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Dr. Robert L. Smith

Professor and physician Dr. Robert L. Smith was born in Terry, Mississippi on December 20, 1936 to Willie B. Smith and Lillie Mae Smith. He received his B.A. degree in chemistry from Tougaloo College in Tougaloo, Mississippi in 1957 and his M.D. degree from Howard University in Washington, D.C. in 1961.

Smith completed his clinical training at the West Side Medical Clinic of Cook County Hospital in Chicago, Illinois and returned to Jackson, Mississippi and founded the Family Heath Center, now known as the Central Mississippi Health Services, Inc. In 1964, Smith worked with the Medical Committee for Human Rights (MCHR) to provide medical services for civil rights workers during the Freedom Summer in Jackson, Mississippi as its first Southern Medical Field Director. Smith later worked as an assistant clinical professor of family medicine at the University of Mississippi Medical School, where he participated in the development of the Family Medicine Program as a co-principal investigator with the National Research Program’s Arteriosclerotic Risks in Community Studies. Smith worked as an adjunct professor at Tufts University in Boston, Massachusetts, Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee and Jackson State University in Jackson, Mississippi as well as professor emeritus position in the department of community medicine at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island. During his career, Smith also assisted in institutionalizing the pre-health program at Tougaloo College.

In 2011, part of Jackson Metro Parkway was renamed in honor of Dr. Robert L. Smith. In 2014, Smith received the Community Service Award from the Mississippi Board of Trustees of the State of Institutions of Higher Learning, and was also named Diversity Educator of the Year. In 2017, the American Medical Association presented Smith with its Medal of Valor Award for his civil rights work. In the same year, the Mississippi State Senate honored Smith for his community health work. Smith was a charter diplomat of the American Board of Family Physicians and a charter fellow of the American Academy of Family Physicians. He was an active staff member of Mississippi Baptist Health Systems, St. Dominic-Jackson Memorial Hospital, and Central Mississippi Medical Center.

Dr. Robert L. Scott was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on December 13, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.222

Sex

Male

Interview Date

12/13/2017

Last Name

Smith

Maker Category
Middle Name

L.

Occupation
Schools

Terry Grove School

Hinds County Agricultural High School

Tougaloo College

Howard University College of Medicine

First Name

Robert

Birth City, State, Country

Terry

HM ID

SMI35

Favorite Season

Summer

State

Mississippi

Favorite Vacation Destination

New Orleans

Favorite Quote

Keep It Simple

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Mississippi

Birth Date

12/20/1936

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Jackson

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Collard Greens, Potatoes, Okra, Grits and Eggs

Short Description

Professor and physician Robert L. Smith (1936 - ) was the president of Central Mississippi Health Services, Inc. and the first Southern Medical Field Director for the Medical Committee for Human Rights.

Employment

Mississippi State Hospital

Cook County Hospital

Tougaloo College

Private Practice

Favorite Color

Blue and Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:6762,192:9936,268:11316,292:17334,344:21436,374:29444,505:34525,555:39710,642:40680,655:45582,697:45914,704:46412,711:47657,734:48404,745:49815,771:54156,788:54571,794:58940,848:59212,853:64720,992:68969,1038:72787,1116:73534,1127:75360,1156:76273,1168:76605,1173:77020,1179:77767,1189:83448,1237:89090,1319:89727,1327:103417,1583:104600,1618:104964,1623:107239,1673:111300,1687$0,0:644,8:1380,18:7527,77:7931,82:10557,106:11163,113:14830,120:18592,166:19846,178:25774,235:42320,367:43040,377:45380,410:50562,440:50938,445:51314,450:51878,458:53758,502:54416,510:59038,546:59426,551:63985,607:73970,684:76170,834:86452,908:87285,956:99551,1100:100658,1111:105017,1182:108251,1332:115027,1511:115412,1517:115874,1524:117183,1558:117491,1563:118800,1583:128590,1671:129192,1680:129536,1685:131084,1762:131686,1770:135470,1820:136416,1840:139340,1916:148314,1989:154350,2048:155999,2070:156484,2076:156969,2082:159006,2107:161857,2121:165169,2345:169240,2462:176884,2539:179674,2602:180046,2611:180542,2622:186067,2681:189220,2740
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Robert L. Smith's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Robert L. Smith lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Robert L. Smith talks about his paternal grandfather's journey to Terry, Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes his father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes his father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers his home in Terry, Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls his first piano

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes his father's work in the livestock trade

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers the movie theaters in Jackson, Mississippi

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls visiting his sister in Jackson, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers the Terry Grove School in Terry, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls his decision to stop studying piano

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers his introduction to medicine

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls contracting salmonella

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes the Utica Institute-Hinds County Agricultural High School, Colored in Utica, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes his parents' disciplinary methods

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls his decision to attend Tougaloo College in Tougaloo, Mississippi

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes his experiences at Tougaloo College

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers his influences at Tougaloo College

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes his decision to attend the Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls his classmates at the Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers the murder of Emmett Till

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes his residency at Cook County Hospital in Chicago, Illinois

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Robert L. Smith talks about his scholarship from the State of Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls his return to Terry, Mississippi

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls being surveilled by the Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers his decision to join the Civil Rights Movement

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes the State of Mississippi's attacks on Tougaloo College

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers meeting Medgar Evers at Tougaloo College

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Robert L. Smith describes his experiences of voter suppression in Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers Medgar Evers' mass meetings in Jackson, Mississippi

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers James Meredith's supporters

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Robert L. Smith talks about the assassination of Medgar Evers

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls the march after Medgar Evers' funeral

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers picketing the American Medical Association, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers picketing the American Medical Association, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls founding the Medical Committee for Civil Rights

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

3$7

DATitle
Dr. Robert L. Smith remembers his introduction to medicine
Dr. Robert L. Smith recalls the march after Medgar Evers' funeral
Transcript
So you went from Dean Dixon the con- the conductor.$$(Laughter) To Dean Dixon to Charles Drew [Charles R. Drew].$$To Charles Drew.$$(Laughter) Yeah.$$What was it? You just liked the way they looked (laughter)?$$(Laughter) Well, but there was just the influence. Now what made me do that, I don't know. But it also made me a little different because some of my family and some of the students told me, "You don't know what you want to do." So, you know, that's kind of crazy, a country boy from Terry, Mississippi, in grade school [Terry Grove School] saying he want to be a physician. And (laughter) are you following me? And certainly there was no black physicians around. But I can't say that I wasn't exposed to a physician because it happened to have been two things. I had a white Jewish physician, who was a bird hunter who wanted to come down and hunt birds on my property's land. And my daddy [Joe Smith], being the bigot he was, he would ask my daddy to go out in the woods with him, and my daddy would say, "Well, take that boy," (laughter), you know. And he took me (laughter) and I would start asking him questions and we would start interacting with these different questions. And he, and then sometimes on these bird hunts he would bring me material. And he, when he retired, he gave a set of medical books.$$How old were you then?$$Oh, probably ten.$$So you were first exposed to medicine by a white Jewish doctor--$$Um-hm.$$--who was a bird hunter on your daddy's land (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Dad's pro- Daddy's property, yeah.$$How improbable is that?$$Well, it was (laughter) not that improbable, but that's the (laughter), that's the circumstances.$Tell me about the impact of Medgar's [Medgar Evers] assassination on you and your focus, what--just, just recall that.$$That, again--that, again, was just a horrific experience, culminating in demonstrations in the street, on Rose and later his funeral. And of course, I attended his funeral. And Mrs. Sanders [Thelma Sanders] and I and a group, not again thinking about the impact of our lives, joined that march and walked hand in hand from Rose Street, from Lynch Street [John R. Lynch Street] to Capitol Street. And I was, we was dared to come across Capitol Street. And thank god John Doar and his group parted the waters and let us proceed up through, up Capitol, up Farish Street to Collins and Frazier Funeral Home [sic. Frazier and Collins Funeral Home; Collins Funeral Home, Inc., Jackson, Mississippi].$$So you marched from Rose Street--$$I marched from Capitol, from--it was the Lynch Street Masonic Temple (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Temple.$$--all the way from up what then was Terry Road [Jackson Terry Road; Terry Road], all the way up to--down Pascagoula [Street] to Farish Street and from Farish Street--$$Across Capitol Street.$$Right. That's where the stop was. We weren't--$$So you're across Capitol Street. You didn't act--$$We weren't supposed to cross Capitol Street.$$To cross Capitol Street--$$That was--$$--but you did.$$We did.$$Thanks to John Doar, D-O-A-R, who had been appointed by--$$Appointed--$$--Kennedy [President John Fitzgerald Kennedy] to be his ombudsman for civil rights issues.$$Yes.$$That was--$$But we were supposed to be more down like dogs when we crossed, when we crossed.$$So what exactly did John Doar do?$$He came out from somewhere and--$$So did he have federal marshals with him or something?$$Had federal marshals with him.$$And the, and the new, and the city police--$$City police--$$--is just--$$--who was parked on, they was parked on rooftops and everything at Capitol and at Capitol and Farish to post a blocker, so we crossed Capitol.$$And they moved aside?$$Moved aside.$$Now explain to me why the white power structure was so adamant about you not marching on Capitol Street but merely crossing it en route to the funeral home [Frazier and Collins Funeral Home; Collins Funeral Home, Inc., Jackson, Mississippi]? What (simultaneous)--$$(Simultaneous) Well--$$--what was, what was the thinking?$$It was, it was a symbol of, just a symbol of white oppression. We're in charge. That's the only thing that I can see, is a symbol of white oppression, that we were not supposed to be--we were not supposed to Capitol, cross Capitol Street. That was a great street.$$In the shadow of the old--$$It's--$$--state capitol.$$Shadow of the old state--a symbol of white power.

The Honorable Ewart Brown

Political leader and physician Dr. Ewart Brown was born May 17, 1946 in Flatts Village, Bermuda to Ewart D.A. Brown and Helene Darrell Brown. He attended the Central School and the Bermuda Technical Institute before attending the Berkeley Institute in 1957. Brown’s parents sent him to Spanish Town, Jamaica for high school, where he attended St. Jago High School. While living in Jamaica, he took an interest in politics, and was exposed to teachings by Norman Manley and Alexander Bustamante, leaders of the Jamaican independence movement. Brown enrolled at Howard University in Washington, D.C. in 1964, where he studied chemistry. At Howard, he worked as a sportswriter for the Washington Post, was elected president of the student council, and was active in football and track and field. In 1966, he represented Bermuda as a sprinter in the British Empire and Commonwealth Games in Kingston, Jamaica. Brown was a leader in the 1968 student occupation of Howard’s administration building, and helped to negotiate an agreement with university trustees. He graduated in 1968 with his B.Sc. degree.

Brown continued his studies at the Howard University School of Medicine, where he graduated with his M.D. degree in 1972. He hoped to practice medicine in Bermuda, but after being denied a license there on account of his political views, he moved to California and earned his M.S. degree in public health from the University of California at Los Angeles and opened the Vermont Century Medical Clinic in South Central Los Angeles. After finally earning his license in Bermuda in 1988, he founded Bermuda Healthcare Services, campaigned for office and then won election to the Parliament of Bermuda representing the Progressive Labour Party (PLP) in 1993. Brown was promoted to Minister of Transport in 1998 when the PLP became Bermuda’s ruling party, and then became deputy premier in 2003. He defeated Alex Scott in a PLP leadership contest in 2006, and so took office as Premier in October of that year.

In office as premier, Brown’s accomplishments included implementing restrictions on vehicle ownership, advocating for Bermuda’s independence from the United Kingdom, and agreeing to resettle on Bermuda four Uighur Muslims who had been freed after their imprisonment by the United States at Guantanamo Bay. He also continued his medical practice, and founded Brown-Darrell Clinic in 2008 with his wife, Wanda Henton Brown. Brown stepped down as premier in 2010.

Ewart Brown was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on August 20, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.146

Sex

Male

Interview Date

08/20/2017

Last Name

Brown

Organizations
First Name

Ewart

HM ID

BRO65

Favorite Season

Warm

Favorite Vacation Destination

Turks and Caicos

Favorite Quote

I'm making lemonade out of lemons.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

5/17/1946

Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

Bermuda

Favorite Food

Seafood

Short Description

Political leader and physician Dr. Ewart Brown (1946 - ) founded Bermuda Healthcare Services and the Brown-Darrell Clinic, and served as the ninth premier of Bermuda from 2006 to 2010.

Favorite Color

Orange

Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick

Physician and college president Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick was born on June 17, 1971, in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. After graduating from high school at the age of fourteen, he took pre-college courses at St. Mary’s College in Port of Spain. Frederick enrolled in Howard University in 1988, at the age of sixteen. In 1994, he earned his dual B.S. degree and M.D. degree from Howard University and went on to complete his residency in general surgery at Howard University Hospital.

In 2000, Frederick was appointed as a clinical instructor in surgery at the Baylor College of Medicine in the Ben Taub General Hospital in Houston, Texas. He fulfilled his post-doctoral research and surgical oncological fellowships at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston in 2003. That same year, Frederick was named an assistant professor in the department of surgery of the University of Connecticut Health Center, where he became director of surgical oncology and associate director of the Neag Comprehensive Cancer Center in 2005. In 2006, he returned to Howard University as the associate professor in the department of surgery at Howard University Hospital. In 2012, he was named provost of Howard University and became president of Howard University in 2014.

Frederick has authored numerous research publications and editorials, as well as served as a member of a number of professional and scientific societies. These organizations include the American Association for Cancer Research, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, and the National Medical Association. He has also been a member of the Society of Black Academic Surgeons, the Society of Surgical Oncology, and served as president of the board of the Texas Gulf Sickle Cell Association from 2002 to 2003.

Frederick’s work has won multiple awards and honors, including recognition from the U.S. Congress for his contributions in addressing health disparities among African Americans and historically underrepresented groups in 2014. He was named by the Washington Post as a “Super Doctor” in 2011, was in Ebony Magazine’s 2010 ‘Power 100’ list, and was on Black Enterprise Magazine’s list of America’s Best Physicians.

Wayne A.I. Frederick was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on January 30, 2017.

Accession Number

A2017.012

Sex

Male

Interview Date

1/30/2017

Last Name

Frederick

Middle Name

A. I.

Organizations
Schools

Diego Martin Government Primary School

St. Mary's College

Howard University College of Medicine

Howard University School of Business

First Name

Wayne

Birth City, State, Country

Port of Spain

HM ID

FRE09

Favorite Season

Summer

Favorite Vacation Destination

Montego Bay, Jamaica

Favorite Quote

Man's Greatest Imperfection Is His Passive Acceptance Of His Imperfection.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

6/17/1971

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

Trinidad & Tobago

Favorite Food

Doubles

Short Description

Physician and college president Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick (1971 - ) served as the provost of Howard University from 2012 to 2014, and then became Howard University’s seventeenth president.

