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Brenda Hughes Andrews

Newspaper publisher Brenda H. Andrews was born on August 13 in Lynchburg, Virginia to Mabel Hughes and Earl Hughes. In 1962, Andrews and three other African American students Cee Cee Jackson, Lynda Woodruff, and Owen Cardwell integrated Lynchburg’s E.C. Glass High School. One year later, Andrews attended the March on Washington in Washington, D.C. Andrews graduated from E.C. Glass in 1965, and briefly attended Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond, before marrying and moving to California. Andrews graduated with her B.A. degree in English and psychology from California State University, Sacramento in 1970.

From 1970 to 1973, Andrews worked as a teacher in Rancho Cordova, California. In 1977, she joined the U.S. Army, where she edited a military community paper in Nuremburg, West Germany, and worked as an associate editor of the Army’s Newswire Service at the Pentagon. After leaving the Army in 1982, Andrews began working as the assistant to the publisher at Journal and Guide, a prominent black newspaper in Norfolk, Virginia. In 1987, she became the newspaper’s publisher and president, and owner in 1991, at a critical time in the paper’s existence, changing its name to New Journal and Guide.

Under Andrews’ leadership, the Guide celebrated its one hundred eighteenth year anniversary in 2018, as one of the nation’s oldest members of the Black Press. She established a website and other digital and social media to meet the changing news industry. In 2014, she incorporated the Guide Historical Society as a 501-c-3 nonprofit arm of the business to preserve the paper’s historic archives and award journalism internships.

Andrews has been the recipient of various honors including the 2013 MLK Memorial Award from Old Dominion University and the Tidewater Humanitarian Award from the Virginia Center for Inclusive Communities in 2016. In 2015, Andrews was named one of the 25 Women in Arts by the Southeastern Virginia Arts Association and one of the top 25 businesswomen in Inside Business, The Hampton Roads Business Journal. In 2017, Andrews was a Journey for Success “Legendary Pearl” honoree. She is a member of the National Newspaper Publishers Association, and serves as an honors fellow and foundation board member at Norfolk State University as well as on the board of the National Newspaper Publishers Association.

Brenda H. Andrews was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 16, 2018.

Accession Number

A2018.001

Sex

Female

Interview Date

01/16/2018

Last Name

Andrews

Maker Category
Schools

Robert S. Payne Elementary School

E.C. Glass High School

California State University, Sacramento

First Name

Brenda

Birth City, State, Country

Lynchburg

HM ID

AND16

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Virginia

Favorite Vacation Destination

Tropical Places

Favorite Quote

All Things Happen For The Good of Those Who Love the Lord And Are Called According to His Purpose.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Virginia

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Norfolk

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Shrimp

Short Description

Newspaper publisher Brenda H. Andrews ( - ) was the president and chief executive officer of the New Journal and Guide in Norfolk, Virginia.

Employment

New Journal and Guide

U.S. Army

Folsom Cordova Unified School District

Favorite Color

Red

Robert Bogle

Newspaper chief executive Robert Bogle was born to John Bogle, a vice president and advertising director at The Philadelphia Tribune, and Roslyn Woods Bogle, an advocate and activist throughout the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania area. In 1973, he graduated from Cheyney State College with his B.A. degree in urban studies and attended the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School of Business and Finance to study marketing and economics.

Bogle was first hired at The Philadelphia Tribune in 1970, and was named advertising director in 1973. He served in that position until 1977, when he became director of marketing. From 1981 to 1989, Bogle worked as executive vice president and treasurer for the Tribune and was then promoted to president and chief executive officer. In 1991, Bogle was appointed president of the National Newspaper Publishers Association (NNPA), where he served two terms. Among his achievements as president of the NNPA were the dedication of the new national headquarters in Washington, D.C., the introduction of the NNPA’s national wire service, and the establishment of new and enhanced relationships with major national advertisers, including Toys R Us, Procter & Gamble, U.S. Air, K-Mart, and Walt Disney World Company.

Bogle has served on the boards of U.S. Airways Group, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the Pennsylvania Newspaper Association, United Way of America, the Zoological Society of Philadelphia, the Workforce Investment Board, and the African American Chamber of Commerce. In addition, in 2009, Philadelphia Mayor Michael A. Nutter appointed Bogle to the Independence Blue Cross board of directors.

Bogle is chairman of the Hospitals and Higher Education Facilities Authority of Philadelphia and serves as a commissioner of the Delaware River Port Authority. He has served as chairman of the council of trustees of Cheyney University and is an advisor to the United Negro College Fund, a member of the executive committee of the Boy Scouts of America, and a life member of Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity. He is also a founding member and president of the African American News and Information Consortium, a group of premier Black newspapers in some of the largest markets in the United States of America.

In 1993, Bogle was named one of Ebony magazine’s 100 most influential black Americans. In 1995, 1997 and 1999, the NNPA honored Bogle with the Russwurm Award, the highest honor to the “Best Newspaper in America.” Bogle received an honorary doctorate of humane letters degree from Drexel University in 2000.

Robert Bogle was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 11, 2014.

Accession Number

A2014.151

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/13/2014

Last Name

Bogle

Maker Category
Middle Name

W.

Schools

Cheyney University of Pennsylvania

Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Robert

Birth City, State, Country

Philadelphia

HM ID

BOG02

Favorite Season

Fall, Spring

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

St. Maarten

Favorite Quote

Never To Your Friends Your Secrets Tell, For One Day Your Friend May Be Your Foe And Out Into The World Your Secrets Will Go.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Pennsylvania

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Philadelphia

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Oxtail Stew, Pig's Feet. Chitlins, Roast and Turkey

Short Description

Newspaper publishing chief executive Robert Bogle ( - ) is the president and chief executive officer of The Philadelphia Tribune. He also served as president of the National Newspaper Publishers Association from 1991 to 1995.

Employment

The Philadelphia Tribune

Favorite Color

Blue

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Robert Bogle's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Robert Bogle lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Robert Bogle talks about his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Robert Bogle talks about his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Robert Bogle talks about his maternal grandfather

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Robert Bogle talks about his mother's academic abilities

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Robert Bogle talks about his father and his parents' views of race and character

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Robert Bogle talks about how his parents met, his likeness to them and lessons from his mother

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Robert Bogle describes his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Robert Bogle talks about his brother, HistoryMaker Donald Bogle, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Robert Bogle talks about his brother, HistoryMaker Donald Bogle, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Robert Bogle talks about his siblings

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Robert Bogle talks about his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Robert Bogle talks about growing up in Darby, Pennsylvania where he attended integrated schools

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Robert Bogle talks about the lessons he learned from his father

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Robert Bogle talks about his religious upbringing

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Robert Bogle states his elementary school and recalls his elementary school teachers

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Robert Bogle talks about meeting influential African Americans as a child

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Robert Bogle talks about growing up knowing that he would have to choose between education, work, and the military after high school

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Robert Bogle talks about South Street in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and black-owned theaters across the country

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Robert Bogle claims Philadelphia, Pennsylvania as the birthplace of the black community

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Robert Bogle talks about working as a newsboy, his educational experience, and moving to Yeadon, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Robert Bogle talks about attending Yeadon High School in Yeadon, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Robert Bogle talks about attending Cheyney State College in Cheyney, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Robert Bogle lists his instructors at Cheyney State College in Cheyney, Pennsylvania

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Robert Bogle talks about how he came to work at the Philadelphia Tribune

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Robert Bogle talks about his studies at Cheyney State College in Cheyney, Pennsylvania and working at the Philadelphia Tribune

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Robert Bogle talks about participating in the student union at Cheyney University of Pennsylvania in Cheyney, Pennsylvania

Elinor Tatum

Newspaper publisher Elinor Ruth Tatum was born on January 29, 1971 in New York City, New York to Wilbert and Susan Tatum. Her father was a former publisher and chief executive officer of the New York Amsterdam News. Tatum was raised in New York City and was educated in the City’s primary and secondary schools. She graduated from St. Lawrence University with her B.A. degree in government studies in 1993. Tatum went on to attend Stockholm University in Stockholm, Sweden, where she studied international relations until 1994.

Upon returning from Sweden, Tatum joined her father at the New York Amsterdam News, where she accepted a position as assistant to the publisher. In 1996, she was promoted to associate publisher and chief operating officer. Tatum received her M.A. degree in journalism from New York University in 1997, and was promoted to publisher and editor-in-chief of the New York Amsterdam News, becoming one of the youngest publishers in the history of African American press. In 2006, Tatum began producing and co-hosting a weekly segment of Al Sharpton’s weekly radio show “Keep’in It Real.” She has also appeared on WNBC evening news, ARISE, The O'Reilly Factor, 20/20, New York 1, CUNY TV, the Today Show, and NBC Nightly News. After her father passed away in 2009, Tatum assumed full control of the New York Amsterdam News.

Tatum has held many civic positions and served on numerous community boards, including St. Lawrence University, the New York Urban League, the Neighborhood Defender Service of Harlem, the Chinatown YMCA, Manhattan Community Board 3, and the Creative Visions Foundation. She was also the former secretary of the National Newspaper Publishers Association.

Tatum has received many awards including recognition in Who’s Who of American Women; a Doctor Of Humane Letters Honorus Causae from Metropolitan College (New York City); Manhattan Borough Presidents’ Women’s History Month Award; the Public Advocate of New York City Award of Distinction; the Women Who Make A Difference Award; Outstanding Business Empowerment from the New York Chapter of Black Business and Professional Women Award; Standing On their Shoulders Award from the National Action Network, the Good Scout Award, and the Pi Beta Phi’s Members of Distinction Award.

Elinor Tatum was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 11, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.282

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/11/2013

Last Name

Tatum

Maker Category
Middle Name

Ruth

Schools

St. Lawrence University

Stockholm University

New York University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Elinor

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

TAT02

Favorite Season

Seasonal Changes

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

I Promise to Try.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

1/29/1971

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Vegetables

Short Description

Newspaper publishing chief executive Elinor Tatum (1971 - ) was named publisher and editor-in-chief of the New York Amsterdam News at age twenty six, making her one of the youngest publishers in the history of African American press.

