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Sala Udin

Politician and activist Sala Udin was born Samuel Wesley Howze on February 20, 1943 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to William and Mary Howze. Raised in the Hill District of the city, he was one of eleven children. In 1961, Udin graduated from Port Richmond High School in Staten Island, New York and joined the Freedom Rider campaign that same summer.

Upon his return from the segregated South, Udin served as the president of the State Island Chapter of the NAACP for three years. In 1963, Udin took a group of college students to hear Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. give his “I Have A Dream” speech at the March on Washington. The following year, he worked for the Mississippi Freedom Summer Project registering voters in Holmes County. The next year, in 1965, Udin co-founded the Centre Avenue Poets’ Theatre Workshop in his childhood neighborhood of the Hill District with friends and renown playwrights, August Wilson and Rob Penny. By 1967, Udin had become a strong advocate of Black Power attending numerous conferences and started the performing arts company, Black Horizons Theatre, modeled after Amiri Baraka’s Spirit House. Over the next four years, the company produced plays reflective of the Black Arts Movement and used black playwrights such as Sonia Sanchez, Ed Bullins, and Amiri Baraka. The programs were held in the Leo A. Weill School. Additionally, Udin helped to establish a Black Studies program at the University of Pittsburgh and published articles in The Pittsburgh Courier entitled, “Afrikan View.”

Beginning in 1968, Udin had numerous run-ins with the law including gun charges and driving without a valid license. In 1970, he was indicted in Louisville, Kentucky for illegal transportation of firearms and possession of distilled spirits. Sentenced to five years at a federal penitentiary, he began serving his sentence at the Lewisburg Federal Penitentiary in 1972. Seven months later, he was paroled. In 2006, he attempted to have his sentence pardoned.

Throughout the mid-1970s, Udin worked in social service agencies including as Executive Director at the House of Crossroads, a drug treatment facility and the Multicultural Resource Training Center in San Francisco. He moved back to Pittsburgh in 1992, and ran for City Council in a special election in 1995. He served as Councilmen for the Sixth District, his childhood neighborhood for ten years. As a councilman, he introduced legislation to establish a Citizen’s Police Review Board and sat on numerous committees including the Plan B Oversight Committee, which helped to provide jobs to women and minorities; the Housing Authority: City of Pittsburgh Board; and the Disparity Study and Implementation Commission.

In 2005, Udin lost in the primary to former employee Tonya Payne. Udin advocates the improvement of the Sixth District and was instrumental in the creation and maintenance of the Freedom Corner, a civil rights monument located in the Hill District neighborhood.

Udin was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 12, 2008.

Accession Number

A2008.104

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/12/2008

Last Name

Udin

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Port Richmond High School

First Name

Sala

Birth City, State, Country

Pittsburgh

HM ID

UDI01

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

San Francisco, California

Favorite Quote

Power Concedes Nothing Without a Demand. It Never Has, and It Never Will.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Pennsylvania

Interview Description
Birth Date

2/20/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Pittsburgh

Country

USA

Short Description

Civil rights activist and city council member Sala Udin (1943 - ) worked for the Mississippi Freedom Summer Project in 1964 and started the performing arts company, Black Horizons Theatre. Udin has worked in social service agencies, including as executive director at the House of Crossroads, a drug treatment facility and the Multicultural Resource Training Center in San Francisco, and has served as a councilmen for the Sixth District in Pittsburgh.

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Sala Udin's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Sala Udin lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Sala Udin describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Sala Udin talks about his maternal grandparents

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Sala Udin describes his mother's background and education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Sala Udin talks about his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Sala Udin talks about potential family ties in his paternal ancestry

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Sala Udin describes his father's life in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Sala Udin talks about his parents and his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Sala Udin recalls his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Sala Udin describes his childhood neighborhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Sala Udin recalls the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Sala Udin describes his experience at Holy Trinity Catholic Church and Catholic school in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Sala Udin talks about his classmates in the school at Holy Trinity Catholic Church in Pittsburgh, including Rob Penny and August Wilson

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Sala Udin talks about his grade school years at Holy Trinity Catholic Church in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Sala Udin recalls his fifth-grade teacher at Pittsburgh's Holy Trinity Catholic Church

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Sala Udin talks about the roles of church and of the community in shaping his values

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Sala Udin recalls television and film during his childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Sala Udin describes the Hill District community of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Sala Udin talks about the Crawford Grill jazz club and the Negro League baseball teams in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Sala Udin talks about jazz artist George Benson and other musicians from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Sala Udin recalls moving from the Lower Hill District to the Bedford Dwellings projects in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Sala Udin describes his year at Central Catholic High School in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Sala Udin talks about his experience at Schenley High School in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Sala Udin describes moving to New York City with his friends

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Sala Udin describes moving in with his aunts and his cousin in Staten Island, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Sala Udin recalls Port Richmond High School in Staten Island, New York, seeing Malcolm X in Harlem, and the 1963 March on Washington

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Sala Udin recounts his semester studying to be an undertaker at the American Academy McAllister Institute

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Sala Udin talks about his involvement in the NAACP Youth League

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Sala Udin recounts meeting a representative of SNCC and his decision to go to Mississippi during the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Sala Udin recounts his arrival in Durant, Mississippi in 1965, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Sala Udin recounts his arrival in Durant, Mississippi in 1965, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Sala Udin describes ideological changes in the Civil Rights Movement during the mid-1960s, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Sala Udin describes ideological changes in the Civil Rights Movement during the mid-1960s, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Sala Udin talks about his role as a black northerner and the role of white liberals in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Sala Udin explains SNCC's safety trainings for incoming civil rights workers

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Sala Udin recounts his confrontation with Mississippi police during the Civil Rights Movement, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Sala Udin recounts his confrontation with Mississippi police during the Civil Rights Movement, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Sala Udin recounts his confrontation with Mississippi police during the Civil Rights Movement, pt. 3

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Sala Udin reflects upon the expulsion of white civil rights workers from SNCC, and on the philosophy of nonviolence

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Sala Udin talks about returning to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1968

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Sala Udin describes moving from Mississippi back to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1968

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Sala Udin describes his entry into the Black Power, Black Arts, and Black Nationalist movements

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Sala Udin talks about the Black Power Movement's strategies and the origin of the House of the Crossroads drug treatment program

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Sala Udin describes August Wilson and Rob Penny's Black Horizon Theatre in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Sala Udin talks about Amiri Baraka, HistoryMaker Maulana Karenga, and the formation of the Congress of African People

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Sala Udin talks about Amiri Baraka and the Congress of African People's transition from cultural nationalism to Marxism-Leninism

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Sala Udin recalls his 1972 incarceration for transporting a rifle across state lines

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Sala Udin talks about leaving the Congress of African People after its transition from a Black Nationalist to a Marxist-Leninist focus

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Sala Udin recounts the decline of the Congress of African People in the late 1970s

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Sala Udin talks about his first marriage

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Sala Udin talks about moving to California in 1982 to lead the Multicultural Training Resource Center

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Sala Udin describes disengaging from local politics and leaving his sons in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania after moving to California in 1982

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Sala Udin talks about raising AIDS awareness through the Multicultural Training Resource Center in the San Francisco Bay Area of California

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Sala Udin describes his life in California and traveling as a diversity consultant for the Multicultural Training Resource Center

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Sala Udin talks about the death of his mother, the death of his friend Jake Milliones, and his first run for Pittsburgh City Council

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Sala Udin recalls his 1995 election to the City Council of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Sala Udin talks about fighting police brutality on the Pittsburgh City Council after the 1995 killing of Jonny Gammage in police custody

Tape: 9 Story: 1 - Sala Udin recounts his accomplishments on the City Council of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, pt. 1

Tape: 9 Story: 2 - Sala Udin recounts his accomplishments on the City Council of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, pt. 2

Tape: 9 Story: 3 - Sala Udin talks about leaving the Pittsburgh City Council and becoming President of the Coro Center for Civic Leadership

Tape: 9 Story: 4 - Sala Udin describes the Coro Center for Civic Leadership's training program

Tape: 9 Story: 5 - Sala Udin talks about his second marriage

Tape: 9 Story: 6 - Sala Udin talks about what he would do differently

Tape: 9 Story: 7 - Sala Udin describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 9 Story: 8 - Sala Udin talks about his two living sons

Tape: 9 Story: 9 - Sala Udin talks about his acting experience and the beginning of the August Wilson Center for African American Culture in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 9 Story: 10 - Sala Udin describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

7$7

DAStory

2$3

DATitle
Sala Udin describes his entry into the Black Power, Black Arts, and Black Nationalist movements
Sala Udin talks about the Black Power Movement's strategies and the origin of the House of the Crossroads drug treatment program
Transcript
Okay. Now, what would you describe your ideology at that point?$$Black Power developing toward Black Nationalism.$$Okay. And how would you define Black Nationalism?$$Initially, a desire on the part of black people to establish the independence of a nation and the respect that nations have among nations. And I never bought the idea that anybody would concede to a certain number of states in the Southland, but I thought that, that wasn't necessary for nationhood, that a nation could exist even as a scattered nation if they developed enough unity and power to exert, exert that nationhood. So, I identified with the Black Power Movement with black, black consciousness. Eventually, the Black Power Conferences that had been held in different cities around the country realized that nothing in between those conferences was getting organized, and that as long as we just kept having these impromptu conferences in a different location every year, our political roles couldn't get realized. And so, I was really glad when I heard that there was going to be a culmination of all those Black Power Conferences in Atlanta, Georgia in 1980.$$Nineteen--not '80 [1980], but--$$Nineteen-seventy [1970], 1970--$$Yeah.$$--when the Congress of African People gathered and it gave me an organizational entree for those of us in Pittsburgh [Pennsylvania] who needed a national political affiliation to attach to.$$Okay. Now, prior to that time, you were involved in the Black Arts Movement here, the theater movement, and that sort of--$$Yes. As I was transitioning into Pittsburgh, we formed an organization called the Afro-American Institute. And the Afro-American Institute had several committees. Eventually, I became chairman of the Afro-American Institute, and our various committees achieved certain accomplishments within the realm of that committee. For example, the education committee worked on the establishment of a Black Studies Department at the University of Pittsburgh [Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania] and a black student organization to increase student enrollment and increase black faculty and administrative representation at the University of Pittsburgh. Many of these achievements that we started then continue to exist today, like the black studies program and like the Black Action Society which is the black students' organization. They are well institutionalized.$Now, the institutionalizing of these studies programs suggest that there must have been some sort of a cultural reawakening or girding up of, you know. So, did you--you didn't have black studies in school when you were growing up, now did you? I mean, had you had been reading all along, or trying to develop what a concept black culture was?$$No, the movement was a university.$$Okay.$$And the other cities where these struggles were taking place was the course subject that we studied. And these conferences, the Black Power Conferences, and other conferences is where all this information came together, and people learned what the goals of local organizing should be. So, it was really something that was modelled for us by other communities around the country.$$Now, which ones and like, what kind of work--I mean, specifically, what works were you reading, and/or what individuals were informing you?$$What I remember most is Amiri Baraka, Stokely Carmichael, [H.] Rap Brown--their readings--Malcolm-X's writings and recordings. Those were the things that I remember most--$$Okay.$$--about that period. We had a committee that worked on offing the [drug] pusher. We had a group of thugs in our organization who, when we noticed how much drugs was permeating our community, we decided to confront the pushers who were few enough to be easily identified at the time, and we started beating up pushers and robbing them, and throwing their dope down the sewer, and taking their money, and using it for the movement. But we ran our mouths too much, and next thing you know, they knew who we were, and they started fighting back. And we took a couple pretty good ass-kickings before we figured out that that is not going to be the way we get rid of drugs in our community. And that effort evolved into an attempt to recruit drug addicts, clean them up, politicize them, and bring them into our movement, so that we could understand the underground operation that these pushers operated in because we were not hoodlums, so we didn't really understand that life, and didn't understand how they operated, but we were so above-board and ran our mouths so much that they understood everything about us. We understood nothing about them. So, we wanted to recruit some of them into our movement to inform us, so that we would stop taking these defeats that we had taken. But during the course of that effort to recruit them and politicize them through a drug treatment program, it was a kind of political drug treatment program that we started. During the course of that, we discovered that confronting street pushers is not going to stop this explosion of drugs in our community. It's going to have to be a political battle. And, but the drug program is still a good thing to have, 'cause we saved a lot of people's lives, and it was a source of some employment for a lot of us in the movement working in the drug treatment program. And so, that program continued, and that continues to this day. It's called the House of the Crossroads [Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania]. It's still in the same building it started in, in 1969.

