1992. He has logged more than 688 hours in space.

In 1993, he retired from NASA and the United States Air Force to become the Vice President/General Manager of the Engineering Services Division of NYMA Inc. He led the research support effort in aeropropulsion, satellite systems, microgravity and advanced materials. In 1997, he became the Vice President of the Aerospace Sector of the Federal Data Corporation and led the company’s NASA business. Finally, in 2000, Bluford became the Vice President of Microgravity R&D and Operation for Northrop Grumman Corporation and led the industry team in the development of two experiment facilities currently on the International Space Station. Today, Bluford is the President of the Aerospace Technology Group in Cleveland, Ohio.

Bluford has been awarded the Department of Defense Superior Service and Meritorious Service Medals; the Air Force Legion of Merit and Meritorious Service Medal; the NASA Distinguished Service and Exceptional Service Medals; the Pennsylvania Distinguished Service Medal; the 1991 Black Engineer of the Year Award and fourteen honorary doctorate degrees. He was inducted into the International Space Hall of Fame in 1997 and the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame in 2010

Guion Stewart Bluford, Jr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on May 9, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.165

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/9/2013

Last Name

Bluford

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Stewart

Schools

Air Force Institute of Technology

University of Houston

Pennsylvania State University

Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Speakers Bureau Availability

Any

First Name

Guion

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

BLU01

Speakers Bureau Preferred Audience

Any

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - $4000-$7500

Favorite Season

Summer

Speaker Bureau Notes

For commencement speeches in which an honorary doctorate degree is confirmed, no honorarium is charged,

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

Do what you love and love what you do.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Ohio

Birth Date

11/22/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Cleveland

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Steak, Lobster

Short Description

Astronaut and military officer Guion Bluford (1942 - ) , flew 144 combat missions in Southeast Asia as an F4C fighter pilot and served as a Branch Chief in the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. He became the first African American astronaut to fly in space on STS-8 (1983, shuttle Challenger), and the first African American to return to space a 2nd, 3rd, and 4th time on STS-61-A (1985, shuttle Challenger), STS-39 (1991, shuttle Discovery) and STS-53 (1992, shuttle Discovery). Bluford retired from NASA and the Air Force in 1993 to become a senior aerospace industry executive.

Employment

Aerospace Technology Group

Northrop Grumman Information Technology

Federal Data Corporation

NYMA Inc.

Johnson Space Center

Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory

3630th Flying Training Wing

12th Tactical Fighter Wing

Favorite Color

Beige

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Guion Bluford's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Guion Bluford lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Guion Bluford describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Guion Bluford talks about his mother's education and her career as a teacher

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Guion Bluford talks about growing up in a non-segregated environment in Philadelphia, and talks about his mother's career, personality and interests

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Guion Bluford describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Guion Bluford describes his father's education, and how his parents met at Alcorn A&M College in the 1930s

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Guion Bluford describes his father's employment as an engineer, and his family's early life in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Guion Bluford describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Guion Bluford talks about his brothers, and about growing up in Philadelphia

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Guion Bluford describes the demographics of West Philadelphia during his childhood years and describes his interests as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Guion Bluford talks about his childhood interest in airplanes as well as joining the Boy Scouts

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Guion Bluford describes his experience at the YMCA and what influenced his childhood interest in becoming an aerospace engineer

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Guion Bluford describes his experience in elementary school and junior high school in Philadelphia

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Guion Bluford describes his experience in high school in Philadelphia

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Guion Bluford talks about his role models in engineering and his interest in pursuing a career in aeronautical engineering

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Guion Bluford talks about his teachers in school, his decision to attend Pennsylvania State University and his encounter with a college counselor

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Guion Bluford talks about his father's struggle with epilepsy, his mother career as a school teacher, and his grandfather's influence on his life

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Guion Bluford talks about his interest in solving puzzles and his decision to attend Pennsylvania State University for his undergraduate studies

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Guion Bluford talks about his graduating class at Overbrook High School in Philadelphia

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Guion Bluford describes his experience as an undergraduate student at Pennsylvania State University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Guion Bluford describes his family's involvement in the Christian Science church

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Guion Bluford describes his fear of heights and hospitals

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Guion Bluford describes his social experience at Pennsylvania State University in the 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Guion Bluford talks about his decision to enroll in the Air Force Advanced ROTC Course and join the U.S. Air Force as an engineer

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Guion Bluford talks about how he met his wife, Linda Tull

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Guion Bluford talks about his decision to become a pilot in the U.S. Air Force

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Guion Bluford describes his senior year at Penn State University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Guion Bluford talks about graduating from Penn State University

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Guion Bluford talks about Professor Leslie Greenhill and Professor Barnes McCormick, who were his mentors at Penn State University

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Guion Bluford talks about his early married life and the few months following his graduation from Penn State University

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Guion Bluford talks about his initial experience on Williams Air Force Base

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Guion Bluford describes his pilot training experience on Williams Air Force Base in 1965

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Guion Bluford talks about Air Force pilot Chappie James and his first assignment out of pilot training in 1966

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Guion Bluford talks about the low percentage of black pilots in the U.S. Air Force

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Guion Bluford describes his service as a U.S. Air Force fighter pilot in Vietnam, from 1966 to 1967 - part one

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Guion Bluford describes his service as a U.S. Air Force fighter pilot in Vietnam, from 1966 to 1967 - part two

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Guion Bluford talks about his fighter plane being shot at while he was in Vietnam

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Guion Bluford shares his perspective on the Vietnam War

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Guion Bluford talks about his decision to become an instructor pilot and his experience at Sheppard Air Force Base

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Guion Bluford talks about his decision to pursue graduate school

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Guion Bluford talks about Robert Lawrence

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Guion Bluford describes his experience in the master's degree program at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Guion Bluford describes his decision to pursue a Ph.D. degree in aerospace engineering

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Guion Bluford describes his experience as a doctoral student in aerospace engineering

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Guion Bluford discusses his doctoral dissertation on determining a numerical solution to describe the flow around a delta wing at hypersonic speeds

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Guion Bluford describes his decision to apply for the NASA astronaut program in 1977

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Guion Bluford describes his selection to the NASA astronaut program in 1978

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$2

DAStory

2$5

DATitle
Guion Bluford describes his service as a U.S. Air Force fighter pilot in Vietnam, from 1966 to 1967 - part one
Guion Bluford describes his experience at the YMCA and what influenced his childhood interest in becoming an aerospace engineer
Transcript
So, I got--$$So after--(simultaneous)--$$--I graduated from pilot training [at Williams Air Force Base, Mesa, Arizona], F-4Cs, frontline, Moc II, fighter bomber, Vietnam, Southeast Asia. That was my assignment.$$You were a bomber pilot?$$Fighter pilot. This is fighter pilot--(simultaneous)--$$Fighter pilot, okay.$$This is fighter pilot.$$All right, and you were flying the, what was the plane that you--$$F-4C Phantom.$$F-4C, okay.$$F-4C Phantom, brand new fighter airplane. It used to be a [U.S.] Navy airplane. Then the [U.S.] Air Force liked it and made it an Air Force airplane, "C" version. So after pilot training, I went to, left the wife [Linda Tull] and kids in Phoenix, went to Reno, Nevada to stay there for a space for three weeks of survival school. And then from there, I went down to Davis-Monthan [Air Force Base] in Tucson [Arizona], wife and kids, we all went down to Tucson for two or three months for radar school. And then we went to MacDill Air Force Base in Tampa, Florida, and I flew the machine, learned to fly it, take off, land, refuel, drop bombs, all that sort of stuff, about six months flying, six months. In October of '65 [1965] I sent the wife, and took the wife and kids to Philadelphia [Pennsylvania], got them situated and in October of sixty--not '65 [1965], October of '66' [1966], excuse me, October of '66 [1966], I went to Vietnam. My orders were to go to Ubon Air Base, 433rd Tactical Fighter Squadron. And if I had gotten there, I would have flown for [Daniel] Chappie James [Jr; fighter pilot in the U.S. Air Force, who in 1975 became the first black American to reach the rank of four-star general] and Robin Olds [fighter pilot and general officer in the U.S. Air Force], two fighter pilots who ran the wing up there. And this would have been primarily, I would have flown Air cap over North Vietnam, primarily, you know, shooting down MiGs, defending thuds [fighter bomber], F-105s, that sort of thing.$$You said, "if" you had gotten there?$$Yeah, I didn't get there. I'll tell you why.$$Okay.$$But that's where I was assigned. So, once I got the wife and kids up in Philadelphia, matter of fact, I left and they were still living with my parents [Harriett Lolita Brice Blueford and Guion Bluford, Sr.] 'cause they had--we didn't have enough time to get an apartment for 'em, and then I left. I was gone for nine months. I went from there to, I flew from there to Travis Air Force Base in California. I hopped a transport with, full of military guys going to Vietnam. The airplane flew from California to Hawaii. We got off the airplane in Hawaii just long enough to stretch our legs, and then we flew from there to Clark Air Force Base in the Philippines, great big Air Force base in the Philippines. I got to Clark Air Force Base in the Philippines, got off the airplane and they said, have you gone through jungle survival training? And I said, no. So they slowed me up about a week or so, and I took a jungle survival course at Clark, which was exciting, you know, learn how to eat, how to live in the jungle, took classes, did escape and evasion, how to escape and evade in the jungle, POW [prisoner of war] training, all that sort of stuff. While I was there, they changed my orders. They flipped me from there to 12th Tact Fighter Wing, Cam Ranh Bay [Vietnam]. 12th Tact Fighter Wing had deployed all, the whole wing deployed to Cam Ranh Bay. And the, the members of the wing were all finishing up their assignment, and they were coming back. They needed people to replace 'em. And so instead of going to Ubon, Thailand, I went to Cam Ranh Bay and South Vietnam, Twelfth Tact Fighter Wing, a wing of maybe four squadrons and F-4C Phantoms. So we must have had eighty fighters, great, great big fighter base. It was also a transport base, lots of military transports go in there. We had a hospital there, a major hospital facility there, and the [U.S.] Navy had a port there. So it was a great, big--it was a major base. So I flew nine months in Vietnam, and I flew out of Cam Ranh Bay, 144 missions total, dropped bombs all over Southeast Asia, South Vietnam, North Vietnam, Laos. I had sixty-five missions over North Vietnam. Primarily, they were air cover. When I did fly that way, we would take off out of Cam Ranh Bay and fly North. We would refuel just, just below the DMZ [The Korean Demilitarized Zone] between North and South Vietnam, and go up and fly six hour mission, air cap, come back, refuel coming back and then come home, good six-hour mission, did long missions. So lots of triple A. I still remember being shot at by a 85 millimeter. I still remember my last mission where I got deployed, scrambled off the alert path. We had two or three fighters that sat on the alert pad. And as, and they would assign you to the alert pad, which would mean you live in trailers out near the runway, and they would scramble fighters in, if they had an emergency some place. I still remember being scrambled and dropping bombs on active, triple A site in the DMZ between the North and South Vietnam. I still remember seeing all those tracers and all that sort of stuff, still remember flying, coming home one day and having a wing, a bullet hole in the wing. The best missions flying out of Cam Ranh Bay were ground support and supporting the ground guys. You'd fly in--see the [U.S.] Army guys all ready to take a piece of real estate, and you drop bombs on 'em, you drop 500-pound slicks as well high drag bombs, fired rockets. We had, the airplane didn't have a internal gun. So if we had to stray, we had to carry a gun pod which worked some of the time and which didn't work some of the time. It was nine months of doing that.$I was also very involved with the YMCA [Young Men's Christian Association]. In the summertime, my mother [Harriet Lolita Brice Bluford] would give me some money. I would hop the bus and L [subway] and go to the Central Y [YMCA], downtown Philadelphia [Pennsylvania]. And, and that was a major event, you know, in the summertime. I learned how to swim at the Y. I worked out, and they had calisthenics and gym activity, played basketball. I learned to play checkers and chess and ping pong, and I got good enough at checkers--at ping pong and chess that when I was in high school, I was on the Chess Team and on the Ping Pong Team. So it had that. The YMCA was also a major factor in my life because I learned how to make model airplanes, part of being at the Y. We'd get on, I'd get up and go to the Y every day. It would be a full-day activity. But part of it was, I made model airplanes and ships and so forth and so on. So my model building developed at the Y, and that led to my strong interest in airplanes and my desire to eventually, to be an aerospace engineer. Plus, the fact that I liked math, I really like--I'm a math guy. So a combination of all of that just drove me towards being what I wanted to be, an aerospace engineer. And then you copy--you put on top of that the fact that I had a father [Guion Bluford, Sr.] who was a mechanical engineer. Not only was he a mechanical engineer, but he loved what he did. He loved what he did.$$Yeah, I read that he would come, he would leave the house excited every morning.$$Oh, he was, he, he enjoyed--he never brought the, he never brought his work home, but I knew he loved what he did. And that was, that was a very motivating factor for me because that's why I sort of said, "Do what you love, and love what you do," you know, so. So I grew up in that world.