Employment

New York Amsterdam News

Delete

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Elinor Tatum's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Elinor Tatum lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Elinor Tatum describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Elinor Tatum talks about her father's start in New York politics

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Elinor Tatum describes her father's childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Elinor Tatum talks about her father's experiences in Japan and Sweden

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Elinor Tatum describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Elinor Tatum talks about her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Elinor Tatum describes the block where she grew up

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Elinor Tatum describes the sights, sounds, and smells of her childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Elinor Tatum talks about her parents' work and community activism

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Elinor Tatum remembers learning from her father that her voice mattered

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Elinor Tatum talks about her father's activism and political career

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Elinor Tatum recalls the eclectic mix of people she met as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Elinor Tatum reflects on her childhood personality

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Elinor Tatum reflects on the importance of holidays in her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Elinor Tatum describes the privileged culture of the Dwight School

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Elinor Tatum recalls two teachers' reactions to her dyslexia at the Dwight School

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Elinor Tatum describes overcoming her dyslexia

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Elinor Tatum describes her interests in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Elinor Tatum talks about the start of her father's career with the 'Amsterdam News'

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Elinor Tatum describes her father's changing positions on Louis Farrakhan's anti-Semitic comments

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Elinor Tatum talks about navigating her black and Jewish identities

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Elinor Tatum remembers a letter she sent to her father

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Elinor Tatum talks about how she decided to go to St. Lawrence University

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Elinor Tatum reminisces about her summers while growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Elinor Tatum recalls being invited on a life-changing trip to Africa

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Elinor Tatum talks about diversity at St. Lawrence University

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Elinor Tatum talks about leaving for Africa

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Elinor Tatum recounts the achievements of the friends she traveled with

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Elinor Tatum talks about her trip to Africa

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Elinor Tatum talks about experiences at Lincoln University and the New School

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Elinor Tatum talks about her life in Sweden

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Elinor Tatum talks about starting her career at the 'Amsterdam News' in 1994

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Elinor Tatum talks about practicing journalism in college

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Elinor Tatum talks about the culture at the 'Amsterdam News'

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Elinor Tatum talks about the National Newspaper Publishers Association

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Elinor Tatum talks about her father becoming sole owner of the 'Amsterdam News'

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Elinor Tatum remembers how she learned about her promotion to Editor-in-Chief of the 'Amsterdam News'

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Elinor Tatum talks about studying journalism at New York University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Elinor Tatum talks about adopting her father's legacy at the 'Amsterdam News'

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Elinor Tatum talks about the success of the 'Amsterdam News'

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Elinor Tatum talks about her transition into Editor-in-Chief at the 'Amsterdam News'

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Elinor Tatum reflects upon her accomplishments as Editor-in-Chief of the 'Amsterdam News'

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Elinor Tatum talks about gentrification in Harlem during her lifetime

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Elinor Tatum talks about the importance of the black press for the future

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Elinor Tatum talks about her political involvement

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Elinor Tatum talks about necessary technological changes in the black press

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Elinor Tatum talks about her mother and motherhood

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Elinor Tatum describes her hopes and concerns for the black community

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Elinor Tatum talks about the changes she wants for the black community

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Elinor Tatum talks about the significance of her father's generation

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Elinor Tatum reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Elinor Tatum reflects upon how she has changed since her childhood

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Elinor Tatum talks about the legacy of the Obama presidency

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Elinor Tatum narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

3$2

DATitle
Elinor Tatum recalls two teachers' reactions to her dyslexia at the Dwight School
Elinor Tatum remembers how she learned about her promotion to Editor-in-Chief of the 'Amsterdam News'
Transcript
So what--tell me--I know it was privileged, but how do you think it affected you going there [the Dwight School in New York City, New York]? And, and ha--they were better at services there?$$They were better at services 'cause I had the money and they understood learning disabilities.$$Because I've heard that people say sometimes they have to rely on public schools because their--$$Well, see at that point in time--now the public schools have a lot more resources, and they have IEPs [Individualized Education Programs] and they understand learning disabilities in a way that they did not. Because in the 1970s the word dyslexia was like a dirty word.$$That's right.$$And--$$It was something to be ashamed of. That's--$$Exactly, exactly, and so there was no help. People just ignored it. In the public schools they put you in the slower track, I mean, to the point where I had a teacher in the 6th grade at Hunter [Hunter College Elementary] who basically told me that I was never gonna amount to anything.$$I had read that. I had read tha--$$And, I mean, she was this absolutely horrible, old woman who I couldn't stand. Her name was Mrs. Kerry. She was downright evil, downright evil. And so one of my favorite stories about her is I ran into her in the--in the summer of 1989, when I had just graduated from high school. And she saw me, and I said "hello, Mrs. Kerry." She's like, "hi, how are you? Have you graduated from high school?" And I said, "well, yes." She's like, "well, are you going to trade school?" And I said "oh, no. Actually, I'm a scholar at St. Lawrence University; thank you very much." And I walked away from her. Four years--no, five years later I ran into her again. I'd completed four years at St. Lawrence University, a year of graduate work at Stockholm University, and I was then editor at the 'Amsterdam News,' and--I may not have actually been an editor yet, but she didn't need to know that. So I run into Mrs. Kerry again. She lived not too far from here. She said, "so what are you up to? Did you graduate from college? Do you have a job?" I said "well, yes; I'm an editor at the 'Amsterdam News,' thank you, and what are you doing?" She said "I've retired," and I looked at her and I said "thank God," and I walked away and I never saw her again.$$See those people--you never--I mean, it's that story of people, you know.$$But I've got--but I've got a good story from that same place. There was a woman named Mrs. Kagan, and that name might be familiar to you, that last name Kagan.$$Yeah, oh, I know.$$Well, there was a woman named Gloria Kagan, who was my teacher at the same time that Mrs. Kerry was my teacher, and she worked really, really hard with me and made sure that I was successful. She was this great woman. In 1994 or 1995, a piece ran in the "New York Times" about me. It was on the public lives page. And I got a note from her, and the note just said, "It's so great to see my kids grow up so well." And Gloria Kagan happened to be the mother of Supreme Court Justice Elena Kagan.$$That's lovely. But she, she's brilliant herself. That's lovely.$$Yeah.$So in 1996, this--you know, the--everything is sort of set in motion now. Is there a discussion with you and your father [Wilbert Tatum]? I mean, you know, he ha--remember his words were, you know, it's now or--$$Well, you know, there, there really wasn't a discussion. I was going to graduate school at that point [New York University in New York City, New York], and I was learning the business from the ground up. I was I think Chief Operating Officer at that point at the paper, and I was--I was learning everything, and I was learning it at my father's side, which was one of the greatest gifts I could possibly have gotten. And then I graduated from NYU. And the National Association of Black Journalists--actually no, it was the local--it was the NYABJ [New York Association of Black Journalists] was having their annual dinner. And we had two or three tables at this dinner this year, and I had no idea why. We had never participated in NYABJ before. I knew very little about it. And I'm sitting at the, the table at the dinner. And Terrie Williams, the PR guru, says, "Ellie, have you read the, the 'Amsterdam News' ad in the journal?" And I said no. She's like, "Well, look at it." So I open up the journal ad, and I said, oh, it's looks nice and close it up again. She's like, "No, read it." I open it up again and I read it, and I read the whole thing. And it's signed by me as publisher and editor-in-chief of the 'Amsterdam News.' That was the way my father announced to me that I was now heading the organization. So that's--that was my father's way of telling me, "okay, kid, your turn now."$$Was he there that evening?$$Yep, he was there that evening, and he gave a speech, and it was really--it was an amazing evening. It really was an amazing evening. I was completely dumbstruck. I had absolutely no idea it was gonna happen.$$So wait, he had written the, the--he had written the--he had written and it's signed by you. Did somehow Terrie knew that you didn't know?$$Yeah. Yeah, she was one of our guests at the table.$$Wow. So what did that mean then, him handing over the reins? What did that mean at that point 'cause you're just finish--you just finished. And, and--$$Right, but I'd all--already been at the paper for, you know--well, actually no, I had not been--$$No, you, you--$$--had not--had not--$$--hadn't been there--$$--for very long.$$You'd been there--you'd been there for two years.$$No, no, no, I'd been there for--it was 1998. I'd been there for four years already.$$Oh, 1998, okay.$$Yeah, yeah.$$Okay, so, so you had already finished NYU--$$Yeah, yeah.$$--at that point, okay.$$It was after--it was right after I finished NYU--$$Okay.$$--that was done.

William Lee

Newspaper publisher William H. Lee was born on May 29, 1936 in Austin, Texas. Williams attended Sacramento State College from 1953 to 1955, and went on to earn his A.B. degree in journalism from the University of California in 1957.

From 1959 to 1965, Lee served in the U.S. Air Force. Lee, along with radioman Glino Gladden and businessman John W. Cole, founded the Sacramento Observer on November 22, 1962. Despite early challenges, Lee became president and sole publisher of the paper in 1965. At that time, he also founded Lee Publishing, Col. Five years later, under his leadership, the Sacramento Observer was named the number one African American newspaper in the United States. Throughout the years, the Sacramento Observer has been a strong community leader and was the catalyst for organizing the local chapter of the National Urban League. In the past TheSacramento Observer has sponsored numerous community events including organizing the annual Sacramento Black Expo to celebrate African American history featuring seminars, workshops, concerts and a marketplace.

In 2001, a year after Lee appointed his late wife Kathryn Lee, as co-publisher, the newspaper launched an online news site, SacOberver.com. Its first inception featured select articles from The Sacramento Observer newspaper. Lee’s youngest son, Lawrence Charles Lee, served as the president and CEO of SacObserver.com. Then, in 2005, executive and publishing control of the Sacramento Observer passed from Lee and his wife to his son Lawrence Charles Lee, who now is the sole publisher, president, general manager of the Sacramento Observer and Lee Publishing, Co.

From 1970 to 1973, Lee served as secretary and as a member of the board of directors of the National Newspaper Publishers Association. He was elected as president of the West Coast Black Publishers Association 1974. He is founder and past president of the Men’s Civic League of Sacramento, co-founder of the Sacramento Area Black Caucus, and is a lifetime member of the N.A.A.C.P.

Lee received Sacramento’s Outstanding Young Man of the Year Award (1965), the Carly Murphy Plaque for community service (1994), the. The Sacramento Observer was a recipient of the Media Award from the Western Regional Conference of Elected Black Officials in (1973) and the John B. Russwurm Trophy – which is considered to be the Pulitzer Prize in African American newspaper publishing – from the National Newspaper Publishers Association (1973, 1975).

Lee and his late wife Kathryn Lee, have three sons: Lawrence Charles, William Hanford, Jr., and Roderick Joseph (deceased).