Employment

Howard University Hospital

University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

University of Connecticut Health Center

Howard University Cancer Center

Howard University College of Medicine

Howard University

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:19240,325:20010,343:23790,421:34962,561:39330,680:43308,758:44790,786:60418,991:70150,1128$0,0:1309,25:1848,37:4158,76:4620,84:10241,204:10549,209:11319,226:14168,307:20880,342:21370,351:29280,518:29910,529:35860,774:36840,792:38380,816:39080,827:39780,873:45063,890:46557,916:46889,921:47553,942:50707,1017:51620,1033:54110,1098:62400,1180:66458,1218:67472,1237:68486,1252:68798,1257:69188,1264:70592,1352:74868,1406:76056,1446:78460,1464:79540,1485:82708,1552:83068,1559:86308,1698:87028,1780:101303,1955:118805,2308:121560,2342:122820,2363:123360,2370:123990,2379:125700,2417:131184,2472:131688,2477:133720,2482:134440,2495:143142,2654:144000,2728:144312,2737:145014,2752:147822,2804:148134,2809:151020,2863:151332,2868:152112,2882:152424,2887:175450,3233:176844,3252:177500,3263:177828,3268:185526,3366:186056,3373:187646,3406:188070,3411:193705,3448:194130,3454:196340,3487:196680,3492:197530,3531:198465,3543:198805,3567:200250,3581:200590,3586:203990,3639:208485,3664:210310,3698:212062,3724:212865,3737:213303,3744:219999,3858:226380,3928
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about his mother's education

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his mother's community in Trinidad

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about his father's death

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his parents' personalities

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about sickle cell anemia

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes the research on sickle cell anemia

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick recalls his diagnosis with sickle cell anemia

Tape: 1 Story: 14 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick recalls his treatment for sickle cell anemia

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about the culture of Trinidad

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick recalls his early education

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick remembers his early influences

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about his love of reading

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about his interest in soccer

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his musical interests

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about Eric Williams

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about the history of St. Mary's College in Port of Spain, Trinidad

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his education at St. Mary's College

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick remembers applying to Howard University

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick remembers moving to Washington, D.C.

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick recalls his first impressions of Howard University

Tape: 2 Story: 13 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his influences at Howard University

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick recalls entering the Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about his assimilation to the African American community, pt. 1

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about his assimilation to the African American community, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about Dr. LaSalle D. Leffall, Jr.

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick remembers Clive Callender

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick recalls Dr. LaSalle DLeffall, Jr.'s position in the American College of Surgeons

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick recalls his focus during medical school

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick recalls his fellowship at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick describes the impact of his sickle cell anemia on his career

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick talks about working as a surgeon and university president

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick describes the challenges of surgery

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his experiences at University of Connecticut Health Center

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick recalls his decision to return to Howard University Hospital

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his role as deputy director of the Howard University Cancer Center

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about the future of cancer treatment

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about the influence of positive thinking on recovery

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his administrative duties at Howard University Hospital

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick recalls obtaining an M.B.A. degree

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about the culture of Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes the administrative challenges at Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick talks about his challenges as president of Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick recalls his administrative positions at the Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick recalls the resignation of Howard University President Sidney A. Ribeau

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick describes his initiatives at Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick talks about the Graduation and Retention Access to Continued Excellence program

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick describes his mention in the Congressional Record

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick shares his plans for the future of Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick describes alumni engagement at Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick describes the federal support for Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick talks about the importance of historically black universities

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick reflects upon his life and legacy

Tape: 5 Story: 11 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 12 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick talks about STEM education

Tape: 5 Story: 13 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick reflects upon the legacy of Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 14 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick reflects upon his family

Tape: 5 Story: 15 - Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick describes how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

1$3

DAStory

10$5

DATitle
Dr. Wayne A. I. Frederick describes his earliest childhood memory
Dr. Wayne A.I. Frederick remembers Clive Callender
Transcript
Now, do you have an earliest childhood memory?$$Me, yeah, I do. You know, at the age of three I remember lis-overhearing my [maternal] grandmother [Christine Roach (ph.)] talking to some neighbors about my having sickle cell [sickle cell anemia]. And I, I didn't quite understand what it was, et cetera. I was riding on a tricycle. At the time I remember stopping her to ask her to explain to me what it was, and she attempted to do so. I rode off and came back and said to her I was gonna become a doctor to find a cure for sickle cell. She, she repeats that story a lot, and that's, but, and that's probably my earliest childhood memory.$$That seems like an indication of focus (laughter), purpose.$$Yeah, from a pretty early age. She, you know, my grandmother and I were very close. She was a huge motivating factor in terms of she never made me feel that I would not be able to accomplish the things that I set, set out to do. And so, you know, and that, anytime I would repeat that, you know, she would just encourage me and act as if of course that's gonna happen. And so it was a, a strong motivator growing up.$The other person who has been a huge influence on not just my career but my life as well, is [HistoryMaker] Clive Callender. And I think, I, I think I have been attracted to both of these men because of what happened with my father [Alix Frederick] so early in life. I think I've always been attracted to strong men who lead with a certain level of integrity and have embraced not just the surgeon in me or the career aspects of what I do, but they've been concerned about my personal life. And Dr. Callender is an example of that. He, he became the chair of surgery [at Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C.] after Dr. Leffall [HistoryMaker Dr. LaSalle D. Leffall, Jr.] became the president of the American College of Surgeons. When I was graduating from the surgical program, he gave me the Chairman's Award [Chairman's Award of Excellence] as the chief of--as the best chief that graduated that year. It was a very humbling honor at that time, 'cause I remember sitting in those seats as a junior resident watching, you know, who the chief resident of the year was every year and thinking to myself, wow, you know, I, I--it's not something I could even think I could aspire to be. What was critical about his involvement is that when I went to MD Anderson [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas], he tried to get me to come back here. I had just met my wife [Simone Frederick], and I couldn't take any chance. They took forever to make me an offer. And I was so apprehensive about the whole thing that I took a job at the University of Connecticut [University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut] because they were taking so long. And I remember him calling me in April to then make me an offer. I had to move in July. I had already accepted MD Anderson's offer--I mean UConn's offer. And I remember telling him that I wasn't gonna come, that I would go to UConn, and he was so devastated he stopped talking to me (laughter). It was--$$Who, Dr. Callender, right, the--$$Yeah--$$--Dr. Callender?$$--that, this is Dr. Callender. And you know, obviously I went to University of Connecticut, and two years later I found myself back at Howard [Howard University Hospital, Washington, D.C.]. He got to recruit me again and sealed the deal. And I remember when I came back here, one day I walked into his office and I said you know, "A lot of things are going well, and I'm pretty happy. But I do have this aspect of my life around my spirituality that concerns me." And I, and I remember telling him it's not a church thing. I, I was an altar boy growing up in, when I was in high school [St. Mary's College, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago]. So from the ages of ten to sixteen I was an altar boy. I went to all Catholic high school. I was an Anglican. And so it wasn't so much that aspect, but I felt like it was a deeper personal journey that I needed. And so you know--$$You were a practicing, practicing Anglican?$$Yeah, I was practicing. I, I, I wouldn't say--$$So did you, you go to--$$I wouldn't say--$$--church as a--$$--very active. I did, but not, not very often. I wouldn't say very often at all. And he came to me one day, and his solution was every morning, I will send you a text with a piece of scripture in it, and you know, it'll just be random. And you can take a look at it. And, and so we have done that for as long as I can remember. Every single morning he does it, up to this morning. And I send back a note that, that simply says, "Thank you." And that has been very helpful because that has spurred other conversations with us, you know, about questions that I might have about decisions I need to make, personal and career wise in particular. And so I'm very appreciative for that. And I, I've kept all of the, the texts interestingly enough. But that's the type of mentor that he has been to me as well.

Dr. Warren Goins

Physician Warren Goins was born on March 28, 1938 in Brooklyn, New York. He graduated from Lincoln University with his A.B. degree in chemistry in 1959. Inspired by his own physician, Dr. Aurelious King, Goins went on to attend Howard University’s College of Medicine. While he was on partial academic scholarships, Goins later found out that Dr. King was paying the balance of his tuition. He went on to graduate from the Howard University College of Medicine with his M.D. degree in 1963.

In 1963 and 1964, Goins interned at Maimonides Medical Center in Brooklyn. Then, from 1964 to 1967, he served as a captain in the United States Air Force, stationed in Wethersfield, England. Upon his return in 1967, Goins became a resident in internal medicine at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine at Montefiore Medical Center, where he then became a fellow in cardiovascular disease in 1969. Goins also served a fellowship at the Manhattan V.A. Hospital from 1970 until 1971. He went on to practice internal medicine with Preferred Health Partners at the Bedford Williamsburg Center in Brooklyn.

Goins and his wife, Charlynn Goins, have worked together in many philanthropic endeavors, helping organizations such as Boys and Girls Harbor, A Better Chance, the Gracie Mansion Conservancy, and the Brooklyn Museum, among others. In 2010, they made fractional gifts from their private collection of celebrated paintings by artists Robert S. Duncanson and Charles Ethan Porter to the Brooklyn Museum’s collecting initiative that focused on the acquisition of works by African American artists. Goins’ medical group has received many awards and honors for their work in the medical field, including the National Committee for Quality Assurance’s Physician Practice Connections Recognition Program in 2011, 2012 and 2013; and the National Committee for Quality Assurance’s Patient-Centered Medical Home Recognition Program in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Goins also received an award from the National Committee for Quality Assurance’s Diabetes Recognition Program in 2012.

Goins lives with his wife, Charlynn, in New York. They have two children: Hilary and Jeffrey, and four grandchildren.

Warren Goins was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on October 21, 2013.

Accession Number

A2013.276

Sex

Male

Interview Date

10/21/2013

Last Name

Goins

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Harvey

Occupation
Organizations
Schools

Stuyvesant High School

Lincoln University

Howard University College of Medicine

First Name

Warren

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

GOI03

Favorite Season

Spring

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Southern France

Favorite Quote

I Can't.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

New York

Birth Date

3/28/1938

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New York

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Potatoes

Short Description

Physician Dr. Warren Goins (1938 - ) was a physician for over fifty years. He and his wife, Charlynn Goins, were well-known New York philanthropists who owned an important collection of nineteenth-century African American art.

Employment

Montefiore Hospital

Advantage Care Physicians

Manhattan V.A. Hospital

Maimonides Hospital

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:4221,129:5025,146:5494,154:5896,161:6164,166:6432,171:6968,180:7571,190:7839,195:8107,200:8710,210:9983,241:10921,259:14925,282:20028,400:40122,572:40394,577:41278,593:50870,678:58220,734:58736,742:59596,753:62195,792:62837,799:65191,825:73350,926:73938,933:77368,979:78054,990:81008,1011:81593,1017:82178,1024:96905,1208:98117,1233:100642,1294:101854,1307:102561,1316:103268,1324:106190,1335:106650,1341:107018,1346:107570,1354:109042,1426:118806,1521:122289,1608:123261,1627:123990,1639:124314,1644:124638,1649:125610,1671:141830,1840:148105,1866:148812,1874:152246,1922:153357,1934:153862,1941:161095,2000:177008,2193:184683,2284:185068,2290:191228,2416:191613,2422:197640,2497:201554,2557:206018,2630:206378,2636:209254,2650:213038,2731:215414,2769:215766,2774:216118,2781:216470,2789:223191,2850:225116,2883:226040,2899:226733,2909:227426,2921:227965,2929:228812,2945:233894,3044:234202,3049:234587,3056:235357,3068:237359,3107:242154,3141:243666,3167:245262,3195:246186,3209:247194,3239:247782,3247:259722,3438:260460,3453$0,0:5670,150:6230,160:6510,165:9870,279:10150,284:14320,298:17841,317:18745,327:19536,336:20101,342:20553,350:21005,355:23068,375:24186,390:24616,396:24960,401:25648,411:28404,429:28934,435:29358,440:33075,490:34563,520:36981,559:37632,569:41817,675:42468,683:43491,697:49225,790:49680,798:51760,804:52574,817:52944,823:53758,842:54424,847:55090,858:58173,885:59636,911:60560,924:61099,933:61715,985:62023,990:62485,998:65100,1007:66204,1021:67400,1036:68320,1047:68688,1052:69424,1062:70068,1071:72092,1103:82160,1183:82635,1192:84060,1223:85295,1243:85675,1248:89095,1305:91470,1344:96981,1366:98034,1384:98763,1409:102084,1469:102489,1475:102894,1481:103218,1486:103947,1496:104676,1502:107187,1549:108078,1563:108807,1573:109536,1585:110103,1593:111237,1606:112614,1620:113991,1636:121900,1678:123160,1698:123970,1709:126310,1754:127840,1773:128200,1778:131170,1831:131890,1840:134613,1864:138756,1929:141216,1973:142036,1985:143594,2031:153782,2207:154502,2223:159470,2335:163310,2365:164130,2426:168312,2487:169214,2501:171264,2540:172822,2561:179070,2625:180420,2634:180870,2641:181230,2646:188430,2798:191220,2847:196755,2881:197259,2891:198141,2906:198393,2911:198834,2920:200283,2947:200850,2964:201417,2977:201858,2989:202425,3000:202740,3006:207750,3069
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Warren Goins' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Warren Goins lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Warren Goins describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about his father's Melungeon heritage

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Warren Goins describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about how his parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Warren Goins remembers his home life

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Warren Goins recalls the holidays

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Warren Goins describes his parents' personalities and who he takes after

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. Warren Goins describes the sights, sounds and smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. Warren Goins remembers Stuyvesant High School in New York City

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Dr. Warren Goins recalls his early aspirations to become a physician

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about his early influences

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Warren Goins describes his first impressions of Stuyvesant High School in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Warren Goins recalls his social activities

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Warren Goins remembers joining Jack and Jill of America, Inc.

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Warren Goins recalls meeting his wife

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Warren Goins describes his experiences with Jack and Jill of America, Inc.