Albert Stewart

Chemist and chemistry professor Albert C. Stewart was born on November 25, 1919. Stewart received his B.S. degree in chemistry from the University of Chicago in 1942. He was drafted into the U.S. Navy in 1945 and was among a select group of African American sea men trained as officers. Following his tour of duty, Stewart returned to the United States and enrolled at the University of Chicago. In 1948, he received his M.S. degree in chemistry; and, in 1949, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant into the U.S. Navy. Stewart earned his Ph.D. degree in chemistry from St. Louis University in 1951.

From 1949 to 1963, Stewart held teaching appointments at St. Louis University, Knoxville College, and John Carroll University where he taught chemistry and physics. In 1951, Stewart began his thirty-three year long career at Union Carbide Corporation as a senior chemist in the nuclear division. In 1960, Stewart became the assistant director of research and held several leadership positions until his departure in 1984. He was appointed as an associate professor and named as the associate dean in the Ancell School of Business at Western Connecticut State University. From 1987 until 1989, Stewart served as the acting dean and remained as an associate professor of marketing. In 1999, he became Professor Emeritus at Western Connecticut State University.

In 1966, Stewart received the University of Chicago Alumni Citation Award. Stewart is a member of a number of professional and academic societies, including the Radiation Research Society, the American Marketing Association, and the American Chemical Society where he is an emeritus member. He was a fellow of the American Institute of Chemists. He has also served as an advisor, consultant and on the Board of Directors of several organizations, including U.S. Department of Commerce, NASA, and the Urban League, respectively.

Albert C. Stewart was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 9, 2013.

Stewart passed away on October 13, 2016.

Accession Number

A2013.059

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/9/2013

Last Name

Stewart

Maker Category
Marital Status

Divorced

Middle Name

C.

Schools

Saint Louis University

University of Chicago

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Albert

Birth City, State, Country

Detroit

HM ID

STE15

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Michigan

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caneel Bay Plantation, U.S. Virgin Islands

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Connecticut

Birth Date

11/25/1919

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New Haven

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Death Date

10/13/2016

Short Description

Chemist and military officer Albert Stewart (1919 - 2016 ) is Professor Emeritus at Western Connecticut State University and a veteran of the U.S. Navy, where he served from 1944-1956.

Employment

St. Louis University

Knoxville College

John Carroll University

Western Connecticut State University

Kanthal Corp.

Executive Register, Inc.

Execom

Foundation for Social Justice in South Africa

Union Carbide Corporation

United States Naval Reserve

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:4928,49:9574,95:10465,108:10789,113:11356,118:11761,144:12976,172:13624,181:14596,201:33084,298:35844,341:37132,347:37960,359:43650,374:44370,384:45090,394:48050,415:48770,425:49250,432:52690,491:56550,510:56902,515:59542,557:60686,568:61038,573:61566,580:63150,603:64910,624:66142,633:66582,639:70349,654:76952,699:81003,723:81418,729:81999,737:89460,782:89935,788:90600,796:97060,876:102142,898:107108,915:107588,920:107972,927:110468,957:113444,1005:114116,1013:118436,1063:118916,1068:123462,1088:125184,1170:126783,1185:128997,1208:131457,1245:134354,1276:134762,1281:135578,1291:136190,1298:137618,1311:138434,1323:142566,1367:144022,1383:144806,1391:153000,1426:153450,1432:153810,1437:157984,1455:158985,1467:159349,1472:161004,1488:161372,1493:161740,1498:164868,1525:165604,1536:168548,1578:169836,1598:170940,1606:180070,1643:185306,1694:187924,1722:197735,1766:200465,1800:205085,1833:206870,1846:208235,1864:209285,1876:210125,1888:210860,1896:217181,1910:217616,1916:218399,1930:218921,1938:221912,1958:222758,1969:223604,1980:224356,1990:225202,2002:228304,2068:236042,2100:237526,2113:238162,2120:241940,2136:242675,2145:245615,2176:250590,2190:253838,2208:258014,2245:267410,2288:268130,2297:273524,2314:276330,2329:277428,2339:280480,2350$0,0:1881,21:2226,27:2640,37:3192,46:3468,51:12582,90:21864,202:26187,243:27497,255:28152,261:32586,276:37672,319:38056,324:38632,332:39112,339:46160,349:49190,379:49594,384:50907,399:51311,404:51816,410:55351,462:57876,493:58482,500:62986,517:64330,529:86112,645:87276,658:87761,664:90380,699:91059,704:92320,720:96103,758:96588,764:102752,819:103520,827:107552,845:108320,852:113380,874:135158,1038:137172,1050:137914,1059:138444,1065:145150,1093:145800,1099:146840,1109:152040,1147:157532,1167:159510,1180:160500,1201:161940,1222:179189,1341:179601,1346:182176,1381:182794,1388:183515,1397:186630,1414:187260,1423:194980,1481:202040,1507:202750,1518:203105,1524:203673,1534:206640,1563:213080,1637:218102,1709:225511,1763:233875,1807:240384,1826:242204,1842:245116,1879:246390,1897:248028,1918:248574,1925:255691,1946:256258,1955:256582,1960:264844,2078:265492,2084:270198,2125:271728,2142:275604,2186:276624,2197:281140,2220:281740,2226:282460,2235:283300,2243:286664,2255:287108,2260:287774,2267:288218,2272:295763,2339:304210,2427
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Albert Stewart's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Albert Stewart lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Albert Stewart describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Albert Stewart talks about her mother's growing up in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Albert Stewart describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Albert Stewart talks about his father's growing up in Maryland and how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Albert Stewart talks about how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Albert Stewart talks about his parents eloping, their life in Detroit, Michigan and their decision to move to Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Albert Stewart talks about his father's employment in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Albert Stewart talks about his father's employment at Sherwin-Williams in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Albert Stewart talks about getting a job as a resin researcher at Sherwin-Williams in Chicago, Illinois, and being drafted for World War II

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Albert Stewart describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Albert Stewart talks about his parents' homes in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Albert Stewart talks about receiving a double promotion in elementary school, and graduating early from high school

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Albert Stewart talks about growing up in the West Woodlawn neighborhood of Chicago and White City amusement park

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Albert Stewart describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Albert Stewart talks about the Chicago American Giants baseball team and attending their baseball games on Sundays

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Albert Stewart talks about African Americans moving to Chicago from the South, and his father's job as a carpenter who remodeled homes

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Albert Stewart talks about attending baseball games in Chicago, and recalls Prohibition in Chicago

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Albert Stewart talks about his childhood jobs as a milk delivery boy and as a newspaper delivery boy for the 'Chicago defender'

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Albert Stewart describes his experience in elementary school and his interest in math and spelling

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Albert Stewart talks about his experience in school

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Albert Stewart talks about the racial division in school and in the city of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Albert Stewart talks about his interest in chemistry and the schools for the black students in Chicago

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Albert Stewart talks about graduating from high school, attending Wilson Junior College, and working on the railroad

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Albert Stewart describes how he decided to attend the University of Chicago

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Albert Stewart talks about walking to the University of Chicago every day from his parents' home

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Albert Stewart talks about working to support his education at the University of Chicago, and the help that he received from the Rotary Club

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Albert Stewart talks about his experience at the University of Chicago

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Albert Stewart describes his experience while working at Sherwin-Williams

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Albert Stewart talks about his draft to the U.S. Navy during World War II, and attending boot camp at Great Lakes, Illinois

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Albert Stewart talks about his mother wanting him to play the saxophone and his parents' skepticism of his prospects as a scientist

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Albert Stewart describes how he got commissioned as an ensign in the U.S. Navy in 1945 - part one

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Albert Stewart describes how he got commissioned as an ensign in the U.S. Navy in 1945 - part two

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Albert Stewart describes his assignment and experience on a U.S. Navy fleet oiler towards the end of World War II

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Albert Stewart talks about his experience aboard a U.S. Navy fleet oiler in China and Japan, and going into inactive duty

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Albert Stewart talks about how he became a research assistant at St. Louis University

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Albert Stewart talks about getting married

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Albert Stewart talks about his master's degree research on vacuum systems and getting a job as a research scientist at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Albert Stewart describes his experience at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Albert Stewart talks about the racial climate in Oak Ridge, Tennessee in the 1950s, and how it affected him and his wife