William H. Lee was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 5, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.293

Sex

Male

Interview Date

11/5/2013

Last Name

Lee

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widower

Middle Name

Hanford

Schools

University of California, Berkeley

California State University, Sacramento

Roosevelt Middle School

Grant Union High School

Raphael Weill Elementary School

Search Occupation Category
First Name

William

Birth City, State, Country

Austin

HM ID

LEE07

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

I Can Do All Things Through Christ Who Strengthens Me.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

5/29/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Sacramento

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Chicken

Short Description

Newspaper publishing chief executive William Lee (1936 - ) co-founded the Sacramento Observer where he served as president and publisher for over fifty years.

Employment

The Sacramento Observer

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:13050,190:19762,350:20326,357:21548,372:21924,377:22864,390:23804,398:27564,449:28692,463:29632,474:30948,494:31888,506:50474,661:51062,670:51986,683:52322,688:60860,812:61500,823:61980,831:64418,843:72400,919:81889,1041:86749,1113:87721,1127:88612,1139:94175,1160:94475,1165:95450,1184:97850,1222:101000,1276:101600,1287:109209,1356:109956,1368:115600,1467:115932,1472:116264,1478:120248,1549:120580,1554:134630,1742:135098,1752:137672,1869:138140,1877:143234,1909:143762,1918:144356,1929:144818,1937:149692,1993:150910,2009:151519,2018:152215,2028:153085,2041:154129,2056:156217,2103:166234,2171:167312,2187:168082,2199:168544,2206:171258,2234:172410,2262:178098,2384:179178,2444:179610,2459:180258,2471:180546,2476:187034,2538:187910,2564:188859,2585:192582,2638:192947,2644:196326,2660:197862,2675:200262,2704:204198,2741:204582,2746:206598,2753:206982,2758:211100,2768:211428,2773:211756,2778:213642,2813:214708,2827:215118,2833:215446,2838:216020,2848:217660,2861:217988,2866:220448,2903:220776,2908:229568,2968:230063,2974:237870,3035:238330,3042:241550,3094:242930,3111:243298,3121:243666,3126:251909,3192:252619,3206:253870,3219$0,0:788,8:5036,96:7160,145:10346,170:19330,280:21430,320:21920,329:22690,345:23180,354:23950,367:24440,376:24860,384:25980,415:32030,459:32590,467:33150,474:33630,481:37070,519:37870,530:39070,550:39790,589:40350,598:40910,607:42830,632:43710,644:57602,802:59996,876:65240,1050:70028,1103:80873,1239:81335,1247:81720,1253:82259,1259:82875,1264:83260,1270:83645,1276:85801,1304:87803,1337:88188,1343:89497,1371:90113,1380:90806,1396:91576,1412:96820,1428:97645,1443:98620,1457:98920,1462:102595,1530:103795,1552:104695,1571:105220,1579:105745,1586:108820,1626:110170,1654:112516,1670:113172,1680:114730,1707:116862,1747:117764,1762:118174,1768:119158,1782:120142,1793:120962,1804:123914,1829:124898,1843:125800,1857:131166,1890:134766,1959:136350,1988:136854,1997:137502,2002:138294,2017:139014,2029:139518,2037:139806,2042:140382,2054:145418,2090:145828,2096:146156,2101:146484,2106:146812,2111:150092,2156:150420,2162:152962,2200:153700,2210:154848,2227:155914,2232:156570,2242:163844,2300:166124,2319:166428,2324:167416,2341:167872,2349:169088,2371:170608,2395:173496,2445:173876,2451:174332,2458:178920,2477:184230,2528:184590,2533:185040,2539:188190,2612:191790,2649:192330,2656:192870,2663:196560,2717:201340,2726:203797,2774:204049,2779:209220,2883:210690,2914:213280,2972:213840,2982:217200,3049:217690,3057:222610,3082:223234,3088:223546,3093:223858,3098:227290,3145:228304,3160:228928,3170:232438,3225:233452,3242:239030,3262:241910,3288:242630,3299:243170,3307:243530,3312:245970,3324:247845,3352:248895,3371:249945,3400:250245,3405:251145,3416:252270,3433:252945,3443:253545,3453:254820,3477:256095,3494:256470,3500:258795,3540:261720,3545
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of William Lee's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - William Lee lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - William Lee describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - William Lee talks about his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - William Lee describes his parents' education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - William Lee describes his father's career

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - William Lee talks about how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - William Lee remembers his family's move to San Francisco, California

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - William Lee talks about his brother and sister-in-law

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - William Lee describes his likeness to his father

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - William Lee remembers his father's strokes

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - William Lee describes his upbringing in San Francisco, California

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - William Lee describes the children's book based upon his family

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - William Lee remembers playing basketball in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - William Lee remembers moving to Del Paso Heights in Sacramento, California

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - William Lee describes his experiences at Grant Union High School in Sacramento, California

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - William Lee remembers his arrival at the University of California, Berkeley

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - William Lee talks about his time at Sacramento State College in Sacramento, California

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - William Lee remembers his accounting professor at Sacramento State College

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - William Lee describes the student organizations at the University of California, Berkeley

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - William Lee remembers the student activism at the University of California, Berkeley

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - William Lee recalls the lack of support for black students at University of California, Berkeley

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - William Lee remembers being hired at Aerojet Rocketdyne in Sacramento, California

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - William Lee remembers his courtship with his wife

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - William Lee describes the African American community in Sacramento, California

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - William Lee recalls the founding of The Sacramento Observer

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - William Lee talks about the Men's Civic League of Sacramento, California

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - William Lee talks about the cofounders of The Sacramento Observer

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - William Lee remembers the restrictive housing covenants in Sacramento, California

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - William Lee talks about the professional legacy of William Byron Rumford

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - William Lee describes the political climate in California during the early 1960s

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - William Lee describes the black leadership of Sacramento, California

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - William Lee talks about the growth of the black community in Sacramento, California

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - William Lee remembers becoming the sole owner of The Sacramento Observer

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - William Lee talks about success of The Sacramento Observer, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - William Lee talks about the success of The Sacramento Observer, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - William Lee describes the operations of The Sacramento Observer

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - William Lee talks about the advertisements in The Sacramento Observer, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - William Lee talks about the advertisements in The Sacramento Observer, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - William Lee describes the readership of The Sacramento Observer

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - William Lee talks about The Sacramento Observer's outreach programs

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - William Lee talks about the impact of technology on the newspaper industry

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - William Lee describes the editorial goals of The Sacramento Observer

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - William Lee talks about Mayor Kevin Johnson of Sacramento, California

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - William Lee talks about the stories covered in The Sacramento Observer

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - William Lee describes the staff of The Sacramento Observer

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - William Lee describes The Sacramento Observer's sports coverage

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - William Lee talks about his sons

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - William Lee reflects upon his career at The Sacramento Observer

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - William Lee describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - William Lee reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - William Lee talks about his wife

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - William Lee describes his youth outreach programs

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - William Lee describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

2$7

DATitle
William Lee remembers being hired at Aerojet Rocketdyne in Sacramento, California
William Lee talks about the success of The Sacramento Observer, pt. 2
Transcript
But you graduated you know in '57 [1957]--$$Yes.$$--with a degree in accounting?$$Yes.$$And you're a good student from what I've read--$$Yes.$$--and you, and you were good at what you did?$$That was an experience in itself. It's interesting I--so when I graduated [from the University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California], I and two of my fellow classmates who were both whites, went to apply for an accounting opportunity that was being offered by an accounting firm, and they were looking for graduates in accounting to go work for them. And when we went in, we went in individually, and I went in initially and they did not hire me. The firm--I tried to reassure the firm that I was a good student and I brought my transcripts and everything else. And the other two students, when they went in, they hired both of them. Now, when I--when I was being interviewed, I asked the interviewer why I was not being hired, they said, "Well, I don't think my staff, my organization is ready to accept an African American--," at that time "a Negro to join our organization." So I was being denied. I was introduced to racism in a real absolute way in that experience; and it really hit me in the gut, because I'd never had it so vividly shown and experienced to me. When I got back to the car and my buddies got back, they had been accepted, and they got so upset and both of these friends of mine and these fellow students--and I was a better student than they were, both of them, and they knew it. But it was all about--I told them the fact that they just did not hire me, and they wanted to go in and turn in and resign just from being accepted or take that--refuse the job to be accepted. That too was an experience for me as well. So again, I called Mom [Carrie Woods Lee] and Dad [Charles R. Lee] and I said I wanted to come home. And I moved in--I came to Sacramento [California]. I was thinking about then joining with the [U.S.] Air Force, going to the effort that was going on; and I called a friend of mine who was working at the time at Aerojet [Aerojet Rocketdyne] here as a space industry--the aerospace industry was booming, and Aerojet was flourishing and growing and hiring people. And it was through that friend's effort, and I asked him very vividly, I said, "Now look, I don't want to go out there and experience what I just experienced in the Bay Area [San Francisco Bay Area, California], Sacramento." He said, "No, you need to see this person," and he gave me a name of a person that I interviewed with. He hired me on the spot. And I went to work at Aerojet as a statistician right out--shortly after that. But that experience was something I'll never forget, because it was--it was a--it was the true racism that reflected even when you're qualified, even when you're knowledgeable about your skill and your art and your profession. So I was very, very let down from going--trying for other employment in the Bay Area. I think that my warmth and growth at Aerojet gave me the reassurance that I needed to eventually to move forward, and to set my sights on what I felt were some earlier and eas- and dreams and plans and hopes that I had for my career and my life and all.$Did you model, in terms of managing the paper [The Sacramento Observer], did you--was there any other publication, African American or, or white that you modeled after?$$After?$$Yeah in terms of presentation and content and that sort of thing?$$No, we didn't. We really didn't. We've had our own sense of mission, our sense of purpose and the sense of direction in terms of what we wanted to do in publishing our newspaper. We minimized, not to the extent that it became faulty information, but we minimized all the negativity that existed in our community [in Sacramento, California], which we felt was marginal compared to the outstanding achievements and the accomplishments of the community.$$Now, I've heard that before. I know the--I know one of the papers that's--was accused of egregiously using, you know, murders and that sort of thing I think was the St. Louis American. At one time they were considered a murder sheet. A lot of black papers, the Courier [Pittsburgh Courier; New Pittsburgh Courier], the Defender [Chicago Defender] opened with a violent scene.$$Yes.$$And was this the history of the old--well not the reverend's [J.T. Muse] paper [Sacramento Outlook], right, he didn't do that?$$No. There were some and many of those cases that built their reputation or their formats based upon the crime, as you say crime sheets of the negative cri- negative things that are going on in the community. But again, we felt realistically that that was not truly a description of our community. We wanted to be representative of the community. And if there's only 2 percent crime, we wanted 2 percent news that reflected that, not 98 percent and the other way around, so that's--that is always--. So we sort of focused on the issues, on the needs that existed, education, employment opportunities, the whole desire to own property, the building of wealth; a variety of different positive motives and missions that are so important to our community. And we built our paper on that format, and we continue to have it even today as we move through the wavelength. And I think it's been very successful, very helpful to us. We see, you know, there's movement going on and--in the newspaper industry and all that tells you that, you know, even with print in mainstream is somewhat dying, it's losing much revenue and that type of thing, but if you can focus on satisfying our community or satisfying a community need building value within those communities, which is what our motto was. So we went on to win from those days, we went on to win the Russwurm [John B. Russwurm Trophy], this top trophy awards, six times, and we--it became almost like our pri- our awards. So we stopped entering the contest, because we were just winning too many awards in that sense. We didn't want it seemed like it was being set or anything else. And then we stayed away a few years and went back and we won that year that we went back to in the '90s [1990s]. So a number of times that we just have backed away, and we have not re-entered in several years. But I think, you know, that even today, as I said, you see many of the products suffering, but there's a resurgence, I sense, that's going to go on and will be going on for the press. I see print becoming again an element that we'll have to deal with, and I think the ones that will be successful in that effort, will be the ones who have that, that concentration of community building, support of communities, recognition that their communities have values and building on that.