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Warren Goins recalls his first impressions of Lincoln University in Pennsylvania

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about his leadership roles at Lincoln University

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Warren Goins describes his experiences at Lincoln University

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Warren Goins remembers his first impressions of his wife

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Dr. Warren Goins recalls entering the Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Dr. Warren Goins describes his classmates at the Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about his wife's college scholarship

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about the perceptions of African American doctors

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Warren Goins remembers marrying Charlynn Goins

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Warren Goins remembers his internship at Maimonides Hospital in Brooklyn, New York

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Warren Goins recalls living in England while serving in the U.S. military

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Warren Goins describes his travels in Europe

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Warren Goins remembers practicing medicine in England

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Warren Goins recalls observing the Civil Rights Movement while living abroad

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Dr. Warren Goins remembers returning to the United States

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Dr. Warren Goins describes the importance of board certification in the medical field

Tape: 3 Story: 11 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about his early career as a cardiologist

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Warren Goins recalls obtaining his board certification

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Warren Goins remembers buying a home in New Rochelle, New York

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about the declining role of primary medicine

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Warren Goins recalls his wife's decision to attend Columbia Law School

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about the women's movement of the 1970s

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Warren Goins recalls the start of his wife's legal career

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Warren Goins describes his relationship with his children

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about Health Insurance Plan of Greater New York, Inc.

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. Warren Goins recalls the success of AdvantageCare Physicians

Tape: 4 Story: 10 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about the changes in the health insurance industry

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Warren Goins describes his approach to patient care

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about his administrative experiences at AdvantageCare Physicians in New York City

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Warren Goins shares his views on the future of medicine

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about the challenges he faced during his career

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Warren Goins recalls starting his art collection

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Warren Goins describes his art collection

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about acquiring the pieces in his art collection

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Warren Goins describes the artists in his art collection

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about the importance of the black art collectors

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Dr. Warren Goins reflects upon his life

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Warren Goins describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about his concerns for the future of African American physicians, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dr. Warren Goins talks about his concerns for the future of African American physicians, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dr. Warren Goins reflects upon his legacy and how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

5$2

DATitle
Dr. Warren Goins recalls living in England while serving in the U.S. military
Dr. Warren Goins talks about his administrative experiences at AdvantageCare Physicians in New York City
Transcript
Then you get drafted [into the U.S. military]. Is that when you get drafted?$$Yeah, they had the Berry Plan. So, you signed up when you were in medical school that they wouldn't interfere with your education until you finished either your residency or your internship. So, I had signed up to go in after my internship [at Maimonides Hospital; Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York] and in that, all my other friends didn't have to go because they were not physicians but they were drafting physicians. I had no choice, and so in, I guess it was '64 [1964], we were able to call up Washington, D.C., and speak to somebody and they, at that time I was drafted for two years and we offered to, if they sent me to Europe, I'd stay an additional year so that's what they did and I was really thinking of France at the time, and de Gaulle [Charles de Gaulle] kicked us out of France in '62 [1962], so I--$$You meant the United States.$$Yeah. So I went to, I was stationed outside of London [England] for three years, which was great.$$So, describe the experience.$$Well, it was very, very pleasant. We were in the little town of Wethersfield [England]. It was sort of equidistant between London and Cambridge [England]. We went, Charlynn [HistoryMaker Charlynn Goins] had a letter of introduction from her history professor, whose wife went to Cambridge [University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England]--I guess in the late '20s [1920s] or '30s [1930s]--was a Cambridge grad. Sorry, I can't remember all of these names but, at any rate, when we went, we were a little reluctant to go because we were both young at this time and we knew this lady had to be in her sixties, but we did go visit her and when we got there she, a little town pretty close to where I was stationed. You know, the streets were named after her parents and everything, and they, she started inviting us to her parties that she had and one interesting thing, when I was getting ready to come back home, I talked about English, they were all sort of very soft, wore knickers. They called themselves farmers but they were all, they all were Cambridge grads and they all were talking about their poultry farm and this farm and they, I'm sure they were MI5 [Security Service] by this group. This was the ideal group for it. At any rate, I, we were getting ready to come back home--this was after three years--and they asked me, "Well, where else are you going?" And I said, "Well, we couldn't go to the continent," meaning France, and they said, I told them I had run out of money, and they said, "You know, we never met an American who ran out of money before." And that, I found very amusing (laughter). Never met an American who had run out of money.$$So she was nice to you then.$$Very nice. Used to include us in all her parties and--not all her parties but a good number of them--so we got a chance to see a different side of the English countryside and remember, 'Europe on 5 Dollars a Day' [Arthur Frommer] was very popular then, so as a captain with five years' experience, overseas pay and we didn't live on the base. They only had some fighter pilots and some important people who took care of the planes on the base and we lived in a little country village so, it was very good. We could jump in our car and drive to Paris [France] for the weekend, a long weekend, they didn't care if the doctors were on the base or not as long as one of them was there.$So you took on an administrative--I'm trying to understand the key, if you could help me--$$Yeah (simultaneous).$$--(simultaneous) understand the key things in your career.$$Well, I wasn't, while I was chief of medicine [for AdvantageCare Physicians, New York, New York], saw my full contingent of patients and I was involved, like for about four or five years, all of these eight centers, would send people to specialists and I would look over the referrals and sometimes I would call the doctor and ask, "Why are they sending this patient out," because one thing, we were an HMO [health maintenance organization], with a collective set amount of money and when you went to another doctor on the outside, the insurance company, they would bill the insurance company and then the insurance company would subtract the money from us and it was some service we could provide. Our group, before we had all of this condensation into one group [EmblemHealth, Inc., New York, New York], was very good in terms of following the directions and monitoring what should be done and what shouldn't be done. So, we were, things were good and probably, if anything, they were overpaid, you know, from the state and you know, 'cause one time, when we had a very good accountant who was on the parent company's board of directors, Rappaport [ph.], and he was basically a part time physician, a part time accountant with our group, but he was one of these men who must have been there sixty hours like everybody else, looking at the paper clips and turning off the lights in the different offices and running around, but, anyway it was interesting. I enjoyed what I did and we opened up a new center in Bay Ridge section of Brooklyn [New York] and I wrote a lot of the checks, too, and I just remembered during the summer, I wrote for twenty-one thousand dollars for an electric bill and I was saying, "Look, why have we got to have twenty-one thousand dollars?" This is a month for the electric in this building and it was a two story or three story, and they said, "Oh, you've got an elevator." And I said, "Look, twenty-one thousand--." And this was air conditioned. This was during the summer and you'd go to the place, you'd be freezing and I said, "Look, let's cut off the air conditioning." We didn't have the ability to cut off the air conditioning in that building because New York [New York] had all the controls over in New York, so they keep the air condition blasting, they keep the lights on all night, and then we get this twenty-one thousand dollar bill that we had to pay and, anyway, it was a lot of, some of it was humorous when I look back.$$But wait a minute. So, you're really talking administrative role too, with the practice--$$Yeah, we did, well, we were a partnership and we had administrators but, you know, the doctors looked over what they could. We weren't doing the administrative work with the employees or anything like that, but we was writing the, signing the checks and which money went out, and questioned what we thought was appropriate.

Dr. Alvin Blount, Jr.

Physician Dr. Alvin Blount, Jr. was born on February 24, 1922, in Wake County, Raleigh, North Carolina. He was the eldest of four children and the only son of parents who worked as domestics. After graduating from Washington High School in Raleigh, Blount enrolled at North Carolina A & T University in 1939 where he served as the student body president and as chairman of the campus newspaper before graduating in 1943 with his B.A. degree in chemistry (magna cum laude). After graduating, Blount was accepted into a government funded program that enabled him to enroll in Howard University Medical School where he studied under Dr. Charles Drew and received his M.D. degree in 1947. Blount spent three years on active duty in the U.S. Army during medical school. He completed a general surgery residency at Kate Bittings Reynolds Memorial Hospital in Winston-Salem.

In 1952, Blount was mobilized with the 8225th Infantry Division from Fort Bragg as a member of the U.S. Army Medical Corps’ 2nd Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH) Unit that was sent to Korea. Blount, whose team performed ninety surgeries a week, went on to become a captain in the U.S. Army Medical Corps. He served as acting Chief of Surgery for the 8225th MASH Unit in Korea from 1951 until 1952, and was appointed Chief of Surgery for the 47th U.S. Army Combat Surgical Hospital in Southeast Asia. He returned to the United States in 1954.

In 1957, Blount became the first African American in North Carolina be certified by the American College of Abdominal Surgeons in 1957 and practiced at Kindred Hospital (formerly L. Richardson Hospital). He was a litigant of the suit Simkins v. Moses H. Cone Hospital (1963), the landmark Supreme Court decision that desegregated hospitals throughout the South. Blount became the first black surgeon admitted to the medical staff of Cone Hospital in 1964. He served as Chief of Surgery for L. Richardson Hospital and as Medical Director for the Guilford Health Care Center.

Blount was affiliated with numerous organizations including Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and the Association of Guardsmen. He was a member of the Sigma Pi Phi Fraternity since 1970; and, in 1979, he established the Beta Epsilon Boule of the Sigma Pi Phi Fraternity in Greensboro. Blount, a 33rd degree Mason, was an honorary past Grand Master and Medical Director of the Prince Hall Masons of North Carolina. He received countless awards including the Order of the Long Leaf Pine, the highest honor that can be granted to a civilian in the state of North Carolina. In 1983, North Carolina A & T University awarded Blount an Honorary Doctorate of Humanities

Blount passed away on January 6, 2017 at age 94.

Accession Number

A2013.157

Sex

Male

Interview Date

5/5/2013

Last Name

Blount

Maker Category
Marital Status

Widow

Middle Name

V.

Occupation
Schools

Washington High School

North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University

Howard University College of Medicine

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Alvin

Birth City, State, Country

Raleigh

HM ID

BLO02

Favorite Season

Summer

State

North Carolina

Favorite Vacation Destination

Home

Favorite Quote

If you think you are right, have the courage to do it.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

North Carolina

Birth Date

2/24/1922

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Greensboro

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Chicken

Death Date

1/6/2017

Short Description

Physician Dr. Alvin Blount, Jr. (1922 - 2017 ) , the first African American in North Carolina to be certified by the American College of Abdominal Surgeons, was a litigant in the hospital desegregation suit Simkins v. Moses H. Cone Hospital, which allowed him to become first black surgeon admitted to the medical staff of Cone Hospital. He served as acting Chief of Surgery for the 8225th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH) Unit in Korea from 1951 until 1952, and was appointed Chief of Surgery for the 47th U.S. Army Combat Surgical Hospital in Southeast Asia.

Employment

Delete

Kindred Hospital

Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital

L. Richardson Hospital

Womack Army Hospital

8225th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital

United States Army Medical Services

Katie B. Reynolds Memorial Hospital

Favorite Color

Light Green

Timing Pairs
0,0:2835,19:17790,203:18385,212:53310,588:53772,596:54465,605:76772,852:77384,864:77928,873:78404,881:80376,918:80852,926:81736,939:88510,1027:88895,1036:89115,1041:93930,1113:108490,1262:113260,1293:114502,1298:125734,1467:126139,1480:131647,1544:136290,1566:136510,1571:141156,1639:146276,1668:147872,1690:149048,1712:156058,1775:158476,1795:159100,1805:176763,2024:183386,2059:204590,2260$380,0:5980,83:6880,94:7580,100:8080,106:9180,119:10980,143:18783,270:23230,329:26290,393:26920,420:41138,575:69056,941:79454,1013:109475,1361:114721,1420:116630,1525:179498,2141:180344,2189:194972,2313:208580,2440:216256,2581:216864,2590:230282,2737:238307,2849:277920,3266
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Alvin Blount's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Alvin Blount lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Alvin Blount describes his mother's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Alvin Blount describes his mother's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Alvin Blount talks about his mother's education and aspirations and his parents working in New York during the Great Depression

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Alvin Blount describes his father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Alvin Blount talks about land ownership in North Carolina after the American Civil War

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Alvin Blount describes his father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Alvin Blount talks about his father's education and his job in North Carolina

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Alvin Blount talks about his parents getting married in 1920 and lists his siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Alvin Blount talks about his parents' loving marriage, their emphasis on education, and their having to work in New York during the Great Depression

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Alvin Blount discusses his father's employment as a chauffeur for Eddie Rickenbacker, the Rickenbacker family, and General John "Black Jack" Pershing

Tape: 1 Story: 13 - Alvin Blount talks about the mentorship that he received from his father's employer, Reed Chambers

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Alvin Blount talks about Reed Cambers, his mother's death, and his father's remarriage

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Alvin Blount describes his childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Alvin Blount talks about his childhood observations of his life as an African American

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Alvin Blount talks about his religious faith

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Alvin Blount talks about attending elementary school in New Rochelle, New York and Franklinton, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Alvin Blount talks about the difference between his elementary schools in New Rochelle, New York and Franklinton, North Carolina

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Alvin Blount talks about the teachers who influenced him, his math classes and why he decided to major in chemistry in college

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Alvin Blount talks about his academics and leadership in high school

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Alvin Blount talks about being exposed to black doctors in the neighborhood

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Alvin Blount talks about attending North Carolina A and T State University in 1939 on a National Youth Administration (NYA) scholarship

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Alvin Blount talks about his professors in at North Carolina A and T State University and his involvement in campus politics

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Alvin Blount talks about his nickname in college, and running for student body elections

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Alvin Blount recalls the United States' entry into World War II in 1941 and why he decided to pursue medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Alvin Blount talks about the importance of a background in the humanities, and how he ensured that he received a well-rounded education

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Alvin Blount talks about the joining the U.S. Army and his experience there

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Alvin Blount talks about attending Howard University's medical college, his residency in North Carolina, and the challenges of being a black physician

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Alvin Blount talks about the Flexner Report

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Alvin Blount talks about the challenges that were faced by black medical students and residents while receiving his medical training

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Alvin Blount talks about the limited opportunity for black medical residents and the discrimination against them

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Alvin Blount talks about his professors and colleagues at Howard University's College of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 10 - Alvin Blount talks about his career as a physician and surgeon

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Alvin Blount talks about his residency at Kate B. Reynolds Hospital in Winston-Salem, North Carolina

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Alvin Blount talks about rejoining the military in 1950, and his assignments to the MASH units in Fort Bragg and in Korea

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Alvin Blount describes his experience in the Korean War, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Alvin Blount talks about his marriages

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Alvin Blount reflects upon his experience in Korea during the Korean War and the plight of the civilians, pt. 1

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Alvin Blount reflects upon his experience in Korea during the Korean War and the plight of the civilians, pt. 2

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Alvin Blount talks about the book and television series, MASH

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Alvin Blount describes his experience the Korean War, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Alvin Blount talks about returning from the Korean War and his acquaintance with Thurgood Marshall