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Albert Stewart talks about his experience at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the racial politics there, and how he was hired at Union Carbide Company

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Albert Stewart talks about his Ph.D. dissertation research in boron chemistry

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Albert Stewart talks about his experience at National Carbon Company in the 1950s

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Albert Stewart talks about his getting promoted to the marketing department at National Carbon Company

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Albert Stewart talks about his patents

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Albert Stewart talks about his experience in the marketing department at Union Carbide Company

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Albert Stewart talks about his services as a National Sales Manager and director of University Relations for Union Carbide Company in 1980

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Albert Stewart talks about teaching at Western Connecticut State University

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Albert Stewart talks about serving as the vice president of the Foundation for Social Justice in South Africa, and his international travels

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Albert Stewart describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community today

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Albert Stewart reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Albert Stewart talks about his wife

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Albert Stewart talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Albert Stewart describes his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

6$3

DAStory

1$2

DATitle
Albert Stewart talks about his experience at National Carbon Company in the 1950s
Albert Stewart talks about the racial division in school and in the city of Chicago, Illinois
Transcript
Okay, all right. So 1956.$$Six, yes.$$You're on your way to Cleveland to--now you're going to Cleveland to work with Union Carbide [Company]?$$National Carbon [Company].$$National Carbon?$$Yeah. And that was--they were connected to Ever Ready Battery Company too.$$Okay. All right, well tell us what happened in Cleveland?$$Hmm?$$Tell us about Cleveland?$$Well I started radiation chemistry there and had, got a radiation source like the one we had down in Oak Ridge and did all sorts of experiments but my main function was to be a group leader. And I hired, got some people from Oak Ridge, I mean from, not Oak Ridge, from St. Louis University and others and did a variety of experiments that were not classified but Union Carbide property. And things were going great there until Carbide decided to split up and split up some things. They sold the Ever Ready Battery Company and gave me a promotion to New York City. Well they promoted me and the laboratory they were going to send me to was in Niagara Falls, but they decided instead to send me to New York City. And when did Kennedy [John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy, 35th President of the United States] get assassinated?$$Nineteen sixty-three.$$Nineteen--?$$--sixty-three.$$--sixty three?$$Yes sir.$$I was in New York trying to decide what sort of research we were going to do and I had just been to the library and was walking down the street in Manhattan and I heard this report. I had an interesting time because, in New York City because they wanted me to, when I was looking for an apartment, the real estate people wanted me to move to Harlem. And--because we're now in a desegregation period, I said uh-uh, served my time there. We're desegregating communities, want to move to Manhattan. So they wanted to send me to a plant that, oh the aluminum--Alcoa was building in, near Harlem and I wouldn't go there. And finally ended up in a place where I could walk to work. So I started walking to work--$$So where was that in New York? Where was, this is--?$$On the west side.$$Okay.$$West 65th Street.$$Okay.$$But that was an adventure in itself because then we ended up deciding that we wanted to buy something and well, I worked in Chicago. I mean, Chicago--worked in Manhattan and they had changes. And I got promoted again to--out of science into a marketing department.$So did you run for a class office or anything like that or--?$$No, I didn't. In fact, we hardly, the black kids hardly talked to the white kids. At the, at Englewood [High School, Chicago, Illinois], remember there was little money around. There was a White Castle on 63rd Street and you got a hamburger--I remember they used to have a hamburger sales thing and you could get five hamburgers for some cheap price, I forget what it was. But I'd do that. But mainly instead of going to the school cafeteria on one side of the school nearest the South--the Wentworth and South Park side, there was a guy who rented a build--apartment that had food for the black students. And there was a guy who made fried pies. He sold fried pies and such stuff to the black kids. Well the black kids didn't go to the--there was another white guy who had also a store and so the kid, white kids who didn't have any money went to that instead of the cafeteria. And only rich kids went to the cafeteria. Pardon me. [Coughing] But there was no real association with the white students in Englewood. The black girls had started school in West, pardon me, in West Woodlawn. The professional people, the doctors, lawyers and so forth their daughters had school--had clubs. And they gave dances and the like at Bacon's Casino. And while the white kids were going to the Stevens Hotel and the blacks were not welcome. Blacks were not welcome in these big hotels and never on the North Side. When what's her name, the celebrated black woman who lived on the North Side, the television person.$$Oh god, you got me.$$You know of recent who bought--$$Oprah?$$Huh?$$Oprah Winfrey?$$Yeah, she was--I was so surprised when it turned out she was living on the north side because I always thought of that as a big division in Chicago. In fact, from, till 12th Street on the South Side, below 12th Street on the, in Chicago that was all white, nothing but.$$Okay.$$When you were growing up could you go past 63rd Street south? Did you go south of 63rd?$$Down 63rd Street?$$Yeah, did--no, did any black people live south of 63rd?$$Down--$$No.$$Below? No, 63rd Street was the dividing line. From 63rd to Washington Park was white between South Park and Cottage Grove. And that didn't turn over for quite a--never while I was growing up. And the big fight with West Woodlawn was the kids that lived at 58th and Calumet and over in there.$$Okay.

Gen. Julius Becton, Jr.

Military Officer and federal government administrator Julius W. Becton, Jr. was born on June 29, 1926 in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania to Julius Wesley and Rose Banks Becton. He joined the Army Air Corps in July 1944 and graduated from Infantry Officer Candidate School in 1945. While on active duty, Becton graduated from Prairie View A & M College in 1960 with his B.S. degree in mathematics and the University of Maryland in 1966 with his M.A. degree in economics. He is also a graduate of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, the Armed Forces Staff College and the National War College. Post his military service, Becton has received honorary doctorate degrees from Huston-Tillotson College, Muhlenberg College, Prairie View A & M University, The Citadel, Dickinson College, and American Public University System.

Becton joined the 93rd Infanry Division in the Pacific at the end of World War II and was separated from the Army in 1946, but returned to active duty after President Harry S. Truman issued Executive Order 9981 to desegregate the military in 1948. Rising to the rank of Lieutenant General in 1978 he commanded the 1st Cavalry Division, the United States Army Operations Test and Evaluation Agency, and the VII Corps – the Army’s largest combat corps in Europe during the Cold War. Becton also served in the Korean War and the Vietnam War, and retired from the U.S. Army in 1983 after nearly 40 years of service. However, his public service career was far from over.

From 1984 to 1985, he served as the director of the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance in the United States Agency for International Development. He then served as the third director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency from 1985 to 1989 under President Ronald Reagan. In his mid-sixties, Becton began a new career, that of education administrator. From 1989 to 1994, he was the fifth president of Prairie View A & M University, his alma mater – becoming the first graduate of Prairie View A & M University to attain flag rank in the military. In 1996, he became the superintendent of the Washington, D.C. public school system.

Among his decorations are the Distinguished Service Medal, two Silver Stars, two Legion of Merit medals and two Purple Hearts, along with the Knight Commander’s Cross of the Order of Merit of Germany. Becton married to Louise Thornton, and they have five children: Shirley, Karen, Joyce, Renee, and Wesley. They also have eleven grandchildren and three great grandchildren

Julius W. Becton, Jr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on [08/27/2012]

Accession Number

A2012.227

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/27/2012 |and| 2/14/2013

Last Name

Becton

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Wesley

Occupation
Schools

Army Command and General Staff College

University of Maryland

Lower Merion High School

Officer Candidate School

Muhlenberg College

National War College

Joint Forces Staff College

Bryn Mawr Elementary School

Lower Merion Junior High School

Prairie View A&M University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Julius

Birth City, State, Country

Bryn Mawr

HM ID

BEC02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Aruba

Favorite Quote

Get it done.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

6/29/1926

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Liver, Onions, Baked Beans, Cole Slaw

Short Description

Military officer Gen. Julius Becton, Jr. (1926 - ) , was a retired Lieutenant General and the first African American officer to command a Corps in the U.S. Army (VII U.S. Corps).

Employment

United States Army

United States Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance

Federal Emergency Management Agency

Prairie View A&M University

District of Columbia Public Schools

Favorite Color

Cavalry Yellow

Timing Pairs
0,0:4469,37:14262,117:33344,345:47436,485:55648,548:65970,657:73214,781:73670,786:137900,1388:162240,1666$0,0:16216,287:17793,302:18457,313:25038,411:27180,421:30440,454:33730,477:53885,725:54395,732:56690,768:57115,774:63310,806:65700,843:78476,967:81241,1014:84643,1095:91300,1157:91666,1164:104283,1346:107860,1378:108740,1410:112632,1450:126652,1615:131040,1645:131700,1653:135167,1760:147746,1882:151486,1981:156440,2053
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Julius Becton's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Julius Becton lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Julius Becton describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Julius Becton talks about his mother, Rose Inez Banks

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Julius Becton describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Julius Becton talks about his father, and his strong work ethic

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Julius Becton talks about his family's involvement in the church

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Julius Becton talks about his brother, and how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Julius Becton describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Julius Becton describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Julius Becton talks about growing up in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Julius Becton talks about his father's job in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Julius Becton talks about his father being his role model

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Julius Becton talks about growing up with undertones of racial segregation in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Julius Becton describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Julius Becton talks about his family's visits to North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Julius Becton describes his experience in elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Julius Becton talks about his brother, Joseph William Becton

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Julius Becton talks about studying mathematics in college

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Julius Becton talks about his teachers in elementary school, and his progress to high school

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Julius Becton talks about his childhood jobs, and his father's income

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Julius Becton talks about his involvement with Saints Memorial Baptist Church since his childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Julius Becton talks about his involvement in sports while growing up

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Julius Becton talks about how he met his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Julius Becton talks about joining the Civil Air Patrol in 1941, becoming eligible for flight school, and turning it down to command a unit

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Julius Becton talks about his father's political affiliation and his decision to enroll at Muhlenberg College

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Julius Becton talks about joining the Civil Air Patrol in 1941 and the Army Air Corp Enlisted Reserve in 1943

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Julius Becton talks about others who graduated from his high school, and his desire to join the Army Air Corps

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Julius Becton talks about attending Officer Candidate School in 1944

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Julius Becton reflects upon his experience with segregation in the South in the 1940s, and the changes that have occurred since then

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Julius Becton talks about his experience in the U.S. Army while stationed in the Philippines

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Julius Becton talks about his separation from the U.S. Army in 1946, joining Muhlenberg College on a football scholarship, and getting injured there

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Julius Becton talks about playing football at Muhlenberg College, as a center on offense and a linebacker on defense

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Julius Becton talks about getting married in 1948

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Julius Becton talks about returning to the U.S. Army in 1948, and his parents' support of him financially

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Julius Becton describes his experience in the Korean War