Reverend Maxine Walker

Religious leader Reverend Maxine Walker was born on July 25, 1936 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to Bernadine Lucas, a columnist for The Pittsburgh Courier and the Chicago Defender, and Jack Lucas, a minor league baseball player. After moving to Chicago, Illinois at seven years old, Walker contracted tuberculosis and was unable to walk for a year during her illness. Walker graduated from Cortez Business College before receiving her degree from the Moody Bible Institute.

Shortly thereafter, Walker married Cecil Thomas Walker, a grocery and restaurant owner, and had nine children. Together, they worked in his business, Tom’s Kitchen, while Walker continued to take college courses.

During her career, Walker created the first gospel magazine printed in Chicago, The Platform. After the creation of her own publication, Walker worked for Gatlings’ entities as a public relations person. There, she formed relationships with prominent celebrities like Michael Jordan. Walker then developed another magazine, a television talk show entitled, Touching People, and a gospel play that appeared at the Regal Theatre in Chicago called, One Lord, One Faith, and One Baptism.

In 1980, Walker was called to the ministry and was ordained in 1997. She then became the editor of the gospel newspaper The Spiritual Perspective. In addition to Walker’s passion for teaching the public about spirituality, she is also in the process of writing her first book, Ten Reasons Why You Should Not Use an Herbalist, which educates people about health options when facing debilitating illnesses.

Walker has formed relationships with many notable people throughout her life, including Nelson Mandela and has preached in both Israel and Africa. She counts among her list of influential ministers, Apostle H. Daniel Wilson, Dr. Horace Smith and Bishop Willy Jordan, all of whom share Walker’s passion for teaching the community. In addition, Walker owned a fish market and a lounge on the south side of Chicago and worked as a classified specialist for the Chicago Defender.

She passed away on November 2, 2007, at the age of 71.

Walker was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 28, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.172

Sex

Female

Interview Date

4/28/2007

Last Name

Walker

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

Zenos Colman Elementary School

St. Benedict School

Corpus Christi Elementary School

The Moody Bible Institute

First Name

Maxine

Birth City, State, Country

Pittsburgh

HM ID

WAL09

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

He Paid It All.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Interview Description
Birth Date

7/25/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Smothered Steak, Chicken

Death Date

11/2/2007

Short Description

Minister Reverend Maxine Walker (1936 - 2007 ) created the first gospel magazine printed in Chicago, "The Platform." She also developed a television talk show, "Touching People," and was the editor of the gospel newspaper, "The Spiritual Perspective."

Employment

Gatling's Chapel, Inc.

The Spiritual Perspective

The Platform

Tom's Kitchen

Favorite Color

Gold, Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Reverend Maxine Walker's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Reverend Maxine Walker lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Reverend Maxine Walker describes her mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Reverend Maxine Walker talks about her maternal grandparents' separation

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Reverend Maxine Walker recalls her mother's and maternal uncle's education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Reverend Maxine Walker describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Reverend Maxine Walker describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Reverend Maxine Walker describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Reverend Maxine Walker recalls moving to Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Reverend Maxine Walker remembers her mother's career

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Reverend Maxine Walker describes her mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Reverend Maxine Walker describes her father's career

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Reverend Maxine Walker describes her influential teacher

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Reverend Maxine Walker remembers contracting tuberculosis

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Reverend Maxine Walker remembers resuming her studies

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Reverend Maxine Walker remembers her college experiences

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Reverend Maxine Walker describes her marriage to Cecil Walker

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Reverend Maxine Walker describes her experience in the Methodist church

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Reverend Maxine Walker recalls her Catholic school education, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Reverend Maxine Walker recalls her Catholic school education, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Reverend Maxine Walker recalls how she met her husband, Cecil Walker

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Reverend Maxine Walker talks about her children

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Reverend Maxine Walker remembers raising her children

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Reverend Maxine Walker describes her relationship with her children

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Reverend Maxine Walker talks about the South Side of Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Reverend Maxine Walker describes her involvement in the religious community

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Reverend Maxine Walker talks about the religious ministry

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Reverend Maxine Walker recalls the religious discrimination at the Moody Bible Institute in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Reverend Maxine Walker recalls founding The Platform magazine

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Reverend Maxine Walker recalls her position at Gatling's Chapel, Inc.

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Reverend Maxine Walker remembers her television show, 'Touching People'

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Reverend Maxine Walker remembers her play, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Reverend Maxine Walker remembers her play, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Reverend Maxine Walker remembers her calling to the ministry

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Reverend Maxine Walker talks about The Spiritual Perspective newspaper

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Reverend Maxine Walker describes her personal ministry

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Reverend Maxine Walker describes her perspective on healthcare

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Reverend Maxine Walker talks about her mother's poetry

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Reverend Maxine Walker describes her grandchildren

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Reverend Maxine Walker describes her philosophy of friendship

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Reverend Maxine Walker describes why she wanted to share her story

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Reverend Maxine Walker describes her religious influences

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Reverend Maxine Walker reflects upon her life

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Reverend Maxine Walker shares her career advice

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Reverend Maxine Walker reflects upon her life

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Reverend Maxine Walker remembers her business ventures

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Reverend Maxine Walker describes her hopes for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Reverend Maxine Walker remembers Ralph Metcalfe and Sylvester Washington

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Reverend Maxine Walker recalls her role in Harold Washington's mayoral campaign

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Reverend Maxine Walker describes her organizational involvement

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Reverend Maxine Walker describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Reverend Maxine Walker narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

3$10

DATitle
Reverend Maxine Walker describes her involvement in the religious community
Reverend Maxine Walker describes her religious influences
Transcript
I would like to go back to your getting very involved in the religious community.$$Okay.$$How did that happen?$$Well, I'm such a studier of the word, where a lot of people go into the church and the clapping of the hands and the music, you know? It, it gets, it, I mean, that becomes church for them, it's always been deeper for me. I remember we belonged to a church called Love Memorial [Love Memorial Church, Chicago, Illinois] and there was a lady, Sister Coleman [ph.] who always, whenever you came in her presence she'd say, "Praise the Lord, how are you doing?" And that bothered me that she would always say praise the Lord, 'cause I wondered why I wasn't saying praise the Lord, we belonged to the same church.$$Um-hm.$$We're getting the same stuff, you know? And so I felt like, that if she was saying praise the Lord, I should be saying praise the Lord, either she shouldn't be saying praise the Lord--$$(Laughter).$$--you know? And so I've always tested stuff from that point of view. And then, but my involvement has been the word, when I study the word, it takes me to a different place, and so I've always had questions, and of course, me being a bold person, I've always asked the pastors questions and then when I became, when I started publishing, the magazine first [The Platform], and always included the ministers. And then when I began to publish the newspaper [The Spiritual Perspective], the same thing, that put me in a area where me and the ministers always had dialogue because that's really part of my workshop. And so, being a female that's kind of uncomfortable for them, but I have a reputation where I've been able to dialogue with them, never ever none of their wives getting upset with me, never feeling out of place, never none of that. But my dialogue has been so strong, they had to stop and listen to it and now the transition of the gospel is so prophetic, and especially with me going through my illness, I've learned so much more. They, they listen, in fact, I have pastors who call and consult with me about their sermons, for the next day, and we have a good time on the, on the phone.$If you could name five ministers that you felt were the most influential to you, or who've made the biggest impact in your spiritual growth, who would they be?$$Number one, it would be Apostle H. Daniel Wilson.$$And why?$$Because he, Sasha [Sasha Daltonn], he teaches a word, known like no other man I've ever seen teach. That's including Jakes [HistoryMaker Bishop T.D. Jakes] and the rest of 'em and all of them have their place, you know, in terms of the ministry and being effective. But he's an excellent word teacher. You would have to experience him to understand what I'm saying.$$Um-hm.$$He's an excellent word teacher. The next person would be, Pastor Meeks [James T. Meeks], I so respect him, I respect him not only because he's the senator, but he has proven to the community that he would not neglect his pulpit, and he has not done that, since his reign, plus he's such a giving individual, I mean he gives beyond what people know. I think he is an attribute to the ministry and what we should stand for--$$Um-hm.$$--as mighty men and women of God, that was the second person. Let me see, who is the third person is. I really respect Dr. Horace Smith [HistoryMaker Dr. Horace Earl Smith], I think Dr. Horace Smith has a level of ministry that reaches out to all mankind and I think that, I mean he has not, I mean we, we know each other and we've done somethings together, but in terms of who I respect in the ministry. Naturally I respect Bishop Brazier [HistoryMaker Bishop Arthur Brazier] the difference in between Bishop Brazier and a Dr. Horace Smith, Dr. Horace Smith is a, is a little younger and has a younger vision for the community at large as well as Africa.$$Um-hm.$$How many have I named thus far?$$That was four.$$That was four? There is, there's so many that I do respect, you gave me a very hard question, you gave me a hard question. I would have to put down Bishop Willie Jordan, who was called the country preacher, who still is called the country preacher. But, he's been very instrumental in my life, allowed me to grow at my own pace up under his ministry, which was basically, I was helping him.$$Um-hm.$$That's, I could go on and on.$$All of those were men, give me three females.$$The Reverend Jimmie Pettis, Pastor Jimmie Pettis [ph.], who is a great friend who has walked the walk in terms of ministry and what she does. I would have to say Reverend Princella Brady Lee is another person who has done a great job and Reverend Princella Gilliam [Princella Hudson-Gilliam], she has also--$$Um-hm.$$--done a good job.

Adam Wade

Adam Wade was born Patrick Henry Wade on March 17, 1935 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Pauline Simpson and Henry Oliver Wade, Jr. Wade was raised by his grandparents in Pittsburgh’s East Liberty neighborhood and graduated from Westinghouse High School in 1952. He went on to attend Virginia State College, but married his high school sweetheart and soon left school in order to support his young family.

Wade started singing while still in high school. In 1958, he got his first opportunity to record for the Coed Records label in New York City. Two years later, he moved to New York full-time, and within six months, he was singing at the city’s most prestigious club, the Copacabana. Wade’s first hit, “Ruby,” was released that same year. He had three top ten singles in 1961: “Take Good Care of Her,” “The Writing on the Wall” and “As If I Didn’t Know.” Wade had less success after moving over to Epic Records later that year. In the late 1960s, he shifted his focus to acting. Wade began doing commercials and voice-over work. In 1970, he starred in the film Wanderlove. Wade had a number of supporting roles in films in the early 1970s, and he began to be featured on television, in soaps like The Guiding Light and black-oriented sitcoms like Sanford & Son and Good Times.

In 1975, Wade began hosting the television game show Musical Chairs, becoming the first black game show host. In 1978, he restarted his recording career. Wade also starred in an all-black production of Guys and Dolls in Las Vegas, Nevada. In 1983, Wade and his wife, Jeree Wade, started their own production company called SONGBIRD’S UNLIMITED PRODUCTIONS. They have produced many African American historical revues, including the off Broadway musical, Shades of Harlem which opened at the Village Gate in New York in 1983 and recently stopped touring in 2005. In the 1980s and 1990s, Wade continued to appear regularly on stage and screen including an episode of Hill Street Blues. In April of 2007, Wade began the national tour of the hit Broadway play, The Color Purple, playing the role of “Old Mister Johnson”. Wade has also taken turns as a director, writer and producer. He has received Audelco and Clio Awards for his work.

Over forty years after leaving college, Wade returned to school, earning his B.A. degree from Lehman College and his M.A. degree from Brooklyn College. He works as an adjunct professor of speech and theater at Long Island University and Bloomfield College.

Wade has been married to his wife, Jeree, for twenty-five years.

Adam Wade was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on April 27, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.168

Sex

Male

Interview Date

4/27/2007

Last Name

Wade

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

Westinghouse Academy

Lehman College

Brooklyn College

Virginia State University

John Morrow Elementary School

Larimer School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Adam

Birth City, State, Country

Pittsburgh

HM ID

WAD01

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Jamaica

Favorite Quote

Making Money Is A Habit And There's Nothing I Can Do About It.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New Jersey

Interview Description
Birth Date

3/17/1935

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

East Orange

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Creamed Cauliflower

Short Description

Actor, singer, and stage producer Adam Wade (1935 - ) was the first African American to host a game show on television, "Musical Chairs." Wade recorded hit singles as a singer and his television acting credits included, "Sanford & Son," and, "Good Times."