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Alvin Blount talks about becoming the first black doctor to practice at Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Alvin Blount talks about the anti-discrimination 'Simkins versus Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital' lawsuit of 1963, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Alvin Blount talks about the anti-discrimination 'Simkins versus Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital' lawsuit of 1963, pt. 2

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Alvin Blount reflects upon Jack Greenberg being the only white legal counselor for the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund (LDF)

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Alvin Blount reflects upon his experience with demonstrations at North Carolina A and T State University

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Alvin Blount talks about Reverend Jesse Jackson

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Alvin Blount talks about black doctors who were involved in civil rights and the history of African Americans in medicine in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Alvin Blount talks about becoming the first black physician to perform surgery at Moses Cone Memorial Hospital in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Alvin Blount talks about the Ku Klux Klansmen who built his home in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Alvin Blount talks about facing discrimination as a physician in Greensboro, North Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Alvin Blount talks about serving on the Greensboro jury commission

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Alvin Blount reflects upon the changes in the relationship between African American and white doctors in North Carolina

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Alvin Blount reflects upon his career

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Alvin Blount describes his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Alvin Blount reflects upon his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Alvin Blount reflects upon the election of President Barack Obama as the first black president in the United States

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Alvin Blount talks about his family

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Alvin Blount discusses health concerns and healthcare for the African American community, pt. 1

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Alvin Blount discusses health concerns and healthcare for the African American community, pt. 2

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Alvin Blount talks about medical malpractice

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Alvin Blount talks about how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 7 Story: 5 - Alvin Blount describes his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

5$6

DAStory

3$1

DATitle
Alvin Blount talks about the anti-discrimination 'Simkins versus Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital' lawsuit of 1963, pt. 1
Alvin Blount talks about becoming the first black physician to perform surgery at Moses Cone Memorial Hospital in Greensboro, North Carolina
Transcript
There's a story to that. I was chairman in Greensboro [North Carolina] of the liaison committee between the Greensboro Medical Society--black, and the white medical society, Gilford County. They had a group of doctors, members from each of them. And I served as chairman. I was secretary of the Greensboro Medical Society. And although they had other people qualified, I had an application in. And I was appointed the first black doctor to the Gilford County Medical Society and the Greensboro Academy of Medicine. Now, there's another--added to it. They offered us, before this, what is called a scientific membership--which you go to the meetings, but the social events, you were excluded.$$Scientific membership?$$Yeah. And we wrote them back and told them this is the most insulting thing you can do, and did not accept it.$$Yeah, isn't a goal of the American Medical Association to form a collegial bond between physicians?$$Well, that's what they said. But you see, they didn't have a--. Here's the question. When you read this book, you'll understand the black doctor was never intended by the American Medical Association to be as full fledged as the white physician. I don't care how much training, what and what--if you're black, then you lost your qualification then. That went for [Dr. Charles] Drew, that went for all of us at Howard [University, Washington, District of Columbia], and everybody, until they got them to--and so forth. So, there we had that right that we had in the South. And in--a lot of northern states were doing the same thing. It excludes, at that time it didn't exclude Connecticut nor Massachusetts at first. So, this is it, the thing that we were fighting about. It all eventually led, as you know, in a suit.$$Right, right.$$In 1962.$$A friend of yours who's a dentist, right, filed?$$There were ten of us.$$Well, can you remember all ten?$$Yeah. I got them around here somewhere. Okay, let me see if I can give you--There was Dr. [Walter] Hughes, Dr. Blount, Dr. Jones and Dr. Alexander, Dr. F. E. Davis and E.C. Noel. And the dentists were Dr. [George] Simkins, Dr. Milton Barnes and Dr. W. T. L. Miller. And there were two civilians, one of which was named Lyons.$$Okay.$$That's it.$$Okay, okay.$Okay. Now, in 1964--this is the same year as the Civil Rights Act was passed, you became the first black physician to perform an operation at Moses Cone [Memorial Hospital, Greensboro, North Carolina], right?$$Yes I did, a cholecystectomy (unclear).$$How did that take place? I mean, was there, you know--because you being the first, there had to be some--was there any ceremony involved in this, or any--$$It is said that the white surgeons took a holiday that day. That's so far back I can't think whether it was true or not. More than likely, it was. But it was said that for two or three days, the white physicians would boycott this. I don't know whether they did or not, but that is said, and it probably is true. But I had been operating with them over at the black hospital. So, that wasn't anything new. I'd been at the [U.S.] Army hospital and I operated, so--. And my assistant was in surgery and gynecology, but he was also certified. So, we went in and did our, you know, before we do our operations, the first thing we do is we ligate the cystic duct and cystic artery. And then before we cut, we take a picture of the common [bile] duct to see if there are any stones in there. If not, you cut them and (unclear) come on out. And I guess we were there about an hour and ten minutes doing that. And they were amazed, because some of their doctors took two hours and a half or something. But that goes under the particular art of dexterity. And some people are fairly good technicians and others aren't, and no matter how much theory they know, they just can't do the small things, because we don't--yeah--$$We were talking about Jack White earlier--$$Yeah, that's right.$$--about how dexterious he was.$$And me doing them now, I'd be doing laproscopic. I'd just make two little holes and look down there and clip, clip, clip, clip, and in thirty minutes, I'm out. But (unclear), and then of course, the next day I have to (unclear) with an abdominal hysterectomy and, you know, the vaginal. I did, and I think the next day I had a cholecystectomy the day before, and lesions were left in the colon and enter into what we call entero-proctostomy, the thing what I've been doing all the time. And then they started drifting back and shaking my hands and saying, "It certainly went right, I'm sorry y'all had to go through this stuff." You know, I just took that pressure off them. "Yeah, man. But you see what you were doing, you were messing with my welfare because the patient wanted to come here, and I couldn't come here. So they had to get somebody here to do the operation. You're taking my money. (laughter). And so, that's the only thing we're interested in. You don't have to love me, or like me, or not. But you don't have the right to keep me out of this facility, because you don't want it. The people know it."$$This is true.$$Yeah. So there again goes-they of us (unclear) how to approach things and how to get things over to people definitely without having to put your fist on them. Don't get mad about it, just lay the facts out. Smarter thinker. That's what I, all my life--if you live in the South, and they do anything for you, you had to spend some nights thinking how you're going to get this done.

Dr. Patricia Bath

Medical scientist Patricia E. Bath was born on November 4, 1942 in Harlem, New York. Bath’s father, Rupert, was a Trinidadian immigrant and the first black motorman in the New York City subway system; her mother, Gladys, was a descendant of African slaves and Cherokee Native Americans and worked as a housewife and domestic. Bath attended Julia Ward Howe Junior High School and Charles Evans Hughes High School. In 1959, Bath received a grant from the National Science Foundation to attend the Summer Institute in Biomedical Science at Yeshiva University in New York, where she worked on a project studying the relationship between caner, nutrition, and stress. Bath went on to graduate from Hunter College in New York City with her B.S. degree in chemistry in 1964. She then attended Howard University Medical School. Bath graduated with honors in 1968 with her M.D. degree and also won the Edwin J. Watson Prize for Outstanding Student in Ophthalmology.

From 1970 until 1973, Bath was the first African American resident in ophthalmology at new York University’s School of Medicine. During this time, she married and gave birth to a daughter, Eraka, in 1972. In 1973, Bath worked as an assistant surgeon at Sydenham Hospital, Flower and Fifth Avenue Hospital, and Metropolitan Surgical Hospital, all in New York City. In 1974, she completed a fellowship in corneal and keratoprosthesis surgery. Then, Bath moved to Los Angeles, California where she became the first African American woman surgeon at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center. She was also appointed assistant professor at the Charles R. Drew University. In 1975, Bath became the first woman faculty member of the UCLA Jules Stein Eye Institute.

In 1981, Bath conceived of her invention, the Laserphaco Probe. She traveled to Berlin University in Germany to learn more about laser technology, and over the course of the next five years, she developed and tested a model for a laser instrument that could be tested to remove cataracts. Bath received a patent for her invention on May 17, 1988, and became the first African American female doctor to receive a patent for a medical invention. She continued to work at UCLA and Drew University during the development of her laser cataract removal instrument, and, in 1983, she developed and chaired an ophthalmology residency training program. From 1983 to 1986, Bath was the first woman chair and first female program director of a postgraduate training program in the United States. In 1993, Bath retired from the UCLA Medical Center. Bath was inducted into the International Women in Medicine Hall of Fame in 2001.

Patricia E. Bath was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on November 29, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.243

Sex

Female

Interview Date

11/29/2012

Last Name

Bath

Maker Category
Occupation
Schools

Charles Evans Hughes High School

Hunter College

Howard University College of Medicine

Julia Ward Howe Junior High School 81

P.S. 68

First Name

Patricia

Birth City, State, Country

New York

HM ID

BAT10

Favorite Season

Spring

State

New York

Favorite Vacation Destination

Hawaii

Favorite Quote

Yes.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

11/4/1942

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Los Angeles

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Fruit

Short Description

Physician Dr. Patricia Bath (1942 - ) was a professor of ophthalmology at Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science and the UCLA School of Medicine in Los Angeles, California. She invented the laserphaco probe, a device used in cataract surgery.

Employment

Yeshiva University

Harlem Hospital

Columbia University

New York University

University of California, Los Angeles

Charles R. Drew University

American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness

Favorite Color

Purple

Timing Pairs
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DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Patricia Bath's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Patricia Bath lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her mother's move to New York City

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her paternal great-great-grandfather, Jonas Mohammed Bath

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her father's career

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes how her parents met

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her father's experiences as a merchant seaman

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her likeness to her parents

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her brothers

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers her home life

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers the Harlem community in New York City

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers her childhood pastimes

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her early education, pt. 1

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls her aspiration to become a doctor

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her early education, pt. 2

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers Dr. Albert Schweitzer

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls the era of school desegregation

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her high school science fair experiment

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers Charles Evans Hughes High School in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers her early scientific achievements

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls her scholarship to Hunter College in New York City

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls her activities at Hunter College

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers the social organizations at Hunter College

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls her admission to the Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers her mentors at the Howard University College of Medicine

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her early interest in ophthalmology

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes the medical licensing process

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls her internship at New York City's Harlem Hospital

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her role in the Poor People's Campaign

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers the birth of her daughter

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her decision to become a single parent

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls joining the faculty of the Charles R. Drew Postgraduate Medical School in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers her fellowship in keratoprosthesis

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes the founding of the Charles R. Drew Postgraduate Medical School

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls the start of her medical career in Los Angeles, California

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes the development of community ophthalmology

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her study of blindness in the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers inventing the laserphaco probe, pt. 1

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers inventing the laserphaco probe, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about the advancements in ophthalmological laser surgery

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dr. Patricia Bath recalls becoming the chief of ophthalmology at the Charles R. Drew Postgraduate Medical School

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes the procedure for cataract surgery

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers her decision to retire

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her artistic interests

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her involvement in the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her involvement in the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness, pt. 2

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes her hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Dr. Patricia Bath reflects upon her life

Tape: 7 Story: 1 - Dr. Patricia Bath reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 7 Story: 2 - Dr. Patricia Bath remembers the support of her parents

Tape: 7 Story: 3 - Dr. Patricia Bath talks about her daughter

Tape: 7 Story: 4 - Dr. Patricia Bath describes how she would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

4$5

DAStory

6$4

DATitle
Dr. Patricia Bath describes her role in the Poor People's Campaign
Dr. Patricia Bath describes the founding of the Charles R. Drew Postgraduate Medical School
Transcript
I neglected to ask you about 1968 at, at Howard [Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C.]. Now were you on, you were, I guess, on the verge of graduation when Dr. King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] was killed, right?$$Yes, yes, yeah, that, that, you know, I wanted to mention about Dr. King earlier, and somehow it escaped me, but when I pledged AKA [Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority] as an undergraduate at Hunter College [New York, New York], my chapter [Lambda Chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc.] nominated me for a national office which I did win, and I became the highest ranking undergraduate officer on the board of directors, second (unclear) basileus is what they called it and in Philadelphia [Pennsylvania], when King, Martin Luther King, Jr. was speaking at the boule, I had the honor of introducing him to the boule. And so I met Dr. King and it was a brief interaction, you know, moments, minutes, but he was the type of charismatic person that could change (laughter) your whole perspective and so it had a great effect on me. And when I later went to medical school, and when he was killed, it, it did have a big effect on me and I participated in Resurrection City. I organized the medical students so we could provide healthcare, to some extent, during the Poor People's Campaign. You know, we had, that was really, it turned out to be a linchpin in the success of Resurrection City because they were trying to close it down for whatever reason and they didn't want to close it down because they didn't want poor people at the mall that would have not been an American way of closing it down, but, so they thought they could close it down based on health reasons, you know, overcrowding, unsanitary conditions and that's where the medical students came in and my role, with the role of some others, but we established the medical coordinating committee for the Resurrection City. Dr. Mazique, Ed Mazique [Edward C. Mazique], I recall, and Reverend Fauntroy [HistoryMaker Reverend Walter Fauntroy], they were the ones--and Joseph Rines [ph.] from Seventh-day Adventist, they were the ones who came up with this concept and, you know, the medical students supported it and so every time the Department of Health [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services] would come up with an excuse to close it, you know, we'd put our heads together and find a way to mitigate, you know, whether it was clean water testing, food preparation, number of infections, kids who needed shots, you know, it was my first field, battlefield experience.$$Okay, now this happened, I guess the march, the Poor People's Campaign was a dream of Dr. King's and took place after his--$$Death.$$--assassination, and--$$Yes, yes, '68 [1968].$$--after the riots and all those--$$Yeah.$$--were over, basically--$$Sixty-eight [1968].$$Yeah, '68 [1968]--$$Um-hm, the year I graduated [from Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C.].$$Yeah, so was that in, did that take place in June, May or June of that year?$$Well, the Poor People's Campaign was for several months--$$Yeah.$$--but, you know, and, of course, when I graduated in May, I stayed, I stayed there until July, had to start my internship [at Harlem Hospital; Harlem Medical Center, New York, New York].$$Okay.$$So I left.$$So, yeah, my recollection is that it, yeah, it started maybe a month or two after Dr. King was assassinated then, with the march, then occupation of the Mall [National Mall, Washington, D.C.]--$$Yes.$$--you know, so, okay so you there until Ju--$$It was great to be a part of that.$$Okay.$$And I have an article on that too. That's, that was published in the Journal of the National Medical Association, there's a shot of myself and Dr. Mazique and the coordinating committee there and our story, what we were doing.$$Okay.$Now, once again, Charles R. Drew [Charles R. Drew Postgraduate Medical School; Charles R. Drew University of Science and Medicine, Los Angeles, California], now, was Charles Drew conceived of as a hospital to give opportunities for African American and maybe even minority medical students?$$Now keep in mind, I'm in New York [New York] and they, they founded this institution before I arrived. My understanding is that Charles Drew medical school was founded as a result of the McCone Commission. There were riots after the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King [Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.] and--there were riots in Los Angeles [California] and a commission was set up. One of the findings of the commission was that the area of Watts [Los Angeles, California] and South Central [Los Angeles, California] was not only impoverished, but the people lacked access to medical care. So, the McCone Commission determined that one of the positive things that they could do was to promote the establishment of healthcare. So two things happened. One, they built Martin Luther King Hospital [Martin Luther King Jr./Drew Medical Center; Martin Luther King Jr. Outpatient Center, Los Angeles, California], which was the county; and secondly, the Drew medical school was created to nurture the hospital, in the same way that Columbia [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York] would nurture Harlem Hospital [Harlem Medical Center, New York, New York]. The problem though was that Drew had not existed as an established medical school. It's not as if it was a transplant of Howard [Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, D.C.], which couldn't be done. So in order to empower the newly established Drew medical school, the leadership at Drew decided that they would affiliate half of their departments with UCLA [University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine; David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California] and half of the departments with USC [University of Southern California School of Medicine; Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California]. They felt that that way Drew could maintain autonomy. Had they only affiliated with UCLA, then they would, they felt they would lose autonomy or the same would happen if they had only affiliated with USC. But they felt that by having two major strong institutions that they could maintain autonomy and grow and then eventually, if decided, cut ties with both. So, it was mainly established to provide service to the underserved community of Watts and South Central.