Amelia Ashley-Ward

Newspaper publisher, editor and journalist Amelia Ashley-Ward was born on September 17, 1957 in Magnolia, Mississippi to Amile Ashley and Louise James Ashley. While still a child, Ashley-Ward’s family moved to San Francisco, where she attended junior high and high school. Ashley-Ward went on to receive her B.A. degree in journalism and photojournalism in 1979 from San Jose State University.

During her final year at San Jose State University, Ashley-Ward interned at the Sun-Reporter Publishing Company in San Francisco, where she was hired as a reporter and photojournalist for the Sun-Reporter newspaper in 1979. Then, in 1984, Ashley-Ward was promoted to managing editor of the Sun-Reporter. When the Sun-Reporter Publishing Company’s publisher Carlton Goodlett resigned in 1994, Ashley-Ward was promoted to publisher. While working at the Sun-Reporter, she also published photographs in People magazine and Jet magazine, and wrote a feature story for the African American magazine Sepia. Following Goodlett’s death in 1997, she bought the Sun-Reporter Publishing Company from Goodlett’s son, acquiring all three of the company’s newspapers: the California Voice, the Metro and the Sun-Reporter. Ashley-Ward also created the nonprofit Sun-Reporter Foundation in 2004, and was the founding president of the Young Adult Christian Movement.

Ashley-Ward has received many honors and awards while working at the Sun-Reporter Publishing Company. In 1980, she won the Photojournalism Award from the National Newspaper Publishers Association, and, in 1981, she received the Feature Writing Award from the same organization. The National Newspaper Publishers Association granted Ashley-Ward one more honor when, in 1998, she was elected Publisher of the Year. In 1997, she received the Woman of the Year award from the San Francisco Black Chamber of Commerce. In 2004, Ashley-Ward received the Alumnus of the Year award from San Jose State University, and was the commencement speaker for the university's Journalism department that same year. She was also honored in 2005, when she was selected as Woman of the Year by California State Senator Carole Migden. In 2008, Ashley-Ward was named one of the forty nine Most Influential People in San Francisco by 7x7 Magazine. She also served on the boards of the National Newspaper Publishers Association and the San Francisco branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.

Ashley-Ward has one son, Evan Carlton Ward, an electronic media major at Middle Tennessee State University.

Amelia Ashley-Ward was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 4, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.251

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/4/2013

Last Name

Ashley-Ward

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Schools

San Jose State University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Amelia

Birth City, State, Country

Magnolia

HM ID

ASH03

Favorite Season

Fall, Winter

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

Las Vegas, Nevada

Favorite Quote

It Must Be Borne In Mind That The Tragedy Of Life Doesn't Lie In Not Reaching Your Goal. The Tragedy Lies In Having No Goal To Reach.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

9/17/1957

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/San Francisco

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fried Fish

Short Description

Newspaper publishing chief executive Amelia Ashley-Ward (1957 - ) has worked at the Sun-Reporter for over thirty years. She now owns the Sun-Reporter Publishing Company.

Employment

Sun-Reporter

Favorite Color

Black

DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Amelia Ashley-Ward's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Amelia Ashley-Ward lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes how racial tensions in Mississippi forced her relatives to leave the state

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes the living conditions in San Francisco when her family first moved to California

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Amelia Ashley-Ward reflects upon her parents' marriage and how they first met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes her parents' personalities and who she takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about her two sisters

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Amelia Ashley-Ward explains why her father left Mississippi for California

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Amelia Ashley-Ward explains the role of the church in her life and activism

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Amelia Ashley-Ward recounts living in Hunter's Point, the Fillmore, and Ingleside in San Francisco, California

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes the impact of Martin Luther King Jr.'s death on the black community in San Francisco, California

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Amelia Ashley-Ward recalls a personal experience with racial hatred from her youth, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Amelia Ashley-Ward recalls a personal experience with racial hatred from her youth, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about creative writing as a favorite childhood pastime

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Amelia Ashley-Ward recalls her early writing influences in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Amelia Ashley-Ward remembers living in poverty after her father left the family

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about helping her mother financially in high school and the type of student she became in college

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about her awareness of black consciousness and sub-culture in San Francisco, California in the 1970s

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes her experiences in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes her experiences at San Jose State University in the late 1970s

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about famous individuals and entertainment venues that were well known in the black community in San Francisco, California

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes the racial makeup at San Jose State University and the prevalent party culture of the late 1970s

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about her experiences with racism and sexism at San Jose State University

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Amelia Ashley-Ward recalls an experience with the People's Temple cult and Jim Jones in San Francisco, California

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes Jim Jones' impact on the black community in San Francisco, California

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Amelia Ashley-Ward compares San Francisco Reverend Thomas McCall to Jim Jones

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about Dr. Carlton's Goodlett's connection to Jim Jones

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Amelia Ashley-Ward recalls being hired at the Sun-Reporter

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Amelia Ashley-Ward gives a history of the Sun-Reporter's founders Tom Fleming (also a HistoryMaker) and Dr. Carlton Goodlett

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes her close personal relationship with Dr. Carlton Goodlett

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Amelia Ashley-Ward remembers tension with fellow staff during her early days at the Sun-Reporter, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Amelia Ashley-Ward remembers tension during her early days at the Sun-Reporter, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about the sensationalist tactics previously used by the Sun-Reporter

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about Dr. Carlton Goodlett's influence in the San Francisco black community

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Amelia Ashley-Ward remembers some of her favorite stories she has written over the years

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes two different photo-essays from her career in Mississippi and California

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about the death of Chauncey Bailey, a journalist in Oakland, California

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes her rise in the Sun-Reporter Publishing Company and how she acquired the company and its associated newspapers

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about the implications of digital media for the newspaper industry

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about the purpose of the National Newspaper Publishers Association and its history

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Amelia Ashley-Ward explains the differences between the National Newspapers Association and the National Association of Black Journalists

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about the status of black newspapers in America and the Sun-Reporter's advertising revenue

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about the journalistic philosophy of the Sun-Reporter Publishing Group

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Amelia Ashley-Ward describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Amelia Ashley-Ward reflects on her career and assisting in the 2013 election London Breed, San Francisco District Supervisor

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Amelia Ashley-Ward states that her mother Louise James Ashley encouraged her to fight against injustice

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Amelia Ashley-Ward reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about her family

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about choosing to stay with black newspapers over the mainstream media and fighting against injustice

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about her son Evan's football career at Middle Tennessee State and the politics associated with college sports

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Amelia Ashley-Ward talks about how she would like to be remembered

Garth Reeves

Newspaper publishing chief executive Garth C. Reeves, Sr. was born on February 12, 1919 in Nassau, Bahamas. His family moved to Miami, Florida four months after he was born. His father, Harry Ethelbert Sigismund Reeves, was a partner in The Magic Printing Company and founder of the Miami Times; his mother, a homemaker. His daughter, Rachel J. Reeves, became publisher and chief executive officer of the Miami Times in 1994 following the untimely death of her brother, Garth C. Reeves, Jr. After graduating from Booker T. Washington High School in Miami in 1936, Reeves enrolled in Florida A & M University where he earned his B.A. degree in printing in 1940.

Reeves served in the U.S. Army during World War II from 1942 to 1946 in both the European and Pacific theaters. He then returned to Miami to work under his father Harry Ethelbert Sigismund Reeves, who founded the Miami Times newspaper in 1923. In 1970, Reeves was named publisher and chief executive officer of the when his father passed. Reeves went on to become the first African American to serve on the governing boards of the Miami-Dade Community College, Barry University, the Greater Miami Chamber of Commerce, and the United Way of Dade County. He also served as organizing chairman of the board for National Industrial Bank, which was the first integrated bank in the State of Florida. During the 1950s, Reeves worked to integrate the local beaches, parks, and golf courses. Reeves served for ten years as president of the Amalgamated Publishers of New York City, which represents over one hundred African American-owned newspapers throughout the United States. He was also elected to serve two terms as president of the National Newspaper Publishers Association.

Reeves is a life member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Sigma Pi Phi Fraternity, Inc., Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., and a founding member of the Episcopal Church of the Incarnation in Miami, Florida. He was awarded Honorary Doctorate Degrees from the University of Miami, Barry University and Florida Memorial University.

Garth C. Reeves, Sr. was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on June 5, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.183

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/5/2013

Last Name

Reeves

Maker Category
Middle Name

C.

Schools

Booker T. Washington High School

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Garth

Birth City, State, Country

Nassau

HM ID

REE08

Favorite Season

All Seasons

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Florida

Birth Date

2/12/1919

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

North Miami

Country

Bahamas

Favorite Food

All Food

Short Description

Newspaper publishing chief executive Garth Reeves (1919 - ) former president of the National Newspaper Publishers Association, served as publisher and chief executive officer of the Miami Times for over twenty years.