Employment

'The Color Purple'

Jonas Salk polio research team

Kauffmann's

Coed Records

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:820,10:4145,57:4680,68:7150,79:9760,117:11152,145:12196,167:13327,183:19936,257:20440,265:25336,396:26704,424:48466,773:51476,812:56970,832:57795,846:73890,1050:74210,1055:75090,1070:75490,1076:81600,1154:84311,1191:92821,1301:106503,1559:115830,1705:116850,1719:137349,1954:138384,1978:140970,1983$0,0:1650,18:3525,46:3975,58:4425,77:4800,83:21995,370:23660,386:26213,417:28670,428:42878,601:43170,606:51635,709:52963,729:53710,739:54208,748:66310,830:66850,837:78884,943:79572,952:82760,1000:83210,1008:84335,1098:84785,1106:89477,1152:90045,1161:97074,1306:105630,1404
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Adam Wade's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Adam Wade lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Adam Wade describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Adam Wade describes his father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Adam Wade describes his father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Adam Wade describes his father

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Adam Wade recalls lessons from his paternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Adam Wade describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Adam Wade describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Adam Wade recalls racial discrimination in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Adam Wade describes his involvement in civil rights protests

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Adam Wade describes his early pastimes

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Adam Wade recalls living in foster care

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Adam Wade remembers the entertainment of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Adam Wade remembers the Larimer School in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Adam Wade describes his extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Adam Wade describes the Negro League in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Adam Wade talks about basketball stars from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Adam Wade talks about basketball stars from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Adam Wade describes his athletic career at Westinghouse High School in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Adam Wade describes his experiences at Virginia State College in Petersburg, Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Adam Wade describes his works experiences at Virginia State College

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Adam Wade remembers his departure from Virginia State College

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Adam Wade describes his position on Jonas Salk's polio research team

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Adam Wade describes his early singing career

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Adam Wade remembers his first records for Coed Records, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Adam Wade describes his early singles, 'Tell Her For Me' and 'Ruby'

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Adam Wade describes his transition to acting

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Adam Wade recalls his first commercial role

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Adam Wade remembers his mentor, Adolph Caesar

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Adam Wade describes his stage acting career in New York City

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Adam Wade remembers his film credits, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Adam Wade remembers his film credits, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Adam Wade reflects upon his favorite acting roles

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Adam Wade recalls his audition for the host role on 'Musical Chairs'

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Adam Wade remembers preparing for his role on 'Musical Chairs'

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Adam Wade describes the premise of 'Musical Chairs'

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Adam Wade remembers acting in the 'Uptown Saturday Night' television pilot

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Adam Wade describes his acting career in the 1980s

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Adam Wade describes his decision to return to college

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Adam Wade describes the Chicago production of 'The Color Purple,' pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Adam Wade describes the Chicago production of 'The Color Purple,' pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Adam Wade describes the Chicago production of 'The Color Purple,' pt. 3

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Adam Wade talks about his interest in writing

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Adam Wade describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Adam Wade reflects upon his life

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Adam Wade reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Adam Wade talks about his family

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Adam Wade describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Adam Wade narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$1

DAStory

4$7

DATitle
Adam Wade recalls his first commercial role
Adam Wade recalls lessons from his paternal grandfather
Transcript
And so, I worked all around the country and all over the world, you know. And, learning, and then I started studying acting, and then I got into commercials. With the commercials, at first, it was kind of redundantly bad, if that's an expression I can use. Because everywhere I went they would say, "Aren't you [HistoryMaker] Adam Wade the singer?" I would say, "Yes." They say, "Well, we're not looking for singers today." They would throw that in my face, you know (laughter). And, I thought, "Let me drag this guy down to the basement in the dark and see if I can dust him up or something (laughter)." But, finally, 'cause I was gonna qui- I was gonna, I was gonna quite, "That's it, I'm going to give this up." But, Vernee Watson [Vernee Watson-Johnson] who played the mother of the Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, Will Smith, she was also studying with the Al Fann Theatrical Ensemble and she encouraged me to go. She said, "Just try one more week, and if nothing happens," and she said, "But, you should--don't give up today." And, I didn't. And, two days later I got my first commercial for Getty gasoline [Getty Oil].$$Okay.$$That was terrific, and the commercial was in the car in Central Park [New York, New York], late at night, kissing this girl in the backseat of the car. I said, "Man, this is wonderful, (laughter)."$$You got paid for it (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) You guy, you guys gonna pay me for this, you know. And, it was Laura Greene who is beautiful anyway (laughter). It was like, "Oh, my, my, my (laughter)."$$So, what year is this, is this--?$$That was in nineteen- I guess, '70 [1970].$$Nineteen seventy [1970]. So, you get paid to kiss Laura Greene in the back of a car.$$In the backseat of a convertible for Getty gasoline, my, my, my (laughter), life is grand. Yeah.$$Okay. So, this--did the rest, did more work follow?$$Yes. Actually, it's like anything else, once the door opens, you know, you step across the threshold and you're in the game, you know.$So, tell me this, when you think back on what people have told you, I guess, about your parents [Pauline Nelson Simpson and Henry Wade, Jr.] and reflect on your [paternal] grandparents [Helen Jones Wade and Henry Wade, Sr.], who do you think you take after the most?$$Probably my grandfather in a, in a lot of instances. My approach to work. My approach to business. My grandfather, he believed in independence. And, when I was eleven, he said, "I'm gonna show you what independence is." He said, "And, freedom in America, helps you become independent. But, you can only become independent if you can earn money." So, he said, "Starting now, this is what you gonna do." So, I got a paper route. I was able to shine shoes. I took groceries home for people. In the summertime, he taught me how to shape hedges, how to paint, how to change tires, change the oil in a car. And, it was just one, one thing right after another. But, I was twelve or thirteen years old, I always had money. And, when I went away to college [Virginia State College; Virginia State University, Petersburg, Virginia], it was just so much fun for me because right away I lined up people's cars that I would wash. I would babysit. I could wax the floors, wash the windows. I could sew on buttons. I could iron. You know, so, all these little things, my grandfather taught me along the way, you know, so I always made money, you know.

Dr. Paul Knott

Cardiologist, inventor and nautical entrepreneur Dr. Paul Knott was born Albert Paul Lowe Knott, Jr. on March 23, 1935 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. His ancestors include his paternal great grandfather, A.M.E. Bishop Gaston Knott of Eastern Tennessee (founder of Gaston, Tennessee), his grandfather, Albert Knott, a Morristown College graduate (Class of 1898) and the first Black police officer in Pittsburgh, his father, Albert Paul Knott, Sr., a physician and social activist, his mother, Fannie Meredith Scott Knott, a teacher and her father who was a physician. Knott’s parents were friends of Pittsburgh Courier editor, Robert L. Vann, and entertained Eleanor Roosevelt, George, Jody and Philippa Schuyler and other notables in their Hill District home. Knott attended the University of Pittsburgh’s Frick School and graduated from Schenley High School, where he swam and was co-captain of the track team in 1952. Entering Yale University at age seventeen, Knott, one of four blacks in his class, co-founded and joined the campus NAACP, the largest university chapter of the organization at that time. He graduated with his B.A. degree in human behavior and cultural anthropology in 1956. Pursuing medicine, Knott earned his M.D. degree from Seton Hall College of Medicine in 1960. That same year, he did an internship at Georgetown University.

Appointed a cardiovascular research fellow at Chicago’s Michael Reese Hospital from 1961 to 1963, Knott became senior medical resident at Hines V.A. Hospital from 1963 to 1965, becoming board eligible in internal medicine and cardiology. Serving in the U.S. Navy, Knott was chief of cardiology at the United States Naval Hospital at Great Lakes, Illinois from 1965 to 1967. There, he wrote a white paper on racial discrimination in public facilities servicing military installations. As a result, a federal law was passed making racial discrimination illegal in public facilities. Knott attended the First World Black Festival of Arts and Culture in Dakar, Senegal in 1966. From 1966 to 1981, he was a cardiology consultant for Daniel Hale Williams Health Center in Chicago, while teaching medicine at Loyola University, the University of Illinois and Rush Medical College. Knott also served on the staff’s of Rush Presbyterian St. Luke’s Medical Center, Mile Square Community Health Center, Louise Burg Hospital, Provident Hospital and Bethany Hospital. At Tabernacle Community Hospital, he was associate medical director from 1972 to 1977. From 1977 to 1981, Knott served as chief medical and administrative officer for Bethany and Garfield Park Hospitals and Clinics. He was chief medical officer and medical administrator for Illinois’ Stateville Correctional Center from 1981 to 1983 where he implemented and directed the development of sick call procedures. Knott was medical director of Chicago’s Metropolitan Correctional Center from 1984 to 1986. Founding Correctional Healthcare Administrators in 1985, Knott has consulted on numerous medical projects. In 1988, he completed a feasibility study and plan for a 50,000 square foot facility at Chicago’s O’Hare International Airport. Through the 1990s, Knott worked as an emergency room and trauma physician. He also earned certification in advanced trauma life support.

In the 1980s, Knott established a successful charter boat business with six boats, the largest being a 220 passenger dinner boat. In the early 1990s, he invented and manufactured the Knott Lock, security device for automobiles. Knott, a member of Sigma Pi Phi for over forty years, lives in Chicago with his wife, Lynda and their two children.

Knott passed away on July 20, 2018.

Knott was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 14, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.007

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/14/2007

Last Name

Knott

Maker Category
Schools

Schenley High School

Henry Clay Frick Training School of Teachers

Yale University

University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey

First Name

Lynda

Birth City, State, Country

Pittsburgh

HM ID

KNO02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Quote

What's Up?

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Illinois

Interview Description
Birth Date

3/23/1935

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Chicago

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Chili

Death Date

7/20/2018

Short Description

Cardiologist and hospital executive Dr. Paul Knott (1935 - 2018) dedicated his career to medical administration, was founder of the Correctional Healthcare Administrators, and invented the Knott Lock security device for automobiles.

Employment

Michael Reese Hospital

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Paul Knott's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Paul Knott lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Paul Knott describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers his maternal aunt and uncle

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Paul Knott describes his mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Paul Knott describes his father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Paul Knott describes his father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Paul Knott describes his parents' marriage

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers his community in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Paul Knott describe his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Paul Knott describe the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers the prominent guests to his parents' home

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Paul Knott recalls his interest in the news of World War II

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers Jessie Matthews Vann

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Paul Knott talks about his early interest in reading

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers the Henry Clay Frick Training School for Teachers in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Paul Knott describes his extracurricular activities

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers Schenley High School in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers his early influences

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Paul Knott recalls his decision to apply to Yale University

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Paul Knott talks about the faculty of Schenley High School in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers his admission to Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Paul Knott recalls his election as student council president

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers arriving at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Paul Knott talks about his social life at Yale University

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Paul Knott talks about the NAACP chapter at Yale University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers his interest in anthropology

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Paul Knott recalls his medical school applications

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers race relations at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Paul Knott recalls his classmates' apologies at their fifty-year reunion

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers the background of his peers at Yale University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Paul Knott recalls the impact of the Korean War

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers moving to Jersey City, New Jersey

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Paul Knott recalls his experiences on segregated trains

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Paul Knott describes his medical residency and fellowship

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Paul Knott talks about the Playboy Mansion in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers the community of black physicians in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Paul Knott describes the Tabernacle Community Hospital and Health Center in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Paul Knott describes his early medical career

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Paul Knott talks about the opportunities for black doctors in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Paul Knott talks about his medical career in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Paul Knott recalls his study of blood pressure in African American patients

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers his childhood vacations in Canada

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dr. Paul Knott describes his boat charter business

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dr. Paul Knott recalls closing his boat charter business

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers Mayor Harold Washington

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dr. Paul Knott describes the Knott Lock

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dr. Paul Knott talks about his involvement in the Boule, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dr. Paul Knott talks about his involvement in the Boule, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dr. Paul Knott describes the Boule

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dr. Paul Knott remembers the founding of the Percy Julian Luncheon

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Dr. Paul Knott describes the changes in the Boule organization

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Dr. Paul Knott talks about the political influence of Yale University alumni

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Dr. Paul Knott describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Dr. Paul Knott reflects upon his life

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Dr. Paul Knott talks about his health

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Dr. Paul Knott reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Dr. Paul Knott talks about his family

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Dr. Paul Knott describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Dr. Paul Knott narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$6