Dr. Floyd Malveaux

Allergist and Immunologist, physician and academic administrator Dr. Floyd J. Malveaux was born on January 11, 1940 in Opelousas, Louisiana to Inez Lemelle and Delton Malveaux. His mother was a math and science teacher and both parents supported his interest in science and aspirations for higher education. Malveaux did well in school, placing first in a state-wide math competition for minority high school students. He received degrees in biological sciences: his B.S. degree from Creighton University in 1961 and his M.S. degree from Loyola University, New Orleans in 1964. Malveaux went on to Michigan State University where he obtained his Ph.D. degree in microbiology and public health in 1968.

He then served as associate professor of microbiology for Howard University College of Medicine (HUCM), coordinator of the Science Program from District of Columbia Public Schools and coordinator of microbiology for Howard University College of Dentistry. Malveaux received his M.D. degree from Howard University College of Medicine in 1974 where he became interested in immunology, specifically allergic reactions and asthma. Malveaux continued specializing in these areas during his postgraduate studies at Washington Hospital Center and Johns Hopkins University. In 1978, he rejoined the faculty of Howard University College of Medicine serving as an associate professor of medicine. At HUCM, Malveaux created a training program for allergists/immunologists based on his work in allergies and immunology. In 1986, Malveaux was invited to join the faculty at Johns Hopkins University and also founded the Urban Asthma and Allergy Center in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1989, he returned to HUCM as Chair of the Microbiology Department. His work led to the Community Outreach for Asthma Care, a new treatment program at HUCM. In 1995, Malveaux became the dean of HUCM, forcing him to give up his clinical practice. In 1996, Malveaux was named interim vice president for health affairs at HUCM and served as the principal investigator for a grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for HUCM to establish a major Clinical Research Center. He co-authored a study in 1997 that demonstrated a strong correlation between cockroaches and an increase of asthma in inner city children. Malveaux retired from HUCM in 2005 and joined the Merck Childhood Asthma Network, Inc. as its head.

Malveaux is the recipient of several awards including election to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies; the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH) National Research Service Award; the Outstanding Faculty Research Award from Howard University and the Legacy of Leadership Award from Howard University Hospital. He has served as a member of many professional organizations including on the board of directors for the American Lung Association; the National Allergy and Infectious Diseases Advisory Council and the American Academy of Allergy. He worked extensively with the National Medical Association holding a number of positions including member of the board of trustees and first chair of the Allergy/Immunology Section. Malveaux is a member of the Alpha Omega Honor Medical Society. He and his wife have four adult children: Suzette, Suzanne, Courtney and Gregory.

Dr. Floyd Malveaux was interviewed by The HistoryMakers on March 6, 2012.

Accession Number

A2012.053

Sex

Male

Interview Date

6/27/2012

Last Name

Malveaux

Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

J.

Schools

Creighton University

Loyola University New Orleans

Michigan State University

Howard University College of Medicine

Search Occupation Category
First Name

Floyd

Birth City, State, Country

Opelousas

HM ID

MAL05

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

Cape Town, South Africa, Paris, France

Favorite Quote

That's cool.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

District of Columbia

Birth Date

1/11/1940

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Washington

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Gumbo (Creole)

Short Description

Allergist and immunologist, physician, and academic administrator Dr. Floyd Malveaux (1940 - ) was dean of the Howard University College of Medicine from 1995 to 2005. He is an expert on immunology, specifically asthma and allergies and became head of the Merck Childhood Asthma Network, Inc. in 2005.

Employment

Merck Childhood Asthma Network, Inc. (MCAN)

Howard University

Howard University Hospital

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Howard University College of Dentistry

District of Columbia Public Schools

Michigan State University

Favorite Color

Blue

Timing Pairs
0,0:1152,7:2016,24:2664,36:5040,86:8496,154:9360,169:10008,180:11376,194:11880,202:12600,210:12888,215:13392,226:19323,243:20070,254:21398,274:21813,280:22228,285:22726,290:23473,301:23971,307:25548,333:28038,368:28536,376:30196,400:30611,407:31026,413:31690,423:32603,436:33184,445:37914,461:38616,472:39084,483:39396,488:39864,495:40410,504:41424,521:42204,535:42750,543:43218,550:44700,577:46026,594:47196,610:48834,630:54739,675:55291,685:56878,711:58189,728:58603,736:59155,745:59776,753:61018,768:62536,798:63985,822:64330,828:64744,836:65848,852:80114,1121:100001,1321:100730,1331:101945,1353:102593,1363:103889,1392:109073,1469:110126,1491:111098,1505:111503,1511:123796,1620:124300,1628:125380,1648:125668,1653:126388,1663:127900,1679:129772,1727:130060,1732:138216,1791:143304,1865:143784,1871:149095,1892:149854,1906:150751,1921:151234,1929:152821,1970:153925,2002:155512,2028:156064,2039:156409,2045:158410,2084:158962,2094:164190,2129$0,0:1948,40:2677,49:3001,74:9562,170:10615,188:15421,215:15895,222:16685,234:17791,250:21052,270:21844,279:30358,348:31447,361:37492,385:39208,411:43342,474:44200,487:47630,503:47958,508:48614,518:48942,523:50418,540:51648,559:52140,566:61984,648:62452,656:62764,661:63388,671:64090,678:64402,683:67654,704:68246,713:69134,722:69430,727:70096,741:70392,746:72834,784:73352,793:73722,799:74018,804:74758,815:76164,847:76534,853:76830,858:77422,868:79198,887:82240,892:83040,903:85200,936:86000,947:86320,952:86720,958:87280,966:89440,991:90080,1000:92880,1043:93600,1054:93920,1059:94720,1071:96000,1094:96480,1101:101601,1122:103680,1150:103988,1155:105990,1190:106683,1202:106991,1207:108685,1242:111919,1300:112612,1312:118880,1329:120271,1343:125162,1386:126170,1396:128770,1411:129992,1430:130838,1440:134413,1463:135448,1481:140630,1533:140878,1538:141126,1543:142720,1548:143323,1559:149666,1601:152046,1657:153270,1671:154290,1691:154902,1702:161725,1758:167219,1799:168073,1818:168683,1829:169415,1843:175200,1902:179176,1930:186253,2002:187357,2034:189289,2066:189772,2075:190600,2089:193920,2105:194232,2110:195774,2121:201710,2169:206361,2197:206835,2204:208336,2228:212760,2303:214103,2323:215051,2337:216552,2362:217105,2371:229267,2492:229615,2497:233357,2538:233819,2545:234743,2558:235513,2571:236052,2579:237361,2603:238054,2613:242686,2665:243148,2672:243456,2677:244072,2682:244380,2687:246921,2717:253144,2759:255845,2770:256320,2776:257080,2786:264680,2891:265725,2904:266675,2915:267435,2925:268100,2934:275780,3000:276242,3008:278167,3043:279476,3064:280015,3071:283424,3089:290240,3117:291128,3127:291646,3135:292534,3154:293570,3168:297030,3181:297506,3189:298458,3211:299070,3223:302810,3265:303226,3270:308634,3335:309570,3354:323218,3452:324148,3474:327515,3502:328040,3508:328460,3513:331450,3524:331798,3531:332030,3536:332610,3549:333306,3566:333828,3577:339791,3613:340610,3622:341078,3627:341546,3632:342599,3649:343418,3658:345056,3675:345524,3680:350667,3698:350943,3703:363284,3829:363652,3834:364480,3845:368470,3861:369805,3874:370962,3889:371763,3901:372920,3915:374433,3938:374789,3943:375501,3959:375857,3964:376480,3973:384120,4048:384495,4054:385020,4063:390434,4119:391358,4133:392030,4143:393542,4162:394466,4175:396314,4189:396986,4199:397994,4218:399422,4242:401522,4266:402110,4271:407989,4287:411492,4323:412005,4333:413330,4346:413924,4358:414320,4365:415046,4379:415706,4390:416432,4409:417026,4421:417620,4437:418148,4446:419600,4474:432545,4608:433098,4618:434204,4634:434757,4642:435547,4654:436100,4664:438865,4717:439813,4733:440129,4738:440682,4747:444565,4763:445445,4780:447364,4789:448145,4803:449068,4818:449707,4829:451127,4855:451908,4873:452405,4881:455741,4893:456049,4898:456357,4903:457743,4919:458667,4934:460515,4965:462363,4996:463518,5016:464981,5039:465443,5046:465751,5051:468446,5098:469216,5110:477568,5183:478428,5195:480492,5229:485232,5243:485666,5251:485976,5257:486534,5265:486782,5270:487030,5276:488022,5297:488456,5305:490130,5329:490378,5334:491618,5358:492300,5373:494656,5434:495090,5442:495772,5460:496454,5476:496764,5483:501391,5506:502726,5523:504150,5546:508692,5575:509496,5595:510434,5613:510970,5622:511439,5633:511975,5643:512980,5659:514923,5700:515794,5718:517134,5751:525762,5828:526338,5838:527202,5858:527706,5866:529290,5902:529650,5908:530658,5931:531594,5948:533682,5988:533970,5993:534330,5999:535770,6015:536706,6030:542740,6051:543300,6061:543860,6071:544770,6087:545260,6095:547230,6112
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Floyd Malveaux's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Floyd Malveaux lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Floyd Malveaux describes his mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Floyd Malveaux discusses the history of the Creoles

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Floyd Malveaux shares stories from his mother's side of the family

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Floyd Malveaux talks about his mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Floyd Malveaux describes his father's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Floyd Malveaux talks about his grandparents

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Floyd Malveaux describes the origin of his maternal grandmother's name

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Floyd Malveaux talks about his grandfather's military service

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Floyd Malveaux talks about his grandfather and the state of medical education in the 1800s

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Floyd Malveaux talks about his grandfather's use of herbal medicine

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Floyd Malveaux talks about his father's work experience

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Floyd Malveaux describes his early life

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Floyd Malveaux describes his parents' personalities

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Floyd Malveaux talks about his sister

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Floyd Malveaux describes his earliest childhood memories

Tape: 2 Story: 10 - Floyd Malveaux describes the neighborhood where he grew up

Tape: 2 Story: 11 - Floyd Malveaux describes the sights, sounds, and smells of growing up

Tape: 2 Story: 12 - Floyd Malveaux talks about his asthma and its effects on his childhood

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Floyd Malveaux describes his early education

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Floyd Malveaux talks about his favorite subjects

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Floyd Malveaux describes his experience at Immaculata Minor Seminary

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Floyd Malveaux talks about his return to Holy Ghost Catholic School

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Floyd Malveaux describes the racial climate of Opelousas, Louisiana in the 1950s

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Floyd Malveaux describes his decision to attend Creighton University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Floyd Malveaux describes his first impressions of Creighton and Nebraska

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Floyd Malveaux describes his experience at Creighton, University

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Floyd Malveaux talks about his extracurricular activities at Creighton University

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Floyd Malveaux describes his experience at Loyola University

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Floyd Malveaux describes his experience at Michigan State University

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Floyd Malveaux describes his doctoral research and his move to Howard University

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Floyd Malveaux talks about going to medical school

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Floyd Malveaux describes his decision to specialize in allergy and immunology

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Floyd Malveaux talks about his return to Howard University

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Floyd Malveaux talks about asthmatic allergic reactions among minorities

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Floyd Malveaux talks about his role as Dean of Howard University's School of Medicine

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Floyd Malveaux talks about the Urban Asthma and Allergy Center

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Floyd Malveaux talks about the African American Health Summit

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Floyd Malveaux talks about commercial products to mask odors

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Floyd Malveaux talks about his work with Merck and Co.