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Julius Becton describes how his unit, the 9th Infantry Regiment, Second Division, was integrated in the midst of the Korean War, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Julius Becton describes how his unit, the 9th Infantry Regiment, Second Division, was integrated in the midst of the Korean War, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Julius Becton talks about his return to the U.S. from the Korean War in 1951

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Julius Becton talks about his assignments after returning from the Korean War in 1951

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Julius Becton talks about going to Prairie View A&M University as an assistant professor of military science and to complete his degree

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Julius Becton describes his experience on tour in Germany

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Julius Becton describes his success on tour in Germany, and how he was able to attend the Commander and General Staff College (CGSC)

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Julius Becton describes his experience at Prairie View A&M University

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Julius Becton describes his experience at Command General Staff College (CGSC) at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Julius Becton describes his assignment in France

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Julius Becton talks about his experience at the Armed Forces Staff College and the challenges to finding a house for his family in Virginia

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Julius Becton talks about earning his master's degree in economics

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Julius Becton describes how he was assigned to join the U.S. Army in Vietnam

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Julius Becton describes his experience in the U.S. Army in Vietnam

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Julius Becton reflects upon the Vietnam War

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Julius Becton discusses race relations in the U.S. Army during the Vietnam War

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Julius Becton discusses his thirteen-point management philosophy in terms of commanding troops

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Julius Becton talks about his service in the Vietnam War and the get-togethers of his command staff

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Julius Becton describes how General Colin Powell was selected to attend the National War College in 1975

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Julius Becton talks about his training at the National War College

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Julius Becton talks about his assignment as the brigade commander of the 2nd Brigade, Second Armor Division in Fort Hood, Texas

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Julius Becton discusses trends in the number of women and their roles in the military between the 1970s and 2012

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Julius Becton talks about his selection and experience as the Branch Chief of Armor and being promoted to the rank of brigadier general in 1972

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Julius Becton describes his experience as deputy commander at Fort Dix, New Jersey

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Julius Becton describes his experience as a division commander at Fort Hood, Texas, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Julius Becton describes his experience as a division commander at Fort Hood, Texas, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Julius Becton talks about mentoring in the U.S. Army

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Julius Becton talks about his service as the commander of the Operational Test and Evaluation Agency (OTEA)

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Julius Becton talks about being recognized as one of the '100 Most Influential Blacks' by Ebony Magazine

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Julius Becton describes his experience as the commander of the U.S. VII Corps stationed in Cold War Europe

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Julius Becton talks about his appointments as Deputy Commander of Training for TRADOC and as the Army Inspector of Training

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Julius Becton describes his decision to accept the position of Director of the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance at U.S. AID

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Julius Becton talks about becoming the director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Julius Becton talks about his former colleague, educator Arlene Ackerman

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Julius Becton reflects upon the crisis in urban education in the U.S.

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Julius Becton describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Julius Becton discusses the crisis in today's community regarding physical and behavioral health

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Julius Becton discusses the prospects for young people who are interested in joining the military

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Julius Becton reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Julius Becton talks about his family

Tape: 10 Story: 8 - Julius Becton talks about receiving the George Catlett Marshall Medal in 2007

Tape: 10 Story: 9 - Julius Becton talks about the gathering of African American Flag Officers and being honored by the Buffalo Soldiers

Tape: 10 Story: 10 - Julius Becton talks about his autobiography, 'Becton: Autobiography of a Soldier and Public Servant'

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Slating of Julius Becton's interview, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Julius Becton's describes the ceremony honoring his retirement from the U.S. Army in 1983

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Julius Becton's reflects upon the changes in the status of African American soldiers and women in the U.S. Army

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Julius Becton reflects upon the U.S. Military's repeal of the "Don't ask, don't tell" policy

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Julius Becton describes his service as the director of the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance in the USAID

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Julius Becton describes his experience as the director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Julius Becton talks about the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) since his service there, and discusses the role of FEMA

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Julius Becton talks about Lieutenant General Russel Honore's service towards disaster relief in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Julius Becton describes his experience as the director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 10 - Julius Becton talks about becoming the president of Prairie View A&M University in 1989

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Julius Becton describes his selection as the president of Prairie View A and M University

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Julius Becton describes his experience as the president of Prairie View A and M University

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Julius Becton discusses the reputation of Prairie View A and M University

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Julius Becton describes how he became the superintendent of the Washington, District of Columbia public school system in 1996

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Julius Becton discusses the challenges faced by the Washington, District of Columbia public school system

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Julius Becton describes his experience as the superintendent of the Washington, District of Columbia public school system, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Julius Becton describes his experience as the superintendent of the Washington, District of Columbia public school system, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Julius Becton talks about the challenges that are faced by the public school system in Washington, District of Columbia

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Julius Becton describes his life after retiring as the superintendent of the public school system in Washington, District of Columbia

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Julius Becton talks about his relative, HistoryMaker Thelma Groomes

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Julius Becton reflects upon his life and career, pt. 1

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Julius Becton reflects upon his life and career, pt. 2

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Julius Becton talks about his parents

Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Julius Becton talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 11 Story: 6 - Julius Becton describes his photographs

DASession

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DATitle
Julius Becton talks about receiving the George Catlett Marshall Medal in 2007
Julius Becton describes his selection as the president of Prairie View A and M University
Transcript
Let me just point out that, now, you received the George Catlett Marshall Medal in 2007--$$2007.$$Right, yeah. Now, this is, now, tell us the significance of that medal?$$Well, the Association of the United States Army, AUSA, provides, they give an award in the name of General Marshall, "Marshall" being the former Chief of Staff of the Army, also former Secretary of State and a few other things. It's the highest award they have. And I'm very fortunate to have been selected for that. Some of the other award recipients, well, Jim Baker was just last year, the former Chief of Staff to Reagan [President Ronald Reagan]. He was also his Secretary of State and so forth. Colin Powell [General Colin Powell; former Secretary of State] is a recipient of that, and they have a long list of solid citizens. I was--it was rather amusing how I got that award. I mean I got aware of it. I was a trustee in the Association of the United States Army and Vice Superintendent, Vice Chancellor. At a meeting for the association's Council of Trustees, the meeting got started, and the chairman of the board, Nick Chapra (ph.), Nick, who at that time was the Chairman of the Board and CEO at General Dynamics, convened the meeting and then said, "Julius, would you mind stepping out for a minute?" Why? Because I said so. Yes, sir. I go out, came right back in five minutes. And he had just announced to the board that the committee had recommended Julius Becton to become the Marshall recipient in 2007. And you could have knocked me over with a feather. I think you have some pictures in that folder of the group, of the family appearing for that presentation.$All right, so we're on a cliffhanger, and you found out why that you were selected [as the president of Prairie View A&M University, Texas]--$$Yes, I found out why the board selected me. The Board of Regents is like the Board of Trustees or Board of Directors of any institution. It's made up of, in Texas, all graduates of Texas A&M [University]. They are appointed by the governor, and all the [U.S.] Army officers, retired, National Guard, but not active. And they were looking for a "butt kicker," not an academician, their term, not mine. And the other person was an academician. And so, I got unanimous selection and went up to the campus. And I should have known this before I got there, but I didn't. Another reason that they were in dire straits, the Texas legislature had said in writing that Prairie View, you get your acts together and deal with your funding or we will put a conservator in. And that was my welcoming to the Prairie View A and M University.$$Okay, now, how did you feel about that? You're being hired as a "butt kicker." Did you wind your foot up and get ready or did you say wait a minute. What's going on?$$No, I, having been a student at the institution, albeit a non-traditional student because I was in ROTC [Reserve Officers' Training Corps] duty as a major--captain, excuse me. But I knew about a third of the staff and faculty, which I felt was pretty good, a good going in. And I found out quickly that there were about three different groups of people, particularly, staff and administration, about 20, 25 percent, "We don't want a soldier coming in here as the president." And on the other side of that 20, 25 percent, "We know Becton. He's just the right person for it. He'll do a good job here." And that group in the middle did not know me and are waiting, take a look, let's see what he's gonna do. And they had rumors that we're gonna start having reveille, we're gonna start wearing combat boots. We're gonna start saluting, all those idiotic things that people come up with on campuses.

Gen. Colin L. Powell

General Colin L. Powell, USA (Ret.) became the 65th Secretary of State on January 20, 2001. As he stated at his confirmation hearing, the guiding principle of U.S. foreign policy during his tenure was that “America stands ready to help any country that wishes to join the democratic world.”

Powell brought extensive experience with him to his office. Before becoming Secretary of State, he served as a key aide to the Secretary of Defense and as National Security Advisor to President Reagan. He also served thirty-five years in the United States Army, rising to the rank of Four-Star General and serving as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1989 to 1993). During this time, he oversaw twenty-eight crises including the Panama intervention of 1989 and Operation Desert Storm in the victorious 1991 Persian Gulf War.

That experience served him well, both before and particularly after the events of September 11, 2001, the day of the greatest tragedy on American soil since Pearl Harbor. As Secretary, he stood shoulder to shoulder with the President and the other members of the President’s cabinet in fighting the war on terrorism. As he often said, “winning that war is our first priority, and it will remain so for as long as necessary.”

A fervent purveyor of democratic values, Powell stressed that fighting the war on terrorism is not just a military but also a diplomatic task – the two go hand in hand. He led the State Department in major efforts to solve regional and civil conflicts – in the Middle East, between Israel and its Arab neighbors; in Sudan, Congo and Liberia; in the Balkans, Cyprus, Haiti, Northern Ireland and elsewhere. He was especially concerned with the peace and security of Afghanistan and Iraq, countries where winning the peace is as important as Coalition battlefield victories. In all areas, he used the power of diplomacy and the universal ideal of democracy to build trust, forge alliances and then begin to transform these once unstable regions into areas where societies and cultures prosper.

Powell was devoted to grasping opportunities as well as to confronting the global and regional security challenges of the 21st century. He was at the forefront of the administration’s efforts to advance economic and social development worldwide – in the fight against HIV/AIDS, in the promise of the Millennium Challenge Account, the most significant change in helping needy nations since the Marshall Plan, and in pursuing a freer trading and investment climate worldwide. These efforts, too, are not separate from the nation’s security agenda. Indeed, in testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, then Secretary Powell affirmed that our main purpose is to extend democracy, prosperity, and freedom to every corner of the world. It is a process that is establishing a balance of power that favors freedom across the globe.

Born in New York City on April 5, 1937, Powell was raised in the South Bronx. His parents, Luther and Maud Powell, immigrated to the United States from Jamaica. Powell was educated in New York City public schools, graduating from Morris High School and the City College of New York (CCNY), where he earned his bachelor’s degree in geology. He also participated in ROTC at CCNY and received a commission as an Army second lieutenant upon graduation in June 1958. His further academic achievements include a M.B.A. degree from George Washington University.