DAStory

7$5

DATitle
Dr. Paul Knott recalls his experiences on segregated trains
Dr. Paul Knott describes the Knott Lock
Transcript
It was Montgomery [Alabama] that was hell, so I was in Montgomery in 1950. I was fifteen, and I was in Montgomery; I remember Montgomery--pretty rough place, but anyway (laughter).$$Okay. Did you have--was that the first time you'd been down south like that, in Montgomery, in those days?$$No. At first I was a little kid; I, I used to go with my mother [Fannie Scott Knott] and my two sisters [Patricia Knott and Sylvia Knott Simmons]; we'd go visit my [maternal] grandmother [Lula Allen Scott] in the summertime, so that was interesting. We'd get--we--my father [A. Paul Knott, Sr.] put us on a train in Pittsburgh [Pennsylvania], and we'd go to Cincinnati [Ohio], then we'd get on a train in Cincinnati, and the train would go across the Ohio River, and it would stop halfway over on the Ohio River going across into Kentucky, because all the black people had to go to the black car, which was not air conditioned, and I can remember that ride in that car. It was terribly hot in the summertime--no air conditioning, nothing, and they'd have the windows open and dust would be flying in there. And what my mother used to do is always pack us lunches in shoe boxes, and so we'd eat and--because she refused that we--that she was subjected to eating in the dining car, because in the dining car, they had a green cloth where blacks would sit in the corner, and they'd pull this green curtain around 'em. I don't know you ever heard of that, but I, I mean I even remember the color of it; it was green. They'd pull a green curtain. Have you heard, have you heard of that (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) And you'd be separated. I've, I've heard similar things, yeah.$$Yes, and pull that little green curtain around you (laughter). And my mother would never go for that, and then we'd be so thirsty because in those days, you didn't have cans of Coke [Coca-Cola], or a bottle of Coke, or something that you could carry with you, and there was no ice. So, the, the guys on the train that would serve us sandwiches and drinks, they were called butcher boys, and the butcher boys would get on one stop, and then get off on the other, and they'd bring their stuff. And the butcher boys--it was like, I don't know, I guess equivalent to Kool Aid nowadays; it was this red punch they'd mix up, but they'd mix it in the sink in the bathroom (laughter).$$In a train (laughter)?$$Yeah (laughter), 'cause we'd be sitting across from the bathroom, and we'd watch--'cause I--when you're kids, we want something to drink. My mother would say no. She'd have a thermos bottle, you know, but that wouldn't last very long and--'cause you had thermos bottles in those days, but then the butcher boy would be mixing stuff up in the sink and then dip it out into us, to us, then they go throughout the car selling to the black people (laughter).$$In the bathroom sink.$$In the bathroom sink, yeah. Now, I, I remember that's--that happened. But see, I don't know how many times we traveled to Chattanooga [Tennessee], but it's been far more than one time in the summertime since, you know, I was five, six--four, five, six years old going down there.$Well, tell us about your invention. You invented a--well, this is one invention I know about; there may be more, but the Knott Lock.$$Well, it may seem kind of funny (laughter). I've always just done a lot of things, and one of the, one of the things I, I would say, I'm a pretty good mechanic, well, working on these boats at all times, and I'm a good diesel mechanic and a good mechanic, and I've had several cars stolen so I just thought of this and--this lock, and also working with some fellows that had developed--did various kinds of locks, then I developed this one and got a patent on it. Which, it's just a brick-locking device and also there's a starter-interrupt switch, so when you turn the key to lock the, lock the brakes, it interrupts the starter so you can't start it. If you can't start it, you can't move it; you can't move it anyways because the brakes are locked.$$Right.$$Only thing you do is lift it up.$$That's unusual that most of these devices lock the steering wheel now, right?$$Yeah.$$I've seen--we've seen The Club that they advertise.$$Well, yeah, well this, this beat The Club. I mean The Club, The Club--most of--you can't show me a Club I can't get off. So whether you manipulate--either that or you cut it, or cut the steering wheel, so The Club is no big deal. The Knott Lock, as I call it, you can get it off, but it's so time consuming and hard and you need a blowtorch and--to really get it off. People would pass up on it and go to something else that's easier to steal. But why it wasn't a success--actually, outside of the country--you got it into Australia and Germany. It was pretty successful over there because--but here in the United States, everybody was already tuned into the, the chirp like when you--electronically you would lock your doors and you hear that beep, beep, beep, beep, and everybody was--every housewife--everybody was tuned into that, so that's what killed us there. That, that just made it very difficult to--and the price we had to sell it to make any profit out of it, it was difficult to do it here because of the, the competition of an electronic device which was nowhere near and protecting your car that the--that our lock would.$$Did you still some of 'em available? Are they--$$Yeah.$$Do you still sell any of 'em?$$No, no, no.$$Okay, all right.$$We have some available, yeah.$$Okay.$$Yeah, I got some in storage, yeah.$$Okay.$$It's the kind of thing, you say, "Well, maybe someday." Oh, I, I tried to sell it and we went to car manufacturers and all, but the truth of the matter, what I found out, believe it or not, they didn't want anything like that because you couldn't steal a car, and that would help their sales and also help their repair--I mean getting, getting their cars repaired and restored afterwards, yeah, so--no (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Sounds like the Tucker situation or something, you know.$$Yeah, like the Tucker car [Tucker 48], yeah, same thing, yeah. That's big business--United States, and that's big business; that's the way things work. So, they, they didn't want--I mean even to incorporate--they could have very inexpensively incorporated it into their cars--in the manufacturing (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) As a design for the--yeah.$$Yeah, yeah in, in terms of when they manufacture it, because the key chips and everything today that you have, they could be defeated. Any of these electronic locks I can show you how to defeat in less than a minute.$$Okay. So, that venture lasted from the early '90s [1990s] until--$$Yeah, that was several years--around, around 1990, yeah.$$Okay. Do you have any other--have you invented anything else?$$Yeah, I never got a patent on it. I'm just thinking. One was--back in the early '60s [1960s], which they do it a lot now, and somebody else, I'm sure, has got the patent on it 'cause they do it a lot now, was putting--taking an electrocardiogram in back of the heart by putting electrode down into the esophagus--esophageal electrode. I was the first to do that; that was back in the early '60s [1960s]. I published that. But no, I'd say I've only got one patent.$$Okay (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) And this other stuff, just creative stuff. I was always the kind of guy that always just liked to do a lot of things; I mean a lot of different kind of things, not satisfied to do one thing.

Dr. Mildred Jefferson

Dr. Mildred Fay Jefferson was born in 1927 in Pittsburg, Texas - the daughter of Gurthie Roberts Jefferson, a public school teacher, and Millard F. Jefferson, a Methodist minister. She attended public schools in East Texas and entered Harvard Medical School in 1947 after receiving a B.A degree summa cum laude from Texas College in Tyler, Texas and a M.S. degree from Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts.

Jefferson became the first African American woman to graduate from Harvard Medical School in 1951. She was the first woman to be a surgical intern at Boston City Hospital and the first woman admitted to membership in the Boston Surgical Society. She is, however, best-known for her longtime support and involvement in the “right-to-life movement” in America. She helped to establish the National Right to Life Committee and served three times as its president. She has been a local, regional and national speaker and activist.

After her Harvard Medical School graduation, Jefferson served as a general surgeon with the former Boston University Medical Center and Assistant Clinical Professor of Surgery at Boston University Medical School.

Jefferson has had a career-long interest in medical jurisprudence, medical ethics and the interface between medicine and law, as well as their impact on public policy and society. As a founding member of state and national “right-to-life” organizations, she is president of Right to Life Crusade.

Jefferson is a founding member of the Board of Governors and a past President of the Value of Life Committee of Massachusetts and is also active with the American Life League and Americans United for Life Legal Defense Fund. Jefferson is also a member of Black Americans for Life and is held in high esteem by Feminists for Life. Jefferson passed away on October 18, 2010.

Accession Number

A2006.063

Sex

Female

Interview Date

4/5/2006

Last Name

Jefferson

Maker Category
Middle Name

Fay

Occupation
Schools

A.L. Turner High School

Texas College

Tufts University

Harvard Medical School

Harvard

First Name

Mildred

Birth City, State, Country

Pittsburgh

HM ID

JEF02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Monterey, California

Favorite Quote

To Thy Own Self Be True

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Massachusetts

Interview Description
Birth Date

4/6/1927

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Boston

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Apples (Washington State Red)

Death Date

10/18/2010

Short Description

Surgeon Dr. Mildred Jefferson (1927 - 2010 ) was the first African American woman to graduate from Harvard Medical School, the first woman to be a surgical intern at Boston City Hospital and the first woman admitted to membership in the Boston Surgical Society.

Employment

Boston University Medical Center Hospital

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:444,4:8954,144:9398,152:9916,162:10582,172:13172,225:14282,290:14578,295:14874,300:16354,335:16798,342:17094,348:17538,356:18574,375:19166,384:20202,405:21090,420:21460,426:21904,434:27755,448:28538,458:29930,478:35411,550:38280,559:38604,564:39171,572:41115,605:42492,628:42816,633:47433,704:48000,713:54507,768:55752,786:60898,880:61479,889:63969,923:64550,932:65131,940:65712,948:66459,964:69980,971:70380,977:70780,982:71180,987:78469,1107:80681,1153:82024,1179:82419,1185:86527,1246:91474,1252:95496,1285:96000,1294:98142,1333:101410,1366:103894,1425:106447,1507:107206,1529:107827,1541:109345,1568:110035,1579:110380,1586:110863,1594:111208,1600:112726,1627:119440,1687:120000,1695:120560,1703:120880,1708:121360,1715:121760,1721:122240,1728:122640,1735:123040,1741:123520,1748:124320,1761:124640,1766:126800,1806:127200,1812:127520,1817:128320,1828:131440,1866:132320,1877:141330,1947:142425,1963:147097,2031:151477,2109:158278,2163:158586,2168:159433,2180:159741,2185:160588,2199:160896,2204:161589,2216:163360,2253:167518,2324:168211,2339:168981,2353:169443,2360:172870,2368:173536,2383:177310,2471:180640,2529:180936,2534:183090,2539$0,0:1577,48:1992,54:2656,62:6723,193:14691,327:16268,349:23028,378:25880,415:26708,426:27536,436:29652,463:30204,470:32044,495:36680,534:37640,552:38520,563:39800,580:40440,589:41160,600:41560,606:43080,628:47410,704:48040,716:48460,723:50210,754:50560,760:50840,765:52030,784:52590,794:54410,821:54830,828:55110,833:56860,870:57140,875:60220,961:60500,966:60780,971:72041,1017:73529,1037:75575,1071:75947,1076:76319,1081:77063,1091:77993,1103:78458,1109:79016,1116:82190,1141:84070,1150:84415,1155:84967,1163:85312,1169:85726,1176:86209,1185:86761,1194:87313,1203:91935,1304:92349,1312:93798,1335:94281,1343:94833,1352:95316,1361:95592,1366:96972,1402:97593,1413:98076,1421:98559,1429:98835,1434:99594,1447:102290,1460
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Mildred Jefferson's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes the origin of her name

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her profession

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes the community of Carthage, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls being honored by her hometown of Pittsburg, Texas

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson remembers her mother's teaching career

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson talks about her mother

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson remembers her father's ministry

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls visiting her maternal family in East Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her early education

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson remembers her family physician, Dr. Allen Moore Baker

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson remembers her influences as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls her extracurricular activities in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls her early experiences of epidemics

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her premedical studies at Texas College

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls her transition to Boston, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her home in Boston's Roxbury neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls her graduate studies at Tufts College in Medford, Massachusetts

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls attending Boston's Harvard Medical School

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her studies at Boston's Harvard Medical School

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls her surgical internship at Boston City Hospital

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls the challenges she faced as a female surgical resident

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her career at Boston University Medical Center Hospital

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson talks about her medical association memberships

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson remembers Dr. William Augustus Hinton

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls founding the Value of Life Committee of Massachusetts

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls founding the National Right to Life Committee

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls her National Right to Life Committee presidency

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson talks about Feminists for Life of America

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson talks about Black Americans for Life

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her presentation style

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her role at Massachusetts Citizens for Life

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson talks about her media involvement

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes the right to life movement

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls her correspondence with President Ronald Reagan

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson remembers President Ronald Reagan's election in 1980

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls her campaign for the U.S. Senate

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson shares her perspective on care management

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson shares her perspective on affirmative action

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls receiving the Father Flanagan Award for Service to Youth

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls her involvement with the Knights of Columbus

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls being honored by Texas College in Tyler, Texas

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson shares her perspective on sex education

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson talks about the role of health education for youth

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her sources of moral and financial support

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her written works in progress

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her aspiration to own a newspaper business

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson reflects upon her childhood in East Texas, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson reflects upon her childhood in East Texas, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson reflects upon her life

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson talks about the importance of history

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her hopes for the African American community and how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$3