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Floyd Malveaux talks about dealing with chronic diseases

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Floyd Malveaux talks about the National Human Genome Center

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Floyd Malveaux talks about his work and his work ethic

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Floyd Malveaux talks about efforts to combat childhood asthma

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Floyd Malveaux talks about his legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Floyd Malveaux reflects on his life

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Floyd Malveaux shares his hopes and concerns for the African American community

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Floyd Malveaux talks about his family

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Floyd Malveaux tells how he would like to be remembered

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$4

DAStory

4$4

DATitle
Floyd Malveaux talks about his grandfather's use of herbal medicine
Floyd Malveaux describes his doctoral research and his move to Howard University
Transcript
Do you know if he was a part of any association or any--$$I'm not aware that he was a part of any association, and, as you know, for African-Americans at that period of time there were very few medical schools that they could actually go to. Howard was probably one of the first ones that opened its doors after the Civil War. And well, Freedman's Hospital actually here in Washington, D.C. opened after, right after the Civil War in order to treat the freed slaves and people who were coming into the Washington, D.C. area, and the medical school started about a year or so after that. So, actually, there were very, very few opportunities for African-Americans to get a degree in medicine. And none of my family, until my mother, actually went to college, got a college degree. So, it's her generation who were the first ones to actually finish college, and that's true on both sides of the family.$$Okay, okay. So, now, did, oh--then one more question about your grandfather. You know, one of the figures out of Louisiana history, and then celebrated as Dr. John, of whom the musician got the name--but I think that Dr. John, a Creole--Dr. John is maybe just the one name that kind of typifies a kind of hoo-doo doctor, in that sort of, that sense.$$Uh huh, right.$$With the herbs and things--I guess there are different versions of that, but would you describe your grandfather as being, having that kind of reputation on any level?$$Yeah, I think so, but I also think he had the reputation of being very effective in terms of what he did. And again, I've--in his journals, I can see, you know, that he took certain chemicals and mixed them together, things I'm sure that you could get at a pharmacy or so, and put them together, castor oil being a part of it, and so on. So, I think he, it wasn't witchcraft so to speak, it wasn't voo-doo, I mean. I think there was, there was some signs to that. He used certain things that worked, didn't know why they worked and didn't know what the active ingredient was, of course, in those things, but it worked. And I think he built his reputation on that.$$Okay, alright.$Let me ask you this before we move on. What was your focus, what was the focus of your dissertation, and can you explain it in layman's terms?$$Sure. Yeah, I, well, of course, it was in microbiology. And I had a strong interest in biochemistry as well. So, I did my doctoral thesis on the physiology and the biochemistry of a micro-organism, a bacterium of Staphylococcus aureus. When you hear about staph infections and so on, it was this particular organism. And my interest was really learning more about how this organism invades tissues and how it causes inflammation. So I chose to study in great detail, an enzyme, a protein that was made by this organism, called acid phosphatase. So the organism produces this protein, this acid phosphatase, in acidic conditions and tends to break down everything around it. So, I was trying to learn more about the characteristics of this particular molecule and how it behaves, and perhaps at some point someone could maybe find another molecule that would neutralize it, so to speak, and prevent it from causing the local inflammation and damage that it does. So, I studied the biochemistry of acid phosphatase, characterized it, and purified it very well. You have to purify it. And then I did all of the biochemistry on it, and so on. So, that was my contribution. I finished that work in '68' [1968]. So, I was a, I was a microbial physiologist. That was my field, microbial physiology. So, I was interested in the physiology of micro-organisms, how they behaved and what made them survive in certain types of environments. I came to Washington [District of Columbia], I interviewed in the department of microbiology in the College of Medicine. I was recruited by an individual there named Charles Buggs, B-U-G-G-S, an interesting name for a guy who heads up a department of microbiology, obviously. So Charlie Buggs recruited me to Howard in the department of microbiology. I was young, very young for the faculty at that point in time. It was very interesting, because he also recruited a man from the University of Michigan at the same time. His name was Rubin Kahn, K-A-H-N. Rubin was in his eighties (laughter). I was twenty eight, Rubin was in his eighties. And Rubin Kahn was in, he had developed, he had had a career in microbiology at the University of Michigan and developed a test for syphilis, to detect syphilis, called the Kahn Syphilis Test, actually. So he and I came together, interestingly, at the same time, to the microbiology department. I taught microbiology there to the medical students, to the dental students, medical and dental students, primarily. And it was during that time that Howard had it's, a lot of the student disruptions and so on. I came to Washington right after the riots. Martin Luther King was assassinated in '68' [1968], the spring of '68' [1968], and I came in the aftermath to Washington after the riots in Washington and so on in the fall of '68' [1968].$$Okay.$$That was quite a sight, obviously, to drive through Washington, to drive down U Street to see the destruction and so on. And there was student unrest on Howard's campus at the time, in the medical school. And in fact, some of the individuals who were in the, who had, who were responsible for the disruption as undergraduates went to medical school. They were activists and, of course, decided to, not replicate, but at least start to create some disruption within the College of Medicine, and bring forth I think some legitimate issues that needed to be addressed in the College of Medicine.$$For instance?$$Well, for example, they felt that student aid could be distributed on a more even basis. They felt that the curriculum was a bit antiquated at the time. And these were students who by their very nature--because they had had that success in terms of really changing the undergraduate, some of the undergraduate programs. And so they felt that, you know, this could be done at another level. So, it was almost in their DNA, so to speak, to do these types of things. So, as a result we had a dean at that time who resigned as a result of that, a department chairman who resigned as a result of that. A number of changes went on. I was placed on committees at that time to look at financial aid. That was one of the sensitive areas, and I think I was chosen because I was relatively young and had just come out of school, and the students identified with me as being close to their age, so to speak. Most of them were in their twenties when they went to medical school. So I really got to know, you know, the university, the medical school very well as a result of the work, and that I sat on the curriculum committee. And then after my first, after my first year or so there, a couple of the faculty in the College of Medicine encouraged me to consider going to medical school. At that time also there were programs being established in medical schools called the Ph.D. M.D. programs because there was a shortage of physicians during that time. So, some schools established a two-year program for individuals with Ph.D.'s and put them through a very rigorous course and training so that they got their M.D.'s in two years. And I thought about that at some time, because actually the faculty members who spoke to me felt that it would be a good idea for me to pursue an M.D. degree. They said if you're going to be in a medical school, if you're really going to make a difference, and if you expect to really rise in the ranks, you need an M.D. degree. I took that to heart. And also, the type of research that I was doing was primarily bench research with micro-organisms. I felt I wanted to do more clinical type of research, and I thought an M.D. would be a way to, would be an avenue to pursue that. So, I could not afford the two-year medical programs that were being offered at other institutions. I had a family. By this time we had three children. My son was born right after we got to Washington, in that February. So I inquired, actually, about attending medical school at Howard.

Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross

Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross was born on November 26, 1937, in Detroit, Michigan. After receiving his high school diploma from Detroit’s Cass Tech High School in 1955, Ross attended the University of Michigan from 1956 to 1958, and Wayne State University from 1958 to 1960; he earned his medical degree from Meharry Medical College in 1964.

After medical school, Ross joined the Navy’s Medical Corps as an intern in 1964, and then worked as a doctor in the U.S. Navy from 1969 through 1973. Becoming a qualified submarine medical officer in 1966, Ross became the first African American submarine doctor in U.S. Navy history. Ross served aboard the U.S.S. George C. Marshall from 1968 to 1969, where he was the first African American officer to receive a Golden Dolphin Award from the U.S. Navy.

After leaving the Navy and moving to Oakland, California, Ross joined the West Oak Health Center as a consultant orthopedic surgeon and teacher; he later became the chief of orthopedics at Herrick Hospital in Berkeley, California.

A member of the Arlington Medical Group, Ross is also a member of the National Medical Association; The American Medical Association; the NAACP; and Alpha Phi Alpha. Ross and his wife, Etna, have raised four children.

Mr. Ross passed away on January 14, 2007.

Accession Number

A2005.089

Sex

Male

Interview Date

3/31/2005

Last Name

Ross

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Alexander Jackson

Schools

Cass Technical High School

Sampson Elementary School

Wayne State University

University of Michigan

Meharry Medical College

First Name

William

Birth City, State, Country

Detroit

HM ID

ROS02

Favorite Season

Fall

State

Michigan

Favorite Vacation Destination

Southern Spain

Favorite Quote

Let's Roll.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

California

Birth Date

11/26/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Bay Area/Oakland

Country

United States

Favorite Food

Pork Chops, Rice

Death Date

1/14/2007

Short Description

Orthopedic surgeon and physician Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross (1937 - 2007 ) was the first African American submarine doctor in U.S. Navy history and the first African American officer to receive a Golden Dolphin Award from the U.S. Navy. He is chief of orthopedics at Herrick Hospital in Berkeley, California.

Employment

US Naval Yard

West Oak Health Center

Herrick Hospital

Favorite Color

Green Olive

Timing Pairs
0,0:11379,127:12016,135:22310,315:36312,418:42620,555:43228,564:46995,584:60114,734:61554,768:65082,875:68178,946:70770,1013:81954,1167:88550,1282:90260,1313:90925,1321:91495,1328:92065,1335:110966,1619:121704,1722:130112,1852:133190,1914:156200,2224$0,0:11620,260:12201,268:12782,275:14027,286:15272,321:15770,328:32940,555:33660,565:42380,767:50540,919:59178,986:59508,992:61422,1037:71180,1163:83574,1275:84402,1285:91293,1360:91657,1365:96298,1471:96844,1478:97390,1487:108401,1640:114639,1794:115221,1802:116094,1823:121840,1907:126305,1998:126875,2005:131010,2058:134661,2087:145572,2347:145876,2352:146712,2367:158820,2487:161130,2503:161620,2511:161900,2516:162180,2521:162530,2527:168978,2634:171304,2645:171572,2650:181140,2841:182715,2863:187986,2907:190860,2919:192516,2973:192861,2979:193551,2993:201072,3112:205833,3187:206247,3302:218486,3472:222981,3523:244318,3968:254454,4141:256100,4187
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross' interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross lists his favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross remembers his mother, Julia Josephine Jackson

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross describes his father, Turner William Ross

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross describes his family lineage

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross describes his earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross describes his sister, Lula Ross

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross describes his neighborhood as a child

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross describes the smells of his childhood

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross remembers his time at William T. Sampson Elementary School

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross describes Cass Technical High School

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross remembers his sixth grade teacher

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross describes his activities as a teenager

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross describes his college experience

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross remembers being a social worker in college

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross remembers his time at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross remembers attending the March on Washington

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross explains how he became the first black officer on a submarine in the U.S. Navy

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross speaks about being one of the only black officers in the U.S. Navy

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross remembers working at the Newport News Shipyard in Virginia

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross recalls a dangerous incident during submarine training

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross speaks about his conflicting duties on board the U.S.S. George C. Marshall

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross remembers his first time rigging the submarine for dive

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross remembers his interactions with Admiral Hyman G. Rickover

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross recalls his leisure activities on board the U.S.S. George C. Marshall

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross describes his extra duties on board the U.S.S. George C. Marshall

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross remembers receiving the Golden Dolphin Award

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross talks about his exciting life as a U.S. Navy doctor

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross explains joining the U.S. Navy

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross recalls being featured in Ebony as a black pioneer

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross remembers his career path after his patrol in the U.S. Navy

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross remembers working at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton in San Diego County, California

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross describes his practice in Oakland, California

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross reflects on the increase in black orthopedic surgeons

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross describes his children

Tape: 4 Story: 8 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross describes his relationship with his wife, Etna Ross

Tape: 4 Story: 9 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross remembers being introduced to jazz music by his cousin, musician Tommy Flanagan

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross remembers sharing his father's love of poetry and oration

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross talks about cooking as his hobby

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross recalls his fishing trip to the Amazon

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross explains the importance of family

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross describes his concerns for the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross describes the biggest medical concerns for the black community

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross elaborates on his core values

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross reflects upon his life

Tape: 5 Story: 9 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross describes how he would like to be remembered

Tape: 5 Story: 10 - Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross narrates his photographs

DASession

1$1

DATape

2$2

DAStory

9$4

DATitle
Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross remembers working at the Newport News Shipyard in Virginia
Dr. William Alexander Jackson Ross remembers being a social worker in college
Transcript
By the time I got to the subs [submarines] now--I mean sub school, not, not really much there. Then I got sent--my sub was in Newport News, Virginia. Now things are a little different there, not the [U.S.] Navy per se, but the shipyard was under one of those--you know consent decrees you know to integrate. The shipyard had not, they, they hadn't done too well. They were, they had--they hadn't really hired many blacks in the shipyard and all. So what they usually do is the doctors who came down on the subs they would usually hire them to do the physical exams, and they did that all the time except when I got there. They didn't hire me, so later on eventually somebody said, okay yeah you can work. I mean it's like they sent some tech to tell me I could work.$$So what did you do if you couldn't do the physical exams?$$Oh no, I mean see that was just outside, that was just outside work. You see in other words it wasn't the Navy work.$$Oh okay.$$Where they would just hire the doctors for in the Navy to do, do exams see, and that was just extra pay. So it was just like gravy for the doctors who were there on the subs, so I said so they didn't do that to me. So now what happened was though--so I finally got hired and so one of the reasons they and one of the ways they were getting away or getting around hiring blacks was you had a card, you had-your card for application for employment and on the front of the application for employment, in pencil was either C or W for colored or white, and so that way they'd know who you were so they could hire whoever they wanted and then they could erase that off, see so then it could look like, "Well we just, you know we hired this and that," but on that application card, when the back was the physical exam. So I had all the cards and so what I did was on the physical exam all the people who were Cs, I made them Ws and I took a corresponding number of Ws and made them Cs. So they tell me in the 1967 Newport News Shipyard [Newport News, Virginia] hired more blacks than they ever had in the history of their shipyard, but anyway, but so that was, but that was kinda interesting you know, and then I did--you know, I did exams like everybody else did.$I was gonna say so that wasn't--I was kinda use to doing that, working and going to school so that wasn't really too much.$$And you took science classes in college?$$Oh yeah, right, I was a pre-med, pre-med major, taking all the biology and chemistry, anatomy classes that I needed for that. I had a job at the--I was a social worker, ADC, Aid to Dependent Children, that's what I did in Detroit [Michigan] until I went to med school [at Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee]. I got that job, actually they were desperate. In there, there are different areas in Detroit obviously like all cities, and there's one area in Detroit which was bound by streets called Hastings [Street], St. Antoine [Street], Rivard [Street], and Riopelle [Street] and at that time in the '50s [1950s] those were some--that was a bad neighborhood, really bad. It was deemed as one of the worse areas in the city for everything, crime, et cetera and apparently they'd had various ADC workers--in those days the ADC, the workers had to go into the houses and that sort of thing and walk the streets and--they had had apparently a white male there and he had been threatened with his life so he had to leave there. They had a white female and I think they threatened her also, a lot of different ways apparently. They had a black female who had a nervous breakdown. So what they hadn't had was a black male. Now there were some rules and regulations and requirements for being a social worker. Number one, they wanted you to be twenty-one, number two they wanted you to have a car, number three they wanted you to at least be interested in social work. Okay, I wasn't twenty-one, didn't have a car, wasn't really interested in social work--I got the job. Took the test boom, got the job. I did not know at that time (laughter) that the reason why I got the job I didn't know where I was gonna be assigned. So, when they told me what my area was I said, ooh. I mean I've been living in Detroit almost twenty years I'd never even been in these areas. So what I decided was this, I said the area, the grapevine will know who I am, and they will decide whether they're gonna let me survive or not. So my first move for a week or so was just to walk through the area. See, I didn't even have a car so I'm getting off the bus in this tough area. So I just walked through area, every day I just walked through, walked through the whole area, didn't carry anything, didn't have anything, just walking through knowing that they would know who I was, and then, then after about a couple of weeks I took my briefcase, started going to see the folks, and what happened was is they had decided that they would let me slide, they didn't bother me. So I stayed there and I worked and then until I got ready to go to med school. So they didn't--it was nice, I learned a lot that was--that was probably one of the most educational jobs that I've ever had in my life. I mean I learned about people, where people, I learned people--I mean, everybody who's a prostitute doesn't necessarily have a bad heart. People want good things for their children even though they're not doing good things or and that sort of thing. So I mean I just I really learned a lot 'cause I never, I never had any personal contact with anybody like that, with people like that. So it was, it was, it was an experience, it was a great experience, and then when I left actually--and then I guess I became a social worker then. I'm taking blankets outta the house and stuff, I go get an old heater. My mother [Julia Jackson Ross] was saying, "Where you going with that?" I said, "Mom, we got more stuff here than the law allows," you know, and then she use to give stuff away and everything so you know I mean, I'm just, I'm just following what you use to do all the time. So anyway, so I would take stuff around and if people didn't have shoes you know, and I'm taking stuff and, and so when I left they gave me a little party, kinda the block folks did. So it was nice, I mean that was kinda like my reward, but, it was very enjoyable. I learned a lot, I learned a lot about people. I learned how to get along too.