Employment

Miami Times

Favorite Color

Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:32835,302:57574,476:80220,619:80958,630:84672,659:85260,668:86520,685:92455,732:93130,743:93730,752:95455,779:105838,851:107278,888:111963,917:116875,959:120572,1027:120868,1032:132750,1125:135710,1186:136030,1191:139870,1268:145240,1321:145897,1332:148452,1365:154800,1411:155535,1419:157950,1450:158475,1456:171832,1734:189435,1910:207874,2057:208498,2066:209044,2075:210994,2114:212554,2145:212944,2151:213412,2159:227630,2269:228062,2276:235106,2333:237610,2343$0,0:1206,40:34449,515:68926,902:163936,2018:189508,2333:218218,2641:218514,2646:299940,3565
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Garth Reeves' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Garth Reeves lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Garth Reeves describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Garth Reeves describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Garth Reeves talks about his father's education and career

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Garth Reeves remembers working on his father's paper during childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Garth Reeves describes the history of Overtown, Miami, Florida, where he grew up

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Garth Reeves talks about racial tensions in his childhood community

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Garth Reeves discusses tourism in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Garth Reeves discusses D. A. Dorsey and the history of African Americans in Miami, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Garth Reeves discusses D. A. Dorsey and the history of African Americans in Miami, pt. 2

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Garth Reeves describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Garth Reeves describes the sights, sounds and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Garth Reeves talks about what he liked to read as a youth

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Garth Reeves talks about his childhood in Overtown, Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Garth Reeves remembers the discrimination faced by his father in Miami, Florida

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Garth Reeves talks about the entertainers who came to Miami during the winter

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Garth Reeves describes the segregation in Miami theaters

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Garth Reeves talks about working for his father's newspaper as a boy

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Garth Reeves talks about 'The Miami Times' coverage of lynchings and Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Garth Reeves talks about his entrepreneurial activities in high school, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Garth Reeves talks about his entrepreneurial activities in high school, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Garth Reeves talks about how his father motivated him to make good grades in high school

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Garth Reeves remembers the 1936 Summer Olympics

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Garth Reeves recalls meeting Joe Louis while reporting for 'The Miami Times'

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Garth Reeves remembers when Jackie Robinson first took the field in baseball

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Garth Reeves talks about his mentor, J.L. Langhorn at Florida A&M University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Garth Reeves recounts his entry into military service

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Garth Reeves talks about his experience in boot camp

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Garth Reeves describes his time in the military

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Garth Reeves remembers being homesick during his military service

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Garth Reeves talks about what he liked and disliked about the U.S. Army

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Garth Reeves talks about his mother's advice for him after serving in the U.S. Army

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Garth Reeves describes working with his father at the Miami Times

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Garth Reeves talks about how the Miami Times hit its stride during the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Garth Reeves talks about joining the Civil Rights movement

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Garth Reeves talks about his role in desegregating Miami's beaches, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Garth Reeves talks about his role in desegregating Miami's beaches, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Garth Reeves discusses Thurgood Marshall's influence on non-violent direct action in Miami, Florida

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$5

DAStory

8$1

DATitle
Garth Reeves talks about racial tensions in his childhood community
Garth Reeves describes working with his father at the Miami Times
Transcript
So, I've heard this story before from Birmingham, Alabama and other places in the South, where the Klan would take a couple of days, a day or during the year and just ride through, or parade through the black community?$$That's true.$$And would they be armed? Were they armed when they did that?$$Oh, they were armed. Oh, yes, they were armed.$$Okay.$$And we didn't, couldn't see them, but then (unclear) they came out. Everybody knew they were in charge. I've only heard about one group that challenged the Klan once. And I never did find out who it was, but I think the word around town was it was, I think they called him Texas Slim. But anyhow, the Klan was getting ready to parade on 11th Street. And they were starting across the railroad tracks which was the white section. And while they were gathering, Texas Slim had gotten his boys together, and they brought out their artillery. And they started firing as soon as the Klan started in our direction. And the Klan retreated that night. They did not parade that night because it was a little too much fire power there.$$Now, these were dangerous times in terms of lynchings all over the South and--$$Oh, yes.$$--and race riots when white people would burn the black community down and that sort of thing?$$Well, lynching was prevalent in those days. That's one thing my mother always warned me about because lynching was, was--oh, it was a popular thing among the whites to show their control in the South.$$And in the North actually. I mean there were plenty in the North too as far--$$Yes, there were, yes, there was.$$--as far North as Minnesota and, you know, Indiana and Ohio.$$It was not as prevalent in the North as it was in the South, yeah, just put it that way.$$Right, I just wanted--I didn't wanna leave that out so in case somebody watching this thought it was just in the South (laughter).$$(Laughter).$$But it's not. But, okay, but Overtown was--$$Yeah, Overtown was a thriving community. And there was--rich people from the North used to come down to Miami Beach and downtown Miami to spend money during the winter. And we called it, the "season." They would come in after Thanksgiving and stay until up in the year, after--until the weather got better up North. And we had a pretty solid community, pretty solid, a well-knit, closely-knit community.$And so what was the state of the "Miami Times" then? What was your circulation and what was your impact on the community in those days?$$Well, it was doing pretty good. Of course, I was a, although I went to work at the "Miami Times", I--we were not making the money. But my dad also had a job printing establishment on the side. He was running like two things, the newspaper and the job printing.$$Now, did he have like a gas station too or something 'cause you mentioned like going to get gas and did he have some other businesses too other than just the printing and the newspaper?$$No, just the newspaper and job printing?$$Okay.$$So we printed everything, but in the town, you know, envelopes, books, invitations, programs, funeral programs, you know, everything. My dad's motto was, "We print anything from a card to a newspaper." And we did. We used to do the school newspaper too, print that too. So we had a thing going, and so I went over to the job printing place department. And I found out that I had to do some restructuring on the prices 'cause my dad had, you know, how you--old people, they set one price and prices change, and they think they should just stay right there. But things would go by, you know, so they--(simultaneous)--$$Paper's going up and the ink's going up.$$Right. So there was a catalog I discovered in reading that told you how to price. And my dad had never seen this catalog before. He just did it on his own. He would figure out what the paper cost and what the ink cost and what the labor cost and add 'em up, and maybe add on 15 percent, you know. Well, I learned better after I read this catalog. And the catalog, they wouldn't sell it to you. They'll rent it to you because you had--they changed, every time they changed prices or something, they'd let you know. And I restructured the pricing for dad, and I was making a ton of money, man. It was, we had a good business. But dad was doing good in what he was doing, but he just did not understand the right pricing. He didn't keep up with what was happening in the, you know. And I got that going, and so we subsidized the newspaper. The newspaper was getting, was getting along, but it wasn't making any money. But the job printing office was making the money, and so we didn't worry about that. Whatever they were short over there, we'd pick it up. And things went quite well there. I got, the new machinery was working well. And we bought a new press, a bigger press and--$$And so you bought a linotype machine too, right, is that--$$Yeah, bought the linotype.$$Now, was that your idea to get that?$$Huh?$$Was it your idea to--$$No, no, my dad bought this on his own. Yeah, I was (unclear)--$$And that's the time that you were sent to New York to learn to operate it--$$Yeah.$$--when you saw Jackie Robinson play his first game?$$So we were doing quite well. And one hand was washing the other one, and one time I was telling my dad, I says, you know, I said, you're wasting your time with that newspaper (laughter). I said, you--there's a lot of money to be made over here in this job printing. People in this town need a lot of printing. So he said, nah, I'm a stick with it, said, you subsidize me a little bit now. He said, but one day this newspaper is gonna, it's gonna make more money than that job printing. I said, nah, you gotta be kidding (laughter). And sure enough, when the newspaper hit its stride, I closed the job printing department, shut it down, closed it down, yes, I did. And I said, the old man was right.

Mollie Belt

Newspaper CEO and publisher Mollie Finch-Belt was born on August 7, 1943 in Dallas, Texas. Finch-Belt’s mother, Mildred, was a mathematics instructor; her father, Fred J. Finch, Jr., founded the Dallas Examiner in 1986. But after publishing only one issue, Belt’s mother and father were murdered in their home. In 1961, Finch-Belt graduated from Lincoln High School in Dallas, Texas. After briefly attending Spelman College, she enrolled at the University of Denver where she graduated with her B.A. degree in sociology and psychology in 1965.

Upon graduation, Finch-Belt began working as an employment counselor for the Texas Employment Commission. She then held positions in the Harris County Manpower Program and for City of Dallas where she administered the Title IV program. Between 1977 and 1997, Finch-Belt was a branch chief in the Civil Rights Compliance Department for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. In 1997, Finch-Belt and her husband, attorney James C. Belt, Jr., invested their personal resources to revitalize the Dallas Examiner. In 1998, with a grant from AT&T, she started Future Speak, a publication aimed at developing young minority journalists. Finch-Belt has also used the Dallas Examiner to increase HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention by publishing numerous articles and supplements, including “PROBE,”  “Battling AIDS in Our Communi ty” (2003) and “Innocence Lost” (2004). Finch-Belt also hosted public programs such as an HIV/AIDS town hall meeting at the Inspiring Body of Christ Church in Dallas, Texas. She also co-hosted the Youth Angle luncheon on World AIDS Day with Paul Quinn College. Since assuming editorial responsibilities of the Dallas Examiner, Finch-Belt has continued her father’s dream of providing the Dallas African American community with its own news service.

Finch-Belt is a member of the National Newspaper Publishers Association, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc. She has led the the Dallas Examiner to win numerous national, state and local awards, including the prestigious Katie Awards. The Dallas Examiner was named “Best Weekly Newspaper” in 2002 by the Texas Publisher’s Association awarded; and, in 2004, it received twelve awards from the regional chapter of National Association of Black Journalists, including “Best Newspaper” and “Best Practices.”

Finch-Belt lives in Dallas with her husband, attorney James C. Belt, Jr. They have two children, James C. Belt, III, advertising manager at the Dallas Examiner, and Melanie Belt, M.D.

Mollie Finch-Belt was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 29, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.023

Sex

Female

Interview Date

1/29/2013

Last Name

Belt

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Finch

Schools

George Carver Elementary

Lincoln High School

Spelman College

University of Denver

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Mollie

Birth City, State, Country

Dallas

HM ID

BEL06

Favorite Season

Winter

State

Texas

Favorite Vacation Destination

South Padre Island, Texas

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Texas

Birth Date

8/7/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Dallas

Country

United States

Favorite Food

All Food

Short Description

Newspaper publishing chief executive Mollie Belt (1943 - ) , daughter of Dallas Examiner founder Fred J. Finch, Jr., has been CEO and publisher of the Dallas Examiner since 1997.