DAStory

1$8

DATitle
Dr. Mildred Jefferson describes her studies at Boston's Harvard Medical School
Dr. Mildred Jefferson recalls founding the National Right to Life Committee
Transcript
You were beginning to tell me about your preparation at Harvard Medical School [Boston, Massachusetts] to move into surgery. But before we get back to that, you mentioned earlier, the dog lab, and I wanted to--what was that about?$$Well (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Where did that fit into your studies and research?$$In the, the second year, when we were beginning our clinical studies, in order to prepare us for being able to assist in the operating room, we were given basic operating and surgical technique in a dog lab. And, although I'm just one step removed from being an antivivisectionist because I knew we took good care of the dogs. And I knew that the handlers, who took care of them after we finished, treated them well. I could accept doing our operations on the dogs. 'Cause after all you had to treat your patient well to have him or her survive. So, I could do that, but that was one benefit of being in Harvard Medical School. We did have a very, very good program. And, Dr. Carl Walter [Carl W. Walter], who headed that department and Dr. David Hume [David M. Hume], who was another one of my professors, who was only as resident at that, was the chief resident at that time, gave me the opportunity of putting in extra time. So, I had fairly advanced surgical technique by the time I even got to my internship.$$Well, tell me about that preparation then, the third and fourth years, and the surgical experiences (unclear) (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Well, I took every course that I thought would be of value and I certainly took everything that I thought would make up for what would be, expected to be shortcomings. So, that I did an elective in urology because most people would expect that a woman doctor would not be very strong in urology. Although, obviously women have urological problems as well. In most urological practice I think most urologists see more men than women in their practices. So that in medical school I not only did special work with--in urology, but I took the course with Dr. J. Hartwell Harrison, one of my favorites, who was one of the great urologists of his time. And, he said to me, to work helping him with sections of a book that he was working on. So, that if you look in that textbook, and I've forgotten which one it is, you will see in the charts and the diagrams. He always gave me credit for the things that I did. So, he'd make sure my name was listed (laughter). So, if we lo- go back to those old editions of that textbook, you will see that work.$Okay (simultaneous).$$(Simultaneous) Because we found after a year or so that the Value of Life Committee [Value of Life Committee of Massachusetts] was somewhat passive. You have to wait for people to invite you to speak. (Laughter) You can't just go speaking to them if they haven't invited you. And because it was really intense promotion and accelerated promotion of the abortion acceptance, we decided we'd better get something more formal. But, we were pushed because the pro-abortion groups got, in 1972, got a non-binding referendum on the ballots of twenty carefully selected cities and towns that would repeal the abortion laws of the Commonwealth [Commonwealth of Massachusetts]. So that many of the people that we had spoken to at other times came together in ad-hoc groups to fight that issue. And, we joined them together and that's--was the nucleus that became Massachusetts Citizens for Life [Boston, Massachusetts].$$I see.$$Although, we lost that referendum by 55/45. When we finally got our applications in and articles of incorporation, we got them back about ten days or two weeks before January 22nd, '73 [1973] when the U.S. Supreme Court handed down its landmark abortion decisions, Roe versus Wade [Roe v. Wade, 1973] and Doe versus Bolton [Doe v. Bolton, 1973]. But, in June of that year, we formally created National Right to Life Committee. And, I had the honor of giving the keynote address that launched the organization.

Harriet Michelle Michel

Harriet Michel was born Harriet Richardson in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on July 5, 1942, to John Robert and Vida Harmony Richardson. Attending A. Leo Weil School and McKinley Elementary School, Michel also studied in Norway as an American Field Service exchange student before graduating from Coraopolis High School in 1960. In 1965, Michel earned her B.A. degree in sociology and criminology from Juniata College in Huntington, Pennsylvania.

From 1965 to 1970, Michel was a program officer for the National Scholarship Service (NSSFNS). Joining the New York Foundation as its executive director in 1970, Michel became the first African American woman to head a major foundation. During President Jimmy Carter’s administration, Michel served as director of the Department of Labor’s Office of Community Youth Empowerment Programs/CETA. She established the Women Against Crime Foundation at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice in 1982 and served as president of the New York Urban League from 1983 to 1988. A resident fellow at Harvard University’s Institute of Politics in 1988, Michel later joined the National Minority Suppliers Development Council (NMSDC), eventually becoming its president and chief executive officer. At NMSDC, Michel encouraged African American businesses to compete with larger white businesses.

For her work, Michel has received many awards including the 2004 Enterprising Woman of the Year Award; the Executive Leadership Council’s Achievement Award; and the Legacy Award from the Department of Commerce’s Minority Business Development Agency. A member of three United States Agency for International Development missions to South Africa, Michel also served on the United States-Haiti Business Development Committee. She is a founding member of the Association of Black Foundation Executives.

Accession Number

A2005.059

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/7/2005 |and| 3/9/2005

3/7/2005

3/9/2005

Last Name

Michel

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Michelle

Schools

Coraopolis High School

A. Leo Weil School

McKinley Elementary School

Juniata College

Harvard Kennedy School

First Name

Harriet

Birth City, State, Country

Pittsburgh

HM ID

MIC01

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Haiti

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Interview Description
Birth Date

7/5/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Short Description

Foundation executive Harriet Michelle Michel (1942 - ) became the first African American woman to head a major foundation when she joined the New York Foundation. Michel was also appointed director of the Office of Community Youth Empowerment Programs/CETA for the United States Department of Labor, and served as president and CEO of the National Minority Suppliers Development Council.

Employment

National Scholarship Service for Negro Students (NSSFNS)

New York Foundation

U.S. Department of Labor

New York Urban League

Timing Pairs
0,0:757,16:1089,21:6567,157:8891,237:15081,298:16979,337:17271,342:17782,351:18877,374:19534,384:20337,400:20629,405:22965,443:23403,450:23695,455:23987,460:24279,465:24790,474:31350,535:31982,567:32298,572:33483,591:34273,605:37512,662:39013,686:39645,695:41778,731:42173,737:43516,766:45096,797:48794,820:49418,830:50276,849:62995,1031:63590,1039:64270,1049:66330,1055:67320,1070:69300,1109:69750,1115:71280,1155:72540,1171:73260,1185:75240,1218:79790,1265:85358,1373:85880,1380:86228,1389:86663,1395:87011,1400:89273,1435:91100,1465:94684,1501:94988,1506:99396,1615:103728,1720:104488,1733:106464,1779:107148,1790:107452,1795:108972,1822:111480,1867:112164,1878:112620,1892:113000,1904:113304,1909:117200,1920$0,0:2378,51:8364,167:16482,386:17712,407:18860,424:27258,554:27562,559:27866,564:30830,620:32578,670:33490,685:35010,717:36150,735:40290,752:40622,757:43942,814:45519,834:49740,862:51488,878:51868,884:52172,889:52932,899:53464,907:54832,932:55440,942:56048,951:57492,977:61824,1051:66360,1077:75075,1226:75573,1233:75988,1240:76901,1254:77233,1259:77980,1270:78312,1276:78644,1282:78976,1288:79308,1294:83276,1327:83612,1332:87249,1372:87541,1377:89731,1413:93381,1485:94184,1499:94622,1507:95206,1516:96374,1539:98272,1574:98856,1583:103980,1620:107125,1652:107594,1660:108130,1671:110743,1730:111011,1738:111346,1744:111815,1753:112284,1762:112619,1768:113155,1777:114093,1799:114495,1806:114964,1814:115299,1820:116438,1836:117577,1857:117845,1864:118381,1877:118716,1883:119520,1898:123370,1914:123602,1919:124298,1939:125750,1951:126125,1963:126575,1970:127925,2004:128300,2010:130325,2043:131225,2058:132125,2070:132725,2080:133175,2087:133850,2100:134300,2108:134600,2113:135275,2123:136700,2156:138500,2193:138875,2199:139400,2207:145844,2253:146428,2264:147085,2274:149275,2319:149567,2324:151027,2363:151976,2380:154093,2437:155407,2516:155772,2528:163437,2688:163802,2694:164094,2699:164605,2707:164897,2712:174068,2807:178388,2891:178892,2901:180620,2930:181556,2945:189586,3033:189834,3038:190082,3043:190330,3048:191012,3060:191322,3066:191880,3080:192686,3097:193740,3117:195630,3128
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Harriet Michelle Michel's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Harriet Michelle Michel lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Harriet Michelle Michel talks about her mother's side of the family, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes her maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Harriet Michelle Michel talks about her mother's side of the family, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Harriet Michelle Michel talks about her father's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes Richardson family reunions and Rural Retreat, Virginia

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes her father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Harriet Michelle Michel remembers relocating from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to Coraopolis, Pennsylvania

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes her earliest childhood memory and shares a story about her birth

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes her father's pranks

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes her father's involvement with the Candy Kids on Pittsburgh's KDKA Radio

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Harriet Michelle Michel considers the impact of her relatives' choice to pass as white

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes moving from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to Coraopolis, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Harriet Michelle Michel remembers the advent of television

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Harriet Michelle Michel reflects upon her educational experiences in Coraopolis, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Harriet Michelle Michel recalls her memorable teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Harriet Michelle Michel remembers her American Field Service experience in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Harriet Michelle Michel remembers traveling to Norway as part of the American Field Service's student exchange program

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes her experience living abroad in Norway

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Harriet Michelle Michel reflects upon Europe's progressiveness in the 1950s

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Harriet Michelle Michel remembers having formative discussions about race in Norway

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Harriet Michelle Michel reflects upon Norwegians' understandings of American racism in the 1950s

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes her return to Coraopolis High School

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Harriet Michelle Michel remembers being recruited to attend Juniata College

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes challenges of attending Juniata College

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes joining a jazz group at Pennsylvania State University

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes her friendship with Galway Kinnell at Juniata College

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes protesting in Montgomery, Alabama in 1965

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Harriet Michelle Michel recalls being photographed by Charles Moore when attacked by state troopers in Montgomery, Alabama

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes the aftermath of the civil rights demonstration in Montgomery, Alabama

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes her graduation from Juniata College in Huntingdon, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes her employment with the National Scholarship Service and Fund for Negro Students and the New York Foundation

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Harriet Michelle Michel remembers assassinations of political leaders during the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes the New York Foundation and her responsibilities for the John Lindsay mayoral administration

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes the heroin epidemic of the 1970s and founding the Association of Black Foundation Executives

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Harriet Michelle Michel remembers the formation of black organizations in the late 1960s and early 1970s

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes her appointment to President Carter's U.S. Department of Labor

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes her transition from the U.S. Department of Labor to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development in the 1980s

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes changes in government funding under the Reagan administration

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes being selected as first female president for New York Urban League

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Harriet Michelle Michel remembers leaving the New York Urban League

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Harriet Michelle Michel recalls her fellowship experiences at Harvard's John F. Kennedy School of Government

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes her appointment as president of the National Minority Supplier Development Council

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes the National Minority Supplier Development Council

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Harriet Michelle Michel explains the National Minority Supplier Development Council impact on minority businesses

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes the impact of supplier diversity programs for minority businesses and corporate America

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes National Minority Supplier Development Council's senior board management

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Harriet Michelle Michel shares a success story of a minority supplier

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes challenges businesses face to retain their minority status

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Harriet Michelle Michel narrates her photographs

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Harriet Michelle Michel explains HistoryMaker Earl G. Graves Sr.'s disagreement with the National Minority Suppliers Development Council

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes her leadership for the National Minority Suppliers Development Council

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Harriet Michelle Michel explains how her foresight affects her leadership

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes Robert L. Johnson's sale of BET to Viacom, Inc.