Powell is the recipient of numerous U.S. military awards and decorations including the Defense Distinguished Service Medal (with 3 Oak Leaf Clusters), the Army Distinguished Service Medal (with Oak Leaf Cluster), Defense Superior Service Medal, Legion of Merit (with Oak Leaf Cluster), Soldier’s Medal, Bronze Star Medal, and the Purple Heart.

Powell’s civilian awards include two Presidential Medals of Freedom, the President’s Citizens Medal, the Congressional Gold Medal and the Secretary of Energy Distinguished Service Medal. Over two dozen countries have bestowed awards on him, including a French Legion of Honor and an honorary knighthood bestowed by H.M. Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain.

Powell was the founding Chairman of America’s Promise – The Alliance for Youth, a national crusade to improve the lives of our nation’s youth. Established at the Presidents’ Summit for America’s Future in Philadelphia in April of 1997, and endorsed by every living U.S. President, America’s Promise aims to ensure all children in America have access to the fundamental resources needed to build and strengthen them to become responsible, productive adults. He has also been a member of the Board of Trustees of Howard University and the Board of Directors of the United Negro College Fund. Powell also served on the Board of Governors of The Boys & Girls Clubs of America and was a member of the Advisory Board of the Children’s Health Fund.

Since returning to private life, Powell has become a strategic limited partner at Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, the renowned Silicon Valley venture capital firm. He is also on the Board of Directors of Revolution Health Care, a company developing strategies for consumer-directed health care. Powell is the Founder of the Colin Powell Policy Center at his alma mater, the City College of New York, and he is helping to raise funds for the Martin Luther King, Jr., Memorial in Washington, D.C. and for the construction of an education center for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.

Powell is the author of his best-selling autobiography, My American Journey.

Powell is married to the former Alma Vivian Johnson of Birmingham, Alabama. The Powell family includes son Michael; daughters, Linda and Annemarie; daughter-in-law Jane, and grandchildren Jeffrey, Bryan and Abigail.

Accession Number

A2006.186

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/29/2006

Last Name

Powell

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

L.

Organizations
Schools

Morris High School

City College of New York

George Washington University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Colin

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

POW09

Favorite Season

None

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

4/5/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Military officer, cabinet appointee, and presidential appointee Gen. Colin L. Powell (1937 - ) served as the 65th Secretary of State, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff , and National Security Advisor. Powell, a four-star general in the U.S. Army, is also the founding Chairman of America’s Promise – The Alliance for Youth.

Employment

United States Army

United States Government

Favorite Color

None

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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - List of sponsors for 'An Evening With Colin Powell'

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Introduction to 'An Evening With Colin Powell'

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Juan Williams introduces Gen. Colin L. Powell

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Juan Williams greets Gen. Colin L. Powell

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Gen. Colin L. Powell talks about meeting with Mikhail Gorbachev in 1988

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Gen. Colin L. Powell talks about his roots in the multicultural South Bronx, New York, New York

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Gen. Colin L. Powell describes his activities after retiring as Secretary of State of the United States

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Gen. Colin L. Powell talks about the history of African Americans in the U.S. military

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Gen. Colin L. Powell talks about his childhood in the South Bronx, New York, New York

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Gen. Colin L. Powell talks about joining the Pershing Rifles at City College of New York

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Gen. Colin L. Powell describes his infantry training for the U.S. Army

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - A review of Gen. Colin L. Powell's life and military career during the 1960s

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Gen. Colin L. Powell describes his courtship of and marriage to HistoryMaker Alma Powell

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Gen. Colin L. Powell talks about the Civil Rights Movement during the 1960s

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Gen. Colin L. Powell describes serving in the Vietnam War

Tape: 1 Story: 16 - Gen. Colin L. Powell describes his experiences in graduate school at The George Washington University in Washington, D.C.

Tape: 1 Story: 17 - Gen. Colin L. Powell describes serving in presidential administrations in the 1970s and 1980s

Tape: 1 Story: 18 - Gen. Colin L. Powell talks about the Buffalo Soldiers Monument at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas

Tape: 1 Story: 19 - A review of Gen. Colin L. Powell's career during the 1980s

Tape: 1 Story: 20 - Gen. Colin L. Powell describes his tenure as chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

Tape: 1 Story: 21 - Gen. Colin L. Powell talks about the founding of America's Promise Alliance

Tape: 1 Story: 22 - A review of Gen. Colin L. Powell's tenure as Secretary of State of the United States

Tape: 1 Story: 23 - Gen. Colin L. Powell talks about the United States government's response to the 9/11 terrorist attacks

Tape: 1 Story: 24 - Gen. Colin L. Powell reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 1 Story: 25 - Gen. Colin L. Powell talks about his hopes for the future

Tape: 1 Story: 26 - Conclusion of 'An Evening with Colin Powell'

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DATitle
Gen. Colin L. Powell describes his infantry training for the U.S. Army
Gen. Colin L. Powell talks about the Buffalo Soldiers Monument at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas
Transcript
Now, during this time, you went to--I think in '57 [1957], it's Fort Bragg [North Carolina]?$$Um-hm.$$And--for summer training, and then later, you go for infantry training to Fort--$$Benning.$$Fort Benning [Georgia]. So what was the first experience like at Fort Bragg, the summer training?$$Well, Fort Bragg, I took the bus at the New York [New York] Port Authority Bus Terminal. And my father [Luther Powell] was standing on the side, looking at me through the window of the bus as I headed off to North Carolina. And he swore he would never see me again (audience laughter). And nevertheless, I got there okay, and then driving back--I drove back with a couple of sergeants from my ROTC [Reserve Officers' Training Corps] detachment, members of the cadre. And I learned what it was like being in the South. Fort Bragg, itself, was okay, but we weren't ignorant of what the South was like. And so we drove straight through, as you used to do in those days. And we hit all of the gas stations with the three restrooms, you know, white men, white women and blacks--or whatever they put over the top. They had lots of names for us in those days. And I knew that this wasn't something I could ever be happy about. I was disappointed and mad that these kinds of things happened in the country that I was getting ready to serve. But once I got back to New York, things were fine. But I was also told by my commanders that you just do the best job you can. Don't try to change the society in the South. They were essentially saying, "Be a good soldier and let things change as you go forward." So they wanted me to do well, but they also wanted to make sure that I understood the social circumstances in which I was serving. But it wasn't always easy, especially after I got into the [U.S.] Army and [HistoryMaker] Alma [Powell] and I took our first trip south as a married couple in 1962, shortly after we married. And, you know, Alma was expecting Mike [HistoryMaker Michael Powell], and you had to just keep driving. You didn't stop. Some people forget that there were only two black motels on the north-south roads in those days. And if you couldn't get to one of them, you'd better have a relative and a lot of chicken in the back of the car (audience laughter).$$And infantry training? What was that like?$$Infantry training (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Was that segregated?$$No, no, no. The Army was completely integrated. In fact, an interesting story here is that, if I had come in ten years earlier or if any of the generals here this evening had come in ten years earlier, we never would have become generals. We sort of cut or caught the post-Truman [President Harry S. Truman] desegregation era. Truman did it as an executive order [Executive Order 9981] in 1948. He integrated the [U.S.] military. He did it as an executive order because he never would have gotten it through [U.S.] Congress to change the law. But it took another five years for the services to truly desegregate, and they did it under the pressure of the Korean War. Most of us here tonight came in, in that early '50s [1950s] to mid-to-late '50s [1950s] period when the Army looked itself squarely in the face and said, we have to do what we have been told to do and we have to do everything we can to correct for past discrimination. And as a result of that, all of us were able to be judged on the basis of our performance.$$So the bus that you rode down for the summer group and for infantry training, was that an integrated group or a segregated group that rode down?$$No, when you go into the South, then it was segregated.$$Okay.$$But coming back, of course, I drove in private cars, and that was integrated as long as you didn't try to go and eat anywhere.$$And was it difficult to get into that infantry training?$$No, no, no, no. The infantry training for me didn't turn out to be that difficult 'cause I was well prepared for it. And I discovered that I'd picked up a pretty good education in the public school system in New York, and I could compete from the very beginning with West Pointers [United States Military Academy, West Point, New York] and others from better schools. And in the [United States Army] Infantry School at Fort Benning, Georgia, the only color they recognize is green, infantry, you know, and green and blue, infantry color being blue and green being your uniform. And that's the only thing that mattered to them. And if you perform, we'll move you on. If you don't perform, we don't care what color you are.$Now, around this time, you got involved in a remarkable project that we talked about earlier, the creation of the Buffalo Soldiers Monument [Buffalo Soldier Monument, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas]. Can you tell us a little bit about that?$$Yeah, it was just a simple case that at Fort Leavenworth, which is one of our most historic posts and one of our oldest posts, everyone that ever served there had been memorialized. And I was walking around the post and I never saw anything that recognized the black soldiers that were there. And finally, the historian said, "Oh, no, no. There are two streets down by the cemetery." So I went to look for these two streets, 9th and 10th Cavalry Avenue, and they turned out to be two unpaved roads going through an abandoned trailer park. So I went back to my headquarters. I was a brigadier general, and I called in the historian. And I said, that is not gonna make it. And so you need to put your thinking cap on, because I wanna see an equestrian statue with a Buffalo Soldier on it erected on a prominent place in this post, on this post. And it took years. I left and others followed and continued the work, but I was very honored to go back and dedicate the statue some eight or nine years later. That's one of the major tourist landmarks in eastern Kansas.

Alyce Jenkins

Rehabilitation counselor, educator, and first African American female to be appointed in 1974 to the rank of Lieutenant Commander in the United States Navy Reserve (USNR) without prior service, Alyce Earl Jenkins was born on September 22, 1935 in Birmingham, Alabama. The daughter of Margaret LaVern Wright Earl and Boysie Orr, Jenkins was raised by her mother and stepfather, Arthur Fred Earl. She attended Lincoln Elementary School and graduated from A.H. Parker High School in 1953. She majored in graphic arts at Alabama A&M College in Huntsville, Alabama where she graduated with a B.S. degree in mechanics arts in 1957. She earned a M.Ed. in rehabilitation counseling from Kent State University in 1968.

In 1958, Jenkins was hired as assistant director of printing and graphics for Central State University in Wilberforce, Ohio where the Journal of Human Relations was printed. In 1966, the Central State University’s Printing Department closed, and Jenkins worked for the Ohio Bureau of Rehabilitation Counseling. From 1968 to 1972, Jenkins was Director of Counseling for Wilberforce University. From 1972 to 1993, she taught rehabilitation counseling at Wright State University in Dayton.