Employment

Texas Employment Commission

Harris County Manpower Program

City of Dallas

United States Department of Health and Human Services

Dallas Examiner

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
0,0:9492,147:22830,287:31062,420:34572,462:35188,515:79008,1180:85318,1338:129168,1816:134064,1922:147420,2030:156827,2230:160185,2300:165076,2573:179154,2729:204910,3017:213385,3193:213685,3275:237428,3517:246050,3594:246589,3602:248437,3649:248745,3657:253558,3720:254244,3728:278430,4094$0,0:5025,94:5718,104:10312,172:27168,531:27424,536:45702,832:47014,866:47342,871:48654,895:50048,928:50868,942:51196,947:51524,952:56386,1045:64028,1116:64538,1123:71372,1249:79534,1355:88840,1530:89800,1550:92920,1602:93320,1608:98040,1755:111698,1989:140249,2342:141118,2391:143567,2604:144278,2612:144752,2661:176720,2949:186320,3092:189920,3183:194940,3196
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Mollie Belt's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Mollie Belt lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Mollie Belt describes her mother's family background, pt.1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Mollie Belt describes her mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Mollie Belt talks about her mother's experiences growing up

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Mollie Belt describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Mollie Belt describes her father's work for the Department of Defense and his joining the Air Force

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Mollie Belt describes her childhood experiences in Tuskegee, Alabama

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Mollie Belt describes her experience in Cambridge, Massachusetts while her father attended Harvard Law School

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Mollie Belt describes her similarities to her parents

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Mollie Belt describes the sights, sounds, and smells of her childhood, pt.1

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Mollie Belt describes the sights, sounds, and smells of her childhood, pt.2

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Mollie Belt talks about attending school in Tuskegee, Cambridge, Massachusetts and Dallas, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Mollie Belt describes going to the library with her mother and meeting Eleanor Roosevelt in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Mollie Belt describes her mother's teaching school and her attending schools in Dallas, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Mollie Belt talks about the integration of schools in Dallas, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Mollie Belt talks about her experience at Lincoln High School in Dallas, Texas

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Mollie Belt describes her reasons for attending Spelman College

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Mollie Belt describes her reasons for not wanting to return to Spelman College after her freshman year

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Mollie Belt describes the atmosphere at Spelman College in the 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Mollie Belt describes her experience at the University of Denver

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Mollie Belt describes her post graduation search for employment in the 1960s

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Mollie Belt describes her experience in Harlingen, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Mollie Belt describes her experience living and working in Houston for the Manpower Program and her move to Dallas

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Mollie Belt describes the changes in Dallas from the 1960s to the 1970s

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Mollie Belt describes working in Dallas for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Mollie Belt describes how her father started The Dallas Examiner

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Mollie Belt talks about her father's role in starting The Dallas Examiner

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Mollie Belt talks about the murder of her parents during a home burglary

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Mollie Belt describes taking over ownership of The Dallas Examiner after her parents' death, pt.1

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Mollie Belt describes taking over ownership of The Dallas Examiner after her parents' death, pt.2

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Mollie Belt describes the demographics of Dallas, Texas

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Mollie Belt describes the changes she made to The Dallas Examiner after her father died

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Mollie Belt talks about Future Speak program for area youth, pt.1

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Mollie Belt talks about Future Speak, pt.2

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Mollie Belt describes the key issues covered by The Dallas Examiner Newspaper

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Mollie Belt talks about The Dallas Examiner's coverage of HIV/AIDS, pt.1

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Mollie Belt talks about The Dallas Examiner's coverage of HIV/AIDS, pt.2

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Mollie Belt describes The Dallas Examiner's coverage of the arts, and its editorial section

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Mollie Belt reflects upon her legacy and the legacy of The Dallas Examiner

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Mollie Belt talks about what she might have done differently

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Mollie Belt describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Mollie Belt talks about the future of The Dallas Examiner

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Mollie Belt talks about the relevance of print media

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Mollie Belt talks about her children

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Mollie Belt describes the state of Texas politics, pt.1

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Mollie Belt describes the state of Texas politics, pt.2

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Mollie Belt talks about The Dallas Examiner's freelance employees

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Mollie Belt talks about how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Mollie Belt describes her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

3$4

DATitle
Mollie Belt describes taking over ownership of The Dallas Examiner after her parents' death, pt.1
Mollie Belt talks about The Dallas Examiner's coverage of HIV/AIDS, pt.2
Transcript
So you're working at this time and you (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous)--I'm working at the federal government.$$So you could have, you know, kept working and (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous)--I did for a while; I did continue working for a while and I'd come over here to the office at night and we'd--well, no. When that happened, you remember, I took a year's leave of absence, so I was over at the paper every day; that was kinda like my therapy. My whole thing was my father's vision, he'd worked so hard to start this paper that I just had to see it continue, and so it was at it's very infant stages. In order to join like NNPA [National Newspapers Publishers Association] or API [Amalgamated Publishers Incorporated], you had to join--you had to print 52 issues, so I had to make sure that 50--that--and it's hard printing 52 issues. I know advertising. And it was hard then and it's hard today to get advertising in black newspapers. So I stayed there at the office, I wasn't a publi--I wasn't a publisher that was going out; I didn't even put my name on the pa--on the (unclear) of the paper. I owned the paper but I didn't--Charles was the editor. And so I sat there and we worked, made sure we joined API, NNPA and, you know, I would help assign stories and things. We had freelance writers and, you know, stuff like that, but I did not go out to events and things; I just kinda stayed locked up in that building like--go there to--so after--I guess I took a leave maybe a year, a year and a half, may have been two years and--that I went back to work, and it was just--my son was here, you know, going to college, and he was like distributing the paper part time; you know, distribution's a part-time job, and he would run over there to my office downtown and, you know, I'd have--to get me to sign stuff and do stuff. And I loved the work that I was doing; I'm very interested in health care but I just could not continue to do the paper and that job. And because I supervised people, it's very difficult when you supervise people for the federal government; you can't fire 'em (laughter). You know, you can't fire them, so you know, you have to develop them. And, and, and I guess they thought I was a good manager because they always gave me some really hard employee to deal with, so that meant you gotta work--do the employment development plans and all that kinda stuff, you know? They don't have satisfactory evaluation; it just was a--so that stress plus, you know--my supervisor would say things to me like, 'Well Mollie, do you realize that you want off just about every Friday?' 'So-what? I'm the highest performer in the office; so-what if I take off every Friday, I have the leave.' At that time, when I was taking off every Friday, my kids were in college and so my, my, my husband and I--he--I had a good friend and a little boy got him put out of his home; he was a high school student at Desota (ph.) High School, so she called me and asked me did I know of some family that could take him in and he could live with 'cause he was living with the coach and his coach's wife was pregnant and he was sleeping on the sofa in the living room and that just wasn't good. And I told my husband, I said, 'Do you know somebody?' And he said, 'Well how come he can't come stay with us?' Well, I guess he could, you know. We had plenty of room, so we took him in and he ran track, so we'd go to track meets every Friday, you know. But I just got tired of that, you know, that, that structure of having to ask somebody can I be off on Friday. And I just decided that, you know, the best thing for me to do is just to work at the paper full-time, so I took an early retirement and started working at the paper. My husband and I had contributed just--I don't even wanna add up the money that we put into the paper from the time my father died because the paper, it just--it was not sustaining itself.$$Now was your husband a partner with your father before?$$No.$$Okay.$$Well, no--yeah, a law partner--$$Yeah.$$--in the law office, but not with the paper.$It's not just gay men disease.' He say, 'Okay,' he say, 'you can have it here.' It was on a Wednesday night. He say, 'You can have it on one condition.' I say, 'What's that?' He said, 'I wanna meet Danny Glover.' I say, 'Okay.' I say, 'I'm supposed to go out there and meet him at the airport at 6:00.' And I told him the morning I'm gone' meet him and--because with--I took--arranged to take him to all the radio--black radio stations so that he could go on and tell people to come to the Town Hall meeting, you know, and talk about AIDS. So Rickie [Reverend Ricky Rush] met me out there at the hotel and he ended up riding with me to all the venues to take Danny [Glover] so he could get out and go in and talk. And he asked me, he said, 'Well, what you gone' do about feedin' him?' He say, 'I'll have my people at the church fix dinner.' I say, 'Well that will be wonderful.' He said, 'And I'll get my people to help park the cars that night.' I said, 'That's fine.' He said, 'Well Mollie, what do you think I oughta wear?' I said, 'What you oughta wear? I don't know, whatever you wanna wear.' He's a real little man, you know. So--then I thought; he had been wearing fatigue wear with boots, to fight drugs, you know, in the community. And he wore the fatigue like a war on drugs. I say, 'It's a war on AIDS so wear your fatigue tonight,' and he say, 'Okay.' So he wore his fatigue and he stood up there in the pulpit and he told--we had about a thousand people in the church and he told them to go get tested. We had the County Health Department; all these AIDS agents had their testing stuff, we had rooms inside the church and mobiles outside. He say, 'Go get tested now,' and they went and got tested; we tested about 200 that night, and then a lotta people got tested after then. I would go in a restaurant, and I'd see people and they'd say, 'I want you to know I heard it on the radio and I went and got tested,' 'cause we had it broadcast live on the black radio stations. So then the next year we did PROBE, you know. We did--that was another health--AIDS supplement. You know, it's kinda like--and you know when I think about it, we never got money to publish the--to, to, to pay for the printing--The Dallas Examiner, we incurred those costs. Because it is so hard getting advertising. The thing that helped me with the first supplement was one company and one man I met who worked for Pfizer and he was in governmental affairs, and he got it; he called the people up in New York at Pfizer and told them to buy a full-page, full-color ad and, and, and I had that in there. But it's--we did the supplements. We've done other supplements, too--$$Okay.$$--we do.$$So when you deal with a story, you rally the community around--you do education forums and all, you know (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous)--Yeah, with AIDS we did; we, we had several programs with AIDS; we had one out at Paul Quinn College, with a nurse, to get--we did the same thing, had the mobile unit out there to get those students tested. We don't do that with everything; it just depends on what the issue is--$$Okay.$$--you know. I don't wanna say we're known for those events.

Rod Doss

As the editor and publisher of The Pittsburgh Courier since 1997, Rod Doss has helped elevate the status of the publication into one of the most widely circulated African American newspapers in the country. Born in Pittsburgh, Doss is a graduate of the Pittsburgh Technical Institute and attended the University of Pittsburgh.