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Harriet Michelle Michel explains the economic challenges of keeping black owned businesses strictly independent

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes economic and social effects of the offshore industry, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes economic and social effects of the offshore industry, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 8 - Harriet Michelle Michel reflects upon her evolving worldview

Tape: 7 Story: 9 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes her role as a liaison between corporations and minority businesses

Tape: 7 Story: 10 - Harriet Michelle Michel reflects upon her identity as an African American female executive

Tape: 8 Story: 1 - Harriet Michelle Michel remembers the impact of 9/11, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 2 - Harriet Michelle Michel remembers the impact of 9/11, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 3 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 1

Tape: 8 Story: 4 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 2

Tape: 8 Story: 5 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 3

Tape: 8 Story: 6 - Harriet Michelle Michel talks about the opportunities for minority suppliers

Tape: 8 Story: 7 - Harriet Michelle Michel talks about the need for African Americans to regain a stronger sense of community

Tape: 8 Story: 8 - Harriet Michelle Michel reflects upon her life

Tape: 8 Story: 9 - Harriet Michelle Michel considers her future plans and goals

Tape: 8 Story: 10 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes her hope to assist in Haiti's economic development

Tape: 8 Story: 11 - Harriet Michelle Michel reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 8 Story: 12 - Harriet Michelle Michel talks about her family's response to her accomplishments and success

Tape: 8 Story: 13 - Harriet Michelle Michel describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$2

DATape

3$7

DAStory

3$9

DATitle
Harriet Michelle Michel remembers having formative discussions about race in Norway
Harriet Michelle Michel describes her role as a liaison between corporations and minority businesses
Transcript
Yeah, I know in this country, especially in those days, we were told that America is the freest country in the world, and all that--even with the racism and stuff (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Well--the transformational, and I, and I call this--I do a speech where I talk about transformational things happening in my life; it wasn't just going to Norway and living in a different culture. I--at that time, Orval Faubus was preventing the Little Rock Nine from going to school [Central High School, Little Rock, Arkansas], and the Russians [Citizens of the USSR] were broadcasting these very negative programs. The, the men of the village would come to the house where I lived--my father's house, my Norwegian father's house, every night to smoke and drink and discuss the day's--the world's events, and they would listen to both the 'Voice of America' [VOA], and whatever this Russian broadcast was, and the Russians, of course, were making a big deal out of this discrimination thing, right?--that was going on, and the men started asking me about race and how I felt about being black, and it was the first time in my life, at age sixteen, that I really began to talk to white people about what it meant to be black, and it changed my life 'cause I've done that since then in almost every job I've ever had. But that's where it started. I, I began thinking about things that had never even crossed my little mind before, and thinking about them in a very different way. And we used to have long discussions and I would listen to the broadcast--I would listen to the one from Russia. It was broadcast in English, by the way, and I'd listen to the 'Voice of America,' and to the extent that I knew anything, I would try to explain to them 'cause they were very curious wanting to know about America and the race situation and that sort of thing, so I began becoming a race woman, I think, with that experience.$What you've kinda revealed in this discussion is a level of understanding about the business world that I think few people really (laughter) entertain, but yet at the same time, you recognize a need for opposition to some of those two distinct (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) And I, and I understand also--I understand the, the pain and I, I talk about corporations mostly because the corporations are our members and they fund this organization [National Minority Supplier Development Council (NMSDC)], so it's certainly a big part of my job to try to keep them happy and give them what they come to this organization seeking. On the other hand, though, I have to be mindful of the issues that face these minority suppliers and the unreasonableness with which some of the, the corporate--corporations demand of them. For example, part of the new procurement paradigm now is doing what they call reverse auctions, where they get people on computer terminals and they have a commodity paper--it's probably not paper, but a commodity--something that people make, and you as a supplier hoping to get the business, you sit there and you bid by Internet--via Internet against other people, and the reverse auction means that it starts with a price and you just keep goin' down, down, down, down, down. Well, the big boys can do that because they're doing volume, and so if they make a few--fewer pennies per item, they can tolerate it because they're making it up in volume. A smaller business, and often a minority business, just doesn't have that latitude, and while some minority entrepreneurs have won these reverse auctions, it's a brutal, brutal playing field, and people are left bloody, you know. Some corporations do it just to bring down the price of their existing supplier; they're not really serious about giving the, the business to somebody else. They want to force their existing supplier, i.e., very often a large white company, to bring their prices down, but everybody's out here so price conscious now--corporations are, consumers are, that it's a rough and tumble world, and I have to keep reminding corporations, "Listen, you know, some of this stuff that you say is a level playing field ain't really level," you know? So I, I have to be sensitive about the suppliers' issues as well; I can't just look at, you know, through the lens of corporations. I have to really be able to see both sides. And when I do speeches, as a matter of fact, I spend time lashing at the corporations, and I spend other time talking to the MBEs [minority business enterprises] saying, "Listen, if you want to stay in this game, these are the things you better do." And everybody walks away feeling good because I basically (laughter)--not chastised, it's probably too strong a word, but I've given direction and I've criticized and--but I've encouraged both sides of the equation. This is a partnership between minority businesses and corporations, and we are the glue that brings the stuff initially together, and I wanna make sure that everybody's doing things in the right way so the relationship can be successful.

Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr.

Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr., sales executive and Olympic medalist, was born March 9, 1922 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. His father owned an automobile repair shop and was reported in Ebony magazine as the first blind African American to use a seeing eye dog. Douglas attended Gladstone Elementary School and Gladstone Junior High School. As a teenager, he idolized Jesse Owens’ performance in the 1936 Olympics. He was playing football and running track when he graduated from Allderdice High School. Attending the University of Pittsburgh, Douglas won three collegiate titles in the long jump. He earned his B.S. degree from the University of Pittsburgh in 1948. That same year, Douglas won the Bronze Medal for a 24 foot 8.75 inch long jump in the London Summer Olympics. Returning to the University of Pittsburgh, Douglas completed his M.Ed. degree in 1950.

Douglas worked as night manager for his father’s auto business until the Pabst Brewing Company hired him in 1950. At Pabst, he rose from sales representative to southern district manager. Douglas served as Pabst’s national special markets manager from 1965 to 1968. From 1977 to 1980, he worked as vice president of urban market development for Schieffelin and Somerset Co., where he helped popularize Hennessy Congac X.O, V.S.O.P, V.S and other brands in the African American community. Douglas has worked as an urban marketing consultant since 1987.

In 1980, Douglas founded the International Amateur Athletic Association, Inc. (IAAA), of which he is president. He has also served on the board of directors of the Jesse Owens Foundation and the University of Pittsburgh. Douglas, a member of the NAACP and Urban League, was inducted into the Pennsylvania Sports Hall of Fame in 1992. Semi-retired, he lives with his wife in Philadelphia. He was selected by Ebony magazine as one of the 100 Most Successful Black Men.

Accession Number

A2005.039

Sex

Male

Interview Date

2/7/2005

Last Name

Douglas

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Paul

Schools

Taylor Allderdice High School

Gladstone Elementary School

Gladstone Middle School

University of Pittsburgh

Xavier University of Louisiana

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Herbert

Birth City, State, Country

Pittsburgh

HM ID

DOU03

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Florida

Favorite Quote

Well, The Deal Is. . .

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Pennsylvania

Interview Description
Birth Date

3/9/1922

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Philadelphia

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Ham, Spinach, Macaroni, Eggs, Milk, Italian Bread

Short Description

Marketing consultant and track and field athlete Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. (1922 - ) was the former national special markets manager for Pabst Brewing Company and also worked as vice president of urban market development for Schieffelin and Somerset Co., where he helped popularize Hennessy cognac in the African American community.

Employment

Douglas Garage

Pabst Brewing Co.

Schieffelin and Somerset Co.

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:1764,62:4200,108:14280,324:25426,495:27701,524:29521,547:31523,580:32251,591:33980,611:35982,642:44580,684:44990,690:80466,1199:91180,1396:95950,1468:124268,1872:124700,1879:125132,1886:133085,1960:159552,2347:205150,2929:224810,3194:235391,3282:241610,3340$0,0:8230,251:9385,268:15747,329:16791,342:39674,641:44017,706:44825,721:54365,845:60254,894:68375,983:73860,1043:76335,1067:77160,1082:78960,1122:79560,1130:80160,1139:91486,1298:99088,1364:99880,1380:104905,1433:115775,1583:117238,1623:117546,1628:120241,1670:133584,1902:135520,1929:135960,1948:136928,1963:137720,1974:139744,2000:159842,2257:165582,2364:179460,2517:181647,2555:182619,2572:183348,2582:195521,2702:195947,2802:210968,2905:211348,2911:211880,2917:214540,2972:215908,2998:258140,3648
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. talks about his mother's upbringing in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. talks about how his father lost his sight

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. recalls his family home during childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. recalls his childhood community in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. talks about his grade school experiences in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. recalls how Jesse Owens and Ralph Metcalfe inspired him in his early track career

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. talks about his athletic achievements during his college years

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. talks about returning home to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania during the early 1940s

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. recalls qualifying for the 1948 Summer Olympics in London, England

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. shares his memories from the 1948 Summer Olympics in London, England

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. talks about African Americans in athletics during the 1940s

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. talks about looking for work after graduating from the University of Pittsburgh in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1949

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. talks about some of the celebrities he met through working at Pabst Brewing Company

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. talks about his experiences working as a salesman for Pabst Brewing Company in the southeastern United States

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. reflects on the difficulties that African Americans face in the film and television business

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. talks about his work for Schieffelin and Somerset Co.

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. talks about the struggle of black athletes to obtain equal pay and renown throughout the 20th century

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. talks about the increasing commercialization of professional sports

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. recalls how he marketed particular brands of alcohol to the African American community

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. talks about community backlash against alcohol advertisements

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. talks about the bid of New York, New York for the 2012 Summer Olympics

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. talks about how his networking skills led to his success in the liquor industry

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. reflects upon the historical factors that influence purchasing preferences in the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. talks about his plans for the future

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. talks about the history of the Jesse Owens International Trophy Award

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. talks about his philanthropic work, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. talks about his philanthropic work, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. reflects upon his life

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. talks about his idols in the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. narrates his photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. narrates his photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$3

DAStory

6$2

DATitle
Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. shares his memories from the 1948 Summer Olympics in London, England
Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr. talks about his experiences working as a salesman for Pabst Brewing Company in the southeastern United States
Transcript
Tell me about going to London [England] for the [1948 Summer] Olympics, now this is, this is--was this your first trip out of the United States (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Yep, yep that was--for me it was. It wasn't for many of the athletes, like Harrison Dillard and [Mal] Whitfield, who were very renowned, prominent athletes on their team, they'd been in the Second World War [World War II, WWII], I wasn't primarily because of my dad [Herbert Douglas, Sr.] being sightless and I had to work for his business. But, that was my desire, to make the boat and go to Europe. That was a part of the reward, just to make it to Europe. And that I did and I remember seeing Ireland, first country I saw as we got to--as we saw land going over, and the land was just as green, I'd never seen anything green like that before, but that's because it's an island sitting out there in the middle of the water. And it was very beautiful, that was an experience, it was a dual experience for me.$$Okay, were there many black Londoners around in those days?$$Yeah, McDonald Bailey was a hundred [meter dash] man, yeah, but he was--they were very limited, I think he was the only one on that team. I don't recall any others. The name was McDonald Bailey--yeah, now I'm thinking the guy from--but anyhow, they had one sprinter and he placed fifth [sic. sixth] in the hundred.$$Okay, now can you tell us what you were thinking, I mean did you--do you think in retrospect, you know, now you won a bronze medal which is pretty good in an Olympics (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) For the world.$$--'cause a lot of people don't win anything, you know--$$Oh, listen, that was the icing, as I was saying before, the most important thing was to make the Olympic team, because that was an experience within itself. The icing came when you won a medal, and if you ever won a medal, then you'll always have pictures standing up on the podium. You'll always be listed. So no, that was the epitome and--no I wasn't satisfied then, but as I look back on it now I'm satisfied--$$Had you jumped further in the past (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Oh yeah--$$--than you did that day?$$--yeah, yeah, I jumped as far as he jumped at the time, but, you know, that's just like (laughter) you know, some are ready and some aren't. And--but I never thought that any three people could beat me in the world. You, you have to be that positive, you have to be focused and you have to vision. Anything you do you have to vision and focus, and if you can vision, well it usually comes through. I've found it true in the corporate community and the humanitarian community, to give back and what have you, vision. And I think I got that from my family, my mother [Ilessa France Douglas] and father they were positive then, because my dad went blind they didn't quit.$$Okay, so are there any outstanding interactions or any good stories from the Olympics in London in--from 1948?$$Well, well we all, as I said, rooted for one another and we all won medals. All but one, and he pulled a muscle, he placed fourth and that was Dave Bolden [sic. Lorenzo Wright]. But that's the gratifying thing, you know, we represented our country and we did our, our share.$$Okay.$$And proportionally, disproportionally we won more than we should have had won, you know how that goes--$You got your chance, you got a break too, and what (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) That's how it started.$$--how did they [Pabst Brewing Company]--what position did they hire you for?$$Well, they hired me to (clears throat) basically go out and make contact with the retailers in--that sold the beer. And then I worked all the southeastern states, and that's because I went to Xavier [University of Louisiana, New Orleans, Louisiana] and I knew I had contacts through that area. And the interesting thing, I remember going into Jackson, Mississippi and the distributor there said, "Herb [HistoryMaker Herbert Paul Douglas, Jr.], I have a striker." Now a striker was a guy who carried the beer into the store, and the salesperson he didn't do anything but write up the order. And this gentleman said, "You know Herb," I remember his name was Franklin [ph.], he says, "Herb, Willie is a good young fella and I'm gonna hire him to be a salesperson--a driver salesman." And he did, this is in Jackson, Mississippi, back in the '50s [1950s]. This young guy went out there, and you know who helped me take him through the African American community was Edgar--Medgar Evers. He took him to every--see that's when--before desegregation and blacks owned their own stores, their own hotels, their own restaurants all through the South. And I put on African American salespeople all through the South before I could do it in Wasing- in Baltimore [Maryland] and places like that, even Pittsburgh [Pennsylvania] where I worked, where I was born.$$So this is--when Medgar Evers helped was that in--$$He took me to the owners and they would say, you know, he'd say, "Look, put this Pabst in here." And it's a wonder we didn't run into repercussions because Falstaff [Brewing Corporation] other--you know, they had white salesman, they could have, you know, pressured them, but they fell in line, and put our product in, like West Palm Beach [Florida], I remember going there with four white sales reps and myself and as I got around to being introduced and he had met the white reps, this bottler and this distributor of ours, he wouldn't shake my hand. Now, during those days it didn't bother me, 'cause I knew I was as good as any white (laughter), you didn't have to tell me, so he didn't wanna shake my hand, I didn't wanna shake his. And I would report--and then every day that I'd go out and I'd work the black community, I'd come in with the most sales. And then I'd prove to him that he should put on an African American salesperson and he did. The only one that he requested back was me, of the five of us who went down there. Now that was 1950.$$Well, that seems to speak to the importance of making money and (laughter)--$$Bottom line, that's right, yep. You do something where you can make money you're there.$$That's the deal I guess.$$Yeah, that's it, and more so today.$$Okay.$$Yeah.$$I've often heard people that worked in the Civil Rights Movement in the South say that in the big cities especially and along the Gulf Coast a lot of the merchants really didn't care--I mean, they--segregation was a custom but it interfered with their business, and they could see beyond what their business could be if they could only get segregation out of the way, so a lot of them really didn't want it but they seemed compelled to do it.$$Oh yeah, because of the law, there was a law you couldn't just go into those places. Now as I go to Atlanta [Georgia] I was there, I worked there from '50 [1950] to '60 [1960], as I go to Atlanta now, this is unbelievable that's one of the best places for young people like yourself to start a business.