Published widely in professional journals, Jenkins’s writings, professional presentations, and federal funding awards focused on African Americans with disabilities, a group historically ignored by state and federal rehabilitation agencies. She is the producer/director of the video series, Living Your Dreams that highlights historical contributions of ordinary African Americans to the community. The video series includes Profiles of African Americans: Their Roles In Shaping Wright State University, A Predominantly White Institution and The Story of Neal Loving: Aviator, Experimental Airplane Builder and Double Amputee.

Jenkins’ professional service contributions include serving on the national planning committee for the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Education, an accrediting organization for undergraduate and graduate programs. Jenkins also served as a founding member for four years on the Ohio Counselor and Social Worker Licensure Board where she strongly advocated for practicing rehabilitation counselors.

Jenkins retired in 1993 as Wright State University’s Professor Emerita. Jenkins, who is included in the book, Black Americans in the United States Navy rose to the rank of full Commander before leaving the Navy in 1984.

Jenkins founded AEJ Associates, her own rehabilitation consulting firm in 1993. Returning to Wright State University, she served as interim director and associate director of the Wright State University Center for Teaching and Learning from 1996 to 1998. She was also associate assistant director of Wright State University’s African and African American Studies Program from 1999 to 2001 and coordinator of Youth Programs for the National Conference for Community and Justice from 2001 to 2003. Active in many organizations in her career, Jenkins is a member of the National Council on Rehabilitation Education, Dayton Dialog on Race Relations and the National Rehabilitation Professional Association. She was chosen as one of the Top Ten African American Women in Dayton in 2005 and in 2004, received the Keeping the Dream Alive Award from the Ohio Civil Rights Commission. In 2000, Jenkins was honored by the Ohio Senate with the Recognition of Outstanding Service Award, among other honors. A resident of Yellow Springs, Ohio, Jenkins is also a video oral historian and sits on the Yellow Springs Community Council.

Accession Number

A2006.042

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/19/2006

Last Name

Jenkins

Maker Category
Schools

A.H. Parker High School

Lincoln School

Alabama A&M University

Kent State University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Alyce

Birth City, State, Country

Birmingham

HM ID

JEN04

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Alabama

Favorite Vacation Destination

Anywhere Near Water

Favorite Quote

My Dog's Not In That Fight.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Ohio

Birth Date

9/22/1935

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Dayton

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Salmon

Short Description

Rehabilitation specialist and military officer Alyce Jenkins (1935 - ) was the first African American female Lieutenant Commander in the United States Navy Reserve (USNR).

Employment

Central State University

Greene County Vocational School

Dayton State Hospital

Wilberforce University

Wright State University

Favorite Color

Beige

Timing Pairs
0,0:5395,159:6723,293:7885,312:9213,329:18870,411:19640,419:20300,427:36070,604:36580,612:37260,623:38960,652:55501,886:55836,893:56238,900:56774,910:58583,954:62286,971:64664,1010:66304,1040:66714,1046:71060,1131:71962,1145:80356,1233:80958,1242:85086,1302:85688,1310:86376,1321:89800,1341:98540,1519:99452,1534:101656,1572:102188,1581:103632,1605:104544,1618:110420,1643:110775,1653:111698,1676:112337,1686:114949,1697:115873,1710:116951,1726:120878,1769:121802,1782:128450,1829:130795,1839:136390,1918:148009,2075:148325,2080:149826,2118:151090,2146:151406,2151:155830,2239:163506,2348:172520,2444:173320,2462:178120,2567:196740,2701:203136,2852:204608,2876:204976,2881:210128,2963:210772,2972:217460,3049$0,0:5016,150:6160,163:6688,170:7480,180:8888,201:10208,217:11528,243:12408,256:19749,303:22427,337:24075,355:24590,361:26753,387:27680,397:31491,444:35950,450:36255,456:51920,592:54725,632:58846,652:59590,661:60520,676:64615,721:65685,733:66327,740:67183,749:81842,836:88619,909:92418,937:92750,942:95157,978:96070,988:96651,996:98560,1027:98892,1032:105581,1115:106738,1137:115080,1241:116205,1260:116505,1265:117330,1279:117930,1289:119205,1305:122118,1318:122964,1330:123716,1339:124656,1352:129410,1406:130050,1423:135759,1488:139070,1502:139796,1517:141050,1546:162096,1779:164250,1784:177380,1946:177700,1951:180740,2007:181540,2022:182180,2033:183650,2041
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Alyce Jenkins' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Alyce Jenkins lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Alyce Jenkins describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Alyce Jenkins describes her mother's parents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Alyce Jenkins describes her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Alyce Jenkins recalls learning who her father was

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Alyce Jenkins recalls visiting her father in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Alyce Jenkins describes her stepfather and his family

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Alyce Jenkins describes her childhood in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Alyce Jenkins recalls moving to Birmingham's Enon Ridge

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Alyce Jenkins recalls childhood activities in Birmingham

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Alyce Jenkins remembers Birmingham's Lincoln Elementary School

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Alyce Jenkins describes her grade school courses and study habits

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Alyce Jenkins describes the Enon Ridge neighborhood of Birmingham

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Alyce Jenkins remembers her experience of discrimination at A.H. Parker High School

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Alyce Jenkins talks about discrimination within the black community

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Alyce Jenkins describes her social life in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Alyce Jenkins recalls the pressure on women to marry young in the 1950s

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Alyce Jenkins recalls her decision to attend Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical College

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Alyce Jenkins remembers her history courses in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Alyce Jenkins describes her mentors at Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical College

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Alyce Jenkins recalls pledging Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Alyce Jenkins recalls growing up in Birmingham during the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Alyce Jenkins describes her mother's activism in Birmingham, Alabama

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Alyce Jenkins remembers Gertrude Wesley

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Alyce Jenkins recalls her physics tutor, rocket scientist Wernher von Braun

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Alyce Jenkins recalls teaching printing at Central State College, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Alyce Jenkins recalls teaching printing at Central State College, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Alyce Jenkins remembers meeting her husband

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Alyce Jenkins recalls entering the mental health field

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Alyce Jenkins remembers an experience at Greene County Vocational School

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Alyce Jenkins describes her career path

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Alyce Jenkins recalls negotiating with students at Wilberforce University

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Alyce Jenkins recalls meeting notable figures at Wilberforce University

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Alyce Jenkins recalls her experience as a counselor at Wilberforce University

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Alyce Jenkins describes the results of student protests at Wilberforce University

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Alyce Jenkins recalls developing encounter groups at Wilberforce University

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Alyce Jenkins remembers Dr. Wilhelmina S. Robinson

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Alyce Jenkins recalls accepting an offer to teach at Wright State University

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Alyce Jenkins describes her work with the Republican Party

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Alyce Jenkins describes how the Republican Party changed

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Alyce Jenkins remembers receiving tenure at Wright State University

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Alyce Jenkins recalls teaching classes at Wright State University

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Alyce Jenkins recalls working in minority recruitment for the U.S. Navy

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Alyce Jenkins recalls her decision to leave the U.S. Navy

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Alyce Jenkins describes the recruiting tools she created for the U.S. Navy

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Alyce Jenkins remembers establishing a scholarship at Wright State University

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Alyce Jenkins describes her work since retirement

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Alyce Jenkins recalls her work at Wright State University after retirement

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Alyce Jenkins describes her board memberships

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Alyce Jenkins describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Alyce Jenkins describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Alyce Jenkins reflects upon her life

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Alyce Jenkins reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Alyce Jenkins talks about her family and her decision not to have children

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Alyce Jenkins describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Alyce Jenkins narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$6

DAStory

2$1

DATitle
Alyce Jenkins recalls teaching printing at Central State College, pt. 1
Alyce Jenkins recalls teaching classes at Wright State University
Transcript
Now Central State [Central State College; Central State University, Wilberforce, Ohio] how did you get this job at Central State, printer?$$Okay when I was at Alabama A&M [Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical College; Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University, Normal, Alabama] one of my classmates, Reuben Baxter graduated before I did and he was hired here at Central and when they said that they needed someone else he contacted me and asked me to apply for the job. I told him I wasn't interested in the job. And I really didn't want to come to Ohio, and after I graduated I was offered a job down in Texas, and Texas was too far. So I was working there in the registrar's [Ralph H. Lee] office as full time and so I just really didn't want to leave Alabama. And so finally President Drake [Joseph Drake] and Dean Carter [Robert A. Carter] who was an academic dean told me that I should really go ahead and work in the field for which I had been trained and that I should come--accept the job and that if I didn't like it they would have a job for me there at Alabama A&M. And Dr. Wesley [Charles H. Wesley] had been writing me as well.$$The president of Central State?$$Uh-huh, the president of Central State and so I came and then I didn't want to fail, you know, because I said--I was working hard to do well and to like it because I didn't want to go back. If I had the job--I knew I had the job but if I went back it would have meant that I couldn't cut it, you know. So that's how I got here. So Baxter was the director and Mr. Dungee [ph.] who had been the director was ill and he subsequently passed and so Baxter was named the director and I was his assistant director. Again, I was responsible for most of the linotype work and I taught the introductory courses in printing and composition and platen press and again I was the only female doing that. We had a secretary but I was the only female in there and they didn't want to give me any respect, and we had a huge platen press that I could operate as well as Baxter could. So I was having a hard time and they were teasing me all the time, and Baxter was out of town once and the linotype machine broke and I had to order the part and I was just so happy because I was able to--I knew the part to order, I knew where to call and I knew how to put it on, you know, this complicated machine. They would just tease me and I had been keeping all of this stuff to myself, you know, people. I was up here in the North and I didn't understand them and they didn't understand me but I was just keeping it all to myself. So it finally got to me, and I kind of lost it and told them you guys can have this job, I don't need this and I walked out. And then, what's his name? Mr. Sellers [Walter G. Sellers] and Mr. Johns, [HistoryMaker] Harry Johns talked with me and talked with them and so then I went back and I didn't have any more problems with them. They stopped teasing me like they had been because they were just disrespecting my position and I didn't like that.$Committees and all of that.$$Right, committees at Wright State [Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio].$$Okay yeah, so they helped me to learn how to navigate the higher education community, and I was able to get the tenure. And as far as my classes were concerned as I said most of the time I was the only minority in that class and I also had a lot of first generation white students coming in from rural areas and they didn't know anything about black people except what they had read or seen on television. And so it was--the atmosphere was kind of tense but the good part about it was that, I was the faculty member, I was a professor and I had academic freedom; I had control of that classroom. And so I learned early on to always remember that, you know, and not crumble or, you know, get weak in the classroom. And so as it turned out, I was looking through my retirement book and the comments of different students and they talk about how I influenced them and how much they learned from me and how--the different ways that I helped them and all and that they were pleased to have been in the class to have had a class with someone who was so committed to rehab as I was. So it turned out to be a good experience but the early years were kind of hard because I was trying to learn how to do that. I had quite a few military people in my classes and there was this one guy in my class and he would sit in the back and he would just frown--his non verbals were awful all the time. I said this man has a problem with me I guess it's because I'm female and he was just awful. So one day I had the call him and when I called him I saw that he was a retired colonel and I said, oh that's what his problem is. I am black and female and I'm in charge of this class and he's used to being in charge and so when he answered the phone I said, "Colonel Brimler [ph.], this is Lieutenant Commander Jenkins [HistoryMaker Alyce Jenkins]," and from that moment on I did not have any more trouble with him because it was officer to officer.