Dr. Rachel Keith

Detroit physician Rachel B. Keith was born Rachel Hannah Celestine Boone on May 30, 1924, in Monrovia, Liberia; her parents, Reverends Clinton C. and Rachel Tharps Boone, were Baptist medical missionaries. Keith’s grandfather, Reverend Lemuel Washington Boone, was a founding trustee of Shaw University. Keith came to the United States at age three and began her schooling at Richmond, Virginia’s Paul Laurence Dunbar Elementary School; she graduated from Armstrong High School in 1938, at age thirteen. That same year, Keith lost her mother and moved in with her aunt, Dr. Bessie B. Tharps, in Rhode Island. Keith graduated second in her class from Houghton College in upstate New York in 1943; she completed her medical degree at Boston University School of Medicine in 1949.

In 1949, Keith was featured in The Boston Globe for achieving the highest score to that date on a medical school test. One-time president of the Blackwell Society, Keith was also featured in Look Magazine’s 1949 story about Boston University’s home medical service. After completing her internship at Harlem Hospital, Keith served at Brooklyn’s Coney Island Hospital before moving to Detroit in 1951. Keith completed a two-year residency in internal medicine at Detroit Receiving Hospital in 1953; in 1954, she joined the staff at Detroit Memorial Hospital and entered private practice with Dr. Thomas Batchelor in Conant Gardens. Keith’s hospital affiliations included Burton Mercy Hospital and Sinai Hospital; she was also a member of the Wayne County Medical Society, Michigan State Medical Society, American Medical Association, Detroit Medical Society, Detroit Gastroenterological Society, and the National Medical Association.

Active in the NAACP and the Links, Keith held memberships in the American Leprosy Mission; the Detroit Science Center; and the Detroit Symphony Orchestra. Keith also served on the Michigan Board of Medicine from 1986 to 1993. Keith and her husband, Judge Damon Keith, raised three daughters.

Keith passed away on Thursday, January 4, 2007.

Accession Number

A2005.023

Sex

Female

Interview Date

1/21/2005

Last Name

Keith

Maker Category
Marital Status

Married

Middle Name

Hannah Celestine

Occupation
Schools

James H. Blackwell School

Houghton College

Brown University

Armstrong High School

Boston University School of Medicine

First Name

Rachel

Birth City, State, Country

Monrovia

HM ID

KEI02

Favorite Season

Fall

Favorite Vacation Destination

Florida

Favorite Quote

That's Alright.

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Michigan

Birth Date

5/30/1924

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

Detroit

Country

Liberia

Favorite Food

Cobbler (Peach)

Death Date

1/4/2007

Short Description

Physician Dr. Rachel Keith (1924 - 2007 ) worked in Burton Mercy Hospital and Sinai Hospital in the Detroit area, as well as keeping her own private practice.

Employment

Harlem Hospital Center

Detroit Receiving Hospital

Coney Island Hospital

Herman Kiefer Hospital

Detroit Memorial Hospital

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:720,7:1864,20:2592,28:14692,208:16048,222:20681,279:21698,284:67410,631:69300,655:69930,663:73140,683:73675,689:132815,1095:133765,1108:134335,1116:136140,1147:151254,1282:154190,1288:161985,1366:189946,1620:199030,1641:199975,1651:202011,1660:206880,1688:207591,1699:212602,1763:224903,1852:225449,1859:225813,1864:226177,1869:239688,2006:242540,2033$0,0:352,14:1056,23:7216,236:7832,244:27540,420:29446,431:30186,437:41004,523:42030,535:60459,676:63490,693:64085,701:77457,763:78186,773:80612,808:82799,825:89117,968:89522,974:95435,1065:101915,1180:108228,1199:111041,1226:112690,1249:117772,1320:136459,1426:142226,1464:142994,1475:168264,1605:168768,1612:173556,1693:174228,1702:178344,1720:198932,1825:206905,1890:207682,1898:218690,1955:219740,1967:233962,2049:236950,2090:240392,2104:244940,2140:245465,2149:246515,2172:247715,2218:249140,2255:260240,2357:260800,2363:274290,2455:279360,2499
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Dr. Rachel Keith's interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Dr. Rachel Keith lists her favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Dr. Rachel Keith describes her mother's family background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Dr. Rachel Keith describes her earliest childhood memory

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Dr. Rachel Keith describes her mother's childhood and education

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Dr. Rachel Keith describes her father's family background, pt. 1

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Dr. Rachel Keith describes her father's family background, pt. 2

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Dr. Rachel Keith describes her father's books

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Dr. Rachel Keith describes her parents' personalities

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Dr. Rachel Keith recalls her memories of Liberia

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Dr. Rachel Keith recalls her piano lessons as a girl

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Dr. Rachel Keith describes the sights, sounds and smells of her childhood

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Dr. Rachel Keith remembers the Great Depression

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Dr. Rachel Keith describes her education and decision to study medicine

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Dr. Rachel Keith remembers her teachers at Armstrong High School in Richmond, Virginia

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Dr. Rachel Keith remembers her parents' deaths and moving to Rhode Island

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Dr. Rachel Keith recalls her education at Cranston High School and Houghton University

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Dr. Rachel Keith describes her musical studies at Houghton College

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Dr. Rachel Keith describes her decision to study medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Dr. Rachel Keith talks about women in medical school during World War II

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Dr. Rachel Keith describes her courses at Boston University School of Medicine

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Dr. Rachel Keith describes the Home Medical Service program at Boston University

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Dr. Rachel Keith remembers being photographed by Look magazine

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Dr. Rachel Keith recalls her professors at Boston University School of Medicine

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Dr. Rachel Keith remembers interning at New York City's Harlem Hospital Center

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Dr. Rachel Keith recalls her first impressions of Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Dr. Rachel Keith describes how she met her husband, HistoryMaker Damon J. Keith

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Dr. Rachel Keith describes establishing her private practice

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Dr. Rachel Keith recalls segregation in the medical field during the 1950s

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Dr. Rachel Keith recalls the desegregation of Detroit hospitals

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Dr. Rachel Keith recalls hearing HistoryMaker Reverend Jesse L. Jackson speak

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Dr. Rachel Keith describes her work with the Detroit chapter of the NAACP

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Dr. Rachel Keith describes health issues that impact the African American community

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Dr. Rachel Keith recalls discrimination in Detroit, Michigan

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Dr. Rachel Keith reflects upon her life.

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Dr. Rachel Keith reflects upon issues with patients self-medicating

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Dr. Rachel Keith reflects upon her legacy

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Dr. Rachel Keith describes her committee positions

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Dr. Rachel Keith shares her thoughts on socialized medicine

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Dr. Rachel Keith talks about her family

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Dr. Rachel Keith describes how she would like to be remembered

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Dr. Rachel Keith narrates her photographs, pt. 1

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Dr. Rachel Keith narrates her photographs, pt. 2

DASession

1$1

DATape

3$5

DAStory

5$3

DATitle
Dr. Rachel Keith describes her courses at Boston University School of Medicine
Dr. Rachel Keith describes her work with the Detroit chapter of the NAACP
Transcript
It was difficult in medical school [Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts], it was not easy; none of this was easy. I tell you, this pioneering was very difficult. And I, I was always struggling to keep in the upper third of that class. You know, it was just something which I had to do, and I was driven to do. And so much so, that at the commencement, my classmates in the row ahead of me all turned around and said, "Congratulations, Dr. Boone [HistoryMaker Dr. Rachel Keith]," because they knew how hard I had been working. (Laughter) But they were still teasing, they were still teasing. But I had some good professors in medical school. I remember Alice Marston [ph.], who taught us biology. She was a masculine looking woman, and she was always on the side of the females. "You'd better get this down. This is what you should know." And my anatomy teacher, Dr. Connell [Jay Leroy Connell (ph.)], I'll never forget him. Because when we were dissecting our cadaver that we had named Charlie--there were four of us females, and we were on the stomach. And this man had died of cancer of the stomach. And we could not dissect the anatomy of those blood vessels, because they were all mixed up with the cancer. And so, one of the girls at our table started crying. And Dr. Connell came over and he said, "Don't ever cry." He said, "That means that you have self-pity for yourself." He said, "Always be strong and believe that you can do it." (Laughter) And I never forgot him for saying that, you know. So we got through, but we had to learn that anatomy from a book, and not from a cadaver. The sophomore year was difficult like the others. That's the time when you have these heavy textbooks that you have to carry around, and do a lot of reading. But the junior and senior years were the ones that you really feel like you're beginning to be a doctor. That's when you put a white jacket on and you go in and you speak to patients, and they may or may not think that you're a doctor.$Now, you're a lifelong member of the NAACP [National Association for the Advancement of Colored People], is that right (simultaneous)?$$(Simultaneous) Oh yes.$$And you say you've seen a lot of things change here. I know one of the old stories about Detroit [Michigan] is the story about Dr. Ossian Sweet, whose home was invaded, I think, as he tried to move into it.$$Oh, yes, yes. And that was one of the reasons for forming an NAACP chapter here. And my husband [HistoryMaker Damon J. Keith] and Arthur Johnson were a part of the first men's committee for the NAACP. And I was a member of the women's committee, and for a few years I was the chairman of the hospitality committee of the women's committee. And every year I would meet with the women at the committee meetings, and we would plan how we would handle the hospitality for the Fight for Freedom Dinner [Fight for Freedom Fund Dinner]. Because, as you recall, the Fight for Freedom Dinner grew to be quite large.$$From what I understand. Now, Detroiters have been telling me this for two or three years, I didn't know it at first. But it's the largest NAACP dinner, and quite possibly the largest dinner in the country, occupying three adjoining halls with three podiums going on simultaneously, right?$$Yes, ten thousand attendees. And The New York Times wrote it up as the city that came to dinner. And they had a picture of the auditorium with all the people there, a huge crowd. We would have a VIP reception before the dinner, and then the dais guests would parade in, and they had sections of blue, red, green, and yellow. And people used to vie to get seats in the blue section, because they knew that's where the speakers were. So, if you were in the blue section, you had the better seats in the house. But we had it divided up into the dais committee, a committee to take care of visiting dignitaries, and several other sub-committees. But I did chair that for at least nine or ten years. And of course, I became a life member of the NAACP. And of course, I got this by proxy, because my husband was so active in the NAACP that I couldn't miss.$$It was quite an undertaking, to be the chair of. From what I understand, it was the largest of its kind of dinner in the country. So--$$Well, I was only chair of the sub-committee, the sub-committee; I wasn't chair of the whole thing. They do have co-chairs, they have two men who are co-chairs. Then now, they have a woman who is chair of the women's committee.

Dr. Gloria Jackson Bacon

Dr. Gloria Jackson Bacon has made a career out of caring for the health and welfare of those less fortunate. Bacon was born on September 21, 1937, in New Orleans, Louisiana. Her father, Henry Johnson, was a postal clerk and her mother, Vina V. Johnson, was a schoolteacher.

Bacon earned a B.S. from Xavier University in New Orleans in 1958. She moved to Chicago to attend medical school, attending the University of Illinois School of Medicine, graduating in 1962. Bacon did not intend to stay in Chicago for an extended period of time. However, the inner-city patients she saw reminded her of the people she knew growing up in Louisiana.

In 1968, Bacon was fired from a publicly supported medical facility at the Altgeld Gardens' Murray Homes on Chicago's South Side for making her views on the need to improve the meager care provided there known. In response, Bacon opened the Clinic in Altgeld, Inc., a not-for-profit agency offering total health care and serving as the primary medical resource for the Altgeld Gardens area. The facility handles 15,000 patients a year. The center was funded out of her personal savings and Medicaid reimbursement until 1991, when it began to receive federal funding. The clinic has greatly improved the health of Altgeld Gardens community residents. When Bacon first opened the clinic, the infant mortality rate was 50.2 per thousand, in 1990 this number was reduced to 9.2 per thousand. In 2001, Bacon retired as medical director of the clinic.

In 1992, Bacon returned to singing. Singing had played an important role in Bacon's early development. She performed in many recitals and concerts throughout her youth and college years, but the demands of practicing medicine took precedence. She has been a featured soloist at Chicago Orchestra Hall, ETA Theater and numerous churches.

Accession Number

A2002.129

Sex

Female

Archival Photo 1
Interview Date

7/10/2002

Last Name

Bacon

Maker Category
Middle Name

Jackson

Schools

Xavier University of Louisiana

University of Illinois College of Medicine

McDonogh No. 35 Senior High School

Speakers Bureau

Yes

Archival Photo 2
Speakers Bureau Availability

Depends on Schedule

First Name

Gloria

Birth City, State, Country

New Orleans

HM ID

BAC01

Speakers Bureau Honorarium

Yes - Negotiable

Favorite Season

Spring

State

Louisiana

Favorite Vacation Destination

None

Favorite Quote

None

Bio Photo
Speakers Bureau Region State

Louisiana

Birth Date

9/21/1937

Birth Place Term
Speakers Bureau Region City

New Orleans

Country

United States

Favorite Food

None

Short Description

Medical director and physician Dr. Gloria Jackson Bacon (1937 - ) dedicated her life to providing health services to the underprivileged housing project Altgeld Gardens. Dr. Bacon founded the Clinic in Altgeld, which reduced the infant mortality rate in Altgeld Gardens from 50.2 per thousand to 9.2 per thousand.