Derrick A. Bell, Jr.

Derrick Albert Bell, Jr., was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on November 6, 1930. Bell was offered a scholarship to Lincoln University but was unable to attend because he did not receive enough financial aid. Becoming the first member of his family to go to college, Bell chose to attend Duquesne University, earning his A.B. in 1952.

While attending Duquesne University, Bell joined the ROTC, and following his graduation, went to Korea as part of the U.S. Air Force. Returning from the war in 1954, Bell attended the University of Pittsburgh Law School, earning an L.L.B. in 1957. Bell was hired by the U.S. Justice Department after graduation, but left in 1959 over his refusal to terminate his involvement with the NAACP; subsequently, Thurgood Marshall recruited him to join the NAACP Legal Defense Fund where he oversaw three hundred school desegregation cases. In 1966, Bell was named deputy director of civil rights at the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, before becoming a teacher at USC law school and director of USC's Western Center on Law and Poverty in 1968.

In 1971, Bell became the first African American to become a tenured professor at Harvard Law School; there he established a course in civil rights law and wrote Race, Racism and American Law, which today is a standard textbook in law schools around the country. Leaving Harvard, Bell became the first African American dean of the University of Oregon Law School, and in 1985, he resigned in protest after the university directed him not to hire an Asian American candidate for a faculty position. Returning to Harvard Law School, Bell would again resign in protest in 1992 over the school’s failure to hire and offer tenure to minority women.

In addition to his work in the classroom, Bell was an acclaimed author, having written numerous books, most notably his series featuring fictional civil rights leader Geneva Crenshaw, including And We Are Not Saved and Faces at the Bottom of the Well. In 2002, Bell wrote Ethical Ambition: Living a Life of Meaning and Worth, which contained his thoughts on achieving success while maintaining integrity. Most recently, Bell authored Silent Covenants: Brown v. Board of Education and the Unfulfilled Hopes for Racial Reform. Bell had been the recipient of numerous honors and awards; his later work included serving as a visiting professor of law at the New York University School of Law.

Derrick Bell passed away on October 5, 2011 at age 80.

Accession Number

A2004.242

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/1/2004

Last Name

Bell

Maker Category
Middle Name

A.

Organizations
Schools

Schenley High School

Duquesne University

University of Pittsburgh

First Name

Derrick

Birth City, State, Country

Pittsburgh

HM ID

BEL03

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Woodstock, New York

Favorite Quote

My Goodness.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Interview Description
Birth Date

11/16/1930

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Oats

Death Date

10/5/2011

Short Description

Law professor and civil rights lawyer Derrick A. Bell, Jr. (1930 - 2011 ) was recruited by Thurgood Marshall to join the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, where he oversaw three hundred school desegregation cases; he was later named Deputy Director of Civil Rights at the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Bell later became the first African American to serve as a tenured professor at Harvard Law School, and, the first African American dean of the University of Oregon Law School.

Employment

U.S. Air Force

Department of Justice; Civil Rights Division

NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund

Department of Health, Education and Welfare

Harvard Law School

University of Oregon Law School

New York University Law School

University of Southern California

Favorite Color

Fall Colors

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Derrick A. Bell, Jr.'s interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. remembers his maternal uncles

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes his parents' elopement in 1930

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes his father's successful career and business

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes the sights and sounds of growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. recalls his personality and interests as a young boy

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes his experience in elementary and middle school

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes his experience at Camp James Weldon Johnson

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. reflects upon his role models as a young boy

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. reflects upon the need for work ethics and role models

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes his experience at Schenley High School

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes his social life in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. reflects upon his philosophy for disciplining children

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. remembers attending Grace Memorial Presbyterian Church

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes his first wife's career aspirations

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. recalls attending Pittsburgh's Duquesne University

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. recalls his deployment to the Korean War

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes marrying his first wife, Jewel Hairston Bell

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes his marriage to Jewel Hairston Bell

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. recalls being in the Civil Air Patrol in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes his experience on U.S. Air Force bases in the South

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. recalls his service in the Korean War

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. recalls his wife, Jewel Hairston Bell's insight

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes his initial interest in civil rights law

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes being an officer of the guard in Korea

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. recalls law school and his job prospects thereafter

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. recalls resigning from the U.S. Department of Justice

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. recalls being recruited to the NAACP Legal Defense Fund by Thurgood Marshall

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes the defense team for the Greensboro sit-ins

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. recalls school desegregation in Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes his colleagues at the NAACP Legal Defense Fund

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. reflects upon the desegregation of schools in the South

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. recalls Medgar Evers' murder in Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. reflects upon the consequences of school integration

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. considers alternatives to school integration

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. reflects upon the political psychology behind civil rights policy, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. reflects upon the political psychology behind civil rights policy, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. recalls incidents from school desegregation in the South

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. reflects upon the challenges facing the black community

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. reflects upon the 2004 presidential election

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. recalls his decision to teach at Harvard Law School

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes earning tenure at Harvard Law School

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. talks about his books

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes the Hayes-Tilden Compromise

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes his book's adaptation into a TV series

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes his characters in 'Faces at the Bottom of the Well' and 'Gospel Choirs'

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes his move to the University of Oregon School of Law

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes his deanship at the University of Oregon

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. recalls his wife's battle with breast cancer

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. recalls teaching civil rights at Harvard Law School

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes his experience at New York University School of Law

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes HistoryMaker Lani Guinier

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. reflects upon African American Republican leadership

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. reflects upon his life and career

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes his parents' reaction to his career

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 7 - Derrick A. Bell, Jr. describes how he would like to be remembered

Dr. Judith M. Davenport

Dentist Judith Marylyn Davenport was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on August 10, 1939. After graduating from Taylor-Allderdice High School, Davenport attended Penn State University, earning her B.S. degree in 1961. Davenport continued her education several years later, earning a master’s of public health in 1973 and then a doctorate of dental medicine degree in 1979, both from the University of Pittsburgh.

While earning her M.P.H, Davenport focused on low-income dental programs, and this furthered her desire to become a dentist. After completing her D.M.D., Davenport opened her own private practice in 1982, where she continued to practice until she retired in 2000. As a dentist, Davenport was featured in Fred Rogers’ Going to the Dentist, as well as the video Women in Dentistry. In addition, she and her husband, Ronald Davenport, Sr., founded the Sheridan Broadcasting Corporation in 1973. Starting with four radio stations, now the corporation’s holdings include the American Urban Radio Network, with 400 affiliates around the country.

Since her retirement from dentistry, Davenport has remained active on a number of committees in the community. She serves as a trustee of the Alvin Ailey Dance Theater, the Andy Warhol Museum, the Pittsburgh Center for the Arts and the Pittsburgh Public Theater, among others. She is also the chair of the board of directors for Carlow College and is on the Washington Regional Selection Panel for the President’s Commission on White House Fellowships. Some of her many awards include the Distinguished Daughter of Pennsylvania Award and the Distinguished Alumna Award from Pennsylvania State University.

Accession Number

A2004.136

Sex

Female

Interview Date

8/20/2004

Last Name

Davenport

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Marylyn

Occupation
Schools

Taylor Allderdice High School

Pennsylvania State University

Burgwin Elementary School

Gladstone Middle School

University Of Pittsburgh Graduate School Of Public Health

University Of Pittsburgh School Of Dental Medicine

First Name

Judith

Birth City, State, Country

Pittsburgh

HM ID

DAV15

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, Nassau, Bahamas

Favorite Quote

Never Say Never.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Pennsylvania

Interview Description
Birth Date

8/10/1939

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Pittsburgh

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Chicken

Short Description

Dentist Dr. Judith M. Davenport (1939 - ) co-founded the Sheridan Broadcasting Corporation, which began with four radio stations, and has expanded to include the American Urban Radio Network, with 400 affiliates around the country.

Employment

Sheridan Broadcasting Corporation

Judith M. Davenport DMD.

Favorite Color

Green, Orange

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Judith M. Davenport's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport talks about her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport talks about her maternal family's interaction with the Daughters of the American Revolution

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport describes her mother's immediate family

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport describes her maternal grandfather's conflict in the A.M.E. Zion church

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport describes her maternal grandfather's activism

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport lists her mother's various childhood homes

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport describes her maternal grandmother losing her savings during the Stock Market Crash of 1929

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport talks about her mother's catering career

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport talks about her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport talks about her father

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport talks about her maternal grandfather's education

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport describes how her parents met and married in Akron, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport talks about her father's work at U.S. Steel in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport recalls her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport describes growing up in the Glen Hazel Heights housing project in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport describes her childhood personality

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport talks about her childhood role models

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport describes her maternal grandmother's disapproval of historically black colleges and universities in the South

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport talks about the loss of her maternal grandmother's family history

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport describes attending Burgwin Elementary School in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport talks about visiting the library as a child and the music her family listened to

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport talks about going to church and listening to the radio

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport describes her mother losing a radio broadcasting job to disc jockey, Mary Dee and the creation of Loftin Party Service

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport describes attending Gladstone Middle School in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport describes her childhood activities

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport talks about Taylor Allderdice High School in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport talks about her relationship with her Jewish classmates at Taylor Allderdice High School in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport describes the prejudice she faced from administrators at Taylor Allderdice High School in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport talks about Pennsylvania State University in University Park, Pennsylvania and the freedom there

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport talks about her fellow students at Pennsylvania State University in University Park, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport talks about a Ph.D. student she worked with at Pennsylvania State University in University Park, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport describes meeting her husband, HistoryMaker Ronald Davenport, and settling in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania with him

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport describes going to the University Of Pittsburgh Graduate School Of Public Health in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport talks about being accepted into the University Of Pittsburgh School Of Dental Medicine in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport describes a sexist incident in her admission process to the University Of Pittsburgh School Of Dental Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport describes the University Of Pittsburgh School Of Dental Medicine in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and her study group

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport remembers the sexism and racism at the University Of Pittsburgh School Of Dental Medicine in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport describes her mentor at the University Of Pittsburgh School Of Dental Medicine in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport talks about the dental practices in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania that she worked in

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport reflects upon her career in dentistry

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport talks about the medical advances in dentistry and dentures

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport talks about the availability of affordable dentistry and the challenges facing new dentists

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport describes common dental issues among African Americans

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport talks about her affiliation with dental associations

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport explains her decision to pursue dentistry rather than medicine or a career in broadcasting

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport talks about founding Sheridan Broadcasting Corporation with HistoryMaker Ronald Davenport in 1972, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport talks about founding Sheridan Broadcasting Corporation with HistoryMaker Ronald Davenport in 1972, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport talks about her organizational affiliations and activities

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport reflects upon her life

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport describes her concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport talks about her father's interest in dentistry

Tape: 5 Story: 13 - Dr. Judith M. Davenport describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