Doss’ career with The Pittsburgh Courier dates back to 1967 when he was appointed as a sales representative. His ultimate promotion to editor and publisher in 1997 came following the death of his mentor, legendary publisher and founder of the National Newspaper Publishers Association, John H. Sengstacke, who owned the Courier at the time. With a staff of only twelve full-time employees, Doss produced hard hitting stories, while still portraying the African American community in a positive light.

Doss has been the recipient of the Press Club of Western Pennsylvania Service to Journalism Award, the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity’s Man of the Year Award and the Duquesne Light African American Leadership Award. Doss has also been honored by the Allegheny County Board of Commissioners and Pittsburgh City Council.

In 2007, Doss and The Pittsburgh Courier Archives Committee traveled to Washington, D.C., to petition U.S. Representatives John Lewis, Mike Doyle and Jason Altmire for funding on a project to restore and digitize over 750,000 images spanning nearly 100 years of African American history of the Courier’s collection. Congressman Doyle presented them with a $150,000 check in January, 2008.

Accession Number

A2008.107

Sex

Male

Interview Date

8/14/2008

Last Name

Doss

Maker Category
Organizations
Search Occupation Category
First Name

Rod

Birth City, State, Country

Pittsburgh

HM ID

DOS01

Favorite Season

All Seasons

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Caribbean

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Pennsylvania

Birth Date

3/10/1943

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Pittsburgh

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Steak

Short Description

Newspaper editor and newspaper publishing chief executive Rod Doss (1943 - ) has edited and published 'The Pittsburgh Courier' since 1997. He has helped elevate the status of the publication into one of the most widely circulated African American newspapers in the country.

Favorite Color

Gold

Marguerita Le Etta Washington

Omaha Star publisher Marguerita Le Etta Washington was born on August 16, 1948 to Anna Le Brown and attorney Edmund Duke Washington. Washington’s maternal great grandfather, the richest man in Bessemer, Alabama, left his fortune to his black daughter, her grandmother. The white relatives resolved the matter by burning down the Bessemer courthouse. Washington’s aunt, Mildred Brown, founded Omaha, Nebraska’s Omaha Star in 1938. Washington graduated from Kansas’ Lincoln High School in 1964, at the age of sixteen. Afterwards, she briefly attended Lincoln University in Jefferson City. She then went on to attend the University of Nebraska at Omaha where she earned her B.A. degree in sociology and elementary education. While earning her M.A. degree in administration and special education, Washington began teaching in the Omaha public schools. She earned her Ph.D. from the University of Nebraska - Lincoln in administration and instruction in 1985.

On November 2, 1989, Washington’s aunt, Mildred Brown, was laid to rest, and Washington became the Omaha Star’s new publisher. The Omaha Star has a circulation of 30,000 in Nebraska with a staff that is encouraged to be readers and critical thinkers. Regular contributions are made by Phyllis Hicks and State Representative Ernest Chambers. A community institution, the Omaha Star’s headquarters was recognized as a historical landmark designation in 2006, and under Washington’s leadership, a memorial will be created in honor of her aunt, Mildred Brown.

In 2005, the Omaha YWCA recognized Washington as one of the ten “Women of Vision.” In 2007, Washington formed the “Mildred D. Brown Memorial Study Center, Inc.,” in order to give young people the opportunity to study and research the history of African American journalism in Nebraska as well as getting hands on experience with a local newspaper.

Washington was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 5, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.280

Sex

Female

Interview Date

10/5/2007

Last Name

Washington

Maker Category
Middle Name

Le Etta

Schools

Lincoln College Preparatory Academy

R.T. Coles Vocational Junior High School

Wendell Phillips Elem. Magnet

Lincoln University

Avila University

University of Nebraska-Omaha

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Marguerita

Birth City, State, Country

Kansas City

HM ID

WAS05

Favorite Season

Fall, Summer

State

Kansas

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Nebraska

Birth Date

8/16/1948

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Omaha

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chili, Hot Wings

Short Description

Newspaper publishing chief executive Marguerita Le Etta Washington (1948 - ) was the publisher of the Omaha Star, the only African American newspaper in Nebraska.

Employment

Omaha Public Schools

Omaha Star

Favorite Color

Blue, Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:2335,61:52686,570:55644,621:114642,1079:115153,1087:127486,1149:128224,1159:137684,1241:157368,1540:158428,1551:159594,1561:161290,1581:162032,1589:169760,1654:206764,1964:207276,1983:231860,2195:238676,2307:243092,2362:255176,2511:255432,2516:256264,2531:257490,2537$0,0:2801,42:3587,49:6476,95:8442,108:9333,123:9981,132:11844,158:12411,167:12816,173:13302,180:36580,336:40039,365:60626,597:60914,602:70246,794:82284,861:87340,942:87814,949:97650,1018:105297,1095:105692,1101:106087,1107:106640,1115:107035,1121:122921,1197:123988,1211:131108,1278:131660,1285:137572,1330:139340,1353:140276,1364:140692,1369:146724,1459:159230,1533:169572,1616:169868,1621:181037,1772:182282,1795:182780,1802:184689,1833:186990,1853
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Marguerita Le Etta Washington's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington talks about her mother's birth

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes her mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington talks about her father's birth

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington explains why her father fled Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington explains why her father fled New York City

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington recalls being raised by her father

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes her parents' personalities and her likeness to them

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes her neighborhood in Kansas City, Missouri

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes her early personality

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington recalls her childhood pastimes

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes her parents' commitment to education

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington remembers trips with her father

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes Wendell Phillips Elementary School in Kansas City, Missouri

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington recalls her mischief at Wendell Phillips Elementary School

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes the vocational education programs in Kansas City, Kansas

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington recalls the founding of the Omaha Star

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington remembers her subscription to the Kansas City Call

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes Lincoln High School in Kansas City, Missouri

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington remembers her stepmother

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington recalls her activities at Lincoln High School

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington recalls her experiences at Lincoln University in Jefferson City, Missouri

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington recalls her transfer to St. Teresa's College in Kansas City, Missouri

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington remembers her brief marriage

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes her studies at the University of Nebraska-Omaha

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes her doctoral dissertation

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes her work in the Omaha Public Schools

Tape: 3 Story: 12 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes her educational philosophy

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington recalls becoming the publisher of the Omaha Star

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington reflects upon her challenges at the Omaha Star

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes the Omaha Star

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington talks about the Omaha Star's news coverage

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes the writing staff of the Omaha Star

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes the different responsibilities of journalists and publishers

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington talks about the Omaha Star's advertisers

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington recalls the most popular issues of the Omaha Star

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes the latest issue of the Omaha Star

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community of Omaha, Nebraska

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington reflects upon the changes at the Omaha Star

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington shares her plans for the future of the Omaha Star

Tape: 4 Story: 13 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$4

DAStory

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DATitle
Marguerita Le Etta Washington describes her work in the Omaha Public Schools
Marguerita Le Etta Washington talks about the Omaha Star's news coverage
Transcript
From what I understand you taught in Omaha [Nebraska] public school system for--I guess from 19--what to, from--?$$To, actually when I inherited the paper [Omaha Star] I tried to do both, stay with OP, I thought I was superwoman, I'm not (laughter) I found out. And I did both the paper as well as work for Omaha Public Schools, but I found out after five years I couldn't do that. It was, it was taking a toll on me.$$Okay so, oh so, oh well you worked on your, your, you worked for the public schools from '72 [1972] until 1989, I guess right?$$Uh-huh.$$Yeah.$$Well actually it was longer than that it was five years after '89 [1989].$$Okay, all right so 'til 1994, I guess?$$Yeah, like I said I worked with both.$$Okay, now what, what did you do for the public schools?$$I started off as a pre-school teacher because I forgot I also studied early childhood education, as well as elementary education. And then secondary so, you know. So, I started off pre-school teacher, then I became an elementary teacher and taught grades--primary, the primary grades. Then I was the special education and I taught all of the grades. And then I went to secondary education and I because a resource teacher, meaning I didn't have a classroom. I went to the classrooms and--$$So, you would help the other teachers develop research materials and resources and thing (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Uh-huh, right, right. Then I was placed in a, I'd guess you'd call it a semi-administrative position, or maybe administrative position. Vocation, vocational education where I would go to various schools and teach study skills to kids and how to take tests and that kind of thing. I developed--I guess you call it a vocational program where I would take kids to various corporations and businesses and what have you and some of them would get, get hired. In fact, I understand that some of them are working at these places this very day. And I didn't--especially kids that I worked with were behavior problems mostly or, or they had disabilities, you know LD students. Learning disabilities, none of them were I mean they could have grown up and, and become the president. I mean they weren't low functioning, it's just most of them had behavior problems, you know. So--$$It's easy--$$Say what?$$We think of some of the presidents we've had, it's easy to imagine that some of them could be president.$$Yeah, yeah. So that's what I did. This particular vocational education program was federally funded and that only lasted for two years.$What were the, what are the big community issues that the paper has covered since you've been, been here in charge?$$Well, economic development for one thing which is badly needed because ever since the riots in the '60s [1960s] I believe yeah, '60s [1960s], '60s [1960s], '70s [1970s], '60s [1960s] yeah '60s [1960s]. And they burned everything down, except some black businesses. And they removed the, the rumble, or the crumble I better say crumble and all we had was vacant lots. And many people moved out of the area. And especially after the interstate the freeway came through here and many people had were forced to move. What was your question again, I'm sorry?$$I was asking you about some of the issues in town [Omaha, Nebraska] (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Okay.$$--and we were talking about community economic development?$$Well, economic development.$$Economic development.$$Economic development that's one of the main things that we talked about. Health issues we're strong on health issues. Educational issues we're strong on that. We've even gotten to the point now where we're talking about domestic issues, because there's so much spouse abuse. So, in fact that is really out of control so, we're talking about that a lot. All of the particular issues that are of importance to us we cover. But, this is a paper and it always has been that is a positive paper. Now, I realize negative news sells newspapers but they can get that in a daily paper. Omaha Star tries to uplift people. It tells what people are doing that are positive. There's also emphasis on our young people and what they are doing. And that's what the Omaha Star is all about.$$Now, is most of the (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) My philosophy is that pay a lot of attention to the young people because as the old saying goes they are our future.