Gen. Clara Adams-Ender

U.S. Army General Clara Mae Leach Adams-Ender was born on July 11, 1939 in Willow Springs, North Carolina to Caretha Bell Sapp Leach and Otha Leach. Adams-Ender was the fourth child of ten and grew up in a family of sharecroppers. Adams-Ender excelled in school and went on to North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University in Greensboro, North Carolina, where she earned her B.S. degree in nursing in 1961.

Upon her graduation, Adams-Ender joined the U.S. Army Nurse Corps as a second lieutenant, received training at Brooke Army Medical Center in Fort Sam Houston, Texas. Adams-Ender was assigned overseas, beginning in 1963, as a staff nurse for the 121st evacuation hospital in the Pacific theater near North Korea; she would later serve in Germany. In 1964, Adams-Ender worked as a medical-surgical nursing instructor at Fort Sam Houston; in 1967, she became the first female officer to receive an Expert Medical Field Badge, whereupon she decided to return to school at the University of Minnesota.

After earning her M.S. degree from the University of Minnesota, Adams-Ender began working at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington, D.C., initially as a medical-surgical nurse instructor, then as an assistant professor, until she was promoted to education coordinator in 1972. After two years as the assistant chief of the Department of Nursing at Fort Meade in Maryland, Adams-Ender entered the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas; she graduated in 1976 as the first woman to earn a Master of Military Art and Science degree at the College. Adams-Ender graduated from the U.S. Army War College in 1982, the first African American Nurse Corps officer in the Army to do so.

After working as the Chief of the Department of Nursing in the 97th General Hospital, Chief of Nurse Recruiting at Fort Sheridan, and Illinois, Chief of the Department of Nursing at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Adams-Ender was promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General and became the Chief of the Army Nurse Corps in 1987. In 1991, Adams-Ender was selected to be Commanding General, Fort Belvoir, Virginia, and served in this capacity as well as that of Deputy Commanding General of the U.S. Military District of Washington until her retirement in 1993.

Adams-Ender was known throughout her career for being active in nurse recruiting, initiating nursing units and advocating on behalf of critical care nurses for increased pay. Adams-Ender received a Distinguished Service Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster, Legion of Merit award, an Arm Commendation Medal, and Meritorious Service Medal with three Oak Leaf Clusters; she also received non-military awards that included the Roy Wilkins Meritorious Service Award of the NAACP, the Gertrude E. Rush Award for Leadership from the National Bar Association, and, in 1996, was named one of the 350 women who changed the world by Working Women magazine.

After retirement, Adams-Ender also served as the President of Caring About People With Enthusiasm (CAPE) Associates, Inc., and published her autobiography, My Rise to the Stars: How a Sharecropper's Daughter Became an Army General, in 2001.

Accession Number

A2005.218

Sex

Female

Interview Date

9/20/2005 |and| 2/1/2006

Last Name

Adams-Ender

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University

University of Minnesota

Army Command and General Staff College

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Clara

Birth City, State, Country

Willow Springs

HM ID

ADA07

Favorite Season

Spring

Sponsor

Carol H. Williams Advertising

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Rome, Italy

Favorite Quote

Don't Get Too Serious About Life. None Of Us Will Ever Get Out Alive.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

7/11/1939

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fish

Short Description

Military officer Gen. Clara Adams-Ender (1939 - ) reached the rank of Army General with the U.S. Army Nurse Corps. In the process of climbing the ranks, Adams-Ender became the first African American Nurse Corps officer to graduate from the U.S. Army War College, and the first woman to earn a Master of Military Art and Science degree at the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

Employment

U.S. Army Nurse Corps

Caring About People With Enthusiasm (CAPE) Associates, Inc.

Main Sponsor
Favorite Color

Yellow

Timing Pairs
0,0:14190,233:15190,268:15590,278:16090,292:23930,392:24865,412:30645,508:33025,571:40810,626:48870,662:56129,711:57589,749:58100,758:58392,763:59560,782:60071,790:61239,815:61531,821:62042,826:62334,831:67371,968:82446,1137:82802,1142:85383,1182:91787,1357:92577,1383:93130,1396:96606,1493:98423,1529:99766,1553:100635,1569:104190,1653:104822,1665:105296,1672:113760,1693:114320,1700:115840,1730:116480,1740:117280,1758:133098,1928:134556,1970:137391,2053:138039,2065:147192,2231:147597,2237:155870,2300:156434,2320:164280,2425:170648,2479:171236,2487:172916,2521:176444,2751:193055,2951:195485,3106:199830,3157:204044,3207:232209,3537:232873,3546:233454,3556:235197,3607:241588,3717:245074,3783:246402,3810:252060,3824:253048,3844:258216,3994:262396,4077:263308,4093:263612,4098:263916,4103:264220,4108:265588,4126:266196,4135:266576,4141:267184,4156:268248,4181:270680,4253:271440,4264:284008,4424:293772,4495:294430,4503:295558,4518:295934,4523:298450,4553$0,0:2220,50:8140,192:8880,310:10138,370:16576,494:17094,503:20572,691:31855,765:57973,1103:61130,1165:61592,1173:63748,1227:65442,1283:66828,1336:70832,1455:71217,1462:89444,1772:100180,1946:112256,2022:123819,2408:138592,2782:140409,2824:141041,2834:141910,2847:142226,2852:153560,2961:153864,2966:154320,2974:154624,2979:155992,3037:166860,3275:168000,3294:192610,3595:193750,3615:194320,3623:194985,3719:195365,3765:225622,4093:227152,4114:229294,4185:245160,4495:246810,4551:254406,4629:256506,4668:261546,4757:262386,4776:263226,4830:268686,4884:270870,4980:273474,5073:288590,5224:288894,5229:290794,5267:291478,5278:292238,5289:292618,5296:295962,5380:298926,5433:302954,5516:303258,5580:304854,5647:321832,5985:327850,6028
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Gen. Clara Adams-Ender's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender describes her maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender describes her maternal grandmother

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender lists her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender talks about her family's land

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers her family's sharecropping

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers childhood perceptions of poverty

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender talks about sharecropping

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender describes her relationship with her father

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers her cousins

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls skipping first grade

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers her mother's lessons

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers her mother's sewing

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers canning in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers playing with her brothers

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls reciting poetry at church

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls her sister's college plans, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls her sister's college plans, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers the farm's landlord

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls the general store owner, Walter Myatt

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers visiting her sister at college

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers attending high school

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers her first prom

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls enrolling at Agricultural and Technical College of North Carolina

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers joining the U.S. Army Nurse Corps

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers deciding to join the U.S. Army

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls convincing her parents to support her U.S. Army enlistment

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers missing class in high school

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls experiencing racial discrimination in high school

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender describes her activities in college

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender describes her parents' support of the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender describes her involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls sitting in at Woolworths in Greensboro, North Carolina, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls sitting in at Woolworths in Greensboro, North Carolina, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers debating with HistoryMaker Reverend Jesse L. Jackson

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers her graduation from college

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls preparing for active duty in San Antonio, Texas

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers her officer training at Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio, Texas

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls working in the intensive care unit at Fort Dix, New Jersey

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender describes race relations at Fort Dix, New Jersey

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls her relationship with Fort Dix's chief surgeon, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls her relationship with Fort Dix's chief surgeon, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Slating of Gen. Clara Adams-Ender's interview, session 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls being stationed at Fort Dix, New Jersey

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender describes her conflict with Colonel John Sharp

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers reconciling with Colonel John Sharp

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender describes free time at Fort Dix

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls her deployment to Sinchon-dong, South Korea

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender describes her volunteer work in Sinchon, South Korea

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender describes her travels around Korea

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls requesting to teach in the U.S. Army Nurse Corps

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender describes her appreciation for her time in Korea

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls her reenlistment in the U.S. Army Nurse Corps

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls her living situation at Fort Sam Houston

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls difficulties with her roommate at Fort Sam Houston

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers receiving orders to teach medics in Texas

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers teaching medics in San Antonio, Texas

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers teaching war training

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls receiving a poor officer efficiency report, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls receiving a poor officer efficiency report, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender describes her promotion to captain in the U.S. Army Nurse Corps

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls being falsely accused of stealing in the U.S. Army

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers attending the University of Minnesota

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls her teachers at the University of Minnesota

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers teaching during and after graduate school

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recounts celebrating her promotion to major

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers controversy around the Vietnam War

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender describes her role at Walter Reed Army Institute of Nursing

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers working at Walter Reed Hospital

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender describes her family life

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls the debates in the U.S. military over the Vietnam War

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers her divorce

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender talks about male nurses in the U.S. Army

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls her parents' reaction to her divorce

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls being asked to recruit African American nursing students to the U.S. Army

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers recruiting African American students to Walter Reed Army Institute of Nursing

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender describes her successful recruitment of African American U.S. Army nurses

Tape: 10 Story: 1 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender describes her path to promotion as lieutenant colonel

Tape: 10 Story: 2 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls choosing nursing over law school

Tape: 10 Story: 3 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls being assigned to Fort Meade as a lieutenant colonel

Tape: 10 Story: 4 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender describes classes at Command and General Staff College

Tape: 10 Story: 5 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls honoring the women at Command and General Staff College

Tape: 10 Story: 6 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls serving as inspector general at Fort Sam Houston

Tape: 10 Story: 7 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender describes her parents' failing health

Tape: 10 Story: 8 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls serving as assistant chief nurse in Frankfurt, Germany

Tape: 10 Story: 9 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers her promotion to colonel

Tape: 10 Story: 10 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls becoming chief nurse of Frankfurt Army Regional Medical Center

Tape: 11 Story: 1 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls celebrating her promotion to colonel