3$6

DATitle
Dr. Judith M. Davenport talks about being accepted into the University Of Pittsburgh School Of Dental Medicine in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Dr. Judith M. Davenport talks about founding Sheridan Broadcasting Corporation with HistoryMaker Ronald Davenport in 1972, pt. 1
Transcript
So I had to do a thesis and I did my thesis on a dental health program in--at the--at Allegheny General Hospital [Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania] which was a program in which kids got dental treatment if their parents signed a form but the parents didn't have to be there. Most of the reason--one of the main reasons children do not seek--I mean children don't have proper dental care is because the parents are responsible for seeing to it that they get to the dentist. So this was a way--this program was a way of taking the responsibility of getting the child to the office away from the parent by them signing a note. And the school was involved. There was a bus that would go to the school on certain days, these kids would come in, and they were brought into our clinic. So this program really fascinated me. I just--it was wonderful. It was a great program and I saw these kids getting all kinds of dental care and, you know, I was--and I'd always had dental problems of my own. So I said to one of the doctors in the program, I said, "Dr. [Harold] Binstock, you know, I--you know, I think I'm really just a frustrated dentist. I really should've gone to dental school." So he said, "Judy, it's not too late." So I said, "What do you mean?" So he said, "What did you major in? What's your grade"--so I told him, I said, " I was in medical technology but it was--you know, I said I had all--every chemistry course they offered, I had physics, I had math," I said--he said, "Why don't you apply to dental school?" So I said, "Do you really think so?" So he said, "Yeah." So I applied. I got the application and I just, stupidly, I just went and sat in at the--took the DAT, the Dental Aptitude Test, and I did poorly on the aptitude test. Well, I was furious with myself. So I said, get your brain together, get the book. There is a book on the Dental Aptitudes. Everybody studies for the Med CATs [Medical College Admission Test (MCAT)]. I remember kids studying for the Med CATs when I was in college [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania]. Get the book, do the homework, take the test--retake the test. So I did that and I did very well on the test, so I took my application, et cetera, up to Pitt [University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania], and they said, "Well, you know, you look like a strong student, but, you know, we're not--why don't you take organic chemistry in the summer?" Well, organic chemistry I had already had, and I said, "I already had organic." They said, "Yeah, but, you know, maybe it was--it's old." Organic is never old, but anyway, so they made me--they suggested that I take this organic chemistry course, which was four weeks, four hours a day, and I took the course and I did very well in the course. They didn't make me take the lab, but I took the course. And I took my grade in to the dean of admissions and he said, "You got a B in organic chemistry in the four-week summer program? Most kids fail." I said, "Yes." He said, "You're in."$Now what station did you buy and how did you come into that (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) We bought four radio stations. In 1972, we bought WAMO [WAMO Radio, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania], WILD [WILD Radio] in Boston [Massachusetts], WAMO--AMF [ph.] in Pittsburgh [Pennsylvania], WILD in Boston, and WUFO [WUFO Radio] in Buffalo [New York].$$Now what gave you the idea to buy radio stations or did you come into--$$Well, Ron [HistoryMaker Ronald Davenport] and I were talking and we would always talk about ways in which we could, you know, have an independent source of income, and we thought about banks, banking, and we thought about newspapers. And Ron is a very--he's a big reader of biographies, and he had noted that many people had made their, gotten start in, in radio, and one of them was [President] Lyndon Baines Johnson. So we were looking and he said, you know, black radio, radio is an interesting thing. We didn't care if it was black, white, green or indifferent. But we figured if we were into black radio, whatever we were in, we, we wanted something that did not make us dependent on white folks for an income. So this opportunity--Ron had a student who was researching the opportunities for--in broadcasting, banking, and newspapers. Because John [H.] Sengsacke was a friend; we knew the [Pittsburgh] Courier [New Pittsburgh Courier] people. So anyway, it turned out that these four radio stations were available, and we started getting excited about it, you know. I said--I said, "Ron, that's the old station that they rejected mom from, you know (laughter) that?" So he said, "Yes." So we--you know, we put together--there were about four of us, Maggie [ph.], Art [ph.], Reagan [ph.]--there were four of us. We put together a group and the bank--we put some money in, but the bank lent us the money to buy these radio stations. And Ron had--Ron was very active in our community and he had made some very good friends, and one of them was a banker and--Johnny Myer [ph.], vouched for us to get this loan. He was president of Mellon Bank [Mellon Financial Corporation; BNY Mellon, New York, New York], and that's how we got the loan. But we--you know, we hired the staff, and we thought, oh, this will be ideal, we'll just live off this income. But, you know, (laughter) it doesn't work that way often--very often.

Edward Parker

Master artist, educator, and entrepreneur, Edward Everett Parker, was born in Pittsburgh's Hill District on Bentley Drive on February 7, 1941, to Augustine Washington and David Nathaniel Parker. When Parker was in elementary school, his parents moved Edward and his brother David to Toledo, Ohio, where he studied at the Toledo Museum of Art. Parker attended Lincoln Elementary School and graduated from Scott High School; he earned his bachelor's degree in art from Central State University in Wilberforce, Ohio, and his master's degree in Art Education, with an emphasis in sculpting, from Ohio's Kent State University. Parker also completed additional graduate level work at the University of Illinois and in Ife, in West Africa.

Parker taught art education in the Cleveland Public Schools, where he served as the head of the art department at Audubon Jr. High for a number of years. Parker later attained the position of professor and arts coordinator at the Western Campus of Cuyahoga Community College where he taught for nearly twenty years. Parker founded and acted as the director of the Snickerfritz Cultural Workshop for the Arts, Inc., located in the Edward E. Parker Creative Arts Complex in East Cleveland, Ohio. The complex, which also includes gallery and classroom space, meeting rooms, and a number of small businesses, is housed in a converted nursing home that sat vacant and dilapidated for seventeen years before Parker purchased and rehabilitated the facility.

Parker's artistic achievements include numerous one-man and group shows in Ohio and other states, and commissions from Cleveland's Cuyahoga Community College and Florida Memorial College. Parker's vision as an artist has long been informed by African American history and culture; his better known works include a life-sized sculpture of the Chicken George character from Alex Haley's Roots and a celebrated series of African American clown sculptures and prints. After the 2008 election of Barack Obama as the forty-forth President of the United States, Parker sculpted Obama's likeness and displayed the bust in his Snickerfritz Art Gallery. In addition to his work in the arts, Parker also served on the Board of Trustees for the East Cleveland Library.

Accession Number

A2004.073

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/14/2004

Last Name

Parker

Maker Category
Organizations
Schools

Scott High School

Lincoln Elementary School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Edward

Birth City, State, Country

Pittsburgh

HM ID

PAR03

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Africa

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Ohio

Interview Description
Birth Date

2/7/1941

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Cleveland

Country

USA

Favorite Food

Greens

Short Description

Art professor, cultural heritage chief executive, and sculptor Edward Parker (1941 - ) has taught at the Western Campus of Cuyahoga Community College for nearly twenty years. Parker is the founder and director of the Snickerfritz Cultural Workshop for the Arts, Inc., located in East Cleveland. His artistic achievements include numerous one-man and group shows in Ohio and other states.

Employment

Audobon Junior High School

Cuyahoga Community College

Snickerfritz Cultural Workshop for the Arts

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Edward Parker's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Edward Parker lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Edward Parker talks about his family history

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Edward Parker describes his childhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Edward Parker describes his childhood activities

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Edward Parker talks about growing up in a Pittsburgh housing project

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Edward Parker talks about moving from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to Toledo, Ohio as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Edward Parker describes his childhood education in Toledo, Ohio

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Edward Parker describes his childhood speech impediment

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Edward Parker talks about his education

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Edward Parker talks about studying art in Nigeria

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Edward Parker describes the beginning of his teaching career

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Edward Parker talks about his early success as an art teacher

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Edward Parker talks about his art career

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Edward Parker talks about his family life

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Edward Parker describes how he came to teach at Cuyahoga Community College in Cleveland, Ohio

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Edward Parker describes his clown series

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Edward Parker describes his creative process as an artist

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Edward Parker describes his art series on clowns and Malcolm X

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Edward Parker talks about his art shows

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Edward Parker describes his artistic vision

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Edward Parker describes the benefit of owning his own gallery and studio space as an artist

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Edward Parker talks about his commissioned works and representing his own art

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Edward Parker describes his life philosophy and legacy

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Edward Parker talks about African American influences on his art

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Edward Parker talks about the state of black art

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Edward Parker talks about the losses he experienced in a fire

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Edward Parker concludes his interview

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Edward Parker narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$2

DAStory

9$2

DATitle
Edward Parker describes his childhood speech impediment
Edward Parker describes the beginning of his teaching career
Transcript
It was just something that I could--I remember my first studio was behind my parents' [Augustine Washington Parker and David Parker] furnace. And during those days, the furnace, you had to feed coal, put coal in the furnaces. The furnace had to stay--be--kind of be away from the wall so I created my studio space behind the furnace, and it was a good, a good way of getting away from things because you know I said I had that speech impediment. So I could just go down there and hide for hours and just create, draw and paint, sculpting didn't come until later.$$What was the, the speech impediment like? Was it stuttering?$$Stuttering, profuse stutterer.$$But you overcame that.$$Yes. You can come over--you can overcome a lot of things.$$How long did that take?$$How long did it take? That's why I have very little patience with people that say they have handicaps, you know. Because you can overcome anything if you believe in it and trust in yourself and the Lord, you know, you can overcome anything. How long did it take? From, from kindergar--from whenever I started speaking until I was maybe a junior in college. A long time to have people poke fun at you and laugh at you, your peers are the worse people, right. Yes, but when I got to college I had a teacher who kind of worked with me. And I always felt--when I--you know since I've gotten older and done research on stuttering, you know, I think that the reason why people stutter is because they think faster than their speech pattern. So one thing one has to do is learn how to slow down and think twice before you act once.$All right so once your formal education is complete, you have a chance to apply the knowledge that you've acquired. The sculpting and the three R's. So can you tell me about your experiences as an educator now you've learned from all these other great teachers? Where are you when you begin to teach other students?$$I, you know I think teaching is, is, is so important. Number one thing in terms of importance. I mean the, the teacher because things that you say could impact the student for the rest of their lives. I mean when I was a stutterer (unclear), I had one teacher tell me and, and you remember Weekly Readers, that kind of thing? I think we did that in social studies, I don't think it was in English. And I had a teacher tell me anyway sit down 'cause you can't read no way. I was trying to collect my energies and thoughts. I had difficulties with words, you know like took a lot of wind like W's and D's, like do you want or what are you saying, those kind of things. And this woman told me to sit down 'cause I couldn't read anyway. And those the kind of things that for me that made me stronger; to fight harder, or to go out and beat up somebody, you know what I mean? Payback so to speak. But education is so important. And when I started teaching, my first teaching job was teaching the non-educable, the people that were not supposed to be able to learn, people who couldn't talk. And I'm here to tell you out of my 12 students, all of them learned their ABC's, even the ones couldn't talk. When I say who wants to say their ABC's? They would stay up and run--stand up and grunted, you know, 'cause they were so into. I taught 'em how to count by shooting dice or crap as it were. Because I bet you didn't know that if you throw some dice out and it has seven, what would be on the bottom side? So if you have a one on the top side, what's on the bottom side? Those are the kind of things I taught them through counting. So if you have a one on the top side, you have a six on the bottom side. If you have a two, you have a five. It all adds up to seven. So that's how I got them to count.$$Okay, and is this in Cleveland [Ohio]?$$This is in Toledo [Ohio].$$In Toledo.$$At, Larklane or Heffner. I was a teacher at Heffner school for retarded kids. And did that for a year and, and incidentally you know the, the whole thing is kind of backwards. I remember applying for a job in Toledo teaching in the Toledo public schools. And the man that were interviewing me, said we'll hire you if you cut off your beard and mustache. And for the life of me I couldn't understand that. So I had to, you know, being, being a hot--I was a hot rebel, so to speak, I said if you--if I cut off my moustache, it be like taking the Negro National Anthem away from me. You know so I lost that job 'cause I refused to cut off my beard and moustache. And start teaching retarded kids, which enabled me to have more patience anyway. So when I started teaching. But I did that for a year, teach at--taught at Heffner school for retarded kids, which is a great experience because like I said, it taught me a lot of patience and when I started at regular school situation, had all the patience of Job. So whatever they did, it was all right. But one thing I always remember doing in my early teaching career was getting my rest. Because I said I have to be rested to go into--my first teaching job in Cleveland was at Audobon Junior High. To go into Audobon and to teach these kids you had to be rested because any time you're teaching 30, 35 kids--overcrowded, you know way overcrowded, you, you got all these different personalities and all these different kind of issues. So the best I could do was to be well rested. And in fact my student and I had such a great rapport, is that I would tell them don't bring no nonsense in here 'cause if you come in here tired, I would rather you lay your head down and go to sleep. 'Cause if I come in here tired, I wanna be able to do the same thing and I want class to go on as normal, and it did. 'Cause I would do it on purpose sometime, go in there and just lay my head down. And somebody would take over the class, we just have a beautiful time.$$Now this is in the 1960s by the time you're teaching in Cleveland?$$No, this was in-- I graduated, when did I graduate, '65 (1965). This was '66 (1966), '67 (1967).$$Okay.$$(OFF CAMERA DISCUSSION)$$Okay so 1966, '67 (1967) is the, the start of your teaching career in Cleveland.$$At Audobon in Cleveland.$$In the public schools.