Rosetta Miller-Perry

Multi-talented Tennessee Tribune publisher and civil rights activist, Rosetta Miller-Perry was born Rosetta Irvin on July 7, 1934 in Coraopolis, Pennsylvania. The steel mills attracted her parents, Anderson Irvin and Mary Hall Irvin to Coraopolis from New Orleans, Louisiana. Miller-Perry grew up near the Allegheny River where she spent her first four years on her aunt’s house boat. She attended McKinley Elementary School and Coraopolis Junior High School. A good student, who read the Pittsburgh Courier and played the organ for her church, Miller-Perry graduated from Coraopolis Senior High School in 1952. Accepted by Howard University, Miller-Perry was disappointed when a close relative spent her tuition money. Moving to Chicago, she attended Herzl Community College and Cortes Peters Typing School while working for Spiegel’s. Perry joined the United States Navy in 1954, where she worked for Adam Bush in the Pentagon and for the Adjutant General’s Office in Germany.

Miller-Perry completed her B.S. degree in chemistry from the University of Memphis in 1956 and her D.M.S. from the John A. Gumpton School of Mortuary Science in 1957. In 1958, she attended Tennessee State University and then Meharry Medical College for nurses training as she worked for Southern Funeral Home. Actively involved in the civil rights struggle, Miller-Perry worked closely with Z. Alexander Looby, Curley McGruder, Reverend Kelly Miller Smith and other leaders. When Looby’s home was bombed by the Ku Klux Klan in 1960, Miller-Perry moved to Memphis. She worked closely with SCLC and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. She was brought into the United States Civil Rights Commission (USCRC) in 1960 as a clerk typist, then as a field representative. Assigned to cover the Memphis Garbage Strike in 1968, Miller-Perry witnessed the suspicious activities of the FBI, “The Invaders” and the chaos after the murder of Dr. King. Assigned to the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) in 1975, Perry became Nashville Area Director of the EEOC. She retired from government service in 1990.

Miller-Perry founded Perry and Perry Associates in 1990 and published Contempora, a Tennessee-focused African American magazine. In 1992, Perry founded the community-oriented Tennessee Tribune in order to focus on issues like health, education, and voter registration. She established the Greater Nashville Black Chamber of Commerce (GNBCC) in 1998. That same year, Miller-Perry created the Anthony J. Cebrun Journalism Center in partnership with Dell Computers to prepare young people for careers in journalism. In 2006, she published the names of registered voters in the predominantly black districts, who did not vote and increased voter turnout from 35% to 65%. A civic dynamo, Miller-Perry serves on numerous boards. The Rosetta I. Miller Scholarship at Memphis State University was created in her honor and the annual $1,000 Rosetta Miller-Perry Award for Best Film by a Black Filmmaker is presented at the Nashville Film Festival.

Miller-Perry was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 18, 2007.

Accession Number

A2007.096

Sex

Female

Interview Date

3/18/2007

Last Name

Miller-Perry

Maker Category
Schools

Coraopolis High School

McKinley Elementary School

Coraopolis Junior High School

Tennessee State University

Meharry Medical College

John A. Gumpton School of Mortuary Science

University of Memphis

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Rosetta

Birth City, State, Country

Coraopolis

HM ID

MIL05

Favorite Season

Christmas

State

Pennsylvania

Favorite Vacation Destination

Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts

Favorite Quote

Things Get Better With Time.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Tennessee

Birth Date

7/7/1934

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Nashville

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken

Short Description

Civil rights activist, magazine publishing entrepreneur, and newspaper publishing chief executive Rosetta Miller-Perry (1934 - ) served as a clerk typist, then as a field representative for the U.S. Civil Rights Commission. She was also Nashville Director of the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. She went on to become publisher of the Tennessee Tribune.

Employment

U.S. Commission on Civil Rights

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:474,56:4582,70:21560,230:23912,251:24619,259:35206,474:35646,480:36086,486:39540,501:40404,519:41700,543:42060,549:44220,597:45372,626:47820,684:48396,694:54010,756:55290,797:56490,836:60330,911:60650,916:77744,1103:81530,1211$0,0:14012,217:17980,243:31480,449:31960,456:37214,528:45740,636:46524,647:47014,653:47602,660:54250,709:55600,737:57790,747:68346,933:73860,953:76308,1011:76988,1033:77260,1044:77600,1050:85148,1262:98222,1518:103634,1571:104372,1582:104782,1588:106176,1607:106586,1613:114099,1703:116050,1719:117514,1752:119050,1778
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Rosetta Miller-Perry's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Rosetta Miller-Perry lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes her mother's upbringing

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes her father's first wife and remarriage

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes her parents' move to Coraopolis, Pennsylvania

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes her father and her likeness to him

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Rosetta Miller-Perry lists some of her siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Rosetta Miller-Perry remembers living with her maternal aunt

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes her childhood pastimes

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes her early experiences of racial discrimination

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Rosetta Miller-Perry recalls working as a domestic for her white peer's family

Tape: 1 Story: 15 - Rosetta Miller-Perry remembers Coraopolis High School in Coraopolis, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Rosetta Miller-Perry remembers the draft during World War II

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes the sights and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes her father's career

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Rosetta Miller-Perry remembers her early aspirations

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Rosetta Miller-Perry remembers the newspapers in Coraopolis, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Rosetta Miller-Perry recalls her activities at Coraopolis High School in Coraopolis, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Rosetta Miller-Perry remembers Mount Olive Baptist Church in Coraopolis, Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Rosetta Miller-Perry recalls being prevented from attending Howard University

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Rosetta Miller-Perry remembers moving to Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Rosetta Miller-Perry remembers working at the Pentagon

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Rosetta Miller-Perry remembers meeting her husband

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes her ex-husband's family background

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Rosetta Miller-Perry remembers her time in Germany

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Rosetta Miller-Perry recalls the start of her involvement in the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Rosetta Miller-Perry remembers her experiences of segregation

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Rosetta Miller-Perry remembers learning about nonviolent direct action

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Rosetta Miller-Perry talks about the civil rights marches

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes the residents of Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Rosetta Miller-Perry recalls the John A. Gupton School of Mortuary Science in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Rosetta Miller-Perry remembers working at the Southern Funeral Home in Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Rosetta Miller-Perry remembers Memphis State University in Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes the Rosetta I. Miller Award Fund

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes her civil rights activities in Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Rosetta Miller-Perry recalls the leadership of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Rosetta Miller-Perry recalls her early civil rights activities in Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Rosetta Miller-Perry remembers joining the U.S. Civil Rights Commission

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Rosetta Miller-Perry remembers being targeted in a federal investigation

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Rosetta Miller-Perry recalls staying at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Rosetta Miller-Perry talks about the Invaders

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Rosetta Miller-Perry recalls the rumors about Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Rosetta Miller-Perry recalls an incident with N.J. Ford

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Rosetta Miller-Perry remembers Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Rosetta Miller-Perry recalls Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination

Tape: 4 Story: 11 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes Civil Rights Movement leaders' illicit activities

Tape: 4 Story: 12 - Rosetta Miller-Perry talks about the tactics of the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Rosetta Miller-Perry remembers the Poor People's Campaign

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes the impact of civil rights groups on black newspapers

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Rosetta Miller-Perry recalls working at the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes changes in the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Rosetta Miller-Perry remembers Clarence Thomas

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Rosetta Miller-Perry recalls founding Contempora magazine

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Rosetta Miller-Perry remembers founding The Tennessee Tribune

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Rosetta Miller-Perry recalls her newspaper's impact on voter turnout

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Rosetta Miller-Perry recalls the criticisms of her newspaper

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes The Tennessee Tribune newspaper

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Rosetta Miller-Perry remembers Anthony J. Cebrun

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes the racial tensions in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes her publishing philosophy

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Rosetta Miller-Perry talks about megachurches

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes the challenges facing The Tennessee Tribune

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes the staff of The Tennessee Tribune

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes her advertisers' partners

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes her plans for the future

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes the leadership of The Tennessee Tribune

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes her concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes the mission of The Tennessee Tribune

Tape: 6 Story: 13 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes the Rosetta Miller-Perry Award for Best Black Filmmaker

Tape: 6 Story: 14 - Rosetta Miller-Perry reflects upon her life

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Rosetta Miller-Perry talks about the media's portrayal of the black community

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes the influence of Christianity in the South

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Rosetta Miller-Perry reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes her family

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Rosetta Miller-Perry describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 6 - Rosetta Miller-Perry narrates her photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

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DAStory

2$4

DATitle
Rosetta Miller-Perry recalls her early civil rights activities in Memphis, Tennessee
Rosetta Miller-Perry describes her publishing philosophy
Transcript
So how did you get involved in civil rights?$$Well, you know, at that time I didn't do bridge, I didn't only--I was in the sorority, and Memphis [Tennessee] was hot, you know. And when they started marching, I just got involved, started marching and getting angry. And you go to the movement. I mean, you went to, to, to all the meetings and you get stirred up. And then I lived in Lakeview Gardens [sic. Lakeview Garden, Memphis, Tennessee] and well, they were talking about other people, we are consumers, we are spending our money with other people. And then we had this Chinese store out there and the people weren't nice to us, but we spent our money there. So, it started making me angry and I just got involved 'cause I want--I used to put my kids in front of that store and marched, just the four of us (laughter) telling people not to shop there. So you just keep getting yourself involved, one more thing and then the bigger thing and so forth. I talked my sorority into participating in the marches, you know. They didn't wanna do it, but we, you know, eventually everybody in town, basically.$$So what sorority were, were you in?$$Alpha Kappa Alpha [Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority].$$Okay, AKA.$We were noticing the layout of the paper [The Tennessee Tribune], you have a lot of nice big pictures in the newspaper. Do you have a philosophy about how newspapers should be laid out, the visual side of it?$$Well, personally I feel like my people won't pick up a newspaper if they don't see a picture. You know, they don't wanna read all that, whatever it is. But what--and people have told me this, tha- when they get my paper, they go to the social section and they read, 'cause they see the pictures. And then, they're relaxed they read the news, you know. But basically in black papers, you know, our news is old news, so we have to do other things like say who's who in business or you know, what things are happening in the community because we're weekly, you know.$$Yeah, a weekly paper, I guess any weekly paper now would not be news oriented, because you--everything is already over with by then?$$But we do a lot of national black news that these folks would never see. And that's what people like about my paper. They would never even know what's happening in New York [New York] or Chicago [Illinois] unless they read my paper, because they're not gonna read it in the white paper.$$Yeah, I just was reading an extensive article on the res- resignation of the director of the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People] just now that I didn't know anything about. That happened on Ma- March the 4th and it's the first I've read about it.$$Right. So those are the types of things, you know, the people need to know. And then people are doing creative things in other communities. And pe- excuse me, people can get ideas from what's somebody's doing in New York, you know, instead of us doing the same old thing over and over again.