Tape: 11 Story: 2 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls being chief nurse of Frankfurt Army Regional Medical Center

Tape: 11 Story: 3 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers dating Heinz Ender

Tape: 11 Story: 4 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender describes her siblings' education and careers

Tape: 11 Story: 5 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls marrying Heinz Ender

Tape: 11 Story: 6 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender talks about working as a U.S. Army recruiter

Tape: 11 Story: 7 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls serving as chief nurse of Walter Reed Army Medical Center

Tape: 11 Story: 8 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers her promotion to general

Tape: 12 Story: 1 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls preparing for her promotion to general

Tape: 12 Story: 2 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender describes the politics of being promoted to general

Tape: 12 Story: 3 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls learning of her promotion to chief of the U.S. Army Nurse Corps

Tape: 12 Story: 4 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls beginning her duties as chief of the U.S. Army Nurse Corps

Tape: 12 Story: 5 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls choosing her staff as chief of the U.S. Army Nurse Corps

Tape: 12 Story: 6 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers selecting John Hudock as her assistant chief

Tape: 12 Story: 7 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender describes the controversy over her selection of John Hudock

Tape: 12 Story: 8 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender describes her work as chief of the U.S. Army Nurse Corps

Tape: 13 Story: 1 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers receiving permission to build up the U.S. Army Nurse Corps

Tape: 13 Story: 2 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls serving as personnel director during the first Gulf War

Tape: 13 Story: 3 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender describes her work at Fort Belvoir and the Military District of Washington

Tape: 13 Story: 4 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender describes her husband, Heinz Ender

Tape: 13 Story: 5 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender recalls her husband's cancer

Tape: 13 Story: 6 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender reflects upon her life

Tape: 13 Story: 7 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers her mother

Tape: 14 Story: 1 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 14 Story: 2 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender reflects upon changes she'd like to see in the world

Tape: 14 Story: 3 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 14 Story: 4 - Gen. Clara Adams-Ender narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

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Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers her officer training at Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio, Texas
Gen. Clara Adams-Ender remembers receiving permission to build up the U.S. Army Nurse Corps
Transcript
Now you were on your way to Fort Sam Houston?$$That's right, Fort Sam Houston, Texas.$$Okay.$$It's in San Antonio [Texas]--$$All right.$$--near San Antonio, home of the Alamo.$$Right.$$Yeah, indeed. And when we got to, to the train station, obviously a lot of people must have come by train because the [U.S.] Army had its little booth set up there, you know, where when the troops came in, they could get them from the, the train and put 'em on buses and take them to, to the base.$$Base.$$And that's what they did. There were a whole bunch of us there that day. And they picked us up, and we went to the base, got to the base and then we started to process into the Army as officers. And we had to have a place to stay. And you picked all of this in, this information at one central location. You got your, your, your meal ticket; you got your place to stay; you got the basic information that you needed in terms of your inventory for the room and everything that was in it and all of this. And then you took your little suitcase and your bunk and, and you went to your, your, your room, whatever. And it was dormitory style, just like, just like I'd been used to in, in college [Agricultural and Technical College of North Carolina; North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, North Carolina]. And I had I think one other roommate 'cause you only had one other roommate. I had two roommates in college for a while, but then I got down to one--and one other roommate, and we just started exploring and find our, finding our way around and type of thing. And one of the things that I thought was important to do because I'd always said that a religion that I really liked a lot and really wanted to explore and learn about was Roman Catholicism. And so I went over to find me a priest, and I found a priest and, and started taking lessons and doing my thing there. The Army for me was great. I was having a wonderful time. I mean, you know, getting up early in the morning didn't bother me at all. I'd done that all my lifetime. I'd work on those tobac- in those tobacco fields, and I knew I wasn't going back there, but you learn how to get up very early, and you learn a very, very solid work ethic. As a matter of fact, I tell people 'til today, my father [Otha Leach] taught me how to be a workaholic, you know, and sometimes that's not bad. Sometimes that's advantageous because you can learn how to get ahead of the pack by knowing that you got the endurance that's necessary and the, that's the stamina and the persistence--$$Right.$$--that gets you through whatever you need to get through. And so he taught me very early how to be a workaholic, but when you get to retirement you got to slow that down, don't, anyway, (laughter). Anyway, I, I knew how to do the work. I didn't have any problems with the work. I'd done mar- the drills and ceremonies thing. I knew how to, my left from my right, and so I could get all that done. Wem- officers do a little bit different basic than, than enlisted people do, in that we didn't have to fire. At that time we didn't have to fire rifles and do all that bit. We didn't have to qualify, you see, at that time, but we learned, we, we--later on they got everybody doing the qualifications, and everybody's got to do those.$$Right.$$But we still qualified with rifles. We qualified with the berettas--$$Pistol.$$Pistol, yeah, so we do them. But we were basically there to learn the, and to become familiar with the procedures and policies that were necessary to, as healthcare professionals, to take care of an Army in the field. And that's what we basically had to learn. And that meant--and it took us six weeks to get the, that information together. But we did the, the basic thing that had to do with the, the procedures and, and policies that had to do with taking care of an army in the field. You had to drill and ceremonies with the military science department and make sure that you learn how to march and salute and do parades and that kind of stuff. And then you had to also make sure that you got your personal stuff together, your uniforms and, and all of those things, 'cause at your next duty station you were suppose go with everything ready to go, you see. And so that's basically what we did down there.$$Okay, how long did you stay at Fort Sam Houston?$$Fort Sam Houston, I was there for six weeks.$$Okay.$$Yeah, six-week class, got it finished and, and, and was already assigned to go from there to Fort Dix, New Jersey.$Yes, yes, so, John [John Hudock] went, he did the research, and we found that we could get the, we could, we could put the students in school, but we had to get the spaces. And you had to go directly to the chief of staff of the [U.S.] Army [Carl Vuono] to get the spaces. So, I made an appointment with the chief of staff of the Army. And I did it far enough out so that I could see all of his deputy chiefs of staff, the important ones, before I went there. And I had to go to the deputy chief of staff of operations, personnel. You had to go to the program analysis and evaluation people, and you had to deal with the, the folks over on the enlisted side, you know, to, to make sure that everybody knew what the deal was in terms of what I was requesting. Well, I went to the guy who was the program analysis evaluation at that time, PA and E we always called him. And he and I had worked together before. And so he said to me, he said, "Clara [HistoryMaker General Clara Adams-Ender]," he said, "the Army's winding down." He said, "We're not, we're not putting any more folks in here." He said, "I don't think you need those spaces." I said, "Sir, I have to keep enough folks in the [U.S.] Army Nurse Corps, and this is the reason how come I need to do it. You know, these people have been on; they're seasoned folks at this point and time. They're likely to be retained." And all these other kind of things. I put it all out there. He said I disagree. The others, I got concurrence from everybody else, but I couldn't get this guy to agree. Well, if we go before the chief, the chief's not gonna hear any fighting between the PA and E and the chief of the Army Nurse Corps, I mean, you know (laughter).$$Right.$$And so, and, and I wasn't really even supposed to be there. The surgeon general was supposed to be there. The surgeon general said no, no, no, I'm not going to try to fight a nurse battle. You go take care of that. So I said all right, I'm here sitting in here for me and the surgeon general. So I got there and we started to talk about--no, I was getting ready to go to the meeting. And I said well, I'm not going to, I'm not gonna get the general--I've forgotten his name now--to change his mind, you know, Bill. I know his first name was Bill. I said I'm not getting him to change his mind, I said but I still gotta go see the chief; I'm sorry. So, I don't know what happened. I went off to Hawaii on vacation. I said I'm taking a break. So I took a break 'cause I, I--and when I was coming back I was seeing he chief next day, changed my appointment so I was seeing the chief 9:00 the morning, I called my hairdresser, say get in here and get my hair done (laughter), 5:00 in the morning, got my hair done and got ready to go. And just as I was about to leave her office I called my office. And they said, "Oh, ma'am, yeah, you're still on with the chief at 9:00. And by the way, the PA and E called, and he said that he will agree that you need those spaces." Let me tell you, when that happens to you, you don't ask anybody any questions. Now you just say thank you and go to the next thing. We went up. We got in front of the chief. We talked about the issues. We--and, and he voiced what he thought was, was his hesitation at that time, but he, but when he got asked do you concur, he nodded his head, yes I do, and so that worked out fine. And so the che- I had asked for a hundred spaces, and chief gave me a 125.$$Wow.$$So I think I made a pretty good case (laughter).$$Yes, you did.$$Got 125 spaces and I will tell you, we had some happy enlisted people, because at that time, see, we had 5500 enlisted personnel in the [U.S.] Army Medical Department that had two years of college or above. See, that's one thing that a lot of people don't understand, is that the all-volunteer army bought a, brought us, the all-volunteer army brought us a very well-educated Army, very well-educated. We took people we could--we didn't take anybody who didn't have high school. And the most of 'em had two years of college or above, and they were joining up like crazy. I mean it was working out just fine. And so, I was gonna just only take the medics. Well, John Shannon is back over there in the office. He said, "Clara, you can't only take the medics. You've got to take--you've gotta open it up to everybody." So we did. We opened it up to everybody. And I'll tell you, some of those folks came out the artillery offices, and some of those folks came out here from transportation. They came out from various areas, but we took the well-qualified people to go into that program. And those enlisted folks were very happy to be able to do that. And they got, they, they got finished, got promoted to second lieutenant, and came on active duty, and came back on active duty and stayed just like we said they would. They stayed, and many of 'em stayed 'til retirement. I'm going, as a matter of fact, I'm going down to Texas to, I'm gonna retire one next week because she went in the program a, a little time later, 'cause the program still goes; it's still going on 'til today.$$Wow.$$Yeah. They have, back now they choose a hundred people a year. But they still send them off to any accredited college or university with a school of nursing or college of nursing in this country.$$Wow.$$And they, once they graduate, they're able to, to come on active duty as second lieutenants, yeah.$$Wow.$$So we did our thing for upward mobility.$$You did your thing.$$(Laughter) For sure.$$Now this was all done during that three-year period, '87 [1987] to '90 [1990], is--$$Yes.$$--is that it?$$--yeah.$$Okay.$$Well, actually, no, '87 [1987] to '91 [1991], we probably finished--$$Eighty-seven [1987] to, to, to--$$Yeah, probably finished in early '91 [1991].$$--to, to '91 [1991].$$Yeah, 'cause that was my period, yeah.$$Okay, okay, now--$$And I was the eighteenth chief, yeah, of the Army Nurse Corps.$$Okay, eighteenth chief.$$Eighteenth chief--$$Okay.$$--right.