Employment

Clinic in Altgeld Gardens

Chicago Department of Health

Cook County Hospital

Favorite Color

Red

Timing Pairs
0,0:2345,93:2881,102:3551,117:4020,129:7303,237:7705,244:8107,252:8509,275:8844,283:9782,302:13199,408:13467,413:14338,438:20280,491:23032,556:28920,694:35174,800:35630,811:38309,893:41900,967:42527,985:42926,993:43325,1000:43667,1007:44180,1019:44864,1035:51818,1068:52719,1098:53037,1106:53249,1111:54521,1148:54733,1153:55369,1159:57880,1177:58938,1211:61040,1223:65240,1311:65480,1316:65720,1321:66320,1338:67700,1379:69080,1405:70700,1455:71300,1469:76028,1480:76376,1485:76724,1490:78810,1507:79130,1513:79386,1518:79770,1525:80154,1533:80474,1539:81370,1558:81690,1564:84081,1604$0,0:1582,17:2050,25:3142,42:10786,226:11332,235:11878,244:13594,281:14920,314:15466,322:15778,327:17260,347:17728,354:18040,359:33488,621:33824,628:34048,633:34552,645:36904,740:37184,746:37632,755:37856,760:39592,787:40320,820:40600,827:41048,837:41328,843:41720,851:42224,864:42616,873:42840,878:43064,883:43344,889:43568,897:46256,966:54600,1026:56504,1073:57388,1091:57660,1096:58136,1104:58680,1144:59088,1153:59700,1158:60108,1165:63294,1232:63614,1238:64254,1250:64574,1256:64830,1261:65662,1277:67326,1335:69438,1381:70334,1392:70974,1407:71230,1412:73534,1462:74750,1494:79880,1518:81980,1556:83870,1588:85760,1611:89230,1620:90112,1638:92569,1687:93577,1705:94333,1719:94963,1733:97609,1784:98617,1803:99247,1814:99499,1819:100003,1828:100444,1838:100822,1846:106362,1896:106758,1903:107286,1916:107616,1922:108870,1952:110520,1997:113249,2023:113676,2032:115323,2083:115567,2095:116909,2122:117214,2128:118556,2179:119044,2184:119715,2197:123674,2237:124122,2250:124378,2255:125018,2268:125594,2278:126682,2300:127514,2316:128026,2326:128730,2344:129050,2350:129434,2357:129882,2365:130138,2370:130586,2379:131610,2399:131930,2405:132698,2423:133402,2452:133914,2461:134490,2476:139529,2512:140200,2527:140505,2533:141420,2564:142152,2578:144140,2584:144690,2633:145990,2684:146590,2698:146990,2708:147790,2730:148040,2738:148290,2744:149590,2782:150140,2795:150540,2806:150940,2816:151290,2824:153100,2830:153820,2845:154396,2859:155260,2873:155836,2884:156988,2896:157708,2908:160338,2934:160674,2942:163530,3000:166140,3008:166767,3021:168306,3058:168534,3063:168876,3070:169560,3081:169788,3086:170130,3093:172410,3101:176690,3121:177104,3128:177518,3136:177863,3142:178415,3155:179864,3179:182704,3206:185424,3264:186172,3279:186920,3289:188212,3318:191908,3355:192778,3397:195388,3424:196374,3445:196664,3451:197360,3478:197940,3484:198810,3496:199158,3503:199506,3510:199738,3521:201362,3558:201710,3565:201942,3570:202174,3575:206170,3582:206590,3590:216830,3729:218730,3773:221930,3790:222710,3814:222950,3819:224750,3855:225530,3877:226310,3903:228110,3970:228470,3978:229010,3995:229610,4015:229850,4024:230630,4043:230990,4051:231350,4059:231590,4064:231830,4069:232310,4078:234470,4132:239896,4175:240832,4202:241264,4209:241984,4223:243784,4260:244288,4272:247460,4291:247688,4296:248144,4305:248372,4310:248714,4318:249170,4331:250082,4350:251450,4384:254310,4439:254970,4444:255510,4457:256290,4475:256590,4481:257130,4499:261649,4524:261941,4529:262306,4535:268629,4611:273606,4683:274001,4691:274554,4700:275976,4745:277319,4778:277635,4783:283376,4809:284510,4840:284834,4847:285212,4857:288644,4896:291063,4965:291653,4978:294059,5006
DAStories

Tape: 1 Story: 1 - Slating of Gloria Bacon interview

Tape: 1 Story: 2 - Gloria Bacon's favorites

Tape: 1 Story: 3 - Gloria Bacon describes her mother's background

Tape: 1 Story: 4 - Gloria Bacon discusses her father's background

Tape: 1 Story: 5 - Gloria Bacon explains how her parents met

Tape: 1 Story: 6 - Gloria Bacon describes her two siblings

Tape: 1 Story: 7 - Gloria Bacon recalls her earliest memory, learning her ABCs

Tape: 1 Story: 8 - Gloria Bacon describes her greatest familial influence

Tape: 1 Story: 9 - Gloria Bacon remembers the sights, sounds and smells of growing up in New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 1 Story: 10 - Gloria Bacon describes her response to being the oldest child

Tape: 1 Story: 11 - Gloria Bacon describes activities in her childhood neighborhood

Tape: 1 Story: 12 - Gloria Bacon describes her childhood personality

Tape: 2 Story: 1 - Gloria Bacon confronts pressure to become a doctor

Tape: 2 Story: 2 - Gloria Bacon recalls memorable moments in elementary school

Tape: 2 Story: 3 - Gloria Bacon remembers an influential teacher

Tape: 2 Story: 4 - Gloria Bacon discusses her limited early exposure to white people in New Orleans

Tape: 2 Story: 5 - Gloria Bacon describes herself as a well-rounded high school student

Tape: 2 Story: 6 - Gloria Bacon chooses to attend Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 7 - Gloria Bacon experiences school life in an all-black environment

Tape: 2 Story: 8 - Gloria Bacon describes her experience at Xavier University of New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 2 Story: 9 - Gloria Bacon describes incidents of colorism from her college years

Tape: 3 Story: 1 - Gloria Bacon discusses her coursework at Xavier University, New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 3 Story: 2 - Gloria Bacon discovers her interest in singing

Tape: 3 Story: 3 - Gloria Bacon chooses to attend Howard University's Medical School, Washington, D.C.

Tape: 3 Story: 4 - Gloria Bacon explains her interest in sewing

Tape: 3 Story: 5 - Gloria Bacon finds ways to succeed in medical school

Tape: 3 Story: 6 - Gloria Bacon considers diversity at Howard University's medical school

Tape: 3 Story: 7 - Gloria Bacon describes her interests in the medical profession

Tape: 3 Story: 8 - Gloria Bacon discusses the issues that women in medicine face

Tape: 3 Story: 9 - Gloria Bacon discusses her move to the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine

Tape: 4 Story: 1 - Gloria Bacon experiences a chilling Illinois winter

Tape: 4 Story: 2 - Gloria Bacon becomes pregnant during her second year of medical school

Tape: 4 Story: 3 - Gloria Bacon describes her first job after medical school at a Medicaid clinic

Tape: 4 Story: 4 - Gloria Bacon finds similarities between Altgeld Gardens, Chicago and New Orleans, Louisiana

Tape: 4 Story: 5 - Gloria Bacon describes her inspiration for opening a new clinic

Tape: 4 Story: 6 - Gloria Bacon reflects on the opening of her new medical clinic

Tape: 4 Story: 7 - Gloria Bacon discusses the historical and political context of the opening of her clinic

Tape: 5 Story: 1 - Gloria Bacon describes patient volume at her Chicago medical clinic

Tape: 5 Story: 2 - Gloria Bacon discusses the early stages of her medical clinic's development

Tape: 5 Story: 3 - Gloria Bacon considers the socioeconomic situations of her patients

Tape: 5 Story: 4 - Gloria Bacon considers black self-determination with respect to the healthcare industry

Tape: 5 Story: 5 - Gloria Bacon discusses the beginning of her involvement with Chicago's Provident Hospital

Tape: 5 Story: 6 - Gloria Bacon remembers the closing of Chicago's Provident Hospital

Tape: 5 Story: 7 - Gloria Bacon discusses lessons learned from managing a medical clinic

Tape: 5 Story: 8 - Gloria Bacon describes her experience on the University of Illinois's Board of Trustees

Tape: 6 Story: 1 - Gloria Bacon speaks to her love for the black community

Tape: 6 Story: 2 - Gloria Bacon describes her concerns and hope for the black community

Tape: 6 Story: 3 - Gloria Bacon discusses elitism in the medical field

Tape: 6 Story: 4 - Gloria Bacon gives advice for those considering the medical profession

Tape: 6 Story: 5 - Gloria Bacon discusses her love of writing and performing

Tape: 6 Story: 6 - Gloria Bacon discusses her legacy, showing care for the black comunity

Tape: 6 Story: 7 - Photo - Gloria Bacon, valedictorian of her grammar school class

Tape: 6 Story: 8 - Photo - Gloria Bacon poses as part of Xavier University's homecoming court, 1956

Tape: 6 Story: 9 - Photo - Gloria Bacon is sworn in as a member of The University of Illinois Board of Trustees

Tape: 6 Story: 10 - Photo - Gloria Bacon, elementary school spring festival queen

Tape: 6 Story: 11 - Photo - Gloria Bacon with other members of her high school homecoming court

Tape: 6 Story: 12 - Photo - Gloria Bacon is inducted into the American Academy of Family Physicians

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DATitle
Gloria Bacon confronts pressure to become a doctor
Gloria Bacon discusses the historical and political context of the opening of her clinic
Transcript
Well, the truth is, my mother [Vina Velma Johnson] made--I, had a challenge. I went to the, doctor's office. I was maybe in my teens and the doctor said, "Oh, I understand you're going to be a doctor." And I said, "That's what my ma- that's what my mother (with emphasis) wants," like the teenager, like the sullen kind of teenager is going to say. So I got home and my mother said, "No, now, that's the last time I want to hear that from you. You don't want to be a doctor. You don't have to be a doctor. You just do whatever you want to do, but I just was trying to give you some--." Basically, "I'm trying to give you a good start on life." You know what I'm saying, "But you don't have to be a doctor for me. I don't need you to do anything for me." (Unclear) so she fronted me off in such a way that it was, "Okay." (Laughs). I'd been getting all my passes based on the fact that I wanted to be a doctor. (Laughs) Now, you know, here I am in high school, you know, getting ready, people know me all around, all the things that I do. "Am I going to back out?" But I'll say it's like at that point, it was at--it was probably at that point that I took it on because, like I say, she threw it back at me, because I had really in a very sullen way, I mean I was a, good--I could--I had a good, some good years of being a really sullen, ugly teenager. Where you just give the really ugly answers. And so she just threw it at me. I mean just up in my face. And from that point on, then I think that having come to grips with the, with the whole piece of choice, then I made the choice.$Now, can you put this in context the, you know, the--you've done a little bit of it, but the Altgeld, you know, The Clinic at Altgeld [Bacon's medical clinic in Chicago, Illinois], can you put in context historical context in terms of what was happening in the medical industry at that time, you know, I mean what changes were happening, how poor people were actually being treated, you know, (unclear).$$Well, you have a lot of things going on, well, in terms of, now remember Altgeld [Gardens, public housing projects, Chicago, Illinois] was isolated altogether. Altgeld was not part even in 1969, '70 [1970], Altgeld wasn't even part of the regular CTA [Chicago Transit Authority] transportation line. So you had the south, we had the South Suburban line which was a, line that ran straight up [Martin Luther] King Drive, separate, which brought people. But that was like once every hour or once whenever it came. And, so you didn't and then you had to pay a separate fee to get on CTA to go from Alt- you know, to go from Altgeld any place else. So, a lot of the people in Altgeld used Michael Reese [Hospital, Chicago, Illinois] and some, to some extent Mercy [Mercy Hospital and Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois] as a, place because you could come directly on the line, get off on King Drive [Chicago, Illinois] and be by Mercy or be by, Reese. So that going out and going some place else was very difficult. I mean it was two or three bus lines, trips. It was two or three bus fares. It was a lot of time. So that's, one, that's part of what the impetus was in the, in writing of the, of the proposal because it was so difficult. It was not any place easy. Plus, the people in Altgeld basically had been from the projects as we all--it was sometimes in quotes and basically were not reasonably well accepted outside. Many of them did not venture outside. Many of them lived almost like insular lives inside of Altgeld. There's a school. There's a grocery store. There's a church. There's whatever else you basically, the kind of things you need inside. So many of the people lived inside and so going downtown to Marshall Fields [department store] was like going to New York [New York] on a (unclear). It was like, it was like really going away. So that part of it we're looking for was trying to figure out how to bring better quality care inside a development since a large percentage of the people were going to use the services inside and not outside. So that's part of, what's going on. The other piece that I alluded to in the beginning was just, Medicaid [federal medical insurance program] was beginning to evolve. So if you're talking about a population of people in public housing by and large a large percentage of them would be, would be eligible for Medicaid. We're now talking about increasing the access that's available for them to be able to use medical and health care services. So that's, really, what I had in mind. I, like I say, when I'm, I'm trying probably got caught up in the whole, you know, in much more a social, in much more a social, sociological model, rather than me being caught up in medicine. Medicine was like the, sticker. It was like the lost leader piece almost in terms of how you got people in that came for, services. But it really was looking at the total, the total life that was the, and, and some of the things that were missing and, and beginning to try and think about how to do that. And that, that's how, that's really what, the, what the clinic was. It was, it was always more than just a medical facility.$$Were, politics, Chicago politic, did they enter in at all in this? Or was that a factor? Are you--?$$You know, I kind of it's like I, I'm not, I don't read the newspaper daily during the last twenty--most of my life because I, initially, I was getting children ready in the morning and I didn't have time. And then after that, I never got to it. So in, there are a lots of things that I do sometimes which are good and sometimes are bad, where I live my life like separate from whatever the rest of the world's doing, what the rest of the city's doing on that day. And most of the time we didn't really have a lot of fights, and we didn't--I, didn't get into it too much in the way of many problems from time to time. I had good relationships with most of the commissioners of health, you know, basically, either who knew me or who knew what we were doing. And so we could make that kind of contact. I knew [Mayor] Jane Byrne just in terms of mayors by name, and I knew [Mayor] Harold [Washington]. I know the mayor, and, and I think he knows basically the as in--I didn't know, I just met briefly senior, [Mayor Richard J.] Daley. I know Mayor [RIchard M.] Daley at this point, but, not a lot of, interaction. You know, but we pretty much have been my job was to take care of my own business to try to make sure I'm not we didn't get in, we didn't we have not had much in the way of, a